Coupé and Leibman
34. Emmanuel, Precious Stones of the Jews of Curaçao, 52-53. The dumping of refuse on cemetery grounds remains a problem for some Curaçaoan burial sites. Rubbish bags clog pathways and bar access to certain sections of the Catholic Cemetery in Berg Altena and a meter-thick layer of trash covers the entirety of the kin plot adjacent to the Masonic Cemetery on Roodeweg in Otrobanda.
35. Ibid., 53.
37. The placement of Temple Emanu-él above a burial ground reflects Reform Judaism’s decreased concern with purity laws in general, and death impurity more specifically. For more on this issue, see our article “Purity, Reform, and the Afterlife in Curaçao’s Jewish Cemeteries.”
38. Benjamin, Jews of the Dutch Caribbean, 54.
39. René A. Römer, “Ethnicity and Social Change in Curaçao,” in The White Minority in the Caribbean, ed. Howard Johnson and Karl Watson (Kingston: Ian Randle, 1998), 160. 40. Given Curaçao’s infertile soil and semi-arid climate, a plantation was more a symbol of social rank than a site of actual income generation. Benjamin, Jews of the Dutch Caribbean, 55;Wim Klooster.“Contraband Trade by Curaçao’s Jews with Countries of Idolatry, 1660-1800,” Studia Rosenthaliana 31, no. 1 (1997): 59-60. 41. Emmanuel and Emmanuel, History of the Jews of the Netherlands Antilles, 67879. A plantation burial did not ensure a tomb would avoid desecration indefinitely. As time passed and families moved off the island, the landhuis kin plots were left untended and vulnerable. The Emmanuels speaks of such a landhuis kin plot lying under a dry cleaning business in their time.
42. Benjamin, Jews of the Dutch Caribbean, 54.
43. David M. Cheney, “Diocese of Willemstad: Dioecesis Gulielmopolitanus.” The Catholic-Hierarchy, http://www.catholic-hierarchy.org/diocese/dwill.html (accessed August 12, 2008). The Diocese of Willemstad reported that 79.2 per cent of the population within its boundaries (which include Curaçao, Aruba, Bonaire, part of St. Maarten, St. Eustatius, and Saba) belonged the Roman Catholic Church.
44. Hartog, Curaçao, 59.
45. Hartog, Curaçao, 35-42.
Annual Journal of the Association for Gravestone Studies