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Cylchgrawn Cymdeithas Eryri Snowdonia Society magazine

Eryri Gudd Hidden Snowdonia

Gwanwyn 2016 Spring

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Cylchgrawn Cymdeithas Eryri Snowdonia Society Magazine Cymdeithas Eryri the Snowdonia Society, Caban, Yr Hen Ysgol, Brynrefail, Caernarfon, Gwynedd LL55 3NR 01286 685498 info@snowdonia-society.org.uk www.cymdeithas-eryri.org.uk www.snowdonia-society.org.uk SCE. rhif/CIO no: 1155401

Swyddogion ac Ymddiriedolwyr/ Officers and Trustees Llywydd/President: John Lloyd Jones OBE Is-lywyddion/Vice-presidents: Sir John Houghton CBE FRS, Sir Simon Jenkins FSA, David Firth, Morag McGrath. Cadeirydd/Chair: David Archer Is-gadeirydd/Vice-chair: Gwag/ Vacant Ysgrifennydd Anrh./Hon. Secretary: Gwag/Vacant Aelodau’r pwyllgor/Committee members: Katherine Himsworth, Netti Collister, Bob Lowe, Gareth Roberts, Margaret Thomas, Peter Weston, Jacob Buis, Paul Gannon, Sarah McCarthy, Kevin Jones. Os hoffech gysylltu ag unrhyw aelod o’r pwyllgor, ffoniwch y swyddfa. If you would like to contact any of the committee members, please phone the office.

Sefydlwyd Cymdeithas Eryri yn 1967 a’i nod yw gwarchod a gwella harddwch a rhinweddau arbennig Eryri ac i hyrwyddo eu mwynhad er budd pawb sy'n byw, yn gweithio neu'n ymweld â'r ardal, yn awr ac yn y dyfodol. ~~~ The Snowdonia Society, established in 1967, works to protect and enhance the beauty and special qualities of Snowdonia and to promote their enjoyment in the interests of all who live in, work in or visit the area both now and in the future. Nodwch ddyddiad

Please note the date of the

2016 Snowdonia Society

Cyfarfod Cyffredinol Blynyddol

Annual General Meeting

Cymdeithas Eryri 2016

Dydd Sadwrn, 22 Hydref, 2pm Lleoliad i'w ddatgan.

Saturday, 22 October, 2pm Location tba.

Ydych chi'n derbyn ein e-fwletin?

Are you receiving our e-newsletter?

Tanysgrifiwch ar-lein er mwyn derbyn ein Subscribe on-line to hear all our latest news. newyddion diweddaraf, neu anfonwch ebost: Or send an email to:

info@snowdonia-society.org.uk

Ddim yn aelod?

Not a member?

Cefnogwch ein gwaith trwy ymaelodi! Cysylltwch â ni neu gweler ein gwefan i ddarganfod rhagor. Aelodaeth Unigol: £24. Cysylltwch â ni neu gweler ein gwefan am ragor o wybodaeth. Gwirfoddoli Volunteering

Staff

Why not help conserve Snowdonia’s magnificent landscape and biodiversity by joining the Society? Individual membership costs £24. Contact us or visit our website for details. Digwyddiadau Events

FF*

20% ODD* R I FFW

Cyfarwyddwr/Director: John Harold Swyddog Aelodaeth/Membership Officer: Frances Smith Rheolwr Prosiect Ecosystem Eryri/ Snowdonia Ecosystem Project Manager: Mary-Kate Jones Swyddog Prosiect Ecosystem Eryri/ Snowdonia Ecosystem Project Officer: Owain Thomas Swyddog Tyfu Tŷ Hyll/Growing Tŷ Hyll Officer: Bethan Wynne Jones Cyfrifydd/Accountant: Judith Bellis Gwaith arlunio/Magazine design: Frances Smith Cyfieithu/Translation: Haf Meredydd Delwedd clawr: Ffos Noddun/Fairy Glen © Ray Wood

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Cylchgronnau Magazines

Cynnwys • Contents Golygyddol Newyddion ymgyrchoedd: O dan bwysau Ar goll yn y gwair Byd cudd y pryf copyn Cyfrinachau tywyllwch Eryri John Disley 1928- 2016 Tirlun mytholegol Fesul blewyn ... Brwshys dannedd a chynfasau gwely Gwarchodwyr y glöyn byw Codi calon, codi arian Adolygiadau llyfrau Llythyrau

3 4-9 10-13 14-15 16-19 18 19 20-21 22-23 24-25 26-27 28 30

THE UK’S WIDEST RANGE OF

OUTDOOR CLOTHING

Editorial AND EQUIPMENT Campaign news: Under pressure EVERYTHING YOU NEED FOR YOUR NEXT ADVENTURE Lost in the grass Hiding in the woodwork Snowdonia's dark secrets John Disley 1928- 2016 A mythic landscape ... a thousand cuts Toothbrushes & bed sheets Butterfly babysitters Fundraising news Book reviews Letters

Dyma gylchgrawn swyddogol Cymdeithas Eryri. Caiff ei gyhoeddi bob chwe mis a’i ddosbarthu i aelodau’r Gymdeithas yn rhad ac am ddim. Gofynnwch os hoffech chi gael unrhyw erthyglau mewn fformat print bras. This is the official magazine of the Snowdonia Society, distributed free to its members twice a year. Please ask if you would like the text of any articles in a larger print format. 2


Golygyddol

Editorial

Beth yw ystyr cudd? Ynghudd o dan laswellt neu wedi ei orchuddio â rhywogaethau estron? O gyrraedd, wedi ei gadw’n gyfrinach, yn rhy fach neu’n rhy fawr i sylwi arno? Neu ynghudd oherwydd ein hanwybodaeth o’u bodolaeth?

What does hidden mean? Smothered by grass and earth or overwhelmed by invasive species? Out of reach, kept secret, too small or too big to notice? Or just hidden by our ignorance of their existence?

Mae’r rhifyn hwn o’n cylchgrawn yn archwilio rhai o drysorau llai amlwg Eryri ac yn cynnig ambell ffordd annisgwyl i’w datgelu.

This issue of our magazine explores some of Snowdonia’s less conspicuous delights and offers some unexpected ways of revealing them.

Wedi eu cuddio gan fil o flynyddoedd o dyfiant llystyfiant a phridd a chwythid yno gan y gwynt, mae llu o olion hanesyddol ynghudd i’r anghyfarwydd; unwaith y down yn ymwybodol ohonyn nhw, maen nhw’n ein cysylltu â’n cyndeidiau ac yn cyfoethogi ein dealltwriaeth o bwy ydym ni. Dim ond pan ddiffoddir y goleuadau y daw nodweddion eraill yn amlwg! Erbyn hyn mae Eryri’n Warchodfa Awyr Dywyll, ac mae Gethin Davies yn dathlu’r llu o leoliadau ar gyfer gwylio’r ffurfafen heb i olau artiffisial guddio’r sêr.

Obscured by millennia of wind-blown soil and growth of vegetation, many prehistoric remains are invisible to the uninitiated; once we become aware of them, they connect us to our ancestors and enrich our understanding of who we are. Other features only become visible when the lights are turned off! Snowdonia is now a Dark Sky Reserve, and Gethin Davies celebrates the myriad of locations for viewing the night sky unobscured by artificial light. Our Snowdonia Ecosystem Project works on clearly visible problems such as unsightly litter or invasive species, but also assists nature’s most intricate relationships, such as that between ants and butterflies and their habitats. Likewise, a report on our programme of events at Tŷ Hyll shows how the Society can raise awareness and help people develop their understanding of our less obvious flora and fauna.

Mae ein Project Ecosystem Eryri’n gweithio ar broblemau amlwg megis ysbwriel blêr neu rywogaethau ymledol, ond hefyd yn cynorthwyo perthnasau mwyaf cymhleth byd natur, megis yr un rhwng morgrug a gloÿnnod byw a’u cynefinoedd. Yn yr un modd, mae adroddiad ar ein rhaglen ddigwyddiadau yn Nhŷ Hyll yn dangos sut all y Gymdeithas gynyddu ymwybyddiaeth a helpu pobl i ddatblygu eu dealltwriaeth o’n blodau a’n creaduriaid llai amlwg.

In his leading article, John Harold refers to Snowdonia as ‘our outdoor NHS’, and the need to make sure that this resource for well-being is in plain sight of politicians and policy-makers in Cardiff. The letters page highlights how recent and anticipated cuts to public transport make this resource inaccessible, or hidden, to those who don’t have access to a car.

Yn ei brif erthygl, mae John Harold yn cyfeirio at Eryri fel ‘ein Gwasanaeth Iechyd awyr agored’, a’r angen i sicrhau bod yr adnodd hwn ar gyfer lles yn amlwg i wleidyddion a gwneuthurwyr polisi yng Nghaerdydd. Mae’r dudalen lythyrau’n amlygu sut mae toriadau diweddar a disgwyliedig i gludiant cyhoeddus yn golygu nad yw’r adnodd hwn ar gael, neu’n anodd ei ganfod, i’r sawl nad oes ganddyn nhw gar.

While we focus on visual characteristics of Snowdonia, we mustn’t overlook the other senses. By having all our senses open to the possibilities, we can enrich our understanding and enjoyment of this amazing place.

Wrth i ni ganolbwyntio ar nodweddion gweledol Eryri, rhaid i ni beidio ag anwybyddu’r synhwyrau eraill. Wrth sicrhau defnydd o’n holl synhwyrau, gallwn gyfoethogi ein dealltwriaeth a’n mwynhad o’r lle rhyfeddol hwn.

Meanwhile, we are pleased to draw your attention to Natur Cymru. Full of insights into Wales’ natural world, special places and the people and projects working to protect it, you can do no better than subscribe to this excellent publication. See the advert on page 23.

Yn y cyfamser, rydym yn falch o ddod â Natur Cymru i’ch sylw. Yn llawn o eitemau am fyd natur Cymru, mannau arbennig a’r bobl a’r projectau sy’n gweithio i’w warchod, ni fyddwch yn edifarhau os wnewch chi danysgrifio i’r cyhoeddiad ardderchog hwn. Gweler yr hysbyseb ar dudalen 23.

Frances Smith

Frances Smith

This magazine was produced by an editorial panel of Rob Collister, Frances Smith and John Harold. We are extremely grateful to all the authors and photographers who have contributed to this issue. The views expressed by the authors are their own and do not necessarily reflect Snowdonia Society policy.

Cynhyrchwyd y cylchgrawn hwn gan dîm golygyddol yn cynnwys Rob Collister, Frances Smith a John Harold. Rydym yn hynod ddiolchgar i’r holl awduron a ffotograffwyr sydd wedi cyfrannu at y rhifyn hwn. Cofiwch mai safbwyntiau personol yr awduron sy’n cael eu mynegi ganddynt, ac nid ydynt o reidrwydd yn adlewyrchu polisi Cymdeithas Eryri.

Golygfa gyffredin... Gweler tudalen 26 am wedd newydd ar sbwriel. All too visible... See Frances' novel approach to litter on p.26.

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Polisi ac ymgyrchoedd

O dan bwysau: mae angen deall Parciau Cenedlaethol, nid eu tanseilio John Harold Mae ‘torri cwys’ a ‘newid y gêm’ yn ymadroddion a ddefnyddir i ddisgrifio deddfwriaeth newydd o Gaerdydd. Ystyrir Cymru fel gwlad sy’n arwain y ffordd o ran yr amgylchedd a ‘ffyniant’, ac mae Gweinidogion Llywodraeth Cymru’n siarad gyda balchder am safiad byd-eang ein cenedl fach ar y materion hyn. O ran Parciau Cenedlaethol, fodd bynnag, mae rheswm i bryderu am eiriau a gweithrediadau ein llywodraeth. Cyn i’r inc sychu ar y ddeddfwriaeth newydd, mae siarad am adegau anodd yn y dyfodol i fyd natur a thirluniau Cymru. Efallai nad

yw anobaith yn ddim mwy nag arwydd o gwtogi cyllidebau dros gadwraeth a mannau gwarchodedig. Mae’r dymuniad i wneud llawer mwy wrth gael ein gorfodi i wneud llai’n sicr yn rheswm dros rwystredigaeth. Ond mae mwy iddi na hynny. Yn ein gwaith gydag Awdurdod Parc Cenedlaethol Eryri rydym yn falch o weld egni’r staff wrth ddatblygu projectau newydd hyd yn oed wrth i adnoddau grebachu. Ymysg enghreifftiau presennol mae menter Awyr Dywyll, datblygiad Yr Ysgwrn, Partneriaeth Eryri, a phroject

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pwysig ar dreftadaeth defnydd tir a thirwedd y Carneddau. Ar y ddaear felly, mae’n ymddangos bod ein Parc Cenedlaethol yn darparu mwy am lai, wrth hefyd sicrhau cynnydd o ran cynaladwyedd ariannol ei weithgareddau. Mae hyn yn ymddangos yn bositif – corff cyhoeddus sy’n fwy darbodus a mwy effeithiol. Y broblem yw bod y llaw sy’n dal gwydr hanner llawn y Parc Cenedlaethol yn raddol wasgu. Y risg yw y bydd y gwydr yn torri’n deilchion o dan fwy o bwysau, gyda chanlyniadau erchyll. Nid oes yr un awdurdod lleol arall yng


Nghymru’n wynebu toriadau ar y raddfa sy’n wynebu’r tri Pharc; po fwyaf gwledig yr awdurdod, y gwaethaf y toriadau, ac nid oes unman yn fwy gwledig na’r Parciau Cenedlaethol. I Eryri, ar ôl toriadau o 14% dros y ddwy flynedd ddiwethaf, bydd cyllideb 2016/17 yn cael ei dorri o 5% ychwanegol, sydd deg gwaith y lefel sy’n wynebu Caerdydd. Ni chadarnhawyd y lefel o doriadau gan Lywodraeth Cymru tan y funud olaf, gan ei gwneud yn anodd iawn i Awdurdod y Parc gynllunio ymlaen llaw. Gyda thoriadau flwyddyn ar ôl blwyddyn bellach yn brathu, mae’r ymadrodd ‘cynllunio ymlaen’ sy’n ddigon diniwed ar un olwg yn golygu penderfynu swydd bwy sydd i ddiflannu mewn gwirionedd a pha ganolfannau croeso i’w cau. Mae cyllidebau Parciau Cenedlaethol yn hynod o fach o’u cymharu ag Awdurdodau Lleol eraill, felly pitw fydd yr arbedion a wneir gan y toriadau yma o’u gosod o fewn cyd-destun cenedlaethol. Yn Eryri yn 2106/17 mae angen arbed £420,000.

Dydy’r ffigwr yma’n ddim o’i gymharu â gwariant Llywodraeth Cymru ar ffioedd ymgynghorwyr yn unig, am ffordd osgoi sy’n rhan o’u hymdrechion i ddenu porth ofod i’n Parc Cenedlaethol. Mae’n siomedig gorfod cymharu ein sefyllfa gyda’r un dros y ffin. Yn Lloegr mae cyllidebau Parciau Cenedlaethol yn cael eu gwarchod dros y pedair blynedd nesaf gyda chynnydd blynyddol o 1.2% ac arian ychwanegol tuag at gostau estyniad newydd y Lakes-Dales. Os yw Llywodraeth San Steffan dros gynildeb a dros Barciau Cenedlaethol, beth mae hynny’n ei ddweud wrthym am Gaerdydd? Mae Parciau Cenedlaethol Cymru’n wynebu mwy o doriadau nag unrhyw sector arall, a gellir dehongli hyn fel tystiolaeth mai’r nod, er nad yw’n cael ei ddatgan yn gyhoeddus, yw cael gwared â system Parciau Cenedlaethol yr ydym yn gyfarwydd â hi. Ein pryder yw bod Llywodraeth Cymru’n tanseilio Parciau Cenedlaethol. Mae hi’n ymddangos fel pe bai gwneuthurwyr polisi’n credu bod edrych ymlaen yn golygu peidio byth edrych yn ôl. Rydym yn dadlau i’r gwrthwyneb - bod polisi da, deddfwriaeth dda ac ariannu doeth yn adeiladu ar yr hyn sydd eisoes i’w weld yn gweithio. Wrth edrych yn ôl, sefydlwyd Parciau Cenedlaethol cyntaf y DU, yn cynnwys Eryri, yn yr 1950au. Maen nhw’n

arwydd o’r weledigaeth ar ôl y rhyfel sy’n gyfochrog â’r Gwasanaeth Iechyd. Parciau Cenedlaethol yw gwasanaeth iechyd awyr agored y genedl - i’w phobl a’i hadnoddau naturiol. Maen nhw wedi gwrthsefyll prawf amser, hyd rŵan. Yng Nghymru mae pwysigrwydd ein Parciau Cenedlaethol wedi ei gymeradwyo gan ddau adolygiad swyddogol yn y ddwy flynedd ddiwethaf – Comisiwn Williams ar Wasanaethau Cyhoeddus, ac Adolygiad Tirluniau Dynodedig Cymru, a arweiniwyd gan yr Athro Marsden. Roedd adolygiad Marsden yn ddarn sylweddol o waith a roddwyd at ei gilydd mewn dau gam gan dîm profiadol wrth ddefnyddio tystiolaeth ag ystod eang. Ond daeth yn amlwg beth oedd barn Carl Sargeant, y Gweinidog dros Adnoddau Naturiol, ar adroddiad Cam Un wrth iddo awgrymu y byddai’r Athro Marsden a’i banel o bosib yn hoffi ailystyried eu canlyniadau. Pan gyhoeddwyd adroddiad Cam Dau fe’i cadwyd gan y Gweinidog am fisoedd lawer cyn iddo osod proses newydd yn ei le o’r enw Tirluniau’r Dyfodol yng Nghymru. Yn ôl y sawl sy’n cymryd rhan ynddo, mae rhaglen Tirluniau’r Dyfodol yng Nghymru yn llanastr llwyr. Mae’n anodd dweud a yw’n gynnig i anwybyddu adroddiad (Parhad ar dudalen 8)

2016 yw Blwyddyn Antur Ymweld â Chymru, ond mae angen mannau gwyllt ar anturiaethau. 2016 is Visit Wales' Year of Adventure, but adventures need wild places © Save the Conwy. Mae bryoffytau yn un o drysorau cudd Eryri. Bryophytes are one of Snowdonia's hidden treasures. © John Farrar

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Policy & campaigns

Under pressure: National Parks need to be understood not undermined John Harold facing the three Parks; the more rural the authority, the worse the cuts, and nowhere is more rural than the National Parks. For Snowdonia, after 14% cuts over the last two years, the 2016/17 budget will be cut by a further 5%, which is ten times the level facing Cardiff. Welsh Government did not confirm the level of cuts until the last minute, rendering forward-planning by the Park Authority extremely difficult. With cuts year-on-year now biting, that innocuous-sounding ‘forward planning’ in reality means deciding whose jobs to axe and which information centres to close.

‘Ground-breaking’ and ‘game-changing’ are words being used to describe new legislation from Cardiff. Wales is seen to be leading the way on the environment and on ‘well-being’, and Welsh Government Ministers speak with pride of our small nation’s global standing on these issues. When it comes to National Parks, though, there is reason for concern at our government’s words and actions. Before the ink has dried on the new legislation, there is talk of dark times ahead for nature and landscapes in Wales. Despondency could be no more than a symptom of diminishing budgets for conservation and protected areas. Wanting to do much more while being forced to do less is surely a recipe for frustration. But there is more to it than that.

National Park budgets are very small compared with other Local Authorities, so the actual savings made by these draconian

In our work with Snowdonia National Park Authority we are impressed by the energy of staff in developing new projects even as resources shrink. Current examples include the Dark Sky initiative, the development of Yr Ysgwrn, the Snowdon Partnership, and a major project on the land-use heritage and landscapes of the Carneddau. On the ground then, we see our National Park delivering more for less, whilst also making progress on the financial sustainability of its activities. This looks positive - a public body getting leaner and fitter. The problem is that the National Park’s half-full glass is held in a grip which is steadily tightening. The risk is that the glass shatters under further pressure, with messy consequences. No other local authority in Wales is set to suffer cuts on the scale

Fe all effeithiau ddigwydd ar raddfeydd gwahanol iawn. ● Impacts can be at very different scales. Delweddau/Images © John Farrar

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were born in the 1950s. They embody a post-war vision on a par with the NHS. National Parks are the outdoor health service for the nation – for both its people and its natural resources. They have stood the test of time, until now.

cuts will be trivial in the national context. For Snowdonia in 2016/17 the saving required is around £420,000. A figure like that is dwarfed by Welsh Government’s spending on consultants’ fees alone, for a bypass that is part of their efforts to attract a spaceport to our National Park.

In Wales the importance of our National Parks has been endorsed by two official reviews in the last two years – the Williams Commission on Public Services, and the Review of Designated Landscapes in Wales, led by Professor Marsden.

It is disappointing to have to compare our situation with that over the border. In England the budgets of National Parks are protected for the next four years with a 1.2% annual increase and extra money towards the costs of the newly joined-up LakesDales extension. If the Westminster Government is pro-austerity and pro-National Park, what does that say about Cardiff? Welsh National Parks are facing worse cuts than any other sector, which could be interpreted as evidence that, although not publicly stated, the aim is to dispense with the National Park system as we know it.

The Marsden review was a substantial piece of work put together in two stages by an experienced team drawing on wide-ranging evidence. But Carl Sargeant, the Minister for Natural Resources, made clear his views on the Stage One report by suggesting that Professor Marsden and his panel might like to rethink their conclusions. When the Stage Two report was produced the Minister sat on it for several months before brushing it aside and replacing it with a new process called Future Landscapes Wales.

Our concern is that Welsh Government is picking away at the foundations of National Parks. Policy-makers appear to believe that being forward-looking means never looking back. We argue that the opposite is true – that good policy, good legislation and wise funding build on what has already been proved to work. Looking back, the UK’s first National Parks, including Snowdonia,

The Future Landscapes Wales programme is, according to its participants, a confused mess. It is hard to tell whether it is simply (Cont. on p.8)

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(Tudalen 5, parhad)

Marsden, neu’n rhywbeth arall mwy llechwraidd. Efallai bod penodiad Rheolwr Datblygu Busnes RWE, datblygwr mwyaf ffermydd gwynt Cymru, gan y Gweinidog, i banel gyda’r gorchwyl o fapio’r dyfodol i Barciau Cenedlaethol ac AHNE, yn arwyddocaol. Mae’r ffaith fod y Gweinidog hefyd wedi gwrthod enwebiad Cadeirydd Cynghrair Twristiaeth Cymru i’r un corff yn rhoi rhyw syniad o’i ddealltwriaeth o rôl Parciau Cenedlaethol yn yr economi wledig. O droi at ddeddfwriaeth a’r Ddeddf Gynllunio (Cymru); yn groes i gyngor Pwyllgor Amgylcheddol y llywodraeth ei hun, ychwanegodd y Gweinidog dros Adnoddau Naturiol newid i’r ddeddf yn grymuso’r Cynulliad i ddileu pwerau cynllunio Awdurdodau Parciau Cenedlaethol. Pwerau cynllunio yw’r unig bethau sy’n amddiffyn ein Parciau rhag datblygiad anaddas a niweidiol. Gyda’r un symudiad hwn, creodd y Gweinidog gryn fygythiad i Barciau Cenedlaethol Cymru. Mae Deddf yr Amgylchedd yn cynnwys darpariaethau doeth ar wastraff a newid hinsawdd, ond yn golygu cam yn ôl mewn mannau eraill. Roedd y Gweinidog dros Adnoddau Naturiol yn benderfynol o beidio â chynnwys y gair ‘tirlun’ ac felly materion yn ymwneud â gwarchod tirlun. Pan osodwyd her iddo gan Bwyllgor Amgylchedd y Cynulliad, roedd yn cyfiawnhau peidio â chynnwys ‘tirlun’ wrth ddweud y gellid ei weld fel rhwystr i ddatblygiad. Ei weld gan bwy, hoffem wybod? Gan y sawl sy’n gweld ein Parciau Cenedlaethol fel yr amddiffynfa olaf o warchodaeth yr hoffan nhw weld y Gweinidog yn ei agor iddyn nhw? Mae’n achos pryder bod Deddf yr Amgylchedd yn fframio dulliau newydd o fynd i’r afael â ‘rheolaeth adnoddau naturiol’ a chyfrifoldebau Cyfoeth Naturiol Cymru, wrth osgoi’r diffiniadau caled y gellir mesur llwyddiant neu fethiant yn eu herbyn. Wrth wneud hyn, gwrthododd y Gweinidog ganiatâd i gynnwys y cysyniad o gyfyngiadau amgylcheddol yn y Mesur, ac roedd hyd yn oed yn gwrthwynebu cynnwys diffiniadau o ‘fioamrywiaeth’ ac ‘ecosystem’. Does gan Weinidogion ddim rhyddid di-ben-draw i ddilyn eu barn eu hunain ac maen nhw’n dibynnu ar eu hymgynghorwyr gweision sifil sydd, ar adegau, yn ymddangos fel pe baen nhw’n cael eu cyffroi fwy gan y grym i greu polisi a deddfwriaeth newydd na gan y cwestiwn a fydd yn gweithio ai peidio. Mae prif ffigurau polisi yng Nghaerdydd wedi

dangos diddordeb mewn cael gwared â’r system o safleoedd dynodedig er gwarchod tirluniau a chadwraeth natur. Mae’r arfau sylfaenol yma ar gyfer gwarchod y gorau o’r hyn sydd ar ôl o’n cefn gwlad yn cael eu tanseilio a dydyn nhw ddim yn cael digon o adnoddau nag yn cael eu gwerthfawrogi ddigon. Bum mlynedd yn ôl mynychais gynhadledd yn Aberystwyth a bûm yn gwrando ar bennaeth Polisi Bioamrywiaeth Llywodraeth Cymru wrth iddo ddisgrifio’r grym i newid sy’n dod gyda’r pŵer i ddeddfwriaethu. Yr hyn a oedd yn peri gofid i mi ar y pryd oedd ei ddymuniad amlwg i arwain Cymru mewn cyfeiriad newydd ond nad oedd yn gwybod, na’n poeni ychwaith, ym mhle y byddai’r daith yn dod i ben. Yn yr un modd, disgrifir Cyfoeth Naturiol Cymru fel y corff cyntaf o’i fath yn y byd, gyda’r addewid o reolaeth adnoddau naturiol ar y cyd, ynghyd â ffactorau eraill fel gwytnwch, beth bynnag yw hynny. Ond nid yw’r corff statudol hwn yn cael ei gyfarwyddo’n briodol, sy’n tanseilio holl waith y staff medrus ac ymroddedig. Mae’n ymddangos fel pe bai cadwraeth natur, addysg a monitro i gyd wedi dioddef wrth i ddeinamig a chyfeiriad y corff hybrid hwn gael eu penderfynu. Mae Andy Middleton yn aelod o fwrdd CNC ac yn gadeirydd y Pwyllgor Mannau Gwarchodedig – dyma ddyn sy’n ymbil ar y byd i “weiddi dros newid mawr a llawenydd” ac i “ollwng gafael ar hen syniadau”. Ein pryder yw bod gennym lywodraeth sy’n llawenhau ac eto’n cael eu byddaru gan newid, sy’n deall anghenion diwydiant ond sy’n brwydro i ddeall anghenion pobl a’r mannau sy’n bwysig iddyn nhw. Ledled Cymru mae’r trydydd sector yn ailgrwpio, gan ddod â chadwraeth byd natur a thirlun, twristiaeth a hamdden awyr agored ynghyd. Mae gennym neges i weision sifil Caerdydd, i Weinidogion, i arweinyddiaeth CNC, ac i’r darpar AC a fydd yn gofyn am eich pleidlais chi ym mis Mai: ein dymuniad yw gweld Parciau Cenedlaethol yn cael eu cynnal a’u gwarchod yn briodol yn ogystal â chael yr adnoddau hanfodol. Mae Parciau Cenedlaethol yn enghraifft dda o hen syniad sy’n gweithio. Mae Parciau Cenedlaethol yn enghreifftiau byw o reolaeth adnoddau naturiol a darpariaeth ffyniant cydweithredol. Rydym yn gwahodd Llywodraeth Cymru i ddysgu o’r gorffennol ac ymuno â ni yn yr ymgyrch i achub ein gwasanaeth iechyd awyr agored. 8

(Cont. from p.7)

an elaborate attempt to kick the Marsden report into the long grass, or something altogether more insidious. The Minister’s appointment of the Business Development Manager of RWE, Wales’ biggest windfarm developer, to a panel tasked with mapping the future for National Parks and AONBs, may be significant. That the Minister also turned down the nomination of the Chair of the Wales Tourism Alliance to the same body gives some idea of his understanding of the role of National Parks in the rural economy. Turning to legislation and the Planning (Wales) Act; contrary to advice from the government’s own Environment Committee, the Minister for Natural Resources slipped in an amendment empowering the Assembly to remove planning powers from National Park Authorities. Planning powers are the only teeth available to defend our Parks from inappropriate and damaging development. With this move, the Minister put a knife to the throat of National Parks in Wales. The Environment Act includes sensible provisions on waste and climate change, but is retrogressive in some areas. The Minister for Natural Resources was determined not to include the word ‘landscape’ and thereby issues of landscape protection. When challenged by the Assembly’s Environment committee, he justified the exclusion of ‘landscape’ on the grounds that it could be perceived as an obstacle to development. Perceived by whom, we want to know? By those who see our National Parks as a last frontier of protection which they want the Minister to open up for them? It is a matter of concern that the Environment Act frames new approaches to ‘natural resource management’ and the remit of Natural Resources Wales, whilst avoiding the hard definitions by which success or failure will be defined. Thus the Minister refused to allow the concept of environmental limits into the Bill, and even resisted including definitions of ‘biodiversity’ and ‘ecosystem’. Ministers do not have unlimited freedom to follow their own counsel and they rely on their civil servant advisers who, at times, seem more excited by the power to create new policy and legislation than by the question of whether or not it will work. Senior policy figures in Cardiff have shown an interest in sweeping away the system of designated sites for landscape protection and nature conservation. These fundamental tools for protecting


the best of what is left in our countryside are being undermined, under-resourced and devalued. Five years ago I sat in a conference in Aberystwyth and listened to the head of Biodiversity Policy for Welsh Government as he described the power to change which comes with the power to legislate. What chilled me at the time was that he clearly wanted to lead Wales in a new direction but didn’t know, or even mind, where we would end up. In the same vein, Natural Resources Wales is billed as the first organisation of its kind in the world, promising joined-up natural resource management, along with other things like resilience, whatever that is. But this statutory body is poorly directed,

undermining the hard work of a skilled and committed staff. Nature conservation, education and monitoring all seem to have been casualties as the dynamics and direction of this hybrid body have been hammered out. NRW board member and chair of the Protected Areas Committee is one Andy Middleton – a man who exhorts the world to “shout for deep change and joy” and to “let go of old ideas”.

Across Wales the third sector is regrouping, bringing together nature and landscape conservation, tourism and outdoor recreation. We have a message for civil servants in Cardiff, for Ministers, for NRW’s leadership, and for the prospective AMs who will want our support in May: we want National Parks to be properly supported, protected and resourced.

Our fear is that we have a government which is both exhilarated and deafened by the rushing noise of change, which understands the needs of industry but struggles to understand the needs of people and of the places that matter to them.

National Parks are a good example of an old idea which works. National Parks are living examples of joined-up natural resource management and well-being provision. We invite Welsh Government to learn from the past and join us in the campaign to save our outdoor NHS.

Canlyniad penderfyniadau ddoe yw tirlun heddiw. Today's landscape is the result of yesterday's decisions. © John Harold

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Ar goll yn y gwair Rob Collister

ddeniadol i’n hynafiaid. Fel Ardudwy i’r de, ceir cyfoeth o gynhanes ar bob cwr o’r mynydd. Dyma dirlun sy’n llawn aneddiadau, tyddynnod, tiroedd wedi eu hamgáu, caerau, llwyfannau tai, cytiau’r Gwyddelod, cylchoedd cerrig, meini hirion, carnau a mwy. Mae llawer, ond nid y cwbl o bell ffordd, wedi eu cofnodi ar ein rhan gan yr Arolwg Ordnans (AO), mewn ysgrifen hynafol, ar ei fapiau 1:25000.

Yn 610m, mae Tal y Fan, mynydd mwyaf gogleddol crib Y Carneddau, yn fynydd hynod o ddifyr. Wrth gael cipolwg ar y map gwelir y cyferbyniad amlwg rhwng ei lethrau deheuol a gogleddol. Ar yr ochr ddeheuol saif cloddiau hir syth sy’n rhannu’r tir yn stribedi taclus, canlyniad Deddfau Cau Tir Comin 200 mlynedd yn ôl pan nododd clercod yn Llundain linellau ar y map heb unrhyw fath o ddealltwriaeth o dirwedd. Fodd bynnag, ychydig iawn o gloddiau a ffensys sydd ar yr ochr ogleddol, oherwydd mae’r tir yma wedi parhau’n dir comin a borir sydd bellach yn Dir Mynediad yn bennaf. Heblaw am y copa a’r ffordd Rufeinig rhwng Rowen ac Abergwyngregyn, gwlad ddi-nod yw hon sy’n cynnal merlod gwyllt, brain coesgoch ac ambell i redwr mynydd.

Ymysg y mwyaf difyr o’r rhain mae’r safleoedd a ddisgrifir fel ‘twmpathau cerrig llosg’. Dydy’r rhain ddim yn amlwg ar y ddaear ac yn sicr does dim arwyddion o losgi i’w gweld. Aeth blynyddoedd lawer heibio cyn i mi ddeall mai tomenni o gerrig llosg ydy’r rhain - yn ddim mwy na metr o uchder fel arfer - sydd bellach wedi eu gorchuddio â glaswellt a mwsogl ac sy’n hawdd eu methu. Yr hyn sy’n nodweddiadol amdanyn nhw yw eu bod yn ffurfio siâp pedol sy’n hollol wahanol i garnau tomenni claddu sydd ar ffurf cylch.

O graffu ar y map gwelwn fod Tal y Fan yn un o’r lleoedd hynny a oedd yn

Credir bod y lleoedd yma wedi eu defnyddio gan bobl yr Oes Efydd 4,000 o flynyddoedd yn ôl; crëwyd cafnau o bren gyda haen o glai y tu mewn iddyn nhw gan y bobl yma er mwyn berwi dŵr wrth ychwanegu cerrig poethion o dân cyfagos. Wrth i’r cerrig oeri, fe’u tynnwyd a’u taflu o’r neilltu gerllaw’r cafn, gan greu’r hanner cylch nodweddiadol o’i gwmpas. Yn wreiddiol, credai archeolegwyr mai criwiau o helwyr oedd yn eu defnyddio i goginio cig yn y maes. Bellach, y farn yw bod ganddyn nhw bwrpas mwy cymdeithasol megis coginio, golchi dillad ac ymolchi, neu o bosibl yn ffurf o dŷ chwysu hyd yn oed. Pob delwedd/All images © Rob Collister Carreg saeth ar y Ffordd Rufeinig o Abergwyngregyn i Fwlch y Ddeufaen ● Inscised stone on the Roman Road from Abergwyngregyn to Bwlch y Ddeufaen

Carreg arysgrifedig y credir iddi fod yn fwrdd ar gyfer chwarae’r gêm nawtwll. ● Inscribed stone believed to be a board for the game Nine Men's Morris

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Ymddiriedolaeth Archeolegol Gwynedd yn ei galw’n Garreg Arysgrifedig Rufeinig, sef craig fechan gyda motiff o dri sgwâr, un o fewn y llall. Cred eraill mai bwrdd ar gyfer ‘chwarae nawtwll’ yw hon, sef gêm sy’n dyddio o gyfnod y Rhufeiniaid, er y byddai angen ei glanhau a’i hail-osod ar ei hyd i chwarae arni erbyn hyn.

Ar lwyfandir gwelltog yr ucheldir rhwng Tal y Fan a’r arfordir, mae o leiaf wyth safle twmpathau cerrig llosg yn cael eu dangos ar y map, y rhan fwyaf ohonyn nhw’n eithaf agos at anheddiad, cytiau Gwyddelod neu arwyddion eraill o fannau lle bu pobl cynhanesyddol yn byw. Mae’r cwbl yn agos at nentydd bychain ac, oherwydd bod Ewrop yn yr Oes Efydd yn gynhesach ac yn sychach nag unrhyw amser arall ers yr Oes yr Iâ blaenorol, byddai coed wedi bod yn tyfu hyd at gopa Tal y Fan, felly doedd dim prinder o goed tân. Mae llawer o’r twmpathau ar lethrau sy’n wynebu’r gorllewin felly roedden nhw’n safleoedd dymunol a heulog. Pwy a ŵyr? Efallai fod pobl yr oes honno wedi gwerthfawrogi’r olygfa ar draws afon Menai tuag at Ynys Seiriol ac Ynys Môn gymaint â ni. Mae’n hawdd dychmygu’r twmpathau gwelltog yma fel mannau cyfarfod ar gyfer cymunedau bach lleol.

Yn fwy dirgel fyth o ran oedran a phwrpas yw’r Garreg â Nodau Cwpan uwchben fferm Cammarnaint, ar dir pori wedi ei ddraenio’n dda y tu mewn i glawdd y mynydd. I’m llygad diddysg i, fe all y llu o bantiau bach ar wyneb darn gwastad o graig fod wedi eu creu gan erydiad y tywydd. Gyda llygad ffydd, fodd bynnag, fe all rhywun ddychmygu’r pantiau’n cael eu creu gydag offer o garreg, gan eu gosod yn ôl yn oes y cerrig. I ba bwrpas does neb yn gwybod, er eu bod wedi cael eu disgrifio fel celf cynhanesyddol. Yn rhywle cyfagos mae carreg saeth arall yr honnir iddi fod yn cynnal cant o bantiau, er nad ydw i wedi dod o hyd iddi eto.

Enghraifft arall o arteffactau nad oes gwir eglurhad o’u pwrpas ac nad ydyn nhw’n hawdd i’w canfod yw’r rhai y mae’r Arolwg Ordnans yn eu galw’n ‘Gerrig Arysgrifedig’. Mae’r geiriau ar y map mewn ysgrifen gyffredin yn hytrach na hynafol; mae hyn yn awgrymu bod yr AO yn credu eu bod yn dyddio’n ôl i gyfnodau hanesyddol, sydd fel arfer yn golygu wedi i’r Rhufeiniaid ddechrau cofnodi digwyddiadau er mwyn eu cofio am byth.

Does yr un o’r safleoedd hyn yn hynod o drawiadol, mae’n rhaid cyfaddef, ac nid yw eu pwrpas yn glir. Serch hynny, mae’r chwilio amdanyn nhw’n parhau a’r lleoliad yn hyfryd, os allwn ni anwybyddu’r peilonau hyll sy’n croesi dyffryn Conwy. Efallai bod hyn yn cadarnhau’r hen gred ei bod yn well teithio’n llawn gobaith na chyrraedd. Mae camu oddi ar lwybrau cyfarwydd i ddod o hyd i’r rhain hefyd yn ein hatgoffa bod yr hyn yr ydym yn eu hystyried fel gwelltiroedd yn frithwaith mewn gwirionedd; yn newid yn barhaol yn ôl gwedd a draeniad; yn cynnwys gwelltoedd, yn ogystal â hesg, brwyn, grug, eithin a rhedyn; ac ynghudd o dan y rhain oll mae llu o wahanol fwsoglau, llysiau’r afu, cennau a ffwng.

Hefyd yn cael eu galw’n gerrig saeth, mae nifer ohonyn nhw i’w gweld yn yr ardal hon sydd â rhychau wedi eu torri yn yr wyneb neu ochrau creigiau gwastad, o bosibl wrth hogi cyllell neu gleddyf. Gwelir enghraifft dda ar ochr ogleddol yr afon Ddu, sy’n llifo o Fwlch y Ddeufaen i lawr i Lanfairfechan. Oddeutu 150 metr i’r de ddwyrain o gorlan ddefaid fawr ar ffurf celloedd mae postyn gwenithfaen sydd â’r rhif 5 arno. Dyma nod ar gyfer Llwybr Ucheldir Llanfairfechan, taith gylchol o’r pentref yr ydym yn falch o’i hargymell. Mae’r garreg saeth gyda’i rhychau arysgrifedig wrth eich traed, dim ond tri metr i’r de.

Yn fwy na dim, mae’r mannau yma’n ein hatgoffa cymaint o bobl sydd wedi byw yn y tirlun hwn, er ei fod yn teimlo’n wyllt ac yn wag erbyn heddiw. Yn y wlad hon nid fforwyr ydyn ni, ond etifeddwyr.

Saif safle arall yn y triongl o dir a ffurfir gan y ffordd Rufeinig a’r llwybr sy’n arwain tua’r gogledd o Garreg Fawr a Llanfairfechan. Yn yr un lleoliad mae’r hyn y mae

Merlod gwyllt yn pori ymysg olion aneddiadau hynafol ger Tal y Fan Wild ponies grazing among traces of ancient settlement near Tal y Fan

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Hidden in the grass Rob Collister

is a landscape full of settlements, homesteads, enclosures, forts, house platforms, hut circles, stone circles, standing stones, cairns and more. Many, though by no means all, have been recorded for our benefit by the Ordnance Survey (OS), in archaic script, on its 1:25000 sheets.

At 610m, Tal y Fan, the northernmost outlier of the Carneddau, is a miniature but fascinating mountain. A cursory glance at the map shows a marked contrast between its southern and northern flanks. The south side is characterized by long straight walls dividing the land into neat strips, a hallmark of the Enclosure Acts of 200 years ago when clerks in London drew lines on the map with scant regard for topography. However, on the north side there are very few walls or fences, for this has remained common grazing and is now mostly Access Land. Apart from the summit and the Roman road running from Rowen to Abergwyngregyn, this is empty country frequented mainly by wild ponies, choughs and the occasional fell-runner.

Among the most intriguing are the sites described as ‘burnt mounds’. On the ground these do not leap out at you and there is certainly no trace of burning to be seen. It was years before I discovered that they are in fact mounds of burnt stones - usually no more than a metre high - that have become covered with grass and moss and are easily overlooked. What is distinctive about them is that they form a horseshoe shape quite different to the circular cairns of burial mounds. It is believed that these were places used by Bronze Age people 4,000 years ago; they created wood or clay-lined troughs in which water was brought to the boil by adding hot stones from a fire close by. As they cooled, the stones were removed and dumped close to the trough, creating the

A closer look at the map reveals that Tal y Fan was an area much favoured by ancient man. Matched only by Ardudwy further south, a wealth of prehistory is to be found all round the mountain. It

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south.

characteristic semicircle around it. Originally, archaeologists believed they were used by hunting parties to cook meat out in the field. Now, opinion seems to have shifted towards a more social function like the washing of clothes and bodies, or possibly even a form of sweat lodge, as well as cooking.

Another site is in the triangle of land formed by the Roman Road and the track leading north to Carreg Fawr and Llanfairfechan. In the same vicinity is what Gwynedd Archaeological Trust calls a Roman Incised Stone, a small boulder with a motif of three squares inside each other. Others believe it to be a board for Nine Men’s Morris, a game known to date from Roman times, though it would need cleaning and re-instating to the horizontal to play on it now.

On the upland grassy plateau between Tal y Fan and the coast, there are at least eight burnt mound sites shown on the map, most of them not too far from a settlement, hut circles or other signs of prehistoric habitation. All are close to small streams and, because Bronze Age Europe was warmer and drier than any other time since the last Ice Age, trees would have been growing up to the summit of Tal y Fan, so there would have been no shortage of firewood. Many of the mounds are on slopes facing west so they would have been pleasant, sunny spots to hang out. Who knows, maybe people appreciated the view across the Menai Straits to Puffin Island and Anglesey just as much as we do. It is easy to imagine these grassy mounds as meeting places for small local communities.

Even more mysterious in terms of both age and function is the socalled Cup-marked Stone to be found above Cammarnaint farm, on well-drained grazing just inside the mountain wall. To my untutored eye, the mass of little hollows on the surface of a flat slab of rock could easily be natural weathering. With the eye of faith, however, one could imagine the hollows being ground out with stone implements, which could put them back in the stone age. For what purpose is anyone’s guess, though they have been described as prehistoric art. Somewhere nearby is another arrow stone reputed to have more than a hundred incisions, though I have yet to find it.

Another example of enigmatic artefacts that are by no means easy to find, are what the OS calls ‘Incised Stones’. The words on the map are in ordinary rather than archaic script; this implies that the OS believes them to be from historical times, usually taken to mean once events began to be written down for posterity by the Romans.

None of these sites are spectacular in themselves, it must be admitted, and their meaning is elusive. Yet the hunt for them is absorbing and the setting magnificent, if the dreadful pylons marching over from the Conwy valley can be ignored. Perhaps it is an illustration of the old adage that it is better to travel hopefully than to arrive. Stepping off the beaten track to find them is also a reminder that what we think of as grasslands are in fact a mosaic: ever-changing according to aspect and drainage; made up not only of grasses, but also of sedges, rushes, heathers, gorse and bracken; and hidden beneath these are a multitude of different mosses, liverworts, lichens and fungi.

Also known as arrow stones, there are a number of them in this area with grooves cut in the surface or edges of flat rocks, possibly by the sharpening of knives or swords. A good example is to be found on the north side of Afon Ddu, which flows from Bwlch y Ddeufaen down into Llanfairfechan. About 150 metres south east of a large cellular sheepfold is a granite post inscribed with the figure 5. This is a marker for the Llanfairfechan Upland Walk, a highly recommended circular excursion from the village. The arrow stone with its incised grooves is at your feet, only three metres to the

Above all, these places are a reminder of how lived-in this landscape has been, however wild and empty it may feel today. In this country we are never explorers, we are inheritors.

Carreg â Nodau Cwpan uwchben fferm Cammarnaint Cup-marked Stone above Cammarnaint farm

Twmpath cerrig llosg ar lethrau is Tal y Fan Burnt mound on lower slopes of Tal y Fan Pob delwedd/All images © Rob Collister

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Byd cudd y pryf copyn Richard Gallon

ysglyfaeth llawer mwy fel copyn y tŷ, a’u lapio mewn haenau o sidan cyn eu lladd gyda brathiad gwenwynig i gymal coes heb warchodaeth. Yn aml gwelir benywod y rhywogaeth hon yn cludo eu sach wyau yn eu cegau.

Dydych chi byth yn bell o bryf copyn yng ngogledd Cymru, er mai dim ond y mwyaf craff ohonom fyddai’n sylwi ar y rhan fwyaf ohonyn nhw. Edrychwch yn fanwl ar y drych ar ochr drws eich car ac mae’n debyg y gwelwch we-belen fach wedi ei thaenu ar draws ei wyneb. Y crëwr yw Zygiella x-notata, pryf copyn brith 1cm o hyd sydd i’w weld drwy gydol y flwyddyn. Mae’r rhywogaeth hon hefyd yn creu ei gwe o amgylch fframiau ffenestri ein tai, a hyd yn oed ar gamerâu diogelwch. Maen nhw’n gallu peri dychryn ambell dro i gyflwynwyr tywydd ar y teledu sy’n torri i luniau byw o Fae Caerdydd!

Ambell dro bydd yr Oonops domesticus bychan yn ymddangos yn eich cartref. Mae’r pryf copyn oren-binc llachar hwn sy’n 2mm o hyd yn dod i’r golwg wedi iddi dywyllu i hela ysglyfaeth cyn lleied ag ef ei hun. Os byddwch yn ddigon ffodus i weld un cewch eich synnu mor gyflym mae’n gallu rhedeg! Dim ond dau wy ar y tro mae’r fenyw yn eu dodwy a gallwch eu gweld yn datblygu y tu mewn i’w habdomen.

Gwehydd-pelen arall eithaf mawr a dirgel yw Nuctenea umbratica (copyn collen Ffrengig). Mae’r pryf copyn brown tywyll hwn mor fawr â’r copyn gardd mwy cyfarwydd, ond yn ymddangos yn y nos yn unig. Mae’n byw ar y rhan fwyaf o hen goed meirw gyda rhisgl rhydd, a hen ffensys pren. Mae ei we-belen blêr (40cm mewn diametr) yn wag yn ystod y dydd, ond cyn gynted ag y bydd yn tywyllu mae Nuctenea yn ymddangos o’i loches ac yn camu ar ei we. Mae ei gorff sgleiniog gwastad wedi addasu’n berffaith i wasgu i mewn i’r bylchau cul o dan risgl rhydd neu fylchau mewn ffensys pren.

Yn aml mae ffens o bren llarwydd haenog yn cynnal y copyn Amaurobius similis gyda’i we flêr â gwawr las iddi yn addurno llawer o ffensys yr ardd. Os oes gennych drawfforch neu hen frwsh dannedd sonig gallwch roi cynnig ar swyno’r pryf copyn. Cyffyrddwch y we gyda thrawfforch sy’n crynu neu flewyn o’r brwsh dannedd a byddwch yn twyllo’r Amaurobius a ddaw i’r golwg o’i guddfan i weld beth sy’n digwydd. Bydd copynnod tŷ’n cael eu twyllo’n aml fel hyn hefyd, ac yn credu bod pryfyn swnllyd wedi ei ddal yn eu gwe. Gyda dros 650 rhywogaeth o bryf copyn yng ngwledydd Prydain does dim prinder o ymddygiad rhyfeddol i’w weld ar riniog eich drws. Pam na wnewch chi edrych yn agosach ar bryfed copyn eleni?#

Mae ein cartrefi cynnes yn darparu hafan ddiogel i sawl rhywogaeth sydd wedi ei chyflwyno ac nad ydyn nhw’n gallu byw’n barhaol yn yr awyr agored. Mae Pholcus phalangioides (copyn heglog) yn gyfarwydd i lawer, ac yn cuddio o dan gypyrddau ac yng nghorneli ystafelloedd. Bydd y pryf copyn hwn yn hela pryfed lludw, ond ar adegau bydd yn ymosod ar

Richard Gallon yw golygydd cylchlythyr British Arachnological Society. Cewch ddysgu rhagor am bryfed cop Prydain yn: www.britishspiders.org.uk/ britishspiders.org.uk Cynllun cofnodi pryfed cop: www.srs.britishspiders.org.uk

pyn a (co i r a n e

Teg

Pholcus 14

use

tŷ/ho


Hiding in the woodwork Richard Gallon

and you can see them developing inside her abdomen.

You are never far from a spider in north Wales, although most go unnoticed by all but the most observant people.

Larch-lap often hosts the spider Amaurobius similis with its untidy, bluish-tinted web decorating many a garden fence. Those of you with a tuning fork or old sonic toothbrush could play at being a ‘spider charmer’. Simply touch the silk with a vibrating tuning fork or toothbrush bristle and your Amaurobius will emerge from its hiding place to investigate. House spiders will also fall for this trickery, fooled into thinking a buzzing fly has been snared on its web.

Take a close look at your car’s wing mirror and you’ll probably find a small orb-web stretched across its face. The culprit is Zygiella x-notata, a 1cm long mottled spider which is active throughout the year. This very same species constructs its webs around our house window frames, and even on security cameras. It occasionally photo-bombs TV weather presenters who cut to live camera shots of Cardiff Bay! Another surprisingly large cryptic orb-weaver is Nuctenea umbratica (walnut spider). This dark brown spider is as large as the more familiar garden spider but strictly nocturnal. Most old dead trees with peeling bark and old wooden fences are occupied by this species. Its tatty orb-web (40cm in diameter) looks abandoned during the day, but as soon as darkness falls Nuctenea emerges from her retreat to take up position on her web. Her shiny flattened body is perfectly adapted to squeeze into the narrow gaps under peeling bark or gaps in wooden fences.

With over 650 spider species in Britain there’s no shortage of fascinating behaviours to observe on your doorstep. Why not take a closer look at spiders this year? Richard Gallon edits the newsletter for the British Arachnological Society. Find out more about British spiders at: www.britishspiders.org.uk Spider Recording Scheme: www.srs.britishspiders.org.uk

Our warm homes provide a safe haven for several introduced species which are unable to live permanently outside. Pholcus phalangioides (daddy long legs spider) is no doubt familiar to many, secreting itself under cupboards and in the corners of rooms. This spindly spider will readily take woodlice, but on occasion will tackle much larger prey like house spiders, trussing them up in swathes of silk before despatching them with a venomous bite to an unprotected leg joint. Females of Pholcus can often been seen carrying their egg-sac in the mouth.

Saffari p

ryfed cop Tŷ Hyll Tŷ Hyll S pider Safa gyda Richard Ga llon ri with R ichard G allon

Very occasionally tiny Oonops domesticus will put in an appearance in your house. This 2mm long spider is bright orangey-pink, emerging after dark to stalk equally tiny prey. If you are lucky enough to see one it’ll surprise you how fast they can run! Females of this species only lay two eggs at a time

r)

spide

15

milis

Amaurobius si


Cyfrinachau tywyllwch Eryri Gethin J Davies

Wedi tair blynedd o waith, daeth y newyddion swyddogol ym mis Tachwedd 2015, fod Parc Cenedlaethol Eryri wedi ei dderbyn fel Gwarchodfa Awyr Dywyll Ryngwladol, y degfed drwy’r byd i gael ei ddynodi â’r statws hwn.

Mae’r buddiannau a geir o hyrwyddo defnydd o oleuadau addas, o ddyluniad da, yn y lle iawn ac ar yr amser iawn yn niferus. Gall wneud ein cymunedau yn fwy cynaliadwy drwy leihau faint o drydan a ddefnyddir ar gyfer goleuo sydd, yn ei dro, yn arwain at arbedion ariannol. Gall hefyd cael dylanwad cadarnhaol yn ystod y nos ar ein bywyd gwyllt, a esblygodd dros filiynau o flynyddoedd er mwyn byw mewn amgylcheddau tywyll. Er enghraifft, wyddoch chi fod 60% o rywogaethau asgwrn cefn a 40% o rywogaethau di-asgwrn cefn yn cael eu hystyried fel rhywogaethau nosol? Hefyd, ceir manteision economaidd yn sgil cyfleoedd i ddatblygu a hyrwyddo seryddiaeth ymysg busnesau, trigolion ac ymwelwyr â’r Parc Cenedlaethol. Mae’n bwysig cofio mai dynodiad seryddol yw hwn yn bennaf, a chewch chi unlle gwell nag Eryri i ddarganfod y sêr a’r rhyfeddodau sydd yn bodoli uwch ein pennau. Mae’r nifer o leoedd y gall rhywun fynd i edrych ar y sêr yma yn Eryri bron yn ddiddiwedd - dyna pa mor lwcus yr ydym yma! Ond mae lle mae rhywun yn mynd i edrych ar y sêr yn ddibynnol ar sawl peth. Er enghraifft, oes angen telesgop arnoch, yntau ydych chi’n bwriadu edrych ar y sêr gyda llygaid noeth yn unig? Oes gennych y medrau, y gallu a’r offer i allu llywio eich ffordd yn y tywyllwch, yntau ydych chi’n chwilio am rywle lle nad oes angen cerdded yn rhy bell o’ch car er mwyn edrych ar y sêr? Un peth sy’n amlwg - does dim gwahaniaeth beth yw eich gallu, mae gan Eryri rhywbeth i’w gynnig i bawb o ran syllu ar y sêr. Pam na fentrwch chi allan i ddarganfod rhai o lynnoedd Eryri? Maen nhw yn

Tomen y Mur: â chytser Orion, Taurus a Pleiades (y Saith Chwaer) uwchben Tomen y Mur with Orion, Taurus & Pleiades (the Seven Sisters) overhead © Keith O'Brien

Ynghyd â’r dynodiadau awyr dywyll a ddynodwyd eisoes i Barc Cenedlaethol Bannau Brycheiniog a Chwm Elan yn y canolbarth, mae bron i 18% o arwynebedd tir Cymru erbyn hyn wedi ei ddynodi â statws awyr dywyll swyddogol. Felly, o holl wledydd y byd, Cymru yw’r wlad sydd â’r ganran uchaf o’i thir wedi ei ddiogelu rhag llygredd golau.

lleoedd gwych i edrych ar y sêr heb fod angen mentro’n rhy bell o’ch cerbydau. Gall y rhain gynnwys Llyn Geirionnydd ger Betws-y-coed neu, os ydych yn ne’r Parc, ewch am dro i Lyn Cregennen neu Lyn Mwyngil, y ddau yng nghysgod Cader Idris, mynydd sydd â chysylltiad agos iawn â seryddiaeth a hen chwedlau Cymreig. Neu os hoffwch fod ychydig yn fwy anturus, pam na fentrwch i Gwm Idwal neu ddilyn Llwybr Llanberis i fyny'r Wyddfa? Ewch i grwydro Cwm Bychan yn Nantmor, neu dilynwch Lôn Gwyrfai o Ryd-ddu i Feddgelert. Fel y nodwyd eisoes, mae’r posibiliadau’n ddiddiwedd yma yn Eryri. Mae gennym bob amser ddiddordeb mewn clywed am leoliadau newydd y gall rhywun 16

fynd i ymweld â nhw i syllu ar sêr. Felly, os byddwch yn darganfod rhyw drysor ar eich anturiaethau, rhowch wybod i ni er mwyn i bobl eraill gael mwynhau'r profiad gwych hefyd! Ystyriwch cyn goleuo: y golau iawn, yn y lle iawn ar yr amser iawn. Gethin J Davies yw Swyddog Ecosystemau a Newid Hinsawdd i Awdurdod Parc Cenedlaethol Eryri. Cysylltwch â Gethin i gael gwybodaeth am ddigwyddiadau awyr dywyll: Ffôn: 01766 772255 g.davies@eryri-npa.gov.uk


Snowdonia's dark secrets Following three years’ work, the news that Snowdonia National Park has been designated as an International Dark Sky Reserve was officially confirmed in November 2015.

Snowdonia is the tenth site worldwide to be so designated. Together with the Brecon Beacons National Park and the Elan Valley in mid Wales, which are already Dark Sky Reserves, nearly 18% of Wales’ land surface has now been awarded Dark Sky status. Therefore, of all the countries in the world, Wales is the country with the highest percentage of land protected from light pollution. The benefits of promoting the use of

suitable lights, of good design, in the right place and at the right time are numerous. It can ensure that our communities are more sustainable by reducing the amount of electricity used for lighting, which in turn leads to financial savings. It also benefits our nocturnal wildlife that has evolved over millions of years to live in dark environments. For example, did you know that 60% of vertebrate species and 40% of invertebrate species are considered to be nocturnal? There are also economic benefits, such as opportunities to develop and promote astronomy amongst businesses, residents and visitors to the National Park. It’s important to remember that this is mainly 17

Gethin J Davies

an astronomical designation, and there is nowhere better than Snowdonia to discover the stars and the wonders that exist above our heads. There are numerous great locations in Snowdonia where one can gaze at the stars – that’s how lucky we are here! Where we choose depends on several factors. For example, do you have a telescope, or do you intend to look at the stars with the naked eye only? Do you have the skills, ability and equipment to navigate in the dark, or are you looking for somewhere you can see the stars without walking far from the car? So, your ability doesn’t Cont. bottom p.18


John Disley 1928- 2016

John Disley (right/de) & Chris Brasher

Mae'n drist gennym ddatgan marwolaeth cyn-Lywydd a chyfaill a chefnogwr triw i Gymdeithas Eryri, Dr John Ivor Disley, ar 8 Chwefror yn dilyn salwch byr.

We are sad to report that former President and stalwart friend and supporter of the Snowdonia Society, Dr John Ivor Disley, died after a short illness on February 8th at the age of 87.

Ganwyd John yng Nghorris ym 1928. Ef oedd prif hyfforddwr cyntaf Plas y Brenin, y Ganolfan Fynydda Genedlaethol, ym 1955, ac yno y daeth i adnabod Esmé Kirby, sylfaenydd ein Cymdeithas.

John was born in Corris in 1928. He became the first chief instructor at the National Mountaineering Centre at Plas-y-Brenin in 1955, where he got to know Esmé Kirby, founder of our Society.

Yn ŵr doeth, hael a dirodres, cefnogodd John y Gymdeithas o’i sefydlu a thrwy lawer ymgyrch yn ogystal â thrwy rhai adegau anodd. Daeth yn Llywydd yn 2003; roedd ei arweiniad y tu ôl i’r llenni, ei gefnogaeth ariannol a’i gadeirio di-lol mewn Cyfarfodydd Blynyddol yn nodweddiadol ohono ac yn gofiadwy. Ei ddymuniad syml oedd ‘rhoi gwaith ar waith’.

A wise, generous and unassuming man, John actively supported the Society from its inception through many campaigns as well as through some difficult times. He became President in 2003; his behind-the-scenes guidance, financial support and laid-back chairing of AGMs were both characteristic and memorable. He had no airs and graces, just wanted ‘to get things done’.

Yn un o sefydlwyr Marathon Llundain ar y cyd â Chris Brasher, trefnodd John gyfraniad ar ffurf parau lu o esgidiau hamddena (bron cystal â newydd) i ddigwyddiad codi arian blynyddol y Gymdeithas yn Llynnau Mymbyr, gan gynyddu incwm y Gymdeithas yn sylweddol. Yn athletwr dawnus, enilodd y fedal efydd yn y ras ffos a pherth 3,000m yng Ngemau Olympaidd Helsinki 1952. Yn ôl y sôn, dechreuodd ymwneud â’r gamp hon oherwydd ei wir gariad oedd mynydda a doedd o ddim yn dda iawn am redeg ar y gwastad! Dangosodd John ddiddordeb mewn dringo ar hyd ei oes a thorrodd y record am ddringo copaon 3000 troedfedd Cymru; roedd yn un o’r bobl wrth gefn pan oedd tîm Prydain yn hyfforddi yn Eryri cyn dringo Chomolongma ym 1953.

Co-founder with Chris Brasher of the London Marathon, John arranged each year the donation of many pairs of trainers ('seconds') to the Society's former Llynnau Mymbyr annual fundraising event, significantly increasing the Society's income. A distinguished athlete, he took the bronze medal in the 3,000m steeplechase at the 1952 Helsinki Olympics. He is quoted as saying that he took up steeplechasing because his real love was mountaineering and he wasn't very good at running on the flat! John maintained an interest in climbing all his life and broke the record for traversing the Welsh 3000ft peaks; he was one of the reserves for the British team that trained in Snowdonia before climbing Everest in 1953.

Mae dyled Cymdeithas Eryri yn enfawr i John a byddwn yn parhau i gofio amdano a’i gymorth a’i gefnogaeth i Eryri a mannau eraill.

The Snowdonia Society owes John an enormous debt; his legacies will live on in all the help and support he gave to his beloved Snowdonia and elsewhere.

(Cont. from p.17)

matter, as Snowdonia has something to offer everyone who would like to have a go at star-gazing. Why not start with Snowdonia’s lakes? These are brilliant places to look at the stars without having to venture far from your vehicle. Amongst the lakes you could choose from are Llyn Geirionnydd near Betws-y-coed and, in the south of the Park, Llyn Cregennen or Llyn Mwyngil at Tal-y-llyn. Both the latter are located at the foot of Cader Idris, a mountain

long associated with astronomy and old Welsh legends. Or you could wander up Cwm Bychan near Nantmor, or follow Lôn Gwyrfai from Rhyd-ddu to Beddgelert. The possibilities are endless. We’re always interested to hear about new locations people can visit to look at the stars. So, if you discover somewhere to treasure on your travels, do let us know so that other people can also enjoy the wonderful experience! Think before switching on: The right light, in the right place at the right time. 18

Gethin J Davies is the Ecosystems and Climate Change Officer for Snowdonia National Park Authority. Contact him for more information about Dark Sky events: Tel: 01766 772255 g.davies@eryri-npa.gov.uk


Tirlun Mytholegol A Mythic Landscape Darnau o gyflwyniad a diweddglo 'Snowdonia Folk Tales' gan Eric Maddern, adroddwr straeon, cerddor ac aelod tymor hir o Gymdeithas Eryri. Atgynhyrchwyd History Press.

gyda

chaniatâd

The

Mae Snowdonia Folk Tales ar werth ar-lein yn www.ericmaddern.co.uk ~ Extracts from the Introduction and the Epilogue of Snowdonia Folk Tales by Eric Maddern, story-teller, musician and long-standing member of the Snowdonia Society. Reproduced with kind permission of The History Press. Snowdonia Folk Tales can be purchased on line at www.ericmaddern.co.uk

Snowdonia has been the canvas for human endeavour for thousands of years. Despite peripheral intrusions of modernity much of the wilder country has changed little in that time. In many areas it’s possible to see traces earlier people have left – standing stones, burial mounds, hut circles, hill forts, house platforms, field boundaries, mottes and castle keeps. Standing among the ruins of these ancient times can be frustrating. I, for one, long to know more about the passions and beliefs of the people who lived back then, about the spirit that moved them to do what they did. And yet the stones are silent. Archaeologists can be of some help, but they are reluctant to go ‘beyond the evidence’, to venture into the realm of the imagination. That’s where the stories come in. The myths, legends and folk tales that have survived are windows into the worlds of our ancestors…

19

Now known as the ‘Roman Road’, it was a well-beaten track long before the Romans found it. It should be called the ‘Stone Age Way’. It is a ‘song-line’ of ancient Britain, marked by Neolithic burial chambers and a stone circle in the east and the sacred Aber Falls in the west. Powerful Celtic hill forts stand at both ends. To the west of the summit a path forks off to Penmaenmawr, the stone quarry where prized Neolithic axe heads were hewn from the rock to be dispersed all over the land. To the east of the summit are two mighty standing stones: a square grandmother stone (made of pure white quartz) and a tall, dark, pointed grandfather stone. These stones mark a threshold, a gateway between worlds. They give the pass its name: Bwlch y Ddeufaen, the Pass of the Two Stones… What a pageant has paraded through this Pass. Probably none stopped for long. All were walking or riding, keen to make it quickly over the mountain moorland to the safety of the valley below. But many must have paused a moment, perhaps to lean against one of the two great stones. The light from so many faces has been reflected on those obelisks. Most are unremembered… But if you have read this book then now at least you know some of their stories.

© Rob Collister


Fesul blewyn ... Duncan Brown

Pam fod pobl yn teimlo mor gryf am enwau lleoedd? Bu'n rhaid i mi feddwl am y cwestiwn yna o'r newydd yn ddiweddar pan dynnwyd fy sylw fel Golygydd Prosiect Llên Natur at enghraifft o newid enw mewn lle amlwg iawn yn y Parc. Ysgrifennodd y mynyddwr lleol Maldwyn Peris atom yn bwrw ei fol i bob pwrpas am y newid diweddar a fu ar yr hostel ieuenctid a'r caffi 'Gorffwysfa' ym Mhen y Pass. Newidiwyd yr enw i 'Mallory's'.

Gorphwysfa, 2016

A dyna ddod at yr enw newydd 'Mallory's'. Y peth olaf rydw i am ei wneud yw amharchu enw'r dyn hwn sydd yn arwr ym myd dringo ac a fwrwodd peth o'i brentisiaeth ar yr Wyddfa. Dyma ddyn a gyflawnodd fwy yn ei faes a'i oes na'r rhelyw ohonom. Yn ddi-os mae o'n haeddu cael ei gydnabod yn Eryri. Ond nid ar draul enw Cymraeg - mae hwnnw yn sanctaidd fel mae Chomolongma (Everest) i bobl Tibet neu Uluru (Ayers Rock) i un o genhedloedd aborigineaidd Awstralia.

Cefais fy sodro yn y fan a'r lle gan y cenadwri hwn. Ond pa hawl sydd gen i na neb arall i gwyno am newid enw caffi preifat mewn lle mor gyhoeddus? Serch hynny, cwyno a wnes a chwyno a wnaf ond rhaid cloriannu'r dadleuon. Diddordeb enwau lleoedd i'r amgylcheddwr yw'r cyfoeth o wybodaeth sydd ynghlwm wrthyn nhw am y llecyn, ei hanes a chynefin ein cyndeidiau (pwy bynnag ydyn ni). Wrth gwrs, yn deillio o hynny mae llawer o enwau yn cynnwys gwybodaeth ecolegol. Hynny sydd yn amlwg gobeithio i ddarllenwyr y cylchgrawn hwn. Ond cyfyngedig a dweud y lleiaf yw'r ddadl hon - oni fyddai enwau wedi eu cyfieithu i'r Saesneg yn cyflawni yr un diben. Na, mae hi'n llawer dyfnach na hynny.

Onid enwau lleoedd Cymraeg yw ein hunig afael bellach ar ein tir a gyda phob cyfryw newid bach mae'r gafael hwnnw yn llacio? Fesul blewyn yr aiff y pen yn foel. Caiff Maldwyn y gair olaf: "Mae’n fy ngwylltio i’n gacwn bob tro yr af heibio’r hen Orphwysfa a gweld yr enw ’na … cywilydd arnom … ".

Bum yn dilyn o bryd i'w gilydd ymgyrchoedd pobl fel yr aborigeneaid i gadw eu tiroedd sanctaidd rhag amharch estroniaid - pobl o'r tu allan nad oes ganddyn nhw yr amgyffred i ddeall arwyddocâd lleoedd i frodorion - 'y moch yn y winllan' o enwog goffadwriaeth. Mae Cenhedloedd Cyntaf gogledd America yn dadlau yn debyg.

Drosodd i chi, Gymdeithas Eryri! Mae Duncan Brown yn un o sylfaenwyr ac yn olygydd Prosiect Llên Natur sy’n cynnig golwg newydd ar y byd o'n cwmpas, yn Gymraeg ac yn amlieithog. www.llennatur.com

Yn yr achos dan sylw ym Mhen y Pass, dyma enw Cymraeg digon diniwed a chyffredin, ac nid o bell ffordd yr enw mwyaf ysbrydoledig yn y byd. Gorffwysfa - gorffwysfa i bwy? Mae'n rhaid bod eraill gwell na fi yn gwybod yr hanes - os oes hanes mwy iddo nag sydd i sawl 'gorffwysfa' arall sydd yn ddim amgenach na lle i rywun rhyw dro rhoi traed i fyny, efallai am y tro olaf. Os oes mwy i'r enw na hynny dyna berlen difyr o wybodaeth sydd eto i'm cyrraedd. Rheswm da ynddo'i hun i gadw gafael ar enw. Yn ôl Maldwyn mae hen, hen hanes i’r lle: crybwyllodd Thomas Pennant yr enw Gorphwysfa yn 1773; adeiladwyd y ffordd newydd drwy’r bwlch yn 1830; yn 1843 roedd yna dafarn fechan a bythynnod ar y safle; ailadeiladwyd y dafarn yn 1901 a theulu Owen Rawson Owen fu perchnogion y gwesty ers 1903; fe’i caewyd yn 1967; a phrynwyd yr adeilad gan yr YHA ac agorwyd yr hostel yn 1971.

Hostel Ieuenctid Pen-y-pass tua 1980 ● Pen-y-pass Youth Hostel c.1980. Llun/Image © Harvey Lloyd

20


... a thousand cuts Duncan Brown

Regarding the case at Pen y Pass, we have a common enough Welsh name. Gorffwysfa (or Gorphwysfa) - resting place, but a resting place for whom? Others more qualified than me must be familiar with the background; and if there is more to know, beyond being somewhere to put one’s feet up, perhaps for the last time, then that’s a pearl of wisdom yet to reach me. A reason in itself to hold on to the name.

Why do people feel so strongly about place-names? I had to think anew about that question recently when, as Editor of the Llên Natur Project, my attention was drawn to an example of a change of name to a very prominent feature in the Park. The local mountaineer Maldwyn Peris wrote to tell me of his dismay at a recent name-change to the youth hostel and the cafe at ‘Gorffwysfa’, Pen y Pass. The name has been changed to ‘Mallory’s’.

According to Maldwyn, the name has a long history: Thomas Pennant mentioned ‘Gorphwysfa’ in 1773; the new road through the pass was built in 1830; in 1843 there was a small tavern and cottages on the site; the tavern was rebuilt in 1901 and the family of Owen Rawson Owen owned the hotel from 1903; it was shut in 1967; and the building was bought by the YHA and opened as a hostel in 1971.

And so we come to the new name: ‘Mallory’s’. The last thing I want to do is disrespect the Gwesty Gorphwysfa Hotel, Pen-y-pass, c. 1930 name of this man - a hero in the climbing world who partly served his apprenticeship on Snowdon. Here’s a man who did more in his field than the majority I was struck dumb by the news. But what right have I, or anyone of us. He certainly deserves recognition in Snowdonia, but, not at else, to complain about the name of a private cafe in such a public the expense of a Welsh place-name – a principle that’s as sacred place? Despite that, I did complain and I will complain, and here's as that of Chomolongma (Everest) to the people of Tibet, or Uluru why. (Ayers Rock) to the local Australian aborigine tribe. The interest of place-names for environmentalists is the wealth of information that comes with them about the location, its history Aren’t our Welsh place-names by now our only hold on our land, ... 'the land of our fathers', whoever we are. Many place-names of and does each little change loosen our grip? Death by a thousand course contain ecological information - obvious, I hope, to readers cuts. I’ll leave the last word to Maldwyn: “It makes me really mad of this magazine. But this is not the whole story – wouldn’t names each time I pass the old Gorphwysfa, to see that name ... shame translated into English fulfil the same purpose? No, it goes much on us ...”. deeper than that. Over to you, Snowdonia Society! Occasionally I follow the campaigns of peoples such as the aborigines to protect their sacred sites from damage and disrespect by visitors who are unable to understand the sites’ significance to the native people. America’s First Nations plead a similar cause.

Duncan Brown is one of the founders and editor of the Llên Natur Project that offers us a new look at the world about us, in Welsh and multi-lingually. www.llennatur.com 21


Brwshys dannedd a chynfasau gwely

yn datgelu ochr wyllt Tŷ Hyll Bethan Wynne Jones Yn ystod y misoedd diwethaf mae cyfres o ddigwyddiadau wedi dadorchuddio’r cyfoeth o fywyd gwyllt sy’n byw yn y llystyfiant a’r ddaear o amgylch Tŷ Hyll. Daeth plant a theuluoedd o hyd i bob math o ryfeddodau ar helfa drysor fywyd gwyllt. Ar daith drwy’r goedlan gyda’r adroddwr straeon lleol Fiona Collins, fe gawson nhw eu cyflwyno i faes chwedlau Cymreig drwy gyfrwng stori Eryr Eryri, eryr dewr ond unig sy’n chwilio am greadur hynaf y goedlan. Ym mis Awst, arweiniodd John Harold o Gymdeithas Eryri noson ddal gwyfynod. Yn dilyn cyflwyniad llawn gwybodaeth am ecoleg gwyfynod, aeth y grŵp draw i’r goedlan i brofi gwahanol ddulliau o ddal gwyfynod gyda chymorth cynfas gwely, lamp a bocsys wyau! Gyda help dalwyr gwyfynod brwdfrydig eraill daliwyd cyfanswm o 33 rhywogaeth a’u hadnabod cyn eu gollwng yn rhydd, yn cynnwys y brychan llwydwyrdd gweddol anghyffredin a chrwbach arian y bedw hardd. Dangoswyd y gwyfynod yma nid yn unig i’r sawl oedd yn cymryd rhan, ond hefyd i gynulleidfa ehangach ledled Cymru drwy gyfrwng eitem ar raglen ‘Heno’ S4C.

Brychan llwydwyrdd ● Beech-green carpet © George Tordoff

Yn yr haf hefyd cafwyd helfa pryfed copyn gyda Richard Gallon, sy’n hoff iawn o’r creaduriaid hyn. Cafwyd hyd i ffugsgorpion bach difyr yn y goedlan, a dangosodd Richard ddull hynod o ddyfeisgar o gael golwg nes ar ambell i bryf copyn gyda chymorth brwsh dannedd trydan! Ar ôl prysurdeb yr haf, daeth yn bryd i’r coed orffwys a dechreuodd y dail droi a chrino. Gwelwyd cryn weithgaredd ar lawr y goedlan. Ar ddiwedd Medi, arweiniodd y mycolegydd lleol Charles Aron sesiwn i fforio am ffwng. Yn ystod ein hymweliad â Ffair y Glas Prifysgol Bangor dangoswyd diddordeb gan lawer yno, felly daeth llu o fyfyrwyr draw i’r digwyddiad hwn yn ogystal â’n gwirfoddolwyr a’n haelodau rheolaidd. Yn dilyn helfa o ddwy awr, siaradodd Charles am ecoleg mycolegol sylfaenol a bu’n cynorthwyo unigolion i adnabod y ffwng yr oedden nhw wedi dod o hyd iddyn nhw – yn cynnwys ‘draenog coed’ rhyfedd yr olwg. Mi es i a hwn adref i’w fwyta! Cafwyd hyd i gasgliad hyfryd o ffwng yn cynnwys amanita’r gwybed a boledau. Wrth i’r gaeaf gau amdanon, mae’r mwsoglau bryoffytau yn dod yn fwy amlwg! Mae’r sylw diweddar yn y wasg i’r cynllun ynnidŵr arfaethedig a fyddai’n effeithio ar Ffos Noddum wedi dod â’r ‘planhigion is’ trawiadol yma i’n sylw. Diolch i gwrs adnabod bryoffytau am ddim o dan arweinyddiaeth y bryolegwr lleol Lucia Ruffino mae gan grŵp newydd o bobl well gwerthfawrogiad o fwsoglau sy’n aml yn cael eu hanwybyddu. Yn ystod haf 2016 gobeithiwn ddatgelu mwy o gyfrinachau bywyd gwyllt. Cewch wybod mwy am ddigwyddiadau a dyddiau gwirfoddoli ar y rhaglen sy’n atodol, neu ewch i’n gwefan, neu os nad ydych wedi gwneud hyn eisoes, nodwch eich dymuniad i dderbyn ein e-gylchlythyr. Llawer o ddiolch i holl wirfoddolwyr a chefnogwyr Tŷ Hyll. Dewch i sicrhau bod Tŷ Hyll yn dal i dyfu!

Defnyddio lens llaw i edrych ar fwsoglau Using a hand lens to view bryophytes

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Toothbrushes & bed sheets uncover Tŷ Hyll's wild side Bethan Wynne Jones

the woodland floor. In late September, local mycologist Charles Aron led a fungal foray. Our presence at the Bangor University Fresher’s Fair had sparked a lot of interest, so this event was particularly well attended by students as well as by our regular volunteers and members. Following a two hour foray, Charles talked us through some basic mycological ecology and helped individuals identify the fungi they’d found - including a peculiar looking ‘wood hedgehog’ I took home to eat! We discovered a beautiful array of fungi including the very charismatic fly agaric and some beautiful boletes.

In recent months a series of events has uncovered the wealth of wildlife lurking in the vegetation and in the ground at Tŷ Hyll. Children and families discovered all sorts of delights in a wildlife treasure hunt; a guided walk through the woods with local story teller Fiona Collins, introduced them to the world of Welsh legends via the tale of Eryr Eryri, a brave but lonely eagle in search of the oldest creature in the woodland. In August, Snowdonia Society’s John Harold led a moth trapping evening. Following an insightful introduction to moth ecology, the group headed to the woodland to test some different methods of moth trapping using a bed sheet, a lamp and some egg boxes! With the help of other moth enthusiasts a total of 33 species were trapped, identified and released, including the relatively uncommon beech-green carpet and the visually stunning lesser swallow prominent. Not only were these moths revealed to the participants, but also to the wider Welsh public via a feature on S4C’s programme ‘Heno’.

As the winter dark closed in, the bryophytes (mosses) stood out. Recent media coverage of the proposed hydro-electric scheme which would affect Ffos Noddun (Fairy Glen) has drawn attention to these fascinating ‘lower plants’. Thanks to a free bryophyte identification course led by local bryologist Lucia Ruffino a new group of people have a better appreciation of an often overlooked group. Summer 2016 promises to reveal more wildlife secrets. Find out about events and volunteer days on the enclosed programme, visit our website or, if you haven’t already done so, sign up to our e-newsletter.

Summer also saw a Spider Safari with local arachnid enthusiast Richard Gallon. A delightful little Pseudoscorpion was found in the woodland, and Richard demonstrated a clever way of having a closer look at some spiders with the aid of an electric toothbrush!

A big thank you to all Tŷ Hyll’s volunteers and supporters.

After the summer bustle, the trees began to rest and leaves slowly started to curl and crisp. Autumn brought a flurry of activity in

Let us keep Tŷ Hyll growing!

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Gwarchodwyr y glöyn byw yn cael help llaw Mary-Kate Jones

Ym mis Ebrill 2015, bu gwirfoddolwyr yn gweithio mewn darn dirgel o Eryri: Hafod Garegog, ger Porthmadog, sy’n eiddo i’r Ymddiriedolaeth Genedlaethol. Mae’r Warchodfa Natur Genedlaethol hon yn eithaf distaw gan nad oes yma ond cilfan bychan i barcio car. Yn Hafod Garegog mae cyfrinach arall: perthynas gudd rhwng glöyn byw a morgrugyn ... Un o rywogaethau Cynllun Gweithredu Bioamrywiaeth y DU yw’r glöyn byw y glesyn arian (Plebejus argus). Dyma löyn byw bach glas hardd sydd â chylchedd bywyd rhyfeddol. Ceir hyd iddo’n bennaf ar rostiroedd a borir, ac mae’r larfau’n bwydo ar egin grug newydd yn y gwanwyn a’r oedolion benywaidd yn dodwy eu hwyau ar dwmpathau a thwmpathau sych.

Fodd bynnag, ni fyddai’r glesyn arian yn goroesi heb eu cynorthwywyr tanddaearol a gwarchodwyr ffyddlon: morgrug bach duon. Mae’r morgrugyn du’n gweithio’n ddiflino i warchod larfau’r glöyn byw, o’u deor hyd eu chwilera, cyn dod â’r berthynas i ben unwaith y bydd y gloÿnnod wedi troi’n oedolion. Er ei fod yn ymddangos mai gweithred garedig yw hon gan y morgrug, beth maen nhw’n ei gael o hyn? Pam gwastraffu amser ac egni yn gwarchod epil rhywogaeth arall? Mae’r ateb yn syml. Mae larfau a chwileri'r glesyn arian yn cynhyrchu hylif cyfoethog llawn siwgr, ac mae’r morgrug yn casglu hwn fel ffynhonnell o fwyd. Yn eu tro, mae’r morgrug yn gweithredu fel gwarchodwyr i’r gloÿnnod ifanc. Dyna berthynas ecolegol gudd ond rhyfeddol; perthynas y mae’r gloÿnnod byw prin yma’n dibynnu arni. Beth yw rhan ein gwirfoddolwyr yn hyn? Beth oedden

nhw’n ei wneud yn Hafod Garegog? Roedden nhw’n cyflawni gorchwyl syml ond gwerthfawr: clirio prysgwydd. Yn ystod y blynyddoedd diwethaf, mae prysgwydd wedi ymledu i fannau sy’n cael eu defnyddio gan y glesyn arian a’r morgrugyn du, ac mae’r grug wedi prinhau. Yn y datganiad rheolaeth ar gyfer y safle hwn, mae Cyfoeth Naturiol Cymru (CNC) yn pwysleisio pwysigrwydd clirio prysgwydd o fannau sych a thwmpathau mawnog er mwyn gwneud yn fawr o’r gwres yn y pridd er budd unrhyw nythod morgrug sydd yma. Wrth gydweithio gyda CNC a’r Ymddiriedolaeth Genedlaethol, mae ein gwirfoddolwyr yn chwarae rhan hanfodol mewn cynnal cyflwr y cynefin a gwneud eu gorau i sicrhau bod dyfodol sicr i’r glesyn arian a’r morgrugyn du. Hoffwn gymryd y cyfle hwn i ddiolch yn fawr iawn i bob un o’n gwirfoddolwyr am eu gwaith yn ystod y flwyddyn. Os hoffech chi gymryd rhan, mae croeso i bawb ymuno â ni. Os oes gennych ddiwrnod y flwyddyn, neu ddiwrnod yr wythnos, byddem yn ddiolchgar iawn am unrhyw gymorth y gallwch ei gynnig.

Myfyrwyr Prifysgol Bangor yn Hafod Garegog gyda Bertha, mascot newydd Prosiect Ecosystem Eryri ar ei diwrnod gwaith cyntaf. ● Bangor University students at Hafod Garegog with Bertha, the Snowdonia Ecosystem Projects's new mascot on her first workday.

Bertha

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Butterfly babysitters

given a helping hand Mary-Kate Jones

The black ants work tirelessly to look after the butterfly larvae, from hatching, right through to pupation, when they wave their charges off into adulthood. Although a lovely thought, what’s in it for the black ant? Why waste time and energy tending the young of another species? The answer is a simple one. The larvae and pupae of the silver-studded blues produce a rich, sugary liquid, which the ants collect as a food source. In return, the ants act as babysitters for soon-to-be butterflies. A hidden but fascinating ecological relationship, on which these rare butterflies depend.

They were doing a seemingly simple but valuable task: clearing scrub. Over recent years, scrub has encroached onto areas used by both silver-studded blues and black ants, resulting in a loss of heather. In the management statement for the site, Natural Resources Wales (NRW) highlights the importance of keeping dry areas and peaty mounds free from scrub to maximise the warmth in the soil to benefit any ant nests which are present. Working with both NRW and the National Trust, our volunteers play a key part in maintaining habitat availability and doing their bit to ensure that both black ants and silver-studded blues have a future. I would like to take this opportunity to say a huge thank you to all our volunteers for all their hard work over the year. If you would like to get involved, everyone is welcome to join in. Whether you can spare a day a year, or a day a week, any help you can offer is always gratefully received. Am ragor o wybodaeth gweler: For more information see: www.butterfly-conservation.org/ files/silver-studded_blue-psf.pdf

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The silver-studded blue butterfly (Plebejus argus) is a UK Biodiversity Action Plan species. It is a small, beautiful blue butterfly with a remarkable life cycle. Found mainly on grazed heathlands, where the larvae feed on fresh shoots of heather in spring, the adult females lay their eggs on dry mounds and hummocks. However, silver-studded blues would not survive without their underground helpers and faithful babysitters: small black ants.

How do our volunteers fit in? What were they doing at Hafod Garegog?

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In April 2015, volunteers headed to a hidden area of Snowdonia: Hafod Garegog, near Porthmadog, owned by the National Trust. This National Nature Reserve is relatively quiet as it has only a small lay-by available for parking. Hafod Garegog hides another secret: an unseen relationship between a butterfly and an ant …

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Rosemary Dick-Cleland 1938 - 2016 Gyda thristwch yr ydym yn cofnodi marwolaeth Rosemary Dick-Cleland. Roedd Rosemary, ynghyd â’i gŵr John, yn aelod tymor hir o’r Gymdeithas. Bydd y rhai ohonom sy’n mynd yn ôl yn bell yn ei chofio fel un o’r gwirfoddolwyr mwyaf rheolaidd, brwdfrydig, gweithgar a ffyddlon ar ein dyddiau gwaith: ar y llwybrau gyda Mike Cousins; wrth dacluso; wrth gasglu ysbwriel oddi ar y traethau; yn lladd llwyni Rhododendron; yn codi siediau a chreu pyllau yn Nhŷ Hyll; a llawer mwy, gan gychwyn yn yr 1990au hyd at ei chyfraniad i broject jac-y-neidiwr ger ei chartref yn Y Bala y llynedd. Bydd rhai hefyd yn ei hadnabod fel y ddynes gyda’r droell yn sêl blanhigion Tŷ Hyll. Bydd gan bawb oedd yn ei hadnabod atgofion annwyl amdani a bydd colled fawr ar ei hôl. ~ It is with great sadness that we report the death of Rosemary Dick-Cleland. Rosemary, with her husband John, was a long-standing member of the Society. Those of us who go back a long way will remember her as one of the most regular, enthusiastic, hard working and loyal workday volunteers: on the footpaths with Mike Cousins; at the clear-ups; the beach litter-picks; rhodo-bashing; shedbuilding and pond construction at Tŷ Hyll; and much more, starting in the 1990s right up to her contributions to the Himalayan balsam project near her home at Bala last year. Some will also know her as the lady with the spinning-wheel at Tŷ Hyll plant sales. Rosemary will be fondly remembered and missed by all who knew her.


Adolygiadau llyfrau ● Book reviews

The Mountains of Snowdonia in Art by Peter Bishop Gwasg Carreg Gwalch 2015; £18

Arlunydd a hanesydd celf yw Peter Bishop ac mae ganddo ddiddordeb arbennig ym mynyddoedd Eryri. Dylai’r llyfr hwn fod o ddiddordeb i aelodau Cymdeithas Eryri sy’n dymuno dysgu am atyniad Eryri i arlunwyr ers canol y deunawfed ganrif. Yn ôl yr awdur, ei nod yw ‘datgelu amrywiaeth gyfoethog’ delweddau artistig o Eryri a grëwyd yn ystod y cyfnod hwn. Er iddo lwyddo i wneud hyn, does dim sail i’w honiad bod y llyfr ‘yn arolwg cynhwysfawr o gelf tirlun mynyddig Eryri’. Mae’n siomi mewn dau faes. Yn gyntaf, efallai y byddai haneswyr celf yn holi pam nad oes cyfeiriad at arlunwyr allweddol eraill, yn gyfoesol ac yn hanesyddol, o’r 48 a ddewisir. Yn ail, efallai y bydd y sawl sy’n gyfarwydd ag Eryri yn ystyried pam fod lleoliadau’r 70 o weithiau celf a ddetholwyd wedi eu cyfyngu o ran lleoliad daearyddol. Mae’r penderfyniad i strwythuro’r llyfr o amgylch naw ‘golygfa’ ddethol (penawdau) yn gweithio’n dda oherwydd

ei fod yn galluogi cymariaethau o ddehongliad artistig y lleoliadau hyn ond, yn anffodus, mae’r dewis o olygfeydd yn rhy gyfyng. Er bod mynyddoedd yr Wyddfa ei hun a Chader Idris yn amlwg, nid yw cribau mynyddoedd allweddol eraill fel y Glyderau, y Carneddau, y Moelwyn, y Rhinogydd a’r Aran yn cael eu crybwyll o gwbl. Mae gwybodaeth ac arbenigedd yr awdur fel arlunydd a hanesydd celf yn cael eu cyfuno’n effeithiol wrth egluro’r dulliau cyfansoddol a’r cyfrwng a ddewisir gan arlunwyr ar gyfer dehongli’r tirluniau hyn. Nid yw mor llwyddiannus wrth gyfleu ysgogiadau esthetig ac awydd y cyhoedd am y pynciau a ddewisir. Yn yr un modd, ychydig o gyfeiriadau a wneir at Eryri fel tirlun diwylliannol lle’r oedd y berthynas rhwng pobl a lle yn cyfuno’n unigryw i sicrhau bod Eryri’n gymaint o atyniad i artistiaid ac ymwelwyr. Mae’r 70 o atgynhyrchiadau llawn lliw o ddarluniau olew a dyfrlliw, argraffiadau, ysgythriadau, darluniau a hyd yn oed un ffotograff o ansawdd uchel, yn cael eu disgrifio’n llawn ac yn cael eu cydnabod. Mae’r llyfryddiaeth dethol yn gynhwysfawr, ac mae’r argymhellion dros ddarllen pellach a’r casgliad o dermau hefyd yn hynod o ddefnyddiol. Drwyddo draw, mae’r llyfr yma’n werth ei ddarllen. ~ Peter Bishop is a painter and art historian with a special interest in the mountains of Snowdonia. This book should interest Snowdonia Society members wishing to learn of Eryri’s attraction to artists since the mid-eighteenth century. The author’s declared aim is ‘to reveal the rich diversity’ of artistic images of Snowdonia made during this period. He has succeeded in this, but his claim that the book is ‘a comprehensive survey of Snowdonia’s

A William Condry Reader gan/by Jim Perrin Gomer 2015; £14.99 Daw llawer o’r ysgrifau hyn â phleser a mannau difyr wrth archwilio cefn gwlad Cymru i gof. Chwilio am y dduegredynen hirgul, rhedynen fach sgleiniog, a chael cipolwg ar gribau anghysbell 26

mountain landscape art’ (p11) is overstated. It disappoints on two counts. Firstly, art historians might question the absence of other key artists, both contemporary and historic, from the 48 selected. Secondly, those familiar with Snowdonia may wonder why the locations of the 70 artworks chosen are so geographically constrained. The decision to structure the book around nine selected ‘viewpoints’ (chapters) works well in that it facilitates comparisons to be made of the artistic interpretations of these locations, but sadly the choice of viewpoints is too limited. The mountains of the Snowdon massif and Cader Idris feature prominently, but other key mountain ranges including the Glyderau, Carneddau, Moelwynion, Rhinogydd and Aran don’t feature at all. The author’s knowledge and expertise as an artist and art historian are brought together to good effect in explaining the compositional approaches and mediums chosen by artists in their interpretation of these landscapes. He is less successful in conveying the aesthetic motivations and popular taste for the subjects chosen. Likewise, scant reference is made to Snowdonia as a cultural landscape where the relationship between people and place uniquely combined to make Eryri such an enduring attraction to artists and visitors. The 70 full colour reproductions of oils and watercolours, prints, engravings, drawings and even one photograph are of a high quality, fully described and credited. The select bibliography is comprehensive, and recommendations for further reading and the glossary of terms very useful, too. All things considered, this book is a worthwhile read. Gareth Roberts

y Rhinogydd. Brechdanau ar lannau nentydd. Y tingoch a’r gwybedog brith yn y gwanwyn, sylwi’n fanwl ar eu hymddygiad a mwynhau eu gwylio. Hiwmor sych drwy’r cwbl, ambell dro’n ganolbwynt: cwyno am gasgliad o eosiaid yn canu’n groch ac yn swnllyd gan ddifetha noson o gwsg yn y Pyrenee. Yma ac acw ceir tinc o dristwch hefyd fel yn ‘Threnody for The Woodlark’; disgrifiadau o greaduriaid a thirluniau a gollwyd. Daw’r casgliad hwn ag ystod eang o ysgrifau at ei gilydd i’w mwynhau, sy’n addysgiadol a llawer mwy.


Aelodau Busnes newydd ● New Business Members Rydym yn falch o gyhoeddi enwau’r busnesau mwyaf diweddar sydd wedi dewis cefnogi gwaith Cymdeithas Eryri drwy ddod yn Aelodau Busnes.

We're pleased to announce the latest businesses who have chosen to support the Snowdonia Society's work by becoming Business Members. Pengwern Country House, Betws-y-coed Unwind and relax at Pengwern bed and breakfast, set in two acres of wild woods overlooking the beautiful Lledr Valley and one mile from ‘Conwy Falls’ and ‘Fairy Glen’. Welsh tradition and culture mixed with the new. Member discount: 10% on B&B accommodation

Tŷ Gwledig Pengwern, Betws-y-coed Dadflino ac ymlacio yn llety gwely a brecwast Pengwern, a saif mewn dwy acer o goedwig wyllt yn edrych dros brydferthwch Dyffryn Lledr, a dim ond taith gerdded fer o Raeadr y Graig Lwyd a Ffos Noddun. Traddodiad a diwylliant Cymru yn gymysg â’r newydd. Gostyngiad i aelodau: 10% ar lety gwely a brecwast

Sŵn-y-Dŵr Holiday Cottage, Betws-y-coed An upmarket holiday cottage situated by the river Llugwy and one minute’s walk from Pont-y-Pair bridge. Extensive, landscaped gardens which sweep down to the river. Sleeps up to 11 people. Nick Corney says, “We live in and love Snowdonia and want to do what we can to help look after and promote it.” Member discount: 10% on lettings

Bwthyn Gwyliau Sŵn-y-Dŵr Bwthyn gwyliau o safon a leolir ar lan afon Llugwy ac o fewn un munud ar droed i Bont-y-Pair. Gerddi helaeth i lawr at yr afon. Gwelyau i hyd at 11 o bobl. Meddai Nick Corney, “Gan ein bod yn byw ac Eryri ac yn ei charu, rydym yn awyddus i ofalu amdani hi.” Gostyngiad i aelodau: 10% ar lety Superfix Supplements Mae Superfix yn datblygu ac ymchwilio cynhyrchion ethno-filfeddygol naturiol ar gyfer ceffylau. Mae ganddyn nhw ystod o gynhyrchion ar gyfer merlod brodorol a ddatblygwyd gyda’u Merlod Mynydd Cymreig. “Mae Eryri yn darparu ein defnyddiau, felly mae’n deg i ni gefnogi’r rhai sy’n gofalu am Eryri a chymryd rhan weithredol i sicrhau ei chynaladwyedd.

Superfix Supplements Superfix develop and research natural ethnoveterinary products for all horses. They work with racehorses and also offer products suitable for native ponies developed with their own Welsh Mountain Ponies. “Snowdonia provided us the materials to work with; it is only right to support those who care for Snowdonia and be an active part of its sustainability.”

Parc Gwyliau Brynteg, Llanrug Parc gwyliau 5-seren a saif ar lethrau Eryri, gyda sba, pwll trofannol dan do, llyn pysgota, campfa, clwb gwledig a bwyty, a bistro bach glan llyn. Calendr o ddigwyddiadau o saethu â bwa a saeth a dringo i arddangosiadau coginio, blasu gwin, nosweithiau tân gwyllt, cyngherddau awyr agored a hwyl i’r teulu.

Brynteg Holiday Park, Llanrug A 5-star holiday park nestled in the foothills of Snowdonia with spa, tropical indoor pool, gym, country club and restaurant, fishing lake and lakeside bistro; calendar of events, including archery, climbing, cookery demonstrations, wine tastings, fireworks displays, outdoor concerts and family fun.

Os ydych yn gwybod am fusnes sy’n gweithredu ym Mharc Cenedlaethol Eryri neu’n agos ato, pam na wnewch chi awgrymu eu bod yn ymaelodi fel Aelodau Busnes?

Cysylltwch â ni i ofyn am becyn Aelodaeth Fusnes neu ewch i'n gwefan i ddarganfod rhagor

If you know a business that operates in or near the Snowdonia National Park, why not suggest they become Business Members?

Contact us for a Business Membership pack or visit our website to find out more.

cacophony of nightingales all ‘harshness and din’ ruining a night’s sleep in the Pyrenees. Here and there are notes of sadness too as in ‘Threnody for The Woodlark’; descriptions of creatures and landscapes lost.

Mae cyflwyniad Jim Perrin yn darparu golwg fywgraffiadol ac yn gosod Condry’n gadarn ymysg y gorau o’r ysgrifennwyr am fyd natur. ~ Many of these writings bring directly to mind the pleasure and distractions of exploring the Welsh countryside. Setting out in search of lanceolate spleenwort, a small shiny fern, only to be joyfully diverted into the remote sweep of the Rhinogydd. Sandwiches by streams. Spring redstarts and pied flycatchers, their behaviour observed with clarity and insight. A dry humour permeates, occasionally taking centre stage: complaints of a

This collection brings together a wide range of writings that are enjoyable, enlightening and much more. Jim Perrin’s introduction provides a biographical overview and argues definitively for Condry’s place among the greatest of nature writers. Sam Thomas 27


Codi calon, codi arian ~ Fundraising Unwaith eto mae ein dyled yn fawr i’r sawl sy’n ymdrechu’n ddiwyd i godi arian ar gyfer gwaith Cymdeithas Eryri, heb sôn am y rhai sydd wedi cyfrannu'n ariannol. Y cyfraniad mwyaf annisgwyl yn ddiweddar oedd arian gwobr am dyfu garlleg ym Methesda! Diolch i ti, Gareth, am ein henwebu i dderbyn yr enillion yn dilyn her yr elusen Tyfu Garlleg Moriarty Thomas.

Os oes angen help arnoch gyda’ch syniad am godi arian, cysylltwch os gwelwch yn dda â: frances@snowdonia-society.org.uk

Once again we are indebted to all those who go the extra mile to raise funds for the Snowdonia Society’s work, not to mention all those who have donated. The most unexpected recent donation must be the prize money from garlic grown in Bethesda! Thank you Gareth for nominating us to receive the proceeds from this charity challenge.

Maria: Her 5k challenge

£1,470 Hadau er lles Gwenyn 2015 Seed for Bees

If you would like help with your fundraising idea, please contact: frances@snowdonia-society.org.uk or check our website for other ideas: www. snowdonia-society.org.uk

Teithiau cerdded, sgyrsiau, bore coffi a digwyddiadau eraill. Walks, talks, coffee morning & other events.

£402

£310

Elw cystadleuaeth garlleg Bethesda garlic competition proceeds

Her Mynydd Fabian4 Dyffryn Conwy Mountain Challenge: £1,300

£811

neu ewch i’n gwefan am syniadau eraill: www.cymdeithas-eryri.org.uk

£335

£1,667

Cronfa Ddringo'r Wyddfa Climb Snowdon Fund

Tîm John's Team: £367

Clirio sbwriel ● Arbed carbon Noddwch fi!

Can clear litter ● Can save carbon ● Can you Sponsor me?

Wrth godi ac ailgylchu 1 can alwminiwm gallwch arbed digon o ynni i ferwi dŵr ar gyfer 14 cwpaned o de! Rydw i wedi gosod targed i fi fy hun o godi ac ailgylchu 2,000 can diod alwminiwm, a felly arbed 270kg o CO2.

Picking up and recycling 1 aluminium can saves enough energy to boil water for 14 cups of tea! I have set myself a target to pick up and recycle 2,000 aluminium drinks cans, thereby saving 270kg of CO2.

Dewch i fy noddi 1c y can!

Please sponsor me 1p/can!

Cewch wybod mwy, fy noddi neu gyfrannu: www.snowdonia-society.org.uk/cy/ cansavecarbon Neu cysylltwch â: frances@snowdonia-society.org.uk 01286 685498

Find out more, sponsor me or donate at: www.snowdonia-society.org.uk/ cansavecarbon Or contact: frances@snowdonia-society.org.uk 01286 685498

Elw at Gymdeithas Eryri!

All proceeds to the Snowdonia Society!

Diolch. Frances Smith

Thank you. Frances Smith

neu unrhyw swm arall.

or any amount you choose.

28


Tîm John's team

Doeddwn i erioed wedi rhoi cynnig ar driathlon o’r blaen. Er fy mod yn hoff o redeg a beicio, dydw i ddim mor siŵr am y nofio. Felly, ar gyfer fy nghynnig cyntaf, dewisais ddigwyddiad bach lleol cyfeillgar - Her Mynydd Dyffryn Conwy.

I had never done a triathlon before. Although I like running and cycling, I'm not so sure about the swimming. So, for my first attempt, I chose a small friendly local event - the Dyffryn Conwy Mountain Challenge.

Gan nad ydw i mor ffit ag yr arferwn fod ar un pryd, dewisais gymryd rhan fel aelod o dîm a dewisais fy hoff adran - rhedeg mynydd. Cefais help trefnwyr y digwyddiad i ddod o hyd i Andy, sy’n hoffi canŵio, ac Alice, sy’n hoffi beicio mynydd. Fe wnes i ddigon o waith paratoi i wybod y byddwn yn gallu cwblhau’r cwrs a’i fwynhau.

Not as fit as I used to be, I entered as one member of a team, choosing my favourite section - the fell running. The event organisers helped me find Andy, who loves canoeing, and Alice, who loves mountain biking. I did just enough preparation to know that I could get round the course and enjoy it.

Ar y diwrnod mawr, ar ôl gwylio Andy’n cychwyn i fyny’r afon o Gonwy yn ei ganŵ, mi es i draw i aros amdano yn Nolgarrog. Rhoddodd fand garddwrn y tîm i mi ac i ffwrdd â fi! Yn araf ac yn gyson, cefais brofiad braf wrth redeg dros dirwedd gymysg a thirlun newidiol. Y peth gorau oedd y stiwardiaid cyfeillgar, llawer ohonyn nhw’n aelodau o Gymdeithas Eryri, yn annog pawb i ddal ati a sicrhau nad oedden ni’n mynd ar goll. Teimlais yn flinedig iawn wrth i mi gyrraedd canolfan y digwyddiad yn Llanrwst a throsglwyddo’r band garddwrn i Alice. Wrth i mi fwynhau pryd poeth haeddiannol, rhuthrodd Alice i fyny Llwybr Tarin ar ei beic a gwneud yn iawn am fy amser araf. Er na wnaethon ni ennill gwobrau, fe wnaethon ni’n hen ddigon da!

On the big day, having watched Andy setting off up the river from Conwy, in his canoe, I went to await his arrival at Dolgarrog. He handed over the team wristband and I was off! Slow and steady, it was a lovely run over varied terrain and changing landscape. Best of all were the friendly marshals, many of them Snowdonia Society members, encouraging everyone on and making sure we didn't go astray. I ran out of steam just as I reached the event centre at Llanrwst and passed on the wristband to Alice. As I enjoyed a well-earned hot meal, Alice tore up the Marin Trail on her bike and made up for my slowness. We didn't win any prizes, but we didn't embarrass ourselves either!

Wedi ei drefnu’n dda, roedd y digwyddiad yn llawn hwyl a chyfeillgar i’r cystadleuwyr a’u cefnogwyr. Unrhyw un am ymuno â’m tîm i eleni?

Very well-organised, the day had a fun, friendly, village-event feel to it for the competitors and their supporters. Anyone fancy joining my team this year?

Unigol neu mewn timau

Rhedeg Mynydd 12k Caiacio (dewisol) 13k 29


Llythyrau • Letters Croesewir llythyrau a sylwadau ar unrhyw agwedd o’n gwaith a’n hymgyrchoedd, neu ar unrhyw fater sy’n effeithio ar y Parc Cenedlaethol. Argraffir llythyrau yn yr iaith y cawn hwy.

We welcome letters or comments on any aspect of our work and campaigns or on any issue that affects the National Park. Letters are printed in the language in which we receive them.

Cymdeithas Eryri the Snowdonia Society, Yr Hen Ysgol, Caban, Brynrefail, Caernarfon LL55 3NR

Diolch, helwyr sbwriel! Thank you, litter-pickers! Dear Editors, I am writing to thank you for all the work Snowdonia Society did to clear the litter from Harlech beach last Saturday. You even uprooted the deeply buried plastic crate at the entrance that was the repository for dog waste bags and other cast offs - a most unwelcome sight for visitors as they walked onto the beach. I was glad that you had such a beautiful day for all of your hard work. Sincerely, Mary Louise Alley-Crosby, A Harlech resident

the problem of flooding in the Conwy valley (and elsewhere for that matter), we must look at a comprehensive scheme that encompasses tree planting in the catchment areas, the closure of drainage ditches to encourage bog expansion, and methods of slowing down the rate of flow in the rivers. All these measures would work to hold water on the upper slopes for longer, allowing a slower release into the rivers. Good work has been done on the Migneint, closing 70km of moorland grips, but this was a one-off project. Our uplands need a mix of trees and hydraulic vegetation to hold the water in catchment areas. This will not only help with flooding downstream but will also be hugely beneficial to the wildlife and ecology of these areas. Yours, Judy Corbett

Llifogydd - arafu'r llif Flooding - slow the flow Dear Editors, Given the horrendous floods we have been experiencing, especially in the Llanrwst area, now would be a good time to review the way we manage high levels of rainfall, particularly in the uplands. Huge sums of money are spent on flood defences each year by Natural Resources Wales without addressing the reasons why our rivers are flooding in the first place. The hillsides are constantly being drained and our rivers cleared to increase the rate of flow, which simply results in valley floor flooding; we’ve all seen white water pouring off fields onto roads during periods of heavy rainfall. The farmers’ collaborative project at Pontbren and the ‘Slow the Flow’ project at Pickering have shown what can be achieved to alleviate flooding when we work with nature, rather than against it. The Pontbren project demonstrated that the absorption of water for soil under trees is 67 times greater than that for soil under grass. If we are ever to solve

Mae Judy’n gofyn cwestiynau pwysig ynglŷn â blaenoriaethau rheolaeth tir yn yr ucheldir. Efallai bod adferiad naturiol coed, prysgwydd a rhos yn well na phlannu coed, sy’n golygu’r angen am ffensio, cau da o’r llain a blannwyd a chadwraeth amrywiaeth genetig lleol brodorol. Judy raises important questions about land management priorities in the uplands. Natural regeneration of trees, scrub and heath may be preferable to tree-planting, which brings issues of fencing, livestock exclusion and conservation of locally native genetic diversity. ***

Trafnidiaeth cyhoeddus Public transport Dear Editors, After the initial proposals some years ago for the “Snowdonia Green Key” park-andride scheme, public transport did improve for a while. The Sherpa Bus became quite a good service, and there appeared to be some effort to make it connect with other outlying bus services. It became possible for the first time ever to catch a bus (no. 64) outside my door in Cwm Penmachno, and connect sensibly with the Sherpa in Betws-y-coed in order to climb Snowdon from Pen-y-Pass, returning by the same means at the end of the day. I did this 30

info@snowdonia-society.org.uk

successfully on several occasions before deterioration in the timetables meant that the connections no longer worked. Subsequently, I compromised by parking between Capel Curig and Pen-y-Gwryd and using the Sherpa for the last stretch to Pen-y-Pass, to avoid the overcrowded and expensive parking there. The Sherpa timetable is now so poor that even this is no longer a valid option. In typical Welsh weather, to come off the hill soaking wet and be faced by a long wait for public transport is simply not practical or safe. To be viable for outdoor pursuits, public transport needs to be frequent and reliable, at all times of day, and connections with other services need to be timed sensibly. Those that narrowly fail to connect (as mentioned in the last issue of this magazine) are especially infuriating to anybody trying in good faith to shift journeys from private to public transport. The one redeeming feature of this is that I have come to know the south side of Snowdon better; making creative use of the ground on either side of the Watkin Path has been interesting and fun. Yours, Paul Newby ~ Dear Editors, The theme of the autumn 2015 edition of the magazine, 'Getting around in Snowdonia', brings to mind the opportunities of the pre-Beeching era when a Londoner could ascend Snowdon and return home in 24 hours. The evening boat train (the Dublin Packet), would get the traveller into Bangor early the following morning; a waiting train would go on to Caernarfon, where a branch-line continued to Llanberis. All that was required was a short walk to the mountain railway terminus followed by an even shorter walk to the summit. The return journey would see the traveller back home in the late evening. Now that really was using public transport to enjoy Snowdonia. Yours, K.C. Gordon


FSC Rhyd-y-creuau FSC Rhyd-y-creuau is a leading provider of environmental and taxonomy training in North Wales. Mae Cyngor Astudiaethau Maes Rhyd-y-creuau yn un o ddarparwyr hyfforddiant amgylcheddol a thacsonomeg fwyaf blaenllaw yng Ngogledd Cymru. Friendly, comfortable, full-board accommodation and expert tuition. Llety â phob pryd bwyd, cyfforddus mewn cwmni cyfeillgar ynghyd â hyfforddiant arbenigol. Great access to the diverse habitats and environments of Snowdonia National Park. Cyfle gwych i droedio amgylcheddau a chynefinoedd amrywiol Parc Cenedlaethol Eryri. Courses to suit your requirements in 2016 include: Ymysg y Cyrsiau sy’n gweddu i’ch Datblygiad Proffesiynol Parhaus (CPD) yn 2016 mae:

 Birds of the North Wales Coast, Woodlands and Uplands - 27-30 May, 2016 Adar o’r Arfordir Gogledd Cymru, Coetiroedd a Ucheldiroedd 27-30 Mai 2016  Tree Identification - 27-30 May, 2016 Adnabod Coed – 27-30 Mai 2016  Arctic Alpines - 27-30 May, 2016 Alpaidd Arctig 27-30 Mai 2016  BTO Bird Survey Techniques - 4-6 June, 2016 Technegau Arolwg Adar BTO 4-6 Mehefin, 2016  Identifying the Sedges and their Allies 17-20 June, 2016 Nodi’r hesg a’u Cyngheiriaid - 17-20 Mehefin, 2016 To see the full programme or for more information please visit the website or contact us:/ I weld y rhaglen gyflawn neu am fwy o wybodaeth, ewch i’n gwefan:

www.field-studies-council.org/rhydycreuau Neu Cysylltwch â ni:

Tel/Ffôn: 01690 710494

E-mail/E-bost: enquiries.rc@field-studies-council.org 31


Cyrsiau i’w cynnal drwy y flwyddyn ar bynciau sy’n cwmpasu pob agwedd ar gefn gwlad, amgylchedd, diwylliant, hanes, paentio, ffotograffiaeth a chrefftau.

Courses held throughout the year on subject covering all aspects of the countryside, environment, culture, history, painting , photography and crafts.

Darganfyddwch fwy am y maes hynod ddiddorol hwn yng nghwmni tiwtoriaid arbenigol

Discover more about this fascinating area in the company of expert tutors.

PLAS TAN Y BWLCH MAENTWROG, BLAENAU FFESTINIOG, LL41 3YU FFÔN/TELEPHONE 01766 772600 PLAS@ERYRI-NPA.GOV.UK

www.plastanybwlch.com

Ymaelodwch...

... a helpu i warchod a gwella tirwedd a bioamrywiaeth arbennig Eryri. Aelodaeth unigol o £24. Cysylltwch â ni neu gweler ein gwefan.

Join us...

... and help conserve Snowdonia’s magnificent landscape and biodiversity. Individual membership from £24. Contact us or visit our website for details.

Cyfleoedd gwaith cadwraeth Conservation work opportunities

Digwyddiadau Events

FF*

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I FFW

Gostyngiadau gan fusnesau lleol* Discounts from local businesses*

2 gylchgrawn y flwyddyn 2 magazines/ year

*Telerau'n weithredol/Terms apply

THE UK’S

Cymdeithas Eryri the Snowdonia Society, Caban, Yr Hen Ysgol, Brynrefail, Caernarfon, Gwynedd LL55 3NR

01286 685498

info@snowdonia-society.org.uk

www.cymdeithas-eryri.org.uk • www.snowdonia-society.org.uk WIDEST RANGE OF

32

OUTDOOR

Summer magazine 2016 Cylchgrawn yr Haf  

Hidden Snowdonia. What does hidden mean? This issue of our magazine explores some of Snowdonia’s less conspicuous delights and offers some u...

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