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SOUTHERN UTAH LIFE

D4 • Saturday, February 4, 2012

Supreme Court ruling confuses religious workers By Jeff Karoub Associated Press

— Aleeza Adelman teaches Jewish studies at a Jewish school, yet she considers herself a teacher whose subject is religion, not a religious teacher. She’s rethinking how to define her job after a recent U.S. Supreme Court ruling left her wondering what could happen if she ever needed to defend her right to keep it. The high court ruled last week that religious workers can’t sue for job discrimination, but didn’t describe what constitutes a religious employee — putting many people employed by churches, synagogues or other religious organizations in limbo over their rights. “I think of myself as a teacher who is just like any other teacher,� said Adelman, who works at the New Orleans Jewish Day School. “Yes, my topic of teaching happens to be Jewish stuff, but if I were to just think in general about it, am I different from the teacher across the hall who is teaching secular studies?� The justices denied government antidiscrimination protection to Cheryl Perich, a Detroit-area teacher and commissioned minister who complained to the federal Equal Employment Opportunity Commission that her firing was discriminatory under the Americans with Disabilities Act. The commission sued the HosannaTaborEvangelicalLutheran Church and School of Redford Township, Mich., over her firing. Perich got sick in 2004 and tried to return to work from disability leave despite a narcolepsy diagnosis. She was fired after she showed up at the school and threatened to sue to get her job back. A federal judge threw out the lawsuit on grounds that Perich fell under the DETROIT

so-called ministerial exception, which keeps the government from interfering with church affairs. The 6th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals reinstated her lawsuit, arguing that her primary function was teaching secular subjects so the ministerial exception didn’t apply. The high court disagreed, but didn’t set rigid rules on who can be considered a religious worker of a religious organization. That appears to give wide leeway to churches and other religious organizations to decide who qualifies for the exception. Rita Schwartz, president of Philadelphia-based National Association of Catholic School Teachers, said she’s comforted by the fact that the justices didn’t set a broad precedent. But she said it leaves employees of religious-based institutions in an unsettled position until or unless they are deemed a ministerial employee. “I don’t mind that title unless it is used to deny my rights as a citizen,� said Schwartz, whose association was formed in 1978. “I don’t give up my rights at the schoolhouse door. I should not have to do that.� Justice Samuel Alito, who wrote a separate opinion, argued that the ministerial exception should be tailored for only an employee “who leads a religious organization, conducts worship services or important religious ceremonies or rituals or serves as a messenger or teacher of its faith.� Schwartz also is concerned about how far the exception can go. She supported maintenance workers in a dispute several years ago in which she said Catholic officials argued that the workers were ministerial employees because “they polished the pews in the chapels and they repaired the crucifixes on the walls.�

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THE SPECTRUM & DAILY NEWS

Contraception mandate outrages religious groups

and Human Services Department adopted the rule to improve health care for women. Last year, an advisory panel from the Institute of Medicine, which advises the federal government, recommended including birth control on the list of covered services, partly because it promotes maternal and child health by allowing women to space their pregnancies. The regulation includes a religious exemption if an organization qualifies. Under that provision, an employer generally will be considered religious if its main purpose is spreading religious beliefs, and if it largely employs and serves people of the same faith. That means a Catholic parish likely would qualify for a religious exemption; a large church-run soup kitchen probably would not. Employers that fail to provide health insurance coverage under the federal law could be fined $2,000 per employee per year. The bishopsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; domestic anti-poverty agency, Catholic Charities, says it employs 70,000 people nationwide. The fine for the University of Notre Dame, the most prominent Catholic school in the

country, could be in the millions of dollars. HHS says employers can appeal a decision on whether they qualify for an exemption. But Hannah Smith, senior counsel for the Becket Fund for Religious Liberty, said, â&#x20AC;&#x153;The mandate vests too much unbridled discretion in the hands of government bureaucrats.â&#x20AC;? Mandates for birth-control coverage are not entirely new for religious groups. Twenty-eight states already require contraceptive coverage in prescription drug plans. Of those states, 17 offer a range of religious exemptions, while two others provide opt-outs of other kinds. However, opponents of the HHS regulation say there is no state mandate as broad as the new federal rule combined with a religious exemption that is so narrow. Even in states where the requirement already exists, the issue is far from settled. Wisconsinâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s 2009 contraception mandate did not include a religious exemption, but allowed an exception for employers who self-insure. While some dioceses in the state were able to self-insure, others couldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t afford to do so.

The Diocese of Madison, Wis., ended up offering a policy with birth-control coverage, but asked employees to follow church teaching and not use the benefit. Local bishops continued to lobby state lawmakers for an exemption. But leaders knew a national health care overhaul was in development and hoped the federal law would be an improvement, said John Huebscher, executive director of the Wisconsin Catholic Conference, the public policy arm of the stateâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s bishops. In California, whose religious exemption served as the model for the Obama administration, dioceses and some churchrun agencies were able to self-insure, said Carol Hogan of the California Catholic Conference, but that option is for the most part unavailable under the federal health care law. Church-run groups could have stopped offering insurance to their employees, but considered that option unfair to workers. The bishops have responded sharply to the regulation, launching a nationwide campaign against the mandate. Bishops in more than 140 dioceses issued statements that were read at Mass last weekend. Bishop William Murphy of Rockville Centre, N.Y., called the requirement â&#x20AC;&#x153;a radical incursion on the part of our government into freedom of conscience.â&#x20AC;? Bishop David Zubik of Pittsburgh wrote that â&#x20AC;&#x153;the Obama administration was essentially saying â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;to hell with you,â&#x20AC;&#x2122; particularly to the Catholic community by dismissing our beliefs, our religious freedom and our freedom of conscience.â&#x20AC;?

â&#x20AC;&#x153;It struck home that God hears, sees, and answers prayers. Even though Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;d wished for a better outcome, Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m grateful that God chose us. I never thought I could walk through something like this. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s made me realize how every moment in life is important â&#x20AC;&#x201D; even if it was just 80 minutes. I packed a lot of parenthood in those 80 minutes.â&#x20AC;?

Later Sue added, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Ever since this happened, I think about â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;the moment.â&#x20AC;&#x2122; In life, sometimes we only get a moment. GiGiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s life was that moment.â&#x20AC;? Meanwhile, Rick Santorum reports that â&#x20AC;&#x153;little Isabella has made a â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;miraculousâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; recovery.â&#x20AC;? Norris Burkes is a syndicated columnist, national speaker and the author of â&#x20AC;&#x153;No Small

Miracles.â&#x20AC;? He also serves as an Air National Guard chaplain and is board certified in the Association of Professional Chaplains. You can call him at 321549-2500 or email him at ask@thechaplain.net or visit his website at www. thechaplain.net. Write him at P.O. Box 247, Elk Grove, Calif., 95759.

tions is what makes the restaurant special. â&#x20AC;&#x153;I donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t look at them as chores but as what separates us from other restaurants,â&#x20AC;? he says. The restaurant came about partly because Jack Bistricer, the chairman and CEO of Talisker Corporation, which owns Canyons, is devoted to his faith and in the past has had a chef travel with him so he can keep kosher. There was a recognition that some travelers would be interested in having such a service. The restaurant has been busy during its first few

weeks. Estimates are that about 70 percent of the clientele is Jewish, whether Orthodox, Conservative or Reform. Much of the clientele is from the East Coast, although the biggest group so far at one time was from Mexico. The other 30 percent of the patrons are people who simply enjoy a good gourmet meal. Skowron says those of the Jewish faith who are interested in keeping kosher while on a ski vacation will â&#x20AC;&#x153;come here every night.â&#x20AC;? â&#x20AC;&#x153;The majority of the clientele have a very personal tie to the restaurant and are very grateful,â&#x20AC;? he says. It

makes the staff want to get things right as far as the Jewish customs because, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s our way of showing a sign of respect for their faith.â&#x20AC;? Bistro is open in the evenings for dinner Saturday through Thursday, and guests can also find kosher box lunches at designated outlets throughout the resort during the day. On Friday evenings, the rabbi conducts the sabbath service and the congregation moves to Bistro, where everyone is served a prix-fixe traditional sabbath menu in one seating. The restaurantâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s phones and computers are not turned on, and no money may change hands. Credit card information is given in advance, and orders are not processed until after the sabbath has ended on Saturday evening. One of the reasons often given to explain why kosher eating has survived for thousands of years is because those who follow kosher standards engage in healthy eating. Skowron says that while thatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s true, working at Bistro has shown him that such a rationale misses the main point â&#x20AC;&#x201D; religion. The act of keeping kosher turns one of the most basic and common human activities into a religious experience. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Thatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s one of the main reasons these traditions carry on,â&#x20AC;? he says. â&#x20AC;&#x153;It turns meal-time into a focus on faith. It instills discipline.â&#x20AC;?

By Rachel Zoll AP Religion Writer

The Obama administrationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s decision requiring church-affiliated employers to cover birth control was bound to cause an uproar among Roman Catholics and members of other faiths, no matter their beliefs on contraception. The regulation, finalized a week ago, raises a complex and sensitive legal question: Which institutions qualify as religious and can be exempt from the mandate? For a church, mosque or synagogue, the answer is mostly straightforward. But for the massive network of religious-run social service agencies there is no simple solution. Federal law lays out several criteria for the government to determine which are religious. But in the case of the contraception mandate, critics say Health and Human Services Secretary Kathleen Sebelius chose the narrowest ones. Religious groups that oppose the regulation say it forces people of faith to choose between upholding church doctrine and serving the broader society. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s not about preventing women from buying anything themselves, but telling the church what it has to buy, and the potential for that to go further,â&#x20AC;? said Sister Carol Keehan, president of the Catholic Health Association, representing some 600 hospitals. Keehanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s support for the passage of the Obama health care overhaul was critical in the face of intense opposition by the U.S. bishops. She now says the narrowness of the religious exemption in the birth control mandate â&#x20AC;&#x153;has jolted us.â&#x20AC;? She pledged to use a one-year grace period the administration has provided to â&#x20AC;&#x153;pursue a correction.â&#x20AC;? The U.S. Health

Burkes Continued from D3

â&#x20AC;&#x153;I expected a deformed baby,â&#x20AC;? Sue admitted, â&#x20AC;?but she was beautiful. It was like a visitor from heaven. It was like God showing me that what we did was the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;faith thing.â&#x20AC;&#x2122; I remember feeling like my heart was exploding so joyfully. It was like seeing God on Earth.

In this Oct. 31, 2011 file photo, Health and Human Services Secretary Kathleen Sebelius is seen in the Oval Office at the White House in Washington. Federal law lays out several criteria for the government to determine which are religious. But in the case of the contraception mandate, critics say Health and Human Services Secretary Kathleen Sebelius chose the narrowest ones. CHARLES DHARAPAK / AP

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