46. Schama, Simon. The Embarrassment of Riches: An Interpretation of Dutch Culture in the Golden Age (Vintage: New York, 1987), 59. Even with a generous estimate of fiftyfive percent of the [European] Dutch as adherents, Calvinism still faced opposition from a “substantial minority” of Catholics and other followers of other Protestant sects. 47. Linda Marguerite Rupert, “Inter-Imperial Trade and Local Identity: Curaçao in the Colonial Atlantic World” (PhD diss., Duke University, 2006), 80-83. 48. Hartog, Curaçao, 170-71; Jonathan I. Israel, Dutch Primacy in World Trade, 15851740 (Oxford: Claredon, 1989), 321. Given that very few Curaçaoan slave owners instructed their slaves in their religions (let alone adopted them into their congregation) and that the West India Company’s interest in evangelism was negligible, there was little organized resistance as the Catholic faith swiftly took root in the African community. Benjamin, Jews of the Dutch Caribbean, 74-75; Hartog, Curaçao, 147-48, 294; Jonathan Schorsch, “Portmanteau Jews: Sephardim and Race in the Early Modern Atlantic World,” in Port Jews: Jewish Communities in Cosmopolitan Maritime Trading Centres, 1550-1950, ed. David Cesarani (London: Frank Cass, 2002), 64-66. 49. Ibid., 151, 170. Owing to efforts initiated by vicar apostolic Niewindt, the Church’s mission on the island brought nearly 85% of enslaved and free Curaçaoans into its fold by 1860. Allen, “Di ki manera?” 147. 50. Rose Mary Allen,“Resistance as a Creative Factor in Curaçaoan Culture” (paper presented to the Congress, Born out of Resistance—International and Interdisciplinary Congress on Cultural Creativity Response to European Expansion, Utrecht, The Netherlands), quoted in Benjamin, Jews of the Dutch Caribbean, 77.
51. Ibid., 170.
52. Ibid., 150, 172.
53. Ibid., 156. Children born out of wedlock who were baptized at all were subject to an alternate and degrading form of the sacrament after which the newborns were designated using a variety of derogatory labels including yunan di skuritdat (children of the dark), yunan di pika (children born in sin), yunan di diabel (children of the devil), and yunan di puta (children of a whore). Ibid., 158, 161.
54. Ibid., 159, 172.
55. Bernard R. Buddingh’, Otrobanda,‘Aen de Oversidje van deese haven’: De geschiedenis van Otrobanda, stadsdeel van Willemstad, Curaçao van 1696 tot 1755 (The Netherlands Antilles: De Curaçaosche Courant, 2006), 232-33.
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