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PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE by craig weямВen


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CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE by

Craig Weflen A Design Thesis Project Presented to the Faculty of The College of Architecture at the University of Nebraska In Partial Fulfillment of Requirements For the Degree of Master of Architecture Major: Architecture Under the Supervision of Peter Hind Lincoln, Nebraska May, 2012

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CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


CONTENTS PROJECT ABSTRACT //

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RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS //

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quantifying displacement

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current camp strategies

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precedent analysis

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site selection

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DESIGN EXPLORATIONS //

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evolving structures

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phased community deployment

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semester presentation

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collapsible structures

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nodal community deployment

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FINAL DESIGN DOCUMENTATION //

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final community design

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final structural design

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FINAL REFLECTIONS //

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BIBLIOGRAPHY //

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This is the real news of our century. It is highly feasible to take care of all of humanity at a higher standard of living than anybody has ever experienced or dreamt of. To do so without having anybody proďŹ t at the expense of another, so that everybody can enjoy the whole earth. And it can all be done by 1985. -Buckminster Fuller, 1971 41 years later, we still have people living in abject poverty, forced into situations where the politics of displacement actively prevent them from improving their living situation. For an organization that puts out a Handbook for Emergencies, the United Nations does a terrible job at following it in their design of their camps. These are always intended to be something temporary, a simple response to an emergency which can hold refugees until they are free to return to their homes. However,

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the average refugee camp now lasts longer than seven years, and there are camps in West Bengal which have been in existence for over 65. Camps near Dadaab, Kenya that were built to hold only 60,000 people have swelled to over 450,000 today. These victims of displacement are now trapped in a system that forces substandard living conditions upon them. The cause of this widespread forced poverty lies squarely within the design of the camp settings themselves.

AS DESIGNERS, WHAT CAN WE DO WHEN THIS IMPERMANENCE BECOMES PERMANENT?

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


PROJECT ABSTRACT

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CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS QUANTIFYING DISPLACEMENT CURRENT CAMP STRATEGIES PRECEDENT ANALYSIS SITE SELECTION

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CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


QUANTIFYING DISPLACEMENT

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CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


DISPLACEMENT DEFINITIONS

Refugees are people who have fled their countries due to a fear of persecution, having crossed an international border. They enjoy the protection afforded them by refugee law and the mandate of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). UNHCR

REFUGEE //

is the designated agency in the UN system for refugee protection.

IDPs, or internally displaced persons, are persons or groups of persons who have been forced or obliged to flee or to leave their homes or places of habitual residence, in particular as a result of or in order to avoid the effects of armed conflict, situations of generalized violence, violations of human rights or natural or human-made disasters, and who have not

IDP //

crossed an internationally recognized State border. QUANTIFYING DISPLACEMENT //

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QUANTIFYING DISPLACED POPULATIONS REFUGEES //

AFRICA

As of the end of the year 2010, the United

However, the plight of the displaced is not

Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR)

correctly measured by refugees.

lists a population of 33,924,475 as their total

displaced people (IDPs) have vastly increased

Population of Concern , meaning a combination

in numbers recently, to the point where there

of refugees, IDP s, and those in a holding pattern.

are now more IDPs in the world than there are

This is roughly the population of Canada.

refugees. This is particularly true of the African continent,

OCEANIA

ASIA LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN

NORTH AMERICA

EUROPE

AFRICA

which

6,230,071

by far, has the highest volume

Asia at 4,376,376.

of refugees of any continent

in the same density study

on

5,475,351.

as mentioned before, Africa

Africa holds the second most

records an obscene .605%, as

with 2,348,368.

opposed to only .105% in Asia.

earth

with

The other

combined

IDPs,

houses

In terms of raw numbers, Asia,

continents

IDPS //

Internally

ahead

of

Factoring

hold

less than a quarter of the remaining refugees.

Factoring in refugees, IDPs, people in waiting (aka

As Asia is the earth s most populous continent,

holding camps ), and various others recognized

these numbers are not surprising. However, in

by the UNHCR, the total density of displaced

terms of the density of refugees within the total

people in Africa is .988%, or virtually one in every

population (the number of refugees divided by

hundred people.

the total population of the continent), Asian EUROPE ASIA LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN

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refugees account for .132% of the continent s

If this same density were applied to the city of

population, as opposed to Africa, which has a

Lincoln, NE, 2,540 people would be victims of

refugee density of .228%.

some sort of displacement.

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


QUANTIFYING DISPLACED POPULATIONS As this graph shows, the global strategy for the

UNHCR ASSISTENCE GIVEN TO REFUGEES AND IDPS

management of displaced persons is shifting in focus from refugees (displaced people in a

16

foreign country) to IDP s (internally displaced people). This shift in strategy brings less aid from the UNHCR (United Nations High Commission

14

for Refugees, which provides little if any aid to camps designated for IDP s) and NGO s (NonGovernmental Organization).

12

Writes Michel

Agier, the aid the UN gives to IDP camps is to avoid a refugee problem elsewhere.

This

10

amounts to promoting the conďŹ nement of potential refugees within their own country by

8

providing minimal humanitarian assistance, without, however, guaranteeing any protection

6

to compensate for the failure to escape from their country and the constancy of danger. 4

conďŹ ned mostly to African countries, where

2

the density of IDP s to refugees is almost three to one, as opposed to Asia s roughly one to one relationship

(in millions)

As noted earlier, this problem seems to be

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QUANTIFYING DISPLACEMENT //

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

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CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


CURRENT CAMP STRATEGIES

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REFUGEE CAMPS The setting of a refugee camps is the most

population, these camps have been transformed

common image in a person s mind when the

over time and with the multiple uses that

thought of refugee crisis is mentioned, and

their occupants have made for themselves

indeed these are the most common. However,

of the resource that humanitarian assistance

as Michel Agier writes:

represents.

these also generally

take the most standardized, planned and official form. Refugee camps are not completely visible

As a general rule, camps are established on

in their everyday life, since they are generally in

virgin land like a sudden and sometimes violent

out-of-the-way locations and access to them is

incursion into the local environment. After first

supervised.

being installed in large tents, the refugees go on to construct around these collective tents huts

The refugee camps are always hybrid organisms,

and cabins out of mud-brick and wood, with

not reproducing any socio-spatial form that

roofs of thatch or plastified cloth, the material

REFUGEE CAMPS //

already exists; they are new experiences for the

being generally provided by NGOs. Individually

locality in which they are established…between

or family habitations of one or two rooms

THE MORE GENERAL ISSUE IN THE REFUGEE

an indefinite temporality and a space that is

surround the central tent, which is taken away

CAMPS ‒ AS SOON AS THEIR EXISTENCE PERSISTS

transformed because its occupants necessarily

when all the cabins have been constructed. At

BEYOND THE MOMENT OF EMERGENCY AND

appropriate it in order to be able to live in

the same time, in a few months or anything up

IS ESTABLISHED FOR A LONGER DURATION ‒ IS

it. Conceived originally with no other project

to a year, there is a gradual improvement of dirt

THAT OF THEIR TRANSFORMATION INTO SPACES

than that of simple survival, or the provisional

roads, systems of water supply, latrines, septic

OF IDENTIFICATION, RELATIONSHIPS AND EVEN

stationing

tanks, as well as some public buildings.

of

a

displaced

and

controlled

MEMORY FOR THOSE WOMEN AND MEN WHO LIVE THERE FOR YEARS AND DECADES, OR WHO HAVE BEEN BORN AND MARRY THERE, HAVE BURIED THEIR DEAD THERE.

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CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


IDP CAMPS Related to refugee camps, IDP camps are

The main characteristic of the displaced persons

similarly regulated. The main difference here is

camp at Salala is that it concentrates nearly

the location of the camp within the boundaries

4,000 potential workers between thirteen and

of the country of origin, placing the displaced

forty years old, readily available, defenceless and

people in inherently more dangerous situations

subject to the patriarchal power of the head of

do to the proximity of regional conflict. The

the camp, who sells their labour-power to the

UNHCR is required to give less aid to these

highest bidder.

camps, and as such they have seen their numbers grow drastically in recent years. As Michel Agier

Finally, camps for accommodating internally

writes:

displaced

The image of the mousetrap is an apt

one to describe these camps.

persons

represent

today

the

most precarious and uncertain forms of the encampment , and everything indicated that

It is the NGOs, in fact, both local and international,

this solution is set to expand, as one of the likely

that remain the real managers of the displaced

effects of the promotion of internal asylum

persons camps. At the end of the day, care is

and the externalization of the management of

minimal: a food ration that does not cover the

migratory flows. The regular announcements in

TO BRING THIS INVENTORY TO AN END, WE

needs of families is distributed monthly by the

recent years of a steady increase in the number

MUST MENTION THE CAMPS FOR INTERNALLY

World Food Programme.

of internally displaced people in the world

DISPLACED

(now between 25 and 30 million) prefigure the

RESEMBLE

invention of new spaces.

CAMPS, THE CONSTANT FLUCTUATIONS AND

IDP CAMPS //

PERSONS . TO

A

THOUGH

DEGREE

THE

THESE REFUGEE

CONTROVERSIES, AT BOTH WORLD AND LOCAL LEVELS, AROUND THE ORGANISM CHARGED WITH CREATING AND MANAGING THEM, MAKES THEIR SITUATION PARTICULARLY FRAGILE FOR THEIR OCCUPANTS.

CURRENT CAMP STRATEGIES //

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GREY ZONES Upon

the

initial

onset

of

any

conflict,

These refuges are border spaces, or more

displacement takes place on a localized level.

precisely spaces between borders.

They are

Victims of violence or natural disaster are forced

extreme cases of out-places , the most distant,

to flee from the former safety of their homes and

the least visible and the least integrated.

find shelter wherever they can. Writes Agier: In effect, this first set of spaces can be identified

In the face of situations of extreme relegation, a

by the fact that they are composed of refuges

crisis or an emergency, provisional communities

in the primary sense of the term ‒ places where

are formed in the context of flight, illegal

people have found refuge.

They are hiding-

existence or disaster, whenever the individuals

places or provisional shelters in the forest or in

who come together in such a situation share a

town (squats), sites of rest or waiting between

minimum in the way of moral and political rules.

two border posts, where people stop for a while,

GREY ZONES //

always ready to leave. They are characteristically

We can at least note that, if the groups formed

extremely precarious as well as informal, invisible

in the emergency situation share from the start

or even illegal.

some common values or languages, they are

[GREY ZONES ARE] PLACES WHERE PEOPLE HAVE

not based on a recognition of identity but far

FOUND REFUGE. THEY ARE HIDING-PLACES OR

There is no food distribution, so that refugees

more on the situation, space and event that are

PROVISIONAL SHELTERS IN THE FOREST OR IN

are forced to rely on the local villagers, a practice

shared. The survival communities may all be

TOWN (SQUATS), SITES OF REST OR WAITING

that the UNHCR adduces to justify not taking

different, but the tend towards the formation of

BETWEEN TWO BORDER POSTS, WHERE PEOPLE

responsibility for these people.

communities without identity.

STOP FOR A WHILE, ALWAYS READY TO LEAVE. THEY ARE CHARACTERISTICALLY EXTREMELY PRECARIOUS AS WELL AS INFORMAL, INVISIBLE OR EVEN ILLEGAL.

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CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


WAITING ZONES Once a displaced person reaches a camp setting,

In Africa, transit centres are situated at the

they are not immediately part of the camp.

entrance to all UNHCR sites, in order to receive,

Instead, they are required to stay in holding

register and verify the physical state of the

zones, waiting to the chance to enter the

refugees who have just arrived and to channel

camp. Writes Agier:

them appropriately.

Transit centres, waiting

zones, holding and detention centres ‒ all these spaces occupy the same functional position in

In every case these are tents, huts made out of

the edifice of the camps today, a function that

boards and plastic sheet, or hangars. They are

can be generally designated as that of sorting

better equipped and maintained than the tents

centre . As a distinct from self-organized refuges,

of the cross-border points which we discussed

these are under the direct control of national

above.

administrations, police institutions, UN agencies and/or humanitarian NGOs.

It is true that this waiting is characteristic of all forms of camp where people on the move stop

WAITING ZONES //

Whatever the continent on which they are found,

and often end up living. But it is probably in these

these transit spaces are generally associated with

transit and sorting situations that the waiting

THESE SPACES OCCUPY THE SAME FUNCTIONAL

practices of selection, expulsion or admission,

is least supportable, since no infrastructure is

POSITION IN THE EDIFICE OF THE CAMPS

and with contexts of flow management that

provided to kill the time, the possibilities of

TODAY, A FUNCTION THAT CAN BE GENERALLY

imply for those in movement a more or less

going out are zero or limited, and finally the

DESIGNATED AS THAT OF SORTING CENTRE .

prolonged moment of immobility, waiting and

outcome and its explanatory logic remain very

AS

multiple constraints.

largely incomprehensible to the detainees.

REFUGES, THESE ARE UNDER THE DIRECT

A

DISTINCT

FROM

SELF-ORGANIZED

CONTROL OF NATIONAL ADMINISTRATIONS, POLICE INSTITUTIONS, UN AGENCIES AND/OR HUMANITARIAN NGOS.

CURRENT CAMP STRATEGIES //

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INTEGRATION INTO CITY New to the UNHCR s strategic priorities in 2011

The promotion of livelihoods and self-reliance is

is the implementation of refugees into existing

also of high concern to the UNHCR. This goes

urban settings. This process is to be based off

hand in hand with ensuring access to healthcare,

of a pilot program which existed in Nairobi,

education, and other necessary services, all

Kenya in 2010, and will become the priority for

of which is done to a higher efficiency within

all operations.

existing communities.

The protections strategies used by the UNHCR

The constraints of this new initiative primarily

will be comprehensive, and will include the

involve the interface with the government

provision of reception facilities, which will

of the host country as a whole.

undertake

data,

government of Kenya in 2010 s pilot program

documented

only provided limited access to basic services

properly. These facilities will also be responsible

and employment opportunities, and vastly

INTEGRATION INTO CITY //

for determining the appropriate refugee status,

restricted the movement of refugees within the

as well as providing community outreach related

city. Other limitations included a smaller UNHCR

TO ENSURE THAT CITIES ARE RECOGNIZED AS

to employment opportunities and general

staff than needed to handle new arrivals, causing

awareness.

prolonged waiting periods for registrations.

ensuring

LEGITIMATE PLACES FOR REFUGEES TO RESIDE

registrations that

refugees

and are

collect

AND EXERCISE THE RIGHTS TO WHICH THEY ARE

The host

The lack of sufficient funding was also an issue,

ENTITLED; AND TO MAXIMIZE THE PROTECTION

The UNHCR will also be working to foster

delaying the development and initiation of

SPACE AVAILABLE TO URBAN REFUGEES AND

constructing relationships with urban refugees,

programs to address the above gaps.

THE HUMANITARIAN ORGANIZATIONS THAT

as this relationship will be vital to maintaining

SUPPORT THEM.

their security.

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CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


UNHCR STRATEGIC PRIORITIES, 2011 // Meeting protection and assistance needs of people of concern // meeting core protection and

// Promoting durable solutions // crisis resolution resulting in either voluntary return or local integration

assistance needs // implementation of systems to reduce violence and increase aid // addressing the entrenched needs of people, ie:

// FulďŹ lling the statelessness mandate // enhancing the protection of stateless people while working to prevent stateless situations

// water // sanitation and hygiene // nutrition and health (including HIV and AIDS) // higher standards in the provision of fuel // providing sanitary materials for women and girls // planning to accommodate diversity

// Enhancing operational response // emphasis placed on reinforcing emergency preparedness and response capacities // purchase and strategic pre-positioning of non-food items // speciďŹ c monitoring of situations in Somalia and Sudan

considerations // Implementing new policy for refugees in // Building and strengthening partnerships // host governments, communities, and NGO s // Improving management performance and acountability

CURRENT CAMP STRATEGIES //

urban settings // based upon pilot project in Nairobi in 2010 // urban refugee policy becomes priority for all operations.

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CAMP METHODOLOGY AT DADAAB, KENYA Since the early 1990 s, the city of Dadaab, Kenya

SOUTH SUDAN

has played host to an ever growing number of

ETH

refugees, the vast majority eeing from civil war

IOPI

A

in Somalia, including members of both warring ethnic groups, the Somalis and other minority groups such as the Bantu. The town of Dadaab itself is located along the eastern portion of Kenya, close the Somali border. The town is

UG

AN

DA

SOMALIA

KENYA

eldoret

nakuru

home to less than 10,000 people. When looked at from an international perspective, however, this small Kenyan town, comprised primarily of nomadic goat and camel herders, takes on an entirely dierent aura. This is due to the presence

dadaab

of three of the most overcrowded camps in all the world: Ifo, Dagahaley, and Hagadera. Each of

olenguruone

these camps were initially designed to house no

makuyu

more than 20,000 people. However, when taken

nairobi

together, the population within these camps is currently over 465,000 people. This makes the

TA N

ZA N

city of Dadaab essentially the fourth largest city

IA

in all of Kenya.

mombasa

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CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


CAMP METHODOLOGY AT DADAAB, KENYA Ifo was the first camp constructed, and was done

in search of water and firewood, which become

so largely ad hoc by the refugees settling there.

increasingly scarce the longer the camps are

After years of substandard living conditions,

present. This is a role that has culturally been left

the UNHCR hired German architect Werner

to women and children, and as such leaves them

Shellenberg to make improvements, as well as

vulnerable to violence.

DA RE GAH CA FUG AL MP EE EY

to design a secondary camp called Dagahaley. Hagadera was the third camp to be added,

The camps are also dramatically affected by

and as you can see by the graphic to the right,

natural climactic events.

is the most reflective of the UNHCR guidelines

10,000 refugees had to be relocated from the Ifo

for camp building. In 2007, a new camp called

camp due to severe floods that destroyed over

Ifo II was commissioned, but the opening was

2,000 homes. The floods also cut off the access

delayed until 2011 due to problems with the

roads from Dadaab to the camps, leaving them

Kenyan Government.

without essential supplies.

The population of these camps is in constant flux

In 2011, the officially recognized East Africa

due to the incredible instability within Somalia,

drought added a significant population to

which has been in a state of civil war since 1991.

the already overcrowded camps, at one point

The Somali Government is almost nonexistent,

adding over 1,000 people per day. This surge is

and has essentially no control over the majority

expected to be temporary, but the bulk of the

of the country. The lack of proper aid forces

displaced population will remain in this state of

residents out of the relative safety of the camps

flux for the foreseeable future.

In 2006, more than IFO REFUGEE CAMP

E : S ANC TODIST

F CITY O B A DADA

YA EN M , KE: 101 K A S IS ANC

R

A :G

TO

CURRENT CAMP STRATEGIES //

IA M AL95 K M O :

T

DIS

H FU AGA GE D E C ERA AM P

RE

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PARASITIC LAND USE The following text is an excerpt from Professor

camps are huge tent cities with either tents for

Another complication is cooking.

John D. Liu s paper, entitled

individual families or larger tents for multiple

people are given small amounts of food that are

families.

distributed to families (when the family units are

Thoughts on

Designing Refugee Camps , dated January 2009 from George Mason University s Center for Climate and Society (page 2):

Often the

intact). Then each family returns to their tent The ban on permanent facilities practically can

to cook the food and feed the family. In order

mean that hundreds of millions of people live

to cook, each family needs a fire.

Contemplating how to help has made me

without sanitation facilities, usually having only

people fan out into the surrounding areas and

analyze what are the main problems with the

trench latrines. Given the transmission route for

cut trees or brush denuding large areas of trees

camps. First it is important to know that the

many serious diseases is feces to mouth, it is not

and vegetation. This in turn leads to increased

host governments are acting from necessity.

surprising to note the incidence of diarrhea and

danger of floods and mud slides. And when all

They do not actually wish to have the camps,

even cholera are found in the camps and that

the families are cooking can lead to air pollution

they are reacting to events and are forced to

mortality rates are often higher than in normal

problems with so many fires concentrated in one

accept them or watch the people die. Often,

conditions.

are. (Liu, 2).

Often the

host governments are urged by international institutions seeking to address the plight of the

The people walking through the camps trample

refugees, and generally, when sufficient donors

the soil, without vegetation the compacted soil

This strategy, imposed by the governmental fear

can be found to pay the costs, then the host

doesn t infiltrate rainfall. When it rains the camps

of housing refugees for longer than is necessary

governments will agree to house the camps.

can become muddy quagmires.

to ensure their safety, leads to a parasitic land use, where the displaced population is forced to

The hosts want the refugees to return to their

The lack of sanitation facilities also complicates

destroy their host environment because of a lack

homes as soon as it is possible.

Usually the

the delivery of clean water. If the water is coming

of alternatives available to them. This strategy

hosts insist that no permanent facilities be

from streams or wells it is often contaminated

can and must change to facilitate a stronger long

built that would lead to permanent settlement

and if the water is trucked in it is difficult to keep

term site strategy.

of the refugees. This generally means that the

the transmission equipment clean.

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CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


PARASITIC LAND USE

PRE-CAMP SITE CONDITION //

POOR LATRINE CONSTRUCTION INFECTS WATER

NATURAL VEGETATION TRAMPLED TO DIRT

EXISTING TREES CUT DOWN FOR FIREWOOD

DANGER FOR FLOODS AND MUDSLIDES

POST-SITE CONDITION //

CURRENT CAMP STRATEGIES //

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CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


PRECEDENT ANALYSIS

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UNHCR EMERGENCY TENTS

030 //

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


UNHCR EMERGENCY TENTS As Architecture for Humanity writes, Designers

redesign of the traditionally used canvas tents,

have tried to rethink this basic tent for decades.

and offer a significant improvement as they are

Everything from prefabricated structures to

cheaper, lighter, and more durable. The new

shipping containers to polyurethane yurts has

tent design also offers an option for privacy by

been suggested or attempted. But as the (UNHCR)

way of a fabric partition, something the previous

politely points out in its guide to emergency

design lacked. This is thought to reduce the

materials, to date none of these systems has

prevalence of physical violence against women

proven effective in refugee situations.

Most

and children, and also allows for tents to be used

fail simply because other emergency shelter

for other functions, such as medical or retail, in

arrangements will have been made before these

the future.

LOCATION: durban, south africa dubai, united arab emerates copenhagen, denmark

systems even arrive. Some tent alternatives are perceived as too permanent, making them

In terms of design, the primary consideration

difficult to site in host communities and creating

was a combination of both size and weight, as

less incentive for a refugee to return home.

the shipping of materials to locations is often as

Others are difficult or costly to replicate. (Design

costly, if not more, than the pure manufacturing

Like you Give a Damn, 60)

alone.

Designed by Ghassem Fardanesh in 2002, the

COST: $100 OCCUPANCY: 4-5 people WEIGHT:

UNHCR lightweight emergency tents have

91 lbs.

become almost synonymous with the initial arrival of aid to a region. These tents were a

AREA: 178 sq ft. SHIPPING DIMENSIONS: 6.36 ft3

PRECEDENT ANALYSIS //

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Q-SHELTER

032 //

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


Q-SHELTER World Shelters, in association with Shelter

shipping considerations, and is not problematic

Systems, designed an emergency response tent

in the least as generic plastic sheeting is among

specifically aimed at the utilization of local and

the first things delivered by the UNHCR and

reused materials. The structure of the shelters

other aid agencies to disaster/crisis sites.

LOCATION: various

is based off of ideas from Buckminster Fuller (in partnership with the Buckminster Fuller

In order to make use of this generic plastic

Institute no less), and is able to be constructed

sheeting, the use of Grip Clips from Shelter

with a variety of materials. For the actual units

Systems is important. These low cost ($8-10) clips

which are sold, this materials is a flexible PVC

are able to attach any kind of plastic sheeting

piping, which is packaged in a way to optimize

(or honestly anything remotely fabric-like) onto

shipping in large quantities.

However, these

almost any sort of structure. More importantly, it

same structures are able to be constructed out

is able to do so without puncturing this sheeting,

of local materials, specifically bamboo.

meaning the sheets are reusable once the shelter is no longer needed.

COST: $365 OCCUPANCY: 6-8 people

The key to this design, however, is the fact that it uses generic plastic sheeting instead of a premade tent fabric. This drastically reduces cost and

WEIGHT: two packs at 60 lbs. each AREA: 269 sq ft. SHIPPING DIMENSIONS: two packs at 7.81 ft3 each

PRECEDENT ANALYSIS //

// 033


BOLD

034 //

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


BOLD BOLD, or Building Opportunities and Livelihoods

a greater sense of security as they do not have

in Darfur, is a housing initiative that manages to

to leave the camps to find work. These mats

improve the standard of living for the displaced

are then transported to the northern portion of

in Darfur, Sudan, while keeping the structures

Darfur where grass is scarce. In this way natural

temporary in nature to comply with government

resources in one area of a region are used to

restrictions.

improve the lives of a wide range of people in

The epitome of utilizing local

materials and labor, BOLD works by using

LOCATION: darfur province, sudan

that same region.

grass woven mats as the cladding on housing structures.

The shelters are not perfect, but as project coordinator Elin Grimes states, they are a step up.

In the southern portion of Darfur, grass is

Everyone would like to see these people living

plentiful.

The displaced in this location are

in better homes, but trying to balance what you

granted a source of income from the labor the

can do financially, what s immediately available,

provide in the weaving of these mats, which not

and what the government will allow you to do

only provides a higher standard of living, but also

doesn t give you a whole lot of flexibility.

COST: $90 OCCUPANCY: 4-5 people WEIGHT: unknown AREA: 67 sq ft. SHIPPING DIMENSIONS: unknown

PRECEDENT ANALYSIS //

// 035


CONCRETE CANVAS SHELTERS

036 //

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


CONCRETE CANVAS SHELTERS A recently developed, potentially paradigm

saturated with water, which bonds with the

shifting breakthrough in emergency structures

concrete particles embedded within the canvas.

was developed by Peter Brewin and William

The inflated air holds the shape while the

Crawford, ex-military personnel who are now

building cures, which takes approximately 24

advanced engineers. The breakthrough is new

hours. Once cured, simply open the doors which

material called concrete canvas , and among its

come pre-installed in the unit and you have a

many uses is the application as a building in a

functioning structure.

LOCATION: anywhere

bag . The material is, at its core, a composite fabric that is infused with dry cement particles.

Perhaps the most important aspect is that the

One simply needs to drape the canvas in its

inflatable inner lining is delivered to the site

desired final form and saturate it with water.

sterile and remains so after inflation, meaning

Once the concrete sets, the result is a thing layer

these structures can be used to house advanced

of concrete, which when administered correctly

medical procedures from day one. In addition,

can last for up to ten years.

the metal doors built in to the structure upon

COST: $28,516 // $35,193 OCCUPANCY: 7 // 15 people

delivery allow for supplies to be locked and The Concrete Canvas Shelter design is basically

secure during non-operational hours.

a the building that is delivered to the site pre-

concrete canvas material is actually ceramic as

packaged, where it is unwrapped and inflated

well, meaning that it will not burn.

like an air mattress.

Next, the building is

The

WEIGHT: 4,189 // 6,834 lbs. AREA: 301.76 // 603.52 sq ft. SHIPPING DIMENSIONS: 238.65 // 347.1 ft3

PRECEDENT ANALYSIS //

// 037


PAPER TUBE RE-USE

038 //

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


PAPER TUBE RE-USE A popular and well intentioned method of

paper tubes to replace the tent structures. 50

design in the construction of transitional shelters

were constructed from his prototype, but this

is the re-use of waste materials from other,

method was ultimately deemed too expensive

more wasteful nations. Paper tubes are a good

to continue.

LOCATION: japan, rwanda

example of this, especially by Japanese architect Shigeru Ban.

Almost immediately following his designs for the UNHCR, a massive earthquake devastated

During the Rwandan civil war in 1994, the

his home nation of Japan. Ban used paper tubes

UNHCR sent out their (at the time) standard

again to create transitional housing for the local

tents to the displaced. However, due to the

residents. However, like his designs for Rwanda,

highly inated value of aluminum (the material

this method was too costly to use globally.

COST:

of the tent s supports) in the local economy,

$2,000

most people simply sold the metal and cut

Likely the most successful use of paper tubes,

down trees to replace the tent structure,

Ban s Paper Church lasted for ten years before it

resulting in the exaggeration of an already

was disassembled in order to build a permanent

troubling deforestation trend in the area. Ban

church.

approached the UNHCR with the idea of re-using

OCCUPANCY: various WEIGHT: various AREA: various SHIPPING DIMENSIONS: various

PRECEDENT ANALYSIS //

// 039


CORE HOUSING

040 //

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


CORE HOUSING Just as the core within a superstructure, core

Pictured to the left are images of core housing

housing consists of basic housing needs, one

constructed in Azerbaijan by Relief International.

to two rooms which may or may not include

These units, constructed over a six year period

plumbing.

Writes Architecture for Humanity,

using local laborers, are a single room, with an

Because roofs and foundations tend to be the

additional porch. This porch is able to be closed

most difficult and expensive components of

off into a second room if so desired. The units

a house, many NGOs have adopted a strategy

total over 2,100.

of building

core housing

LOCATION: chechnya, azerbaijan

as a staple of

reconstruction and development work.

They

Relief International has used this design method

add that core housing helps not only to rebuild

in several other locations, including Chechnya

communities but also to promote self-reliance

and Kosovo. These would typically consist of a

and strengthen the link between reconstruction

single room (which could be divided into two),

and job creation. (Design Like You Give a Damn,

complete with foundation, roof, and at least

122)

one flexible exterior wall for possible future

COST: $2,100 // $3,500-5,000 OCCUPANCY: one family

expansion.

WEIGHT: various AREA: 178 sq ft. SHIPPING DIMENSIONS: various

PRECEDENT ANALYSIS //

// 041


SAFE(R) HOUSE

+30%

4 people - 50 m 2

kitchen-storage

042 //

6 people - 50 + 25=75 m 2

kitchen

storage-toilet 1

storage-toilet 2

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


SAFE(R) HOUSE As a response to the 2005 tsunami in Sri Lanka, graduate students at Harvard and MIT

LOCATION: sri lanka

designed the Safe(R) House under the guise of low tech construction, high tech design. Using computer software, the designers mapped the deformations due the tsunami forces of the typical Sri Lankan house at the time, as well as two different orientations of their own design, showing a significantly reduced load.

Instead of a large, single, closed core, the house

COST:

is comprised of four C or S shaped cores, which

$1,500

actually provide more structural support than the typical model with very little added material.

OCCUPANCY: single family

In addition, this gives the facade a porous quality, which allows for better ventilation, and, in case of another tsunami, allows water to flow through

WEIGHT: various

rather than completely demolish the structure.

AREA: The entire system is highly flexible and modular,

400 sq ft.

allowing for variations based on orientation and family size depending on the user. The porous aspect of the facade also allows for upgradability

SHIPPING DIMENSIONS: various

and opportunities for personalization.

PRECEDENT ANALYSIS //

// 043


PRECEDENT STUDY CONCLUSIONS By covering a variety of shelter types, it is fairly clear what is effective and what is not. No design is perfect by any means, and none will be. It is simply a matter of weighing pro s and con s. For instance, despite having very similar shapes, the UNHCR Emergency Tents and the Q-Shelter have very different strategies for the use of materials. While the UNHCR Tents are designed for longer use than the Q-Shelters, they are handicapped by the lack of recyclablity of the plastic sheathing due the its specific nature of its design. On the

STRUCTURALLY efficient SPATIALLY inefficient

other hand, while the Q-Shelters make better use

STRUCTURALLY inefficient SPATIALLY efficient

of generic plastic sheeting due to the inherent

local materials and especially local labor has had

nature, which makes the saturation of buildings

flexibility, it lacks the specific functionality and

a positive impact on the occupants livelihoods.

impractical. In addition, these structures come

safety that the UNHCR Tents provide by way of

Not only does this strategy provide employment

with enormous weight and size constraints,

windows and mosquito netting.

opportunities so clearly lacked by occupants of

making it very difficult to transport by anything

these spaces, but by building the community and

smaller than a truck.

It is worth noting that designs featuring re-

structures themselves, a real sense of ownership

a sterile environment for medical procedures,

used materials from other countries have

and pride can start to be established.

Concrete Canvas Shelters are a viable option

typically been too expensive and too logistically

However, by providing

in many other relief scenarios because of the

challenging to have any sort of widespread

It is also important to note that big con s do not

speed of construction, longevity, durability, and

impact. Aid management specialists argue that

necessarily negate major pro s. For example, the

security it provides.

the cost of shipping materials to the affected

Concrete Canvas Shelters is challenging to use

region costs as much, if not more the actual cost

in many disaster scenarios due to the general

of the materials themselves. Instead, the use of

lack of water typically found at sites of this

044 //

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


SHIPPING METHOD ANALYSIS

ISO CONTAINERS //

UNIT LOAD DEVICE //

463L MASTER PALLET //

SHIPPING METHOD // Ground, Sea

SHIPPING METHOD // Air

SHIPPING METHOD // Air, Ltd Ground

APPROXIMATE DIMENSIONS //

APPROXIMATE DIMENSIONS //

APPROXIMATE DIMENSIONS //

8 wide x 8.5 high x either 20 or 40 long

64 high x 60 deep x 60 - 160 wide

84 wide x 104 long x 96 high

ADVANTAGES //

ADVANTAGES //

ADVANTAGES //

Secure, strong, durable, completely modular to

Streamlined shipping as multiple items are

Allows for airdrop in emergency cases to land

facilitate stacking. High internal volume.

included in larger units. Modular seizes increase

delivery in favorable cases. Standard for military

building potential

shipment, which means ease of transport from

DISADVANTAGES //

aid agencies.

Requires heavy machinery to load and unload,

DISADVANTAGES //

as well as site delivery.

Odd shape resulting from curvature of aircraft.

DISADVANTAGES //

Small size relative to other shipping methods,

Airdrops add potential for broken materials.

which makes shipping building materials diďŹƒcult

Ground transport requires large vehicles that

No air travel raises

transportation time and costs. require strong footing.

Heavy units

must be delivered.

PRECEDENT ANALYSIS //

// 045


046 //

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


SITE SELECTION

// 047


DISPLACEMENT IN AFRICA

GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT //

INFANT MORTALITY RATE //

LIFE EXPECTANCY //

Gross Domestic Product, commonly referred

Infant Mortality Rate is a statistic used to measure

Life Expectancy is exactly what it sounds like,

to as GDP, is a measure of the market value of

the quality of healthcare in a given region. It

the amount of time people are expected to live

all oďŹƒcially recognized goods and services

measures the number of infant (under one

in a given country. This again seems to roughly

produced within a country during a given

year of age) deaths for every 1,000 babies born

correspond to the GDP, and very clearly inversely

period. This is often used to measure a country s

alive. Generally speaking, poorer countries have

corresponds to the infant mortality rate of a

standard of living. Oil rich countries in the north

higher infant mortality rates, as is evidenced by

country. The longest life expectancies are belong

have high GDP s, as well as South Africa and

the graph above. The highest infant mortality

to the oil-rich countries in the north, while other

surrounding countries.

rates, however, are in AIDS ravaged countries

countries are ravaged by extended wars over the

like Angola.

years, hurting their overall life expectancy.

Port nations such as

Equatorial Guinea also have high GDP s.

048 //

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


DISPLACEMENT IN AFRICA POPULATION // The African continent is the second largest, and second most populous, continent on the face of the planet. The most populous country by far is Nigeria, with an estimated 170 million in 2012. Other highly populated countries include Ethiopia, Egypt, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, South Africa, Tanzania, Sudan, Kenya, Algeria, and Uganda.

Africa is made up of a large number of countries, many of which are sparsely populated, partially due to the challenging natural climate including the Sahara Desert across the northern third of the continent, as well as the Congo Rainforest. Tropical Rainforest comprises a band across the center of the continent, and mountainous regions are present to the east.

SITE SELECTION //

// 049


DISPLACEMENT IN AFRICA

NUMBER OF REFUGEES //

NUMBER OF IDPS //

NUMBER IN WAITING //

The highest concentration of refugees is in the

In Africa, Internally Displaced Peoples (IDP s) are

The number of displaced people held in a state of

countries immediately adjacent to war zones.

primarily confined to three major countries: The

waiting seems to reflect one of two things. Either

In Africa, the country with the highest number

Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sudan, and

the country is a highly desired end location for

of refugees is Kenya, which is an unsurprising

Somalia. Other nations housing IDPs include the

a large number of the displaced, or the country

finding considering the conditions in Dadaab,

Ivory Coast, the Central African Republic, Chad,

itself is highly unstable and requires a period of

which were mentioned earlier.

Chad is also

and Kenya. It is important to note that these

waiting just to exit to any other country. South

home to a large number of refugees. However,

graphs are from 2010 data, and do not reflect

Africa clearly falls into the first category due to

while there is a clear trend towards neighboring

the new nation of South Sudan, which should

its wealth, while Somalia reflects the second

countries, it is worth noting that more remote

sharply reduce the amount of IDPs in Sudan.

category.

but wealthier nations like South Africa have a noticeably larger refugee population than those surrounding it.

050 //

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


DISPLACEMENT IN AFRICA TOTAL DISPLACEMENT // As is reflected very clearly to the right, the total displacement in Africa is influenced the most heavily by the presence of IDP s.

The

highest number of displaced people live in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, formerly known as Zaire, currently abbreviated as DRC. The Sudan and Somalia also show significant spikes in displacement.

Refugees certainly play into this as well, but to a significantly lesser degree. Note the relatively small spikes in both Kenya and Chad, countries that house massive refugee populations. The number of those in waiting also has a fairly minimal affect on the total displacement as well, as South Africa has a fairly small spike is displaced populations.

SITE SELECTION //

// 051


DISPLACEMENT IN AFRICA

DISPLACEMENT PERCENTAGE //

DISPLACEMENT DENSITY //

COUNTRY OF ORIGIN //

This graph shows the percentage of displacement

The density of displacement measures the total

The country of origin is the country that

within a given country. It takes the total amount

amount of displaced people against the total

displaced people originate from. This graph is

of displaced people and divides that figure by

land area of a given country. As a country with

almost identical to the IDP graph, which makes

the total population of a given country. The

a low geographical footprint, Burundi has the

sense because by definition IDP s stay within

highest percentage of displacement occurs in

largest spike in displacement density. There is

their country of origin. Interestingly, if IDP s are

Somalia, which has a relatively low population

a significant drop off to get to larger countries

subtracted from the equation, the graph shows

to correspond to its very high rate of internal

such as Somalia and Kenya, and even the Ivory

the same significant spike in the Democratic

displacement. The other two contires with high

Coast, Uganda, the Democratic Republic of the

Republic of the Congo, Sudan, and Somalia.

IDP concentrations, DRC and Sudan, have such

Congo, and Sudan.

This confirms that these three countries are

large areas that their percentage of displacement

responsible for the vast majority of displaced

is much lower

people within the African continent.

052 //

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO As has just been covered, there are three major countries that produce the highest amount of

CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC

displaced people within Africa: The Democratic

SOUTH UT SUDAN

Republic of the Congo, Sudan, and Somalia. Among these, the largest number of displaced

Gb Gb Gba badol adolit olite o l te

CAMEROON

people is the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and is therefore the best potential site, as it provides the most plausible setting for a

EQUA EQUATOR

EQUATOR OR

CONGO REPUBLIC

settlement of displaced peoples. In addition, the situation is Somalia is likely to remain unstable

GABON

Kisanga K Kis isa sa angani ng gani a an ni Mb Mba Mbandaka M band daka da aka ka

Nb N b

DE DEMOCRATIC D DEM EM EMO MOC M OCR OCR OC CRATI CRA CRA RAT AT TIC TIC IC REPUBLIC R REPU REP RE EPUBL EP EPUB UBL BLIC B BLI L LIIC LIC C OF T OF THE TH HE CONGO HE CO CO ON NGO GO

for a much longer time as the government has basically no influence within the country, and the conflict in Sudan has hopefully been tempered with the creation of the new nation of South Sudan.

UGANDA

Bumba B um u mba mb

Sn Sn Goma Gom G o om oma ma m a

RWANDA N

Mban M Mb bandaka ndaka d

BURUNDI UND N

Ileb Ilebo Ile lebo leb eb bo

Kins nsssh sha hasa ha ha has asa sa a Kikwit wit itt Matad Matadi

Kanan Kanan Kan na ang ng ng ga a Tshikap T Tshik shikkap kkapa apa pa

TANZANIA

Kalemie Kale ale emie e

Mouji-M Mouji-Mayi

Sn S n

The second largest country in terms of land Cu C u

area, the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Sn

(DRC) is a former colony of Belgium that gained its independence in 1960. Since then, the DRC

Likasi Lik ik Cu u LLika Cu

has undergone several name changes, the most

C Cu bum mbashi m

ANGOLA

notable being Zaire. DRC is the fourth most

MALAWI A

populous country in all of Africa. ZAMBIA N

SITE SELECTION //

// 053


DRC CONFLICT ANALYSIS CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC

SOUTH UT SUDAN

CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC

*

CAMEROON

CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC

SOUTH UT SUDAN

CAMEROON

SOUTH UT SUDAN

CAMEROON

UGANDA

UGANDA

EQUATO OR O

EQUATOR OR

EQUATOR OR

CONGO REPUBLIC

CONGO REPUBLIC

Mb daka Mbandaka da

DEMOCRATIC D EM MOC REPUBLIC REPU BLIC

RWANDA N BURUNDI UND UN N

TANZANIA

TANZANIA

ANGOLA

TANZANIA

ANGOLA

ANGOLA MALAWI A

ZAMBIA N

ZAMBIA N

ZAMBIA N

WAR ZONES IN 2003 //

CURRENT CONFLICT ZONES //

NATURAL RESOURCE MAPPING //

DRC was the primary conflict zone of the Second

Kabila ended his ties with Rwanda and Uganda

DRC is rich in natural resources, which has

Congo War, often referred to as the African World

and ordered them out of the country, resulting

likely played a part in its violent history. The

War, and the deadliest conflict since World War II,

in the outbreak of war across the country.

world s biggest producer of cobalt, DRC also

costing the lives of 5.4 million people. The war

Following a split of the Rwanda/Uganda alliance,

has significant production of copper, diamonds,

officially lasted from 1998 to 2003 and involved

an official cease-fire agreement was reached in

coltan, tin, gold, and silver.

nine countries. The war started as a result of

2003 to end the war. Despite this, conflict persists

deposits are located in the eastern part of the

the Rwandan genocide in 1994. The Rwandan

today, claiming an estimated 1,000 lives per day.

country, directly correlating to the escalation of

army, with the support of Uganda and Angola,

The heaviest fighting remains in the Kivu region

violence in that region.

marched across the countryside to the capitol

neighboring Rwanda, but is still prevalent along

city of Kinshasa in order to install Laurent-Desire

the entire eastern border of the country.

Kabila is President.

054 //

These resource

Only three months later, CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


DRC ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC

CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC

SOUTH UT SUDAN

CAMEROON

CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC

SOUTH UT SUDAN

CAMEROON

SOUTH UT SUDAN N

CAMEROON

UGANDA

UGA U ANDA A

EQUATOR OR

EQUATOR OR

EQUATOR OR

CONGO REPUBLIC

Mb daka Mbandaka da

DEMOCRATIC D EM MOC AT ATIC IC REPUB UBLIC BLIC B

RWANDA N BURUNDI UN ND

TANZANIA

TANZANIA

ANGOLA

TANZANIA A

ANGOLA

ANGOLA MALAWI A

ZAMBIA N

ZAMBIA N

ZAMBIA MBIA M A N

RAINFOREST //

ANNUAL RAINFALL //

EARTHQUAKE POTENTIAL //

The Democratic Republic of the Congo straddles

The annual rainfall in the DRC can total over 80

This river system begins in the Albertine Rift

the equator, and thus has a tropical climate. It

inches at certain places in the country. This high

Mountains, located along the eastern and

is also home to the Congo River system, the

degree of precipitation creates a vast network of

southeast portions of the DRC. These mountains

deepest river in the world, and which carries the

rivers, spanning completely across the country.

are home to volcanic activity, including Mount

third largest volume of water of in river in the

All of which feed into the Congo River, which,

Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira, both of which

world. This river feeds a tropical rainforest that

in the eastern part of the country, flows to the

erupted in 2002, Nyamulagira again in 2006 and

covers almost two-thirds of the countryside. This

north towards the equator, then makes a turn

2010. This volcanic activity sets the stage for

rainforest is the second largest in the world after

to the west and finally southward to the Atlantic

potential seismic activity in this region.

the Amazon in Brazil.

Ocean.

SITE SELECTION //

// 055


KONGOLO, DRC KONGOLO, DRC // The city of Kongolo was chosen to play host to the hypothetical displaced population. This is due to its presence within the zone of ongoing conict while being outside the tropical rainforest. The city has access to the Congo River, which is widely used for the transportation of goods and people in the DRC, as well as railway access and an existing airstrip. Bridges are relatively rare in the DRC, not only due to the widespread poverty in more remote areas, but also because of the substantial width of the Congo River. Kongolo, however, is located just south of a dual road and rail bridge.

Kongolo also is home to a population of 62,455 people, which is the appropriate size for this scenario. It is neither too big so as to dwarf the incoming displaced population, or too small where it could be overtaken (as in Dadaab, Kenya). These features make it an ideal host community.

056 //

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


KONGOLO, DRC SIZE COMPARISONS // Kongolo is shown here next the Lincoln, Nebraska. This not only gives a sense of scale to the existing city of Kongolo, but also to the massive width of the Congo River.

The density of Kongolo

is 673 square feet per person, while Lincoln is more sprawling. These densities are important to note when designing the community for displaced people, as it is important to keep these two entities from competing with each other. Keeping the density of spaces similar is an important strategy.

CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC

SOUTH UT SUDAN

KONGOLO, DRC //

CAMEROON UGANDA EQUATOR OR

population // 62,455 area // 15.08 sq miles density // 673.03 sq ft per person

LINCOLN, NE //

TANZANIA

population // 258,379 area // 75.4 sq miles Mn M n

density // 813.42 sq ft per person

ANGOLA

ZAMBIA N

SITE SELECTION //

// 057


KONGOLO CLIMATE ANALYSIS 90°

SOLAR ANGLE STUDIES // Because of its proximity to the equator, the city

80°

South Elevation

the north and the south depending on the time r 20

of year. This location on the globe produces

Ap

1

12 PM y2

shadows that are typically short, as the sun tends

11 AM

1 PM

Ju

n2

Ma

1

Jan

c2

De

60°

1

21

Feb

20

70°

Mar 20

of Kongolo receives sunlight directly from both

50°

to remain high in the sky for a longer period of 10 AM

2 PM

time. The longer shadows are either early or late in the day, and run along a primarily east-west

40°

axis. Proper building orientation can help to

9 AM

3 PM

stem the effects of these sun angles. 30° 4 PM

8 AM

20°

7 AM

5 PM

10°

6 AM

6 PM

-180°

-150°

-120°

-90°

-60°

-30°

30°

60°

90°

120°

150°

180°

West <-- Solar Azmuth --> East

SUMMER SOLSTICE //

058 //

WINTER SOLSTICE // CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


KONGOLO CLIMATE ANALYSIS SUNLIGHT HOURS //

TEMPERATURE // 10

90

9

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

RAINFALL (INCHES) KONGOLO AND SEATTLE

100

9

TEMPERATURE (F) AND RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%)

10

8

HOURS OF SUNLIGHT PER DAY

RAINFALL //

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10

FEB

MAR

APR

MAY

JUN

JUL

AUG

SEP

OCT

NOV

DEC

MONTHS

7 6 5 4 3 2 1

0 JAN

8

0 JAN

FEB

MAR

APR

MAY

JUN

JUL

AUG

SEP

OCT

NOV

DEC

JAN

MONTHS

FEB

MAR

APR

MAY

JUN

JUL

AUG

SEP

OCT

NOV

DEC

MONTHS

Being located close to the Equator, the city of

The temperature in the DRC also remains fairly

Due to its location just outside the tropical

Kongolo receives a relatively even distribution

consistent. The average high temperature hovers

rainforest in the Congo River Basin, the city of

of sunlight hours per day across the year. The

around 85 degrees for most of the year, while

Kongolo has drastic shifts in rainfall. There is

noticeable trends include a dip in December/

the low stays near 70. With the city of Kongolo

a very pronounced wet season, running from

January, and another in July, corresponding to

being located in the southern hemisphere, the

October through April, and an even more

the height of both the wet and dry seasons.

traditional winter sensibility is reversed from

pronounced dry season, running from May to

northern hemisphere thinking, with the cooler

August. To get a sense of the scope of these

months falling in June, July, and August, rather

rainfall totals, compare Kongolo with the city of

than December, January, and February.

Seattle, generally accepted by Americans to be an example of a very rainy season. The peaks in rainfall for Kongolo almost double those in Seattle.

SITE SELECTION //

// 059


DRC ECONOMIC ANALYSIS

% 28.0

%

47.7

% 6 . 4 2 2.6% 4.6% 5.0% 5.3% 7.1%

ral go

ce, re

whole

al est

sale a

nd re

r serv

vernm

ate a

tail tr

ade,

ices

ent s

nd b

es

usine

ss se

hote

ls and

0.7%

ervic

rvice

3.3%

resta

s

4.5%

uran

ts 1 9.5%

economy that has consistently declined since the 1980 s, despite the abundance of natural resources.

This is a direct effect of the First

and Second Congo Wars, which have stunted industrial growth. The value of these natural resources is estimated to be upwards of $24 trillion US.

47.4%

ricity , gas

trans

port,

man

and w

ater

stora

ge an

ufact truct

The largest section of DRC s economy is the

e, for

estry , fishi

agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting sector,

d hu

nting

mun

icatio

which accounts for nearly 50% of the countries

jobs represent about a quarter of the jobs, with

n

ECONOMIC BREAKDOWN //

ion

minin

ultur

workforce. Manufacturing and other Industrial

d com

uring

cons

agric

ng an

elect

g and

060 //

gene

finan

The Democratic Republic of the Congo has an

othe

the rest made up of retail and other service related jobs.

quar

rying

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


DRC DEMOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS DRC is home to roughly 250 diďŹ&#x20AC;erent ethnic

POPULATION PYRAMID - DRC (2025 PROJECTED) //

groups who speak over 700 diďŹ&#x20AC;erent languages, although the dominant language throughout the 80-84 75-79 70-74 65-69 60-64 55-59 50-54 45-49 40-44 35-39 30-34 25-29 20-24 15-19 10-14 5-9 0-4

country is French. Overly 80% of the population belongs to a branch of the Bantu peoples, with the other 20% made up of Ubangian and Nilotic peoples.

Pygmy peoples also live within the

tropical rainforest.

DRC is almost exclusively a Christian country. 44% of the country practices the Roman Catholic faith, while a quarter are Protestant and another MALE

24% are some other form of Christianity. Less

8

6

4

2

FEMALE

0

(millions)

0

2

4

6

8

than 2% practice the Muslim faith, with roughly 5% claiming no religion.

As with many developing nations in Africa, the spread of HIV/AIDS is of very high concern. DRC

The population dispersal is typical for a developing nation, and follows the classic pyramid shape as a high death rate (11 deaths per 1,000 people per day) thins out the elderly population. As such, the median age for the country is a young 17 years. The average life

has an estimate HIV prevalence rate of 4.2%, killing almost 100,000 people every year. The risk of infectious diseases is very high here due to the underdeveloped conditions, including hepatitis A, typhoid fever, malaria, plague, and African sleeping sickness.

expectancy is only 55.3 years (53.9 for men, 56.8 for women).

SITE SELECTION //

// 061


062 //

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


DESIGN EXPLORATIONS EVOLVING STRUCTURES PHASED COMMUNITY DEPLOYMENT SEMESTER PRESENTATION COLLAPSIBLE STRUCTURES NODAL COMMUNITY DEPLOYMENT

// 063


064 //

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


EVOLVING STRUCTURES

// 065


EVOLVING MATERIAL STRATEGY

INITIAL DEPLOYMENT //

NATURAL DETERIORATION //

DESIGN INTERVENTION //

The current strategy for refugee/IDP camp

architects, creating systems to house displaced

down and reassembled to form a temporary roof

housing involves a basic tent structure that is

persons on a more long term basis. However,

that is able to fit on structural walls that have been

provided by the UNHCR. This tent is designed

this system is fundamentally flawed as it requires

assembled on site while the tent was initially

in a way that it can only ever function as a tent.

the failure of the initial system in order to bring

being used? A more permanent roof can later be

The initial deployment of this structure provides

about meaningful design.

added, with the tent pieces again being recycled

good results, but with the natural deterioration

into a water collection agent. In this manner, the

that accompanies these structures into the

Instead, we must design a more streamlines

piece that is designed provides a greater degree

difficult climatic settings they are deployed in,

approach to refugee housing, where the

of flexibility in order to provide adequate shelter

they quickly become unfit to live in. Oddly, this is

evolution of the structure is built into its

during each phase of deployment.

the point where the most design work is done by

architectural DNA. What if a tent can be broken

066 //

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


BREA

TENT M A THROW TERIALS N AWA Y

KING

TENTS PATCHED WITH LOCAL MATERIALS SUGGESTED TENT LIFESPAN

TENTS

POIN T

EVOLVING MATERIAL STRATEGY

N NEW STRUCTURE, BETTER DESIGNED

typical intervention space

NEW ROOF, DOORS, SOLAR SCREENS NEW ROOF, DOORS, SOLAR SCREENS

TENT

STRUCTURAL WALLS

NEW ROOF, DOORS, SOLAR SCREENS

STRUCTURAL WALLS

STRUCTURAL WALLS

STRUCTURAL WALLS

TEMPORARY ROOF

WATER COLLECTION & STORAGE

WATER COLLECTION & STORAGE RECYCLING

PHASE 1

EVOLVING STRUCTURES //

PHASE 2

PHASE 3

PHASE 3.5

PHASE 4

// 067


EVOLVING STRUCTURAL EXPLORATION d

b

b f a c

a

a

e

c

TENT ASSEMBLY // f

a

TENT EXPLOSION //

068 //

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


EVOLVING STRUCTURAL EXPLORATION

e

f

c

a

d f d

a

b

PHASE TWO EXPLOSION // EVOLVING STRUCTURES //

PHASE TWO ASSEMBLY // // 069


EVOLVING STRUCTURAL EXPLORATION

STRUCTURAL EFFICIENCY //

STRUCTURAL HYBRID //

STRUCTURAL STRENGTH //

EVOLVING STRUCTURE REFLECTIONS // The aforementioned material strategy is utilized here to create tents that have the ability to evolve into a temporary roof structure for a building to be constructed after the initial tent deployment. This strategy, however, is not overly successful as it provides the same low quality shelter in the initial phase as the current model. When the tent comes apart, the connection to the newly built walls lacks any sort of structural elegance. Mostly, the connector pieces for both phases of deployment would have to either be very complicated in order to facilitate the evolutionary process, or disposable, which wastes material and harms the host environment.

070 //

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


EVOLVING STRUCTURAL EXPLORATION

NATURAL VENTILATION //

EVOLVING STRUCTURES //

RAINFALL //

SOLAR SHADING //

// 071


EVOLVING MEDICAL PROTOTYPE

TWO UNITS ON PALLET //

SINGLE UNIT SET UP //

EXPANSION //

This medical prototype is built to facilitate the immediate delivery of a sterile environment. In its compact form, the unit is essentially two door units with a central console space designed to provide space for medical equipment and electrical hookups. This unit is then expanded, with a folding ďŹ&#x201A;oor and sterile plastic walls. A cladding material is the added to protect this membrane. When these units are arrayed, a connecting hallway can be added, and if the units stay on one side, permanent operating rooms can be built on the other side of the hallway, allowing the units to be removed and shipped to another site. In this way, these units become a tool for the creation of hospitals in developing countries.

072 //

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


EVOLVING MEDICAL PROTOTYPE

ADD CLADDING //

UNIT ARRAY //

UNIT TRANSITION //

EVOLVING MEDICAL REFLECTIONS // The main problem with this medical prototype is the inefficiency of shipping. Only two units are able to fit per pallet. Additionally, the sterile membrane is very exposed during the assembly and disassembly process, leaving it vulnerable to tearing, which makes the unit almost worthless for medical purposes. The method of cladding also provides only minimal protection against weather, animals, or vandalism.

EVOLVING STRUCTURES //

// 073


074 //

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


PHASED COMMUNITY DEPLOYMENT

// 075


PHASED PROGRAMMING phase 1

phase 2

phase 3

MEDICAL

sterile procedure rooms

sterile procedure rooms

In keeping with the idea of an evolving structural supply storage

design for the individual buildings, the planning

observation spaces

observation spaces

waiting and administration spaces

waiting and administration spaces

of the community must also be done in phases.

The general method for dealing with displaced populations is a simple one size fits all approach.

BASIC NEEDS

composting latrines

This strategy is applied for a certain length of

water purification measures

time until the camp is removed. By following

water distribution systems food distribution center

foor distribution center

a more phased approach, the design of camps can include an initial response that rivals the

irrigation and fertilizer deployment

current model, but also provides an opportunity to evolve from a camp setting to more of a

COMMUNITY

communal cooking center

temporary community.

community rec center

Buildings here are

school

school

still removable, but are a measurable upgrade

camp administration facilities

camp administration facilities

from the basic tent. This can grow into either a legitimate permanent settlement that benefits

reception/sorting center

the host country, or is able to be completely

marketplace

removed, leaving minimal or positive net impact community leadership center

community leadership center

RESIDENTIAL

on the site.

076 //

immediate deployment housing

further developments prefabricated modular add-ons apartment style housing

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


PHASED PROGRAMMING TYPICAL RESPONSE //

PROPOSED RESPONSE //

general response

phase 1: initial response

length?

phase 2: temporary community

removal

PHASED COMMUNITY DEPLOYMENT //

phase 3a: permanence

phase 3b: removal

// 077


UNHCR STRATEGY NOT FOLLOWING THEIR GUIDELINES 4,140,000 sq ft

4,140,000 sq ft

12,500

12,500

12,500 people 2,000 x 1,500 ft

The

UNHCR

releases

and

Handbook

for

Emergencies , yet, when it comes to the layout of their camps, they don t follow it at all. People are over crowded within rigid blocks, which are

12,500

12,500

separated by ďŹ rebreaks. Shown on the right is a literal translation of these guidelines, keeping a density of 200-250 people within the required distance from their primary water source. These circles are arranged around a shared public space.

4,140,000 sq ft

078 //

4,140,000 sq ft

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


PROTOTYPE RIGIDLY FOLLOWING UNHCR GUIDELINES MAX CAMP POPULATION

7,430,684.85 sq ft

20,000 people

Outer Ring Inner Ring Total

WATER ACCESS POINT PER

200

200 - 250 people

AREA PER PERSON 2 3.5 m for stove outside 2 4.5 - 5.5 m for stove inside

200

200

250

2,400 1,500 3,900

200

200

250

FOOD DISTRIBUTION POINT PER 3,000 - 5,000 people

200

250

200

250

MINOR HEALTH POST PER 3,000 - 5,000 people

200

250

250

200

SCHOOL PER 3,000 - 5,000 people

200

200

200

MARKET PER 20,000 people

PHASED COMMUNITY DEPLOYMENT //

// 079


COMMUNITY DESIGN PHASE 1 Phase 1 of this deployment strategy is the initial arrival of displaced populations to the site. The camp setting begins in an area that is removed from the existing town of Kongolo to provide safety to those seeking refugee here. Supplies are delivered via the existing airstrip.

52,500 people 130,279,640 sqft

10,000 people 21,422,274.6 sqft

airstrip

080 //

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


COMMUNITY DESIGN PHASE 2 In Phase 2, more displaced people are forced to seek refuge, and the camp settlement begins to expand along existing roadways. Certain zones are designated as agricultural, where refugees of a farming background are provided additional space to grow crops. These not only feed the displaced population, but also are shared with the host community. 52,500 people 130,279,640 sqft

10,000 people 21,422,274.6 sqft

airstrip

PHASED COMMUNITY DEPLOYMENT //

// 081


COMMUNITY DESIGN PHASE 3A In Phase 3A, the temporary camp settlement has grown into a permanent part of the city of Kongolo. A new bridge is added to join these two communities, and as the former camp expands, it is able to produce even more food to the beneďŹ t of Kongolo.

52,500 people 130,279,640 sqft

10,000 people 21,422,274.6 sqft

airstrip

082 //

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


COMMUNITY DESIGN PHASE 3B In Phase 3B, the temporary camp settlement is removed entirely. In this scenario, the violence that cause the initial displacement has been resolved, and families feel safe to return to their original homes.

52,500 people 130,279,640 sqft

10,000 people 21,422,274.6 sqft

airstrip

PHASED COMMUNITY DEPLOYMENT //

// 083


084 //

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


SEMESTER PRESENTATION

// 085


SEMESTER PRESENTATION

SEMESTER REFLECTIONS // The major concern amongst the faculty is the scope of the project. Some thought the entire issue was simply too big for architecture to handle at all, while others thought I was just trying to take too big of a bite out of it. It was suggested that I focus in on one speciďŹ c building type, for instance, a rapid-deployment medical facility that can be deployed to ďŹ ght AIDS/HIV in Africa. While this is certainly a good idea for a thesis project (yes, I m talking to you, potential thesis student!), it isn t what initially drew me to the project. I want to shape the way that people live in these spaces, and to do that, the housing type needs to be the focal point of the design.

086 //

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


SEMESTER PRESENTATION

SEMESTER PRESENTATION //

// 087


088 //

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


COLLAPSIBLE STRUCTURES

// 089


COLLAPSIBLE STRUCTURAL EXPLORATION

1 MODULE 75 sq ft 1 person

2 MODULES 150 sq ft 2-3 people

3 MODULES 225 sq ft 3-4 people

4 MODULES 300 sq ft 5-6 people

4 MODULES 300 sq ft 5-6 people

5 MODULES 375 sq ft 6-7 people

6 MODULES 450 sq ft 7-9 people

090 //

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


COLLAPSIBLE STRUCTURAL EXPLORATION

COLLAPSIBLE STRUCTURES //

// 091


COLLAPSIBLE STRUCTURAL EXPLORATION

These structural iterations were based on the maximum shipping size of the 463L Master Pallet, and explore the way volumes can expand. These would be appropriate for medical units, or for camp administration facilities because they allow for the buildings to be usable immediately upon their delivery to the site.

092 //

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


COLLAPSIBLE STRUCTURAL EXPLORATION

COLLAPSIBLE STRUCTURES //

// 093


COLLAPSIBLE STRUCTURAL EXPLORATION

The structural iterations are along the same expansion idea as an accordion. They collapse into simple frames, and when deployed are stretched to created the desired shape. These do a decent job at collapsing, but still leave a large volume in the middle during shipping, and also would require much additional structure.

094 //

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


COLLAPSIBLE STRUCTURAL EXPLORATION

COLLAPSIBLE STRUCTURES //

// 095


COLLAPSIBLE STRUCTURAL EXPLORATION

096 //

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


COLLAPSIBLE STRUCTURAL EXPLORATION

Similar to tents designed for tailgating, these structural iterations fold out to expand the volume to its desired size. These arms would then need to be locked into place. While providing an interesting visual eďŹ&#x20AC;ect, the manufacturing process of these structures would be very cost prohibitive, and because they include movable joints, are inherently weaker than a structure built of separate pieces.

COLLAPSIBLE STRUCTURES //

// 097


COLLAPSIBLE STRUCTURAL EXPLORATION

This system makes use of the geometry of a cub. Each piece incorporates a member in the x, y, and z direction, which are attached with a simple hinge. When four of these pieces are put together, a cube can be created when the free end of one member joins the free end of another. This system is superior to any above because it maximizes the efficiency of shipping while minimizing construction time.

Again,

though, it is inherently weaker due to the design of foldable parts. When this is combined on every corner, the resulting structure is flimsy.

098 //

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


COLLAPSIBLE STRUCTURAL EXPLORATION

COLLAPSIBLE STRUCTURES //

// 099


COLLAPSIBLE STRUCTURAL EXPLORATION 3 8.5

7 10.5

6

8 8

5 2.5

2 6.5

8 8

8

4 9

Shown here is the expanding frames prototype 7.5

and how it responds against a human scale. This particular section is shaped to shed water while providing clear space for walking/circulation and for sleeping or storage. When these are expanded in a non-linear fashion, large sleeping 30 째

areas are clearly separated from cooking or circulation areas.

100 //

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


COLLAPSIBLE STRUCTURAL EXPLORATION

FUTURE FLEX ADDITION

FUTURE FLEX ADDITION

FUTURE FLEX ADDITION

FUTURE FLEX ADDITION

The structural cube is shown here at the human scale. It allows for two people to comfortably sleep on either end of the unit while leaving a free circulation space down the center. When multiple units are joined together, small scale expansions can start to be added perpendicular to the circulation path.

COLLAPSIBLE STRUCTURES //

// 101


COLLAPSIBLE P PHYSICAL MODELS

102 //

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


COLLAPSIBLE PHYSICAL MODELS

COLLAPSIBLE STRUCTURES //

// 103


104 //

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


NODAL COMMUNITY DEPLOYMENT

// 105


NODAL SYSTEM EXPLORATION 1/4 mile

WALKABLE RADIUS //

The nodal design is based on connecting communal spaces. Each communal space serves as a node, and serves a specific area surrounding it. This area is determined by a common walkable distance of a quarter mile. To the left are variations showing different methods of connecting nodes. The the right is an example of a nodal system arrayed across the site.

106 //

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


NODAL SYSTEM EXPLORATION

NODAL COMMUNITY DEPLOYMENT //

// 107


108 //

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


FINAL DESIGN DOCUMENTATION FINAL COMMUNITY DESIGN FINAL STRUCTURAL DESIGN

// 109


110 //

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


FINAL COMMUNITY DESIGN

// 111


COMMUNITY DESIGN PARAMETERS RELATION TO HOST //

DESIGN OF NODES //

SAFETY //

MAJOR NODE //

an initial separation from the host community is

a major node will serve 20 thousand people, and

important for safety reasons.

will be centrally located and have access to existing infrastructure.

it will house a major hospital,

marketplace, and camp administration facilities. POTENTIAL LINK //

MINOR NODE //

creating the potential for a link will lessen the

each node will serve 3-5 thousand people, and will

potential for antagonism or destabilization between

house essential facilities, including a minor health

the two communities.

post, school, and food distribution center. nodes must have easy access from major circulation paths.

WATER COLLECTION //

WALKABILITY //

excess water from the displaced settlement will be

nodes will be located so that each person served by

delivered to the host community for their use.

the node is within easy walking distance.

INFRASTRUCTURE //

VARIABILITY //

improving africa s infrastructure is one of the biggest

nodes will serve variable community types based on

challenges to overcoming widespread poverty in the

the economic background of its residents (ďŹ shing,

region. infrastructure improvements will be made as

manufacturing, agriculture, etc.).

a result of hosting the displaced population.

112 //

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


COMMUNITY DESIGN PARAMETERS MICRO-COMMUNITY //

INDIVIDUAL LOT //

WATER COLLECTION //

AGRICULTURE //

water will be harvested from each unit, which will be

lots will be able to grow food to supplement their own

collected and stored on a micro-community level.

food needs. lots for those with farming backgrounds will allow for more space to produce food which can be sold to others, either host or displaced.

FLEX SPACE // area

within

ORIENTATION // each

micro-community

will

be

lot will be oriented with the long side on an

designated to house activities determined by each

approximate east-west axis to minimize shadows on

individual micro-community.

crops.

SHARED SPACE //

VARIABLE SIZING //

for initial phases, many functions will be housed

lots must come in different sizes to accommodate

here, including cooking and sanitation facilities.

variable family sizes, as well as different land uses.

LOT ACCESS //

MODULAR SIZING //

one corner of each lot will house part of these

variably sized lots must be able to fit within

meeting spaces, guaranteeing easy access to all.

standardized blocks in several different conditions with several other variably sized lots.

FINAL COMMUNITY DESIGN //

// 113


20,000 people

15,000 people

10,000 people

5,000 people

0 people

CONCEPTUAL COMMUNITY DESIGN

In terms of community facilities, the UNHCR

MARKETPLACE

simply sets up a requirement for the maximum number of people served by a certain building type. They require a major hospital for every

MAJOR HOSPITAL

20,000 people, and also look for several minor health posts or clinics, each of which serves between 3,000 and 5,000 people.

MINOR HEALTH POST

Schools

and food distribution points are also asked to serve 3,000 to 5,000 people each, the thinking being that several smaller locations operate more smoothly than one massive location.

SCHOOL

The marketplace, however,

works better as

a large, central location. If you start to group

FOOD DISTRIBUTION CENTER

114 //

these functions based on their occupancy requirements, you begin to see how nodes of diďŹ&#x20AC;erent sizes can shape the community design.

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


CONCEPTUAL COMMUNITY DESIGN

MINOR HEALTH POST

SCHOOL

FOOD CENTER

MINOR HEALTH POST

SCHOOL

FOOD CENTER

MINOR HEALTH POST

SCHOOL

FOOD CENTER

FINAL COMMUNITY DESIGN //

MARKETPLACE

MAJOR HOSPITAL

MINOR HEALTH POST

SCHOOL

FOOD CENTER

MINOR HEALTH POST

SCHOOL

FOOD CENTER

MINOR HEALTH POST

SCHOOL

FOOD CENTER

MINOR HEALTH POST

SCHOOL

FOOD CENTER

// 115


NODE SERVICED AREA SIZING 390 ft 350 ft

SUBDIVISION WITH NODES //

= 1/4 MILE RADIUS TO SQUARE // 116 //

NODES CONNECTED //

RESIZING TO FIT RADIUS //

To apply this nodal system to the large scale, the

square is then subdivided into nine parts, in the

area served by each node must be properly sized.

center of each is either the minor node or an

Let us begin by saying that each minor node

even smaller satellite node (program left open to

(which house a health clinic, school, and food

the discretion of the user). These nodes are then

distribution point) must be within a reasonable

connected, and the resulting 6 by 6 grid results in

walking distance of each house it serves.

A

the individual blocks. This is then resized slightly

quarter mile is generally accepted as a walkable

to better ďŹ t within the quarter mile walkable

distance, so we will translate this into a square

radius, as well as better reďŹ&#x201A;ect the density goals

in order to lay out the grid. (Note: the grided

outlined earlier. Each of these blocks has one

system is the clear favorite in an atmosphere

corner that will be dedicated to the central node,

such as this because it is being set up by UN Aid

guaranteeing easy access to community facilities

workers, not trained construction workers.) This

to all. CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


INDIVIDUAL LOT SIZING Using

grasshopper,

designed

to

a

facilitate

computer quickly

program

changeable

designs, and analysis was done of the ideal shape for lots. Each lot will incorporate an offset to accommodate the street. The structure will then be present, with an offset on either side for circulation. The leftover space in this area is considered a flex space , and its program is left to the user. The remaining space, however, is set aside for agricultural use. By changing the proportions of each lot, it is clear that a tall

342.73 sqft

requirements, and as such, there is no universally

1176.79 sqft

lots for different families have different size

376.75 sqft

amount of garden space for each lot. However,

1122.36 sqft

and skinny lot orientation yields the highest

ideal depth of lots.

652.44 sqft

FINAL COMMUNITY DESIGN //

244.59 sqft

// 117


LOT ORGANIZATION STRATEGY PATH OFFSET // space is

FLEX SPACE // additional space is left for

designated within each lot

shelter to possibly expand as the family size

to accommodate the road.

grows. if shelter stays the same, this space is

AGRICULTURAL SPACE // space is provided for every family to grow food

able to be used for a wide variety of purposes.

the supplement their intake. size varies

PUBLIC VS PRIVATE // orientation

based on the economic background of

parallel to the path provides for natural

STRUCTURAL ORIENTATION //

separation of public space from private.

structure

this gives occupants opportunities to

approximate east-west axis, which

sell manufactured goods along the

minimizes the eďŹ&#x20AC;ect shadows play

path while preserving private space

on the agricultural space

is

placed

along

an

each family.

elsewhere

<- NORTH

118 //

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


LOT LAYOUT ON TYPICAL BLOCK SIZE LOW DENSITY //

CK

Lots designed for this lower density are use for agricultural purposes, hence the extra space per lot. As 50% of DRC s population is from an

LO B N O

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FINAL COMMUNITY DESIGN //

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E 48 P

CK

6 PE 6 PE

2 PE

LO SON

CK

48 P

LO SON

H

N LO

RSO

RS 2 PE

T

RSO 2 PE

N LO

LO B N O

ERS

ERSO

4 PE

LO ON B

<- N

10 P

T

ERSO

]

ORT

T

N LO

10 P

0] [1 0P-4

<- N

N LO

CK

8 PE

8 PE

T

0] [8 P-

CK

LO ON B

4

ERSO

RSO

common lot type in the community design.

RS 8 PE

10 P 4 PE

10 P

[2P -

CK

LO ON B

RSO

4 PE

RSO

N LO

N LO

T

T

N LO

T

N LO

T

H

LO B N O

ERS

48 P [2P -

2 PE

RSO

N LO

RSO

2 PE

RSO

0] [8 P-8]

T 2 PE

RSO

RSO

T

[6P -

RSO

8 PE 8 PE

N LO

8] [4 P-0 ]

2 PE

N LO

RSO

T

2 PE

-0]

RSO

8 PE

N LO

RSO

T 2 PE

RSO

T RSO

RSO

T

N LO

2 PE

8 PE

T

ORT

T 2 PE

N LO

N LO

[10P

<- N

N LO

H

N LO

T

N LO

T

N LO

T

N LO

T

// 119


LOT LAYOUT ON TYPICAL BLOCK SIZE OCK

BL

ON ERS

10 P

66 P

4 PE

0] [4 P-1 ]

ERSO

[6P -

T

T

[10P

8 PE

6 PE

-2]

T

N LO

N LO

3] [8 P-3]

N LO

5

2

2

12]

T

RSO 2 PE [4P -

11]

NL ERSO

T

N LO

RSO

2 PE [6P -

4P

0] [8 P-0]

T

R

2 PE

OT2 ON L

-0]

4 PE

2

ON PERS 2

LOT

LOT

ON PERS 2

OT ON L

OT

4 PE

0] [4 P-2 ]

ON PERS

T N LO

LOT

ERSO

[6P -

N LO

4

T

N LO

RSO

E OT4 P

NL

4 PE

H

T

4

ON PERS

5

2

2

[2P -

0] [4 P-2 ]

120 //

RSO

4 PE [6P -

4 PE

T

N LO

LOT [2P -

12]

RSO 2 PE [4P -

RSO

3] [8 P-5]

[6P -

0] [8 P-0]

-0]

T

R

OT2 ON L

-0]

4 PE

8 PE

6 PE

N LO

N LO

T

T

6 PE

N LO

N LO

T

RSO

RSO

RSO

RSO

RSO

RSO

8 PE

6 PE

8 PE

T

N LO

N LO

T

T

H

ER 62 P

OT

2 PE

[2P -

RSO

N LO

2] [4 P-0 ]

RSO

T

[6P -

2 PE

RSO

0] [8 P-

T

N LO

T

8 PE

ORT

H

LOT 4

ON PERS

ERS

66 P

RSO

RSO

LOT [2P -

8 PE

8 PE 8 PE

0 [4 P-0

] [6 P-

8 PE

N LO

N LO

T

T

ORT

T

8 PE

RSO

ERSO

RSO

ERSO

RSO

<- N

N LO

10 P

10 P

T

5] [1 0P-2 ]

N LO

RSO

T

NL

T

N LO

RSO

E OT4 P

RSO

4 PE

2 PE

N LO

4

T N LO

ON PERS

RSO

T N LO

RSO

N LO

LOT

LO ON B

RSO

T

N LO

T

N LO

3] [8 P-6]

<- N

N LO

T

[10P

8 PE

6 PE

-0]

N LO

RSO

RSO

N LO

N LO

N LO

6 PE

RSO

RSO

RSO

RSO

8 PE

6 PE

ORT

8 PE

H

N LO

N LO

T

T

T

T

T

T

CK

2 PE

RSO

8 PE

2

ON PERS

4 PE

T

N LO

Having lots that are ямВexible in this

RSO

LO B N O

8 PE

T

N LO

RSO

2 PE

OT ON L

4 PE

<- N

T

N LO

RSO

2 PE

ON L

RSO

2 PE

T

N LO

4 PE LOT

RS

PERS

RS

[10P

N

RSO

4 PE

LO SON

2 PE

S

ORT

T

T

T

T

[10P

<- N

N LO

N LO

N LO

N LO

T

N LO

RSO

2 PE

11]

4P

another.

CK

RSO

2 PE

RSO

RSO

8 PE

OT

NL ERSO

smoothly from one economic background to

T

T

T

the community plan can begin to transition

manner makes it easier for camp administrators.

RS

ON PERS

H

N LO

N LO

N LO

OT ON L

LOT

CK

8 PE

T

4 PE

RSO

T

T

N LO

O PERS

ORT

8 PE

ERSO

RSO

N LO

N LO

T

N LO

RSO

2 PE

8 PE

ERSO

RSO

-3]

RS 6 PE

CK

LO B N O

S

8 PE

[10P

RSO

2 PE

ER 64 P

10 P

T

1] [8 P-4]

T

10 P

T

By hybridizing two densities across on block,

<- N

N LO

N LO

LO ON B

ORT

N LO

O PERS

RS

RSO

T

N LO

8 PE

RSO

10 P

[2P -

<- N

OT ON L

4 PE

ON L

RSO

2 PE

4 PE LOT

RS

PERS

RS

[10P

N

RSO

4 PE

LO SON

T

T

T

N LO

RSO

LOT

OT

N LO

[2P -

N

O PERS

N LO

RSO

CK

RS

4 PE

N LO

6 PE

66 P

T

T

OT ON L

T

N LO

O PERS

H

BL

ON ERS

T

T

T

N LO

RSO

2 PE

RSO

RSO

N LO

N LO

ORT

8 PE

6 PE

RSO

RSO

N LO

CK

RS 6 PE

8 PE

6 PE

RSO

RSO

LO ON B

<- N

N LO

RSO

10 P

[2P -

ERSO

LOW/MEDIUM DENSITY //

OCK

N LO

N LO

T

T

N LO

T

H

LO B N O

RS

E 68 P [2P -

0] [4 P-0 ]

RSO

RSO

6 PE

RSO

6 PE [6P -

6 PE 6 PE

RSO

4] [8 P-

3] [1 0P-2 ]

T

10 P

T

10 P

T

8 PE

T

N LO

N LO

N LO

8 PE

N LO

N LO

T

ORT

8 PE

RSO

ERSO

RSO

ERSO

RSO

<- N

N LO

N LO

N LO

T

H

N LO

T

T

T

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


LOT LAYOUT ON TYPICAL BLOCK SIZE MEDIUM DENSITY //

CK

The medium density lot is based on providing a density equivalent to that of the neighboring city of Kongolo. These lots are for families who

LO ON B

ERS

88 P

OT ON L

[2P -

RS 2 PE

work more manufacturing type jobs while still

22]

OT ON L

RS

2 PE

[4P -

10 P

having a background in agriculture.

RS 8 PE

T N LO RSO ON LOT T LO RS 4 PE ERSON N LOT 4 P ERSO N LOT 4 P ERSO N LOT T 4 P ERSO N LOT N LO OT 4 P ERSO N LOT L RSO 4 PE ERSON N LOT 4 P ERSO N LOT 4 P ERSO N LOT [2P 4 P ERSO N LOT 0] [4 4 P ERSO N LOT 4 P ERSO N LOT P P-2 T O 4 O S 4 P ERSO L R 2] [6 PE RSON LOT 4 4P P-0 4 PE ERSON N LOT ] [8 P-0] 4 P ERSO N LOT P [10P T O 4 O S L R -0] 4 PE ERSON N LOT 4 P ERSO 4P

8

4 PE

ERS

88 P

T N LO T RSO N LO 6 PE S OT RO 6 PE ON L OT S R E 6 P RSON L

<- N

ORT

T N LO T RSO N LO 2 PE T RSO N LO 2 PE T RSO N LO 2 PE T RSO N LO 2 PE RSO 2 PE

6 PE

RSO

88 P

N ERSO

4P 6] [4 P-8 ] [6 P-

[2P -

N LO

N LO

N LO

H

ERS

T

T

T

ORT

H

RS 4 PE

8

4] [8 P-0]

[2P -

0] [4 P-

6 PE

8 PE RSO

RSO

[8P-

8 PE

6 PE

-0]

T

N LO

RSO

RSO

H

N LO

N LO

N LO

N LO

<- N

ORT

H

80 P [2P -

0] [4 P-0 ]

6 PE

8 PE

[6P -

RSO

N LO

8] [8 P-

N LO

RSO

T

T

8 [2P -

10 P

8 PE

0] [4 P-0

T ]

T

T

8 PE

6 PE

N LO

T

T

ORT

N LO

T

6 PE

RSO

RSO

RSO

RSO

N LO

8 PE

6 PE

6 PE

RSO

RSO

<- N

T

T

T

4] [1 0P-0

RSO

R

T

T

T

OT ON L

H

T

LO SON

4 PE

N LO

N LO

N LO

ORT

OT

ON L

RS 4 PE

RS

N LO

[8P-

10 P 8 PE

6] [1 0P

8 PE

N LO

N LO

T

T

N LO

T

H

LO B N O

ERS

88 P

R

2 PE

OT

NL ERSO

OT

4P

[2P -

NL ERSO

12]

4P [4P 16]

[6P -

T

0] [8 P-0]

RS

2 PE

[10P

-0]

T

ON

RS

2 PE

T

N LO

RSO 4 PE

OT ON L

T

LO SON

N

RSO

T

N LO

RSO

2 PE

LOT

4 PE

R

T

N LO

RSO 4 PE

H

T

LO SON

4 PE

T

N LO

RSO

2 PE

ORT

T

LO SON

R

4 PE

OT

OT

ON L

RS 2 PE

LOT

<- N

T

N LO

RSO

2 PE

ON L

T

OT

ON L

RS 2 PE

RS 4 PE

LOT RS 4 PE

N LO

RSO

2 PE

N

RSO

OT ON L

4 PE LOT

4P

4 PE

OT

ON L

RS 2 PE

ON

RS 4 PE

N LO

RSO

4 PE

N ERSO

LOT

T

N LO

RSO

T

LO SON

R

2 PE

T

T

T

T

N LO

RSO

H

N LO

N LO

N LO

N LO

RSO

4 PE

2 PE

RSO

T

T

T

LO SON

8 PE

ERSO

RSO

N LO

N LO

ORT

T

10 P

ERSO

RSO

<- N

N LO

T

T

T

T

RSO

N LO

N LO

N LO

8 PE

ERSO

RSO

ERSO

RSO

] [6 P-0 ]

8 PE

-4]

N LO

N LO

N LO

N LO

6 PE

RSO

RSO

RSO

RSO

RSO

T

N LO

RSO 4 PE

OT

ON L

RS 2 PE

6 PE

ERSO

6 PE

T

N LO

RSO

2 PE

-2]

10 P

T

T

8 PE

6 PE

6 PE

10 P

CK

LO B N O

ERS

RS

2 PE

[10P

RS 8 PE

T

T

N LO

8 PE

6 PE

RSO

RSO

RSO

RSO

8 PE

6 PE

ORT

T

T

T

6] [1 0P

T

OT ON L

LO ON B

<- N

N LO

N LO

T

T

RSO

RSO

N LO

N LO

N LO

N LO

0] [6 P-6 ]

OT

<- N

T

N LO

RSO

2 PE

T

T

OT

ON L

RS 2 PE

N LO

4 PE

8 PE

6 PE

RSO

RSO

N LO

T

ON L

RS 2 PE

RSO

N LO

T

N LO

RSO

4 PE

CK

8 PE

6 PE

RSO

N LO

RSO

4 PE

6 PE

ERSO

6 PE

LOT

T

N LO

RSO

4 PE

10 P

CK

T LOT T N LO OT 4 PE ERSON L RSO N LO 4P T 4 PE ERSON N LOT RSO P T O N LO 4 [2P 6 PE RS ON LO T E S P R 0] [4 4 E O ON LOT P RS ON LO T E 6 P P-1 RS 3] [6 4 4 PERS SON LO OT 6 PE L R P-6 4 PE ERSON N LOT ] [8 P-0] 4 P ERSO N LOT P [10P 4 LOT RSO -0] 4 PE ERSON N LOT 4 P ERSO 4P

FINAL COMMUNITY DESIGN //

RSO

LO ON B

CK

LO B N O

RS

2 PE

ERSO

6 PE

<- N

OT ON L

LO ON B

CK

CK

LO ON B

10 P

OT

ON L

RS 2 PE

T

OT T N LO T RSO N LO 2 PE T RSO N LO 2 PE T RSO N LO 2 PE 0] [1 T RSO N LO 2 PE 0P-2 T RSO ] N LO 2 PE T RSO N LO 2 PE RSO 2 PE ON L

PERS

0] [6 2 P-4 ] [8 P-

OT ON L

RS

2 PE

N LO

T

T

OT

ON L

RS 2 PE

RSO

N LO

N LO

OT ON L

RS

2 PE

6 PE

ERSO

RSO

T

N LO

RSO

2 PE

6 PE

CK

OT

ON L

RS 2 PE

R

4 PE

// 121


LOT LAYOUT ON TYPICAL BLOCK SIZE ON ERS

K LOC

B

T N LO OT L RSO 4 PE ERSON N LOT 4 P ERSO N LOT 8 PE 4 P ERSO N LOT RSO 4 P ERSO N LOT N LO 6 PE 4 P ERSO N LOT RSO T8 4 P ERSO N LOT 6 PE N LO PERS RSO 4 P ERSO N LOT T ON L N LO [2P 4 P ERSO N LOT 6 PERS 0] [4 T O 4 P ERSO N LOT T P-1 O 8 6 4 P ERSO N PERS 1] [6 PERS LOT 4P P-6 ON L O ] [8 N 6 OT LOT PERS P-3] O [10P 6 N PER -0] LO

<- N

04 P

1

SON

ORT

H

1

6 PE

N LO

0] [4 P-2

RS

PE 104 ON

RS 4 PE

LOT

SON

R 4 PE

4

OT ON L

LOT

PERS

OT ON L

T N LO

RSO

4 PE

6 PE

RSO

RSO

] [6 P-1 2]

RSO

N LO T

LO SON

T

ER 08 P

1

4 T T N LO RSO OT 2 PE ON L S R E P T 2 N LO

RSO

PERS

OT ON L

2 PE

T RSO

6 PE

RSO

H

122 //

4

RS 4 PE

OT

T

T

RSO

RSO

RSO

R

the community plan can begin to transition smoothly from one economic background to

T N LO OT RSO ON L S R 6 PE

another.

T

T

T

H

LOT

6 PE

N LO

N LO

N LO

SON

6 PE

8 PE

6 PE

6 PE

LO ON B

ER 04 P

1

ON

N LO

T

[2P -

RS 4 PE 12]

[4P -

LOT

N ERSO

4P

4

OT ON L

LOT

PERS

OT ON L

Having lots that are ямВexible in this

manner makes it easier for camp administrators.

T N LO

CK

8 PE

6 PE

RSO

4 PE

T

N LO

RSO

4 PE LOT

T N LO T RSO N LO 2 PE T RSO N LO 2 PE RSO 2 PE

<- N

ORT

H

ER 08 P

1

RSO

RSO

N LO T

LO SON

T

ORT

T

T 8 PE

RSO

6 PE

RSO

4 T T N LO T RSO N LO 2 PE O S R E T 2P N LO

RSO

PERS

OT ON L

2 PE

H

N LO

T

4

RS 4 PE

ER 06 P

1

10 P

10 P

[2P -

11]

8 PE

0] [6 P-

RSO

ERSO

RSO

[4P -

8 PE

4] [8 P-5]

T

[10P

-2]

RSO

N LO

N LO

N LO

N LO

8 PE

ERSO

T

T

T

<- N

N LO

ORT

T

8 P2 PERSO

2 PE N LO T RSO T N LO LOT T2 2 PERSO N LOT RSO 6 PE PERSON ON 2LPOER PERSON LOT N LOT 6 ERS2 PER SON LO

8 P2 PERSON

SON

LOT

H

T 2 N LO LOT T 2 PERSON RSO 6 PE PERSON ON L2OPERS PERSON LOT LOT 6 ERS 2 PERS ON LOT ON L

OT

T

LOT

CK

T

LO SON

PER

T

N LO

RSO

4 PE LOT

2

T

N LO

O PERS

2

O PERS

T N LO O PERS

T N LO

<- N

LO ON B

S

ORT

N O T 2 RSO ON L T N LO 4 PE OT RSO N LO T ON L T 4 PE RSO RS N LO PERS LOT 4 PE T N LO 4 O 4 PE N O L S RSO O R RS OT [2P ON 4 PE 4 PE RSON LOT LOT 4 PE PERSON L ON LOT OT 18] PERS T E SON LOT 4 P O 2 S L 2 L R R [4P N 2 PE PERSON N LOT 2 PE PERSON N LOT T 18] RSO O 2 ERSO N LO T T 4 PE [6P - 2 2 PERS 2 P PERSO N LO T N LO 2 PERSO N LO T 0] [8 RSO LOT 2 PERSO N LO 4 PE N P-0] O O T 2 RS [10P PERS N LO 4 PE -0] T 2 RSO 4 PE N LO RSO 4 PE OT ON L

LO ON B

S

<- N

N LO

N LO

OCK

PER

6 PE

RSO

R RS OT N LO 6 PE 4 PE RSON LOT LOT 4 PE PERSON L ON LOT OT RSO T 2 PERS L 2 PE PERSON N LOT T 2 PERSON N LOT N LO 2 PERSO N LO T 10] O 2 S 2 ERSO N LO T R T LOT [6P 2 PE 2 P PERSO N LO T N O O 2 PERS 4] [8 T RS N LO OT O E O L P S 2 L R 4 N P-2] T 2 PE ERSON RSO P [10P N LO 4 PE -0] T 2 RSO 4 PE N LO RSO E P 4

BL SON

T

LO SON

N O T RSO ON L N LO T 4 PE OT RSO N LO T ON L 4 PE T RSO RS N LO PERS LOT T 4 PE N LO 4 O 4 PE N O L S RSO O R RS OT ON [2P OT 4 PE 4 PE 4 PE ON L PERS 6] [4 ON L T S S T 4 R T O R O E L O E P P-2 N NL 4P NL RSO T 4] [6 4 RSO RSO T 4 PE N LO 4 PE P-0 4 PE N LO T RSO ] [8 RSO LOT 4 PE N LO P-0] 4 PE N O S O R T RS [10P 4 PE N LO 4 PE -0] T RSO 4 PE N LO RSO 4 PE OT ON L

N LO

3] [1 0P

ON L

N LO

S

ORT

T

8 PE

OCK

BL SON

RSO

[8P-

PERS

RSO

-0]

<- N

N LO

N LO

R T RS OT N LO 6 PE 4 PE N LO 4 PE ON L 0] [4 RSO T RSO OT OT PERS P-1 4 PE ON L ON L S T N LOT 6] [6 4 R R T E E P S LO N LO 4P P-4 4 O N S O T ] [8 T O ER RS L P O E L P 4 N P-2] 4 N RSO T RSO [10P 4 PE N LO 4 PE -0] T RSO 4 PE N LO RSO E P 4

[2P -

6 PE

6 PE

4P

ORT

OT

NL ERSO

R

4 PE

By hybridizing two densities across on block,

<- N

CK

8 PE

6 PE

T8

T

T

CK

LO ON B

N LO

N LO

T N LO T RSO N LO T RSO N LO 6 PE S R O OT 6 PE SON L

6 PE

RSO

RSO

RSO

[2P -

8 PE

6 PE

T

LOT

B

ON ERS

04 P

MEDIUM/HIGH DENSITY //

K LOC

H

ER 04 P

1

[2P -

3] [4 P-4

6 PE

8 PE

] [6 P-7 ]

T

5] [1 0P

-0]

T

<- N

N LO

N LO

N LO

N LO

RSO

RSO

RSO

RSO

N LO

N LO

[8P-

6 PE

RSO

RSO

8 PE

8 PE

6 PE

T

ORT

T

T 2 N LO LOT T PERSON LOT RSO 6 PE PERSON ON4 PLEROSO N LO 6 4 P ERS T

T

H

8 PERSO

T

N LO 2 PE T RSO T N LO N LO LOT 4 PTE T RSO 6 PE PERSON 4 ON LO RSON LOT PSE 6

RR 8 P2 EPERSON SON LOT LOT

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


LOT LAYOUT ON TYPICAL BLOCK SIZE HIGH DENSITY //

OCK 6 PE L B ON 6 RSON

RS 0 PE 8

The high density blocks are the most urban setting. The are still able to provide agricultural space to supplement food intake, but a persons

12 [2P -

RSO

N LO

0] [4 P-0

T

T [8P-

CK

LO ON B

S PER

<- N

ORT

CK

RS 8 PE

12

4

N ERSO

4 PE

LOT

T

N LO

RSO

4 PE

LOT

4P

FINAL COMMUNITY DESIGN //

136 2 PE

2 PE

RSO

RSO

[2P -

N LO

N LO

22]

N LO

T

[4P -

8 P2 PERSON

RSO

RSO

] [6 P-

T10

OT

ON L

RS 4 PE

PERS

OT ON L

<- N

ORT

H

RS 8 PE

12 [2P -

10 P

ER

10 P

ER

6 PE

0] [8 P-0]

] [6 P-

ER

6 PE

SON

<- N

ORT

H

136 [2P -

2 PE

LOT SON LOT

T

T

6] [4 P-8 ]

8] [8 P-0]

[10P

-8]

6 PE

R

T

T

<- N

T N LO

ORT

H

R 6 PE PERSON ON LOT OT 2 6 PERS ON L 4 PLOT PERSON LOT ER 6 PERS 6 4 P ERSON SON LOT

PER

8 SON L R 2 PE OT RSO 6 PE PERSON ON LOT OT 4 N LO T PTERS 6 PERS ON L O O L N LO 6 PERS 4 ON 4] [1 T 6 0P-0 ERPSERSO ]

6

10]

OT

T

N LO

[8P-

8 P2 PERSON

R

10 P

R

ER

ER

6 PE

R

6 PE

R

10 P

ER

10 P

R

ORT

6 PE

10 P

LO ON B

<- N

6 PE

ER

6 PE

RSO

R 8 PE PERSON SON LOT LOT

[6P -

T

LOT

2 PE

T

6

T

H

ON L

N LO

RSO LOT 8 PE PERSON SON LOT LOT

T

T

ORT

PERS

T

N LO

N LO

N LO

N LO

N LO

N LO

RSO

RSO

RSO

RSO

RSO

OT

4 PE

4 PE

2 PE

ON L

S PER

RSO

N LO

N LO

RSO

T 10

0 PE

RSO

RSO

<- N

N LO

OT 1

0 PE

0 PE

4 PE

RSO

ON L

OT 1

LO ON B 4 PE

0 PE

PERS

ON L

OT 1

-12]

OT1

N LO

T

LOT

CK

10 P

R

PERS

ON L

[10P

T10

CK

LOT

ER

10 P

R

0] [4 P-0

T10

PERS

ON L

N LO

N LO

N LO

0] [4 P-0

T

ERSO R 2 PE N LO RSO T 6 PE PERSON ON LOT OT 2 PE N LO RSO T 10] 6 PERS ON L T 2 PE N LO O R [8PL T SON 6 PERS 2 PE N 4] [1 L O O R 6 0P-0 ERS2 PER SON LO T

]

RSO

PERS

0 PE

0 PE

0 PE

T

8 P2 P

6

112 [2P -

R 6 PE PERSON ON LOT OT 2 6 PERS ON L T 2 P PERSON 6 PERS N L2OPER ERSON LO LOT 6 ERSO2 PERS SON LOT T

R 8 PE PERSON SON LOT LOT

0] [6 P-

T

T

T N LO

6

N LO

N LO

RSO LOT 8 PE PERSON SON LOT LOT

T

T

LOT SON LOT

T

T

RSO

N LO

T

T

T

T

T

RSO

H

R 0 PE1

N LO

N LO

N LO

N LO

N LO

N LO

N LO

N LO

RSO

RSO

RSO

RSO

RSO

2 PE

2 PE

2 PE

2 PE

2 PE

RSO

RSO

RSO

RSO

LO ON B

T T 4 N LO N LO T RSO T RSO 4 PE N LO 4 PE N LO 4 N T ERSO RSO ERSO OT LOT T P O E L P O L P 4 L 4 N 4 O SON N ON T S R O S T R T E S R T O E P O R E L P 4 N LO LO 4P NL 4 N 4 PE N O O S RSO T O S R R RS OT LO [2P OT 4 PE 4 PE 4 PE 4 PE ON L SON 0 [4 ON L T S R S T R T O E R O E L P O E P P-3 4 N NL 4P NL 2] [6 4 RSO T RSO RSO OT 4 PE P-0 N LO 4 PE 4 PE ON L T RSO ] [8 LOT PERS 4 PE P-0] N LO 4 N O S O R T [10P RS 4 PE N LO -0] 4 PE T RSO 4 PE N LO RSO 4 PE T

N LO

O PERS

H

S PER

2 PE

2 PE

2 PE

2 PE

ORT

6 PE

6 PE

OT

T

T

T

RSO

N LO

N LO

T

ON L

RSO

RSO

LO ON B

PERS

N LO

N LO

8 PE

<- N

CK

OT ON L

RS

T

N LO

O PERS

6 PE

6 PE

CK

T N LO LOT RSO 2 PE PERSON N LOT T 2 PERSO N LO T T 2 LO O RSO N L LOT 2 PE PERSON N LOT T RSO 2 LO RSO 2 PE PERSON N LOT T 2 PE PERSON N LOT 2 PERSO N LO T 2 T O O 2 RSO S L T R N LO LOT 2 PE N LO LOT 2 PE PERSON N LOT T RSO RSO 2 2 PE PERSON N LOT T ERSO SON LO LOT 2 PE PERSON N LOT T P 2 2 PERSO N LO T 2 PERSO N LO T PER RSON 2 T 2 T O O LO O RSO 2 S L R N L LOT 2 PE N LO LOT 2 PE ERSON N LOT T 2 PE PERSON N LOT T RSO RSO 2 P PERSO N LO T 2 2 PE PERSON N LOT T LO RSO 2 PE PERSON N LOT T 2 PERSO ON LO 2 PERSO N LO T 2 PE PERSON N LOT 2 PERSO N LO T 2 PERS O O O 2 2 S O T O S L 2 R S L R O [2P R 2 N L LOT 2 PE ERSON N LOT T 2 PE 2 PE PERSON N LOT T 64] RSO O O 2 P PERSO N LO T 2 2 PE PERSON N LOT T [4P T PERS ON L 2 PERSO ON LO 2 PERSO N LO T S 2 0] [6 2 2 PERS PERSON LO LOT R O O E 2 S L 2P N LOT PER RSON LOT 2 P-0 O 2 S R E N ] [8 2 P PERSO N LOT T 2 PE PERSON N LOT T P-0] 2 PERSO ON LO 2 PERSO N LO T 2 PERS 2 PERSO N LO T [10P 2 2 LO -0] RSO 2 PE PERSON N LOT T 2 PERSO ON LO 2 PERS 2

LO ON B

T

-0]

fishing or service related jobs.

128

N LO

6] [1 0P

RSO

RSO

OT

T8

T

6 PE

6 PE

ON L

N LO

N LO

LOT

PERS

RSO

RSO

RSO

OT

T8

8 PE

6 PE

6 PE

] [6 P-1 2]

livelihood must likely be earned offsite, either in

OT

N LO

ON L

N LO

ON L

RSO

PERS

RSO

PERS

6 PE

6 PE

8 PE

O1C0 K

BL SON1

H

RS 8 PE

12 [2P -

R

R

8 PE

16]

R

4] [1 0P

-0]

R

R

R

8 PE

R

6 PE

H

6 PE

6 PE

R

6 PE

R

R

8 PE

R

[8P-

6 PE

6 PE

R

ORT

R

R

6 PE

6 PE

<- N

6 PE

6 PE

R

] [6 P-

R

R

8 PE

6 PE

6 PE

0] [4 P-0

6 PE

6 PE

R

6 PE

6 PE

R

R

// 123


NODE INTEGRATION ON TYPICAL BLOCK SIZE OCK

BL

ON ERS

48 P [2P -

] [6 P-

RSO

RSO

4 PE

ORT

T

N LO

T

4 PE

RSO

8 PE

RSO

T

N LO

<- N

N LO

N LO

RSO

0] [8 P-4]

RSO

8 PE

8 PE

0] [4 P-4

4 PE

T

8 PE

[10P

-0]

4 PE

RSO

H

N LO

T

[2P -

N LO

] [6 P-

T

N LO

T

RSO

RSO

T

6] [8 P-6]

T

T

T

N LO

[10P

8 PE

6 PE

-0]

RSO

T

N LO

RSO

RSO

RSO

RSO

H

N LO

T

process by which the lot on the corner is

T

T

T

T

to a node function. When four corners are put together, a node is formed. This is a simple

T

N LO

N LO

N LO

N LO

8 PE

6 PE

8 PE

6 PE

RSO

ORT

T

T

One corner from every block will be dedicated

<- N

N LO

N LO

N LO

N LO

N LO

RSO

RSO

RSO

RSO

8 PE

6 PE

8 PE

6 PE

8 PE

6 PE

0] [4 P-0

N LO

RSO

BL

ON ERS

84 P

NODE INTEGRATION //

OCK

downsized and pushed back away from the street, with the reclaimed space now dedicated to the node. In this way, every lot has easy access to a node, which provides community functions.

CK

CK

LO ON B

RS 6 PE

4 [2P -

] [6 P-

124 //

RSO

8 PE

RSO

8 PE 1] [4 P-3

4 PE

4 PE

RSO

RSO

0] [8 P-4]

2 PE

-0]

T

T

4 PE

RSO

8 PE

RSO

T

T

[10P

ORT

N LO

N LO

N LO

N LO

<- N

RSO

N LO

T

8 PE RSO N LO T

LO ON B

N LO

T

N LO

T

H

RS 2 PE

8 [2P -

0] [4 P-1

6 PE

8 PE

] [6 P-

6 PE

N LO

N LO

5] [8 P-6]

T

[10P

-0]

N LO

N LO

T8 4 PE

T

PERS

RSO

<- N

N LO

N LO

8 PE

6 PE

ORT

T

T

T

ON L OT

N LO

RSO

RSO

RSO

RSO

RSO

RSO

8 PE

8 PE

6 PE

6 PE

N LO

N LO

T

RSO

RSO

RSO

RSO

8 PE

H

N LO

N LO

T

T

T

T

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


NODE INTEGRATION ON TYPICAL BLOCK SIZE

BLO

N O S

R E P 8

25 [2P -

CKS

10 P

4

ON PERS

6 PE

LOT PERS

OT ON L

LOT

T

T

N

RSO

4 PE

RSO

N LO

N LO

6 PE

LOT

4P

6 PE

ERSO

RSO

N ERSO

N LO

2

ERSO

RS

2 PE

T

N LO

RSO

2 PE

6 PE

N 4 7] [ RSO OT 2 PE N LO ON L 4P T 6 PE PERS N LO 2 R 12] T RSO S E P T O O N LO [6P - 2 ON L S T R E T 10] 4P N LO [8PRSO E P 4 12] [10P 10 P -4] ERSO

RSO

T N LO RSO E P 4

8 PE

N LO T

RSO

RSO

N LO

T

4 PE

RSO

RSO

4 PE

RSO

RSO

8 PE 6 PE

RSO

RSO

N LO

4 PE

RSO

T RSO

RSO

H

RSO

8 PE 4 PE

ERSO

T

T

8 PE

T

T

10 P

T

T

N LO

ORT

N LO

N LO

N LO

N LO

N LO

RSO

8 PE

2 PE

<- N

T

T

RSO

T

N LO

N LO

8 PE

N LO

8 PE

8 PE

6 PE

RSO

RSO N LO RSO T N LO T

N LO

FINAL COMMUNITY DESIGN //

6 PE

8 PE

RSO

T

T

T

T

4 PE

N LO

N LO

N LO

N LO

RSO

RSO

T

T

OT ON L

6 PE

RSO

RSO

N LO

N LO

LOT

6 PE

RSO

RSO

LOT

ON PERS

T

10 P

8 PE

8 PE

8 PE

N LO

T

N LO

T

N LO

N LO

T

T

N LO

T

N LO

T

T

// 125


SITE PLAN YEAR 0

126 //

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


SITE PLAN YEAR 1/2

FINAL COMMUNITY DESIGN //

// 127


SITE PLAN YEAR 1

128 //

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


SITE PLAN YEAR 5

FINAL COMMUNITY DESIGN //

// 129


SITE PLAN YEAR 10

130 //

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


SITE PLAN YEAR 20

FINAL COMMUNITY DESIGN //

// 131


132 //

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


POPULATION ANALYSIS YEAR 1/2 //

YEAR 1 //

YEAR 5 //

YEAR 10 //

YEAR 20 //

HIGH DENSITY LOTS

49

0

64

45

30

NUMBER OF PEOPLE

6,272

0

8,192

5,760

3,840

MEDIUM DENSITY LOTS

28

33.5

15

44

25.5

NUMBER OF PEOPLE

2,352

1,809

1,260

3,696

2,142

LOW DENSITY LOTS

70

72.5

81

220

278.5

NUMBER OF PEOPLE

3,360

3,480

3,888

10,560

13,368

TOTAL OF ALL LOTS

147

106

160

309

334

TOTAL OF NEW DISPLACED PEOPLE

11,984

5,289

13,340

20,016

19,350

EXISTING DISPLACED POPULATION

0

11,984

17,543

34,041

61,716

NATURAL GROWTH

0

270

3,158

7,659

27,772

TOTAL DISPLACED POPULATION

11,984

17,543

34,041

61,716

108,838

KONGOLO POPULATION

62,455

63,860

65,297

77,050

94,386

NATURAL GROWTH

1,405

270

11,753

17,336

42,474

TOTAL KONGOLO POPULATION

63,860

65,297

77,050

94,386

136,860

FINAL COMMUNITY DESIGN //

// 133


134 //

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


FINAL STRUCTURAL DESIGN

// 135


STRUCTURAL DESIGN PARAMETERS ENVIRONMENTAL //

WATER COLLECTION //

SOLAR //

WATER //

utilize solar energy for passive cooking and water

collect water from day 1 to be used for drinking,

heating. capture electricity to charge aid items such

cooking, and eventually sanitation. this eliminates

as olpc (one laptop per child).

need for primary water source.

NATURAL VENTILATION //

RULE OF HALF //

unit must have at least two openings in the roof to

roof drains will be split. half will feed into a storage

facilitate natural ventilation and passive cooling.

tank under each shelter. the other half will feed into larger community tanks.

136 //

PLATFORM //

SHETLER ACCESS //

unit is raised off the ground to avoid mud and floods

each shelter will have an opening for a pump in the

during rainy season.

floor, which will hook to the collection tank.

AGRICULTURE //

PURIFICATION //

excess water is used for irrigation of plants, which

shelter pumps will have changable purification filters

will supplement the user s food supply from relief

inside to purify water as it is collected, rather than

agencies. waste is used as fertilizer.

after the fact.

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


STRUCTURAL DESIGN PARAMETERS CONSTRUCTION //

MATERIALITY //

COLLAPSIBLE //

UPGRADABILITY //

unit must be shipped in as small of volume as

design must allow for improvements to be made

possible. unit must also be able to be disassembled

over time.

easity and reassembled on a new site.

SIMPLE CONSTRUCTION //

FLEXIBLE FRAMEWORK //

unit must use low tech construction techiniques as it

basic structure is able to accomodate many different

will be assembled by unskilled labor.

types of material to facilitate upgrades.

MODULARITY //

RECYCLED MATERIALS //

design must provide for multiple configurations

construction materials will be made from renewable

based on variable family sizes and different lifestyle

or recyclable sources.

requirements

PACKAGING //

LIFESPAN //

packaging will be either used in the unit itself or else

the average refugee crisis lasts 7 years, and the

serve as a different, reusable product.

design of these units must exceed that length.

FINAL STRUCTURAL DESIGN //

// 137


STRUCTURAL ST TRU UCTURAL A ASS ASSEMBLY EMBLY PR PROCESS ROCESS

01 //

02 //

03 //

04 //

05 //

06 //

07 //

08 //

09 //

10 //

11 //

12 //

13 //

14 //

138 //

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


COLLAPSIBLE SHIPPING ANALYSIS

FINAL STRUCTURAL DESIGN //

// 139


UNIT SIZING VARIATION 2 UNITS // int. dimensions // interior area // occupants //

UNHCR SIZING REQUIREMENTS // 11 x 7 77 ft sq 2

cooking done inside shelter

3 UNITS // int. dimensions // interior area // occupants //

high range

11 x 14 154 ft sq 4 cooking done

4 UNITS // int. dimensions // interior area // occupants //

inside shelter

11 x 21 231 ft sq 6

low range

cooking done

5 UNITS // int. dimensions // interior area // occupants //

outside shelter

2 4.5 m 2 48.4 ft

2 3.5 m 2 37.7 ft

11 x 28 308 ft sq 8

6 UNITS // int. dimensions // interior area // occupants //

140 //

2 5.5 m 2 59.2 ft

11 x 35 385 ft sq 10 CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


STRUCTURAL DESIGN PARAMETERS

RULE OF HALF // roof drains will be split. half will feed into a storage tank under each shelter. the other half will feed into larger community tanks.

WATER // collect water from day 1 to be used for drinking, cooking, and eventually sanitation. this eliminates need for primary water source.

UPGRADABILITY // design must allow for improvements to be made over time.

LIFESPAN // the average refugee crisis lasts 7 years, and the design of these units must exceed that length.

NATURAL VENTILATION // unit must have at least two openings in the roof to facilitate natural ventilation and passive cooling.

FLEXIBLE FRAMEWORK // basic structure is able to accomodate many different types of material to facilitate upgrades.

SIMPLE CONSTRUCTION // unit must use low tech construction techiniques as it will be assembled by unskilled labor. MODULARITY // design must provide for multiple configurations based on variable family sizes and different lifestyle requirements

AGRICULTURE // excess water is used for irrigation of plants, which will supplement the user s food supply from relief agencies. waste is used as fertilizer.

RECYCLED MATERIALS // construction materials will be made from renewable or recyclable sources.

FINAL STRUCTURAL DESIGN //

PLATFORM // unit is raised off the ground to avoid mud and floods during rainy season.

PACKAGING // packaging will be either used in the unit itself or else serve as a different, reusable product.

// 141


VARIABLE SIZING STRATEGY

N

SO R E P 4

NIT U N O

S

2 PER

2 PERSON UNIT //

IT

UN N O RS

UNIT

6 PE

4 PERSON UNIT //

6 PERSON UNIT //

interior dimensions_ square footage_

7 x 10 70 sq ft

interior dimensions_ square footage_

14 x 10 140 sq ft

interior dimensions_ square footage_

21 x 10 210 sq ft

structural frames_

2

structural frames_

3

structural frames_

4

142 //

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


VARIABLE SIZING STRATEGY

N O S R 8 PE

UNIT

8 PERSON UNIT //

IT N U ON

S R E P 10

10 PERSON UNIT //

interior dimensions_ square footage_

28 x 10 280 sq ft

interior dimensions_ square footage_

35 x 10 350 sq ft

structural frames_

5

structural frames_

6

FINAL STRUCTURAL DESIGN //

// 143


TECTONIC SECTION DETAILS The construction joints are based on a very simple plug system. The aluminum members plug in to custom plastic connector pieces to form the framework. The image on the far right page shows how the roof is connected from unit to unit. Each roof unit has an end piece that works like a clamp. The tarp is wrapped around a large pipe, and the clamp holds it in place without puncturing the tarp.

FLOORING DETAIL //

CONNECTION //

WATER COLLECTION // 144 //

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


TECTONIC SECTION DETAILS

UNIT TO UNIT TARP CONNECTION // FINAL STRUCTURAL DESIGN //

// 145


RAINWATER COLLECTION WATER COLLECTING FORM // Water is collected from the roofs of these structures. This is done by including a gutter to the tarp roof.

By raising the ends of this

gutter, you can not only increase drainage down towards the drain, but also change the shape of the roof tarp to the point where it acts like a funnel. This gets the water oďŹ&#x20AC; of the roof quickly while still collecting this valuable resource.

WATER COLLECTION STRATEGY // Water is collected by using the rule of half. Half of the roof drains to Side A, where water is collected and stored in a collection tank under the unit. This tank is shaded to help keep the water cool. The water here can be used by each individual user of this speciďŹ c structure. The other half of the roof, Side B, drains into a collection pipe that runs to the nearest node, where water is stored for communal use during the dry seasons. The excess from here is then sent to the host city to promote a stronger relationship.

146 //

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


SKIN UPGRADEABILITY

TEMPORARY SKIN DEPLOYMENT //

FOUND MATERIAL RECYCLING //

USE OF NATURAL MATERIALS //

The skin is purposely designed as a separate entity from the structure of each unit because it is not meant to be a permanent solution. The structure, however, is meant to accommodate a wide variety of different materials. By using this flexible framework, the user can quickly upgrade from the basic tarp that is used in the initial deployment, using either materials salvaged from nearby war zones or using locally made materials (which can start to spawn industrial jobs within the community as well!)

FINAL STRUCTURAL DESIGN //

// 147


MATERIAL SELECTION The strategy for material selection is based on the idea that in order to keep costs minimal, these structures are manufactured from donated materials. By gaining access to recycling facilities, plastics can be repurposed into connector pieces and rainwater collection devices. Old tires can be broken down and made into ďŹ&#x201A;ooring tiles, and old pop caps can be recycled into the aluminum that creates the structural members. On a large enough scale, this strategy will save enough money to make it cost eďŹ&#x20AC;ective.

148 //

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


MATERIAL SELECTION

RECYCLED

FINAL STRUCT STRUCTURAL DESIGN //

PLASTIC //

RECYCLED

TIRES //

RECYCLED

ALUMINUM //

// 149


150 //

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


PATH CONDITION RENDERING

FINAL STRUCTURAL DESIGN //

// 151


152 //

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


SINGLE UNIT RENDERING

FINAL STRUCTURAL DESIGN //

// 153


GUEST CRITIC // Matt Burgermaster New Jersey Institute of Technology MENTOR // Peter Hind FINAL JURY // Chris Ford Steve Hardy Mark Hoistad Tom Laging

154 //

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


FINAL REFLECTIONS This was, by far, the most enjoyable project I have worked on in my six years at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. For me, the most exciting aspect of architectural design is the opportunity it gives you to impact people s lives. That is the reason I was drawn into a thesis of this nature in the first place. I have been blessed with six years of architectural education: what better way to make a difference than to design for some of the most oppressed living conditions on earth? This project, at its most basic level, is about injecting a bottom up approach to a system that is fundamentally top down. Aid agencies are built on providing what they deem as necessary support and materials. They are concerned with the basic welfare of the people as a whole,

and simply do not have the manpower to consider the implications of shelter beyond the most basic. In talking with those who have worked in these communities, the spaces that are the most active and successful are those that developed organically, such as the improvised soccer pitch or marketplace.

of flooding, this structure will sit on a platform above the ground. Instead of being applied like a bandage, this structure will be a catalyst to facilitate future growth. This was the trickiest part of the design process for me: consciously not designing certain aspects of the structure to allow for this user flexibility.

Academically, this project really gained momentum for me when I fully embraced the fact that I was designing something with a functional aesthetic. The structures weren t going to be provocative for the sake of being provocative. Rather, they had a very clear list of what they needed to do, which really made the design fall into place. Instead of simply shedding water like relief tents currently do, this structure will collect it. Instead of sitting on the ground, prone to the dangers

The most exciting part of this thesis, though, is that I am not even close to done with this. I view this project as a starting point, a spring board towards more work in this area which I feel is vastly under-explored. I am excited to see what the next chapter will hold!

// 155


FINAL BOARD LAYOUT

156 //

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


FINAL BOARD LAYOUT

FINAL REFLECTIONS //

// 157


FINAL STRUCTURAL MODEL STRUCTURAL MODEL // This structural model is constructed with basswood and chipboard, and is painted in three tones of grey. It represents one structural unit, and as such it is devoid of skin. The approximate dimensions are 10 by 16 by 15 high.

158 //

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


FINAL STRUCTURAL MODEL

FINAL REFLECTIONS //

// 159


160 //

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


BIBLIOGRAPHY

// 161


BIBLIOGRAPHY Aga Khan Foundation. Intervention Architecture: Building for Change. New York: I. B. Tauris, 2007.

Agier, Michel. Managing the Undesirables: Refugee Camps and

Humanitarian Government. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2008.

Hollenbach, David. Driven from Home: Protecting the Rights of Forced

Migrants. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 2010. Hyndman, Jennifer. Managing Displacement: Refugees and the Politics of

Humanitarianism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2000.

Aquilino, Marie J. Beyond Shelter: Architecture and Human Dignity. New York: Metropolis Books, 2011.

IASC (inter-Agency Standing Committee). A Primer for the Design of

Refugee Camps. ?: ?, ? Architecture for Humanity. Design Like You Give a Damn: Architectural

Responses to Humanitarian Crises. New York: Distributed Art Publishers, Inc., 2006.

Kronenburg, Robert. FTL (Future Tents Limited): Softness Movement and

Light (Architectural Monographs No 48). Liverpool: University of Liverpool, 1997.

CBC News In Depth. Anatomy of a refugee camps. 2007. Lengen, Johan van. The Barefoot Architect: A Handbook for Green Corsellis, Tom & Vitale, Antonella. Transitional Settlement Displaced

Building. Bolinas, California: Shelter Publications, 2008.

Populations. Cambridge: University of Cambridge, 2004. Lischer, Sarah Kenyon. Dangerous Sanctuaries: Refugee Camps, Civil War, Harrell-Bond, Barbara. Are refugee camps good for children? Cairo, Egypt: American University in Cairo, 2000.

162 //

and the Dilemmas of Humanitarian Aid. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2005.

CRAIG WEFLEN // PERMANENT IMPERMANENCE


BIBLIOGRAPHY Liu, John D. Thoughts on Designing Refugee Camps. George Mason University Center for Climate and Society, 2009.

Mollerup, Per. Collapsible: The Genius of Space-Saving Design. Hong Kong: Chronicle Books LLC, 2001.

Papanek, Victor. The Green Imperative: Natural Design for the Real World.

Smith, Cynthia E. Design for the Other 90%. New York: Smithsonian Institute, 2007.

Sphere Project. Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Disaster

Response. Geneva: The Sphere Project, 2004. UNHCR. Handbook for Emergencies. Geneva: UNHCR, 2000.

New York: Thames and Hudson Inc., 1995. UNHCR. UNHCR Global Trends 2010. Geneva: United Nations High Richardson, Phyllis. XS: Big Ideas, Small Buildings. London: Thames &

Commissioner for Refugees, 2011.

Hudson Ltd, 2001. USAid. USAID Country Health Statistical Report Congo, DR (Kinshasa). Sara Pavanello, Samir Elhawary and Sara Pantuliano. Hidden and Exposed:

Urban refugees in Nairobi, Kenya. London: Overseas Development

Washington, D.C.: Analysis, Information Management & Communications Activity (AIM), 2009.

Institute, 2010.

SKOR. Parasite Paradise: A Manifesto for Temporary Architecture and

Flexible Urbanism. Rotterdam: NAi Publishers, 2003.

BIBLIOGRAPHY //

// 163


TO BE CONTINUED...


permanent impermanence