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Zarządzanie Kulturą, tom 6 (2013), nr 3 / Culture Management, vol. 6 (2013), no. 3

Teresa M. Dudzik (International Management and Marketing Institute at the Warsaw School of Economics) Dorota Ilczuk (University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Warsaw) SOSART. STUDY ON THE LABOUR MARKET OF ARTISTS AND CREATORS IN POLAND

Keywords: artist, labour market, profession, professional artist, salary. Abstract: This was supposed to be an article containing the results of labour market of artists and creators research project and implemented in 2012-2013 by the University of Economy in Bydgoszcz and the Pro Cultura Foundation in Warsaw. This is only partly so because, although research project is entering a phase of analysis it has not yet finished the data collection step. And the final results are still to come. In order to fulfill the promise made to the publisher we are about to share with readers our experiences regarding the method of research and part of results from field studies. We also encourage you to read the final report of the study, which will be available on the network in January 2014.

This was supposed to be an article containing the results of labour market of artists and creators research project and implemented in 2012-2013 by the University of Economy in Bydgoszcz and the Pro Cultura Foundation in Warsaw. This is only partly so because, although research project is entering a phase of analysis it has not yet finished the data collection step. And the final results are still to come. In order to fulfill the promise made to the publisher we are about to share with readers our experiences regarding the method of research and part of results from field studies. We also encourage you to read the final report of the study, which will be available on the network in January 2014. 1. The study – the purpose, hypothesis, research method The labour market of artists and creators in Poland research project implemented by the Pro Cultura Foundation in collaboration with the University of Economy in Bydgoszcz is co-financed by the Polish Ministry of Culture and National Heritage. It is carried out to identify trends and problems on the labour market of artists and creators in terms of sectors of activity, taking into account both the supply side and the demand side. This is the first study on the labour market of creators and artists covering more than one occupational group after 1989, "The labour market in the culture" report (ed. Teresa Słaby), due to the fact that it examines the period up to 2002 it may be a good starting point but it is no longer valid. Global development trends set a new place for culture on the public stage. In front of our eyes, the concept of combining non-industrial cultural areas with industrial ones of creative sector is created. Culture has been recognised as a new area favorable for investment and job creation, a source of creativity and innovation. However, we can not say much about the situation of professional artists and creators forming the backbone of the cultural sector and its industries. The labour market of artists in Poland is not sufficiently monitored and evaluated. Furthermore the situation of professional artists and creators is not relevant to the identified development trends. There are two main hypotheses of the study. To verify them it was necessary to achieve the specific objectives of the study, which included:  presentation of pathways leading to the profession;  monitoring the career of graduates of art schools;

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identifying characteristics and conditions of practicing profession by creators and artists: the formula of employment, areas of activity, sources of financing active professional artists and creators, pensions, etc.; recognising the economic situation of creators and artists in terms of occupational groups, age, gender; determining the scale and form of public intervention for creators and artists; developing recommendations regarding: the labour market of artists and creators targeting key stakeholders of the survey: public authorities, the artistic circles, the researchers; labour market of artists and creators monitoring and analysis.

The study adopted the classification of the KEA European Affairs report (2006) as a starting point for determining the areas under study. It was agreed that in the first part of the project (analysis of existing data) study will cover four sectors: visual arts, literature, music and design. It was decided to use the definition of "active professional artist" introduced by prof. David Throsby during the labour market research of creators and artists in Australia. The research team has created its own definition suitable for field studies using screening, certain additional complementary criteria. The term "active professional artist" used in the field research refers to artists who worked creatively in the past five years. The "professional" aspect of this definition narrows the scope of the study to those artists who create works with a sufficiently high level of commitment and a sufficiently high standard, in accordance with the standards of professional practice in the field of art, so it excludes from the study hobbyists and amateurs. The researh project was divided into three stages. In the first one desk research analysis was performed, the diagnosis made on the basis of existing studies abroad, Polish and international statistics, regulations, press materials (desk research). In the second stage field study was conducted in the Metropolitan Area of Warsaw and Bydgoszcz-Toruń Metropolitan Area, which includes both quantitative and qualitative research (focus groups and individual interviews). The third and final stage is devoted to the analysis of the results of the secondary data research and the results of field studies. The summary of this step is to develop a final report with recommendations. Later in this article fieldwork carried out in Warsaw during the second stage of the study will be presented, together with the preliminary analysis of the results. 2. The labour market of creators and artists in Warsaw field research 2.1. How did we problematise the fieldwork? Below is shown how we problematised our resarch project. The map of issues and hypotheses presented below was used as the starting material for the development of quantitative research surveys and scenario of in-depth interviews with artists. The main research problem: Tendencies of the labour market of creators and artists in Poland Hypothesis 1 The labour market of artists in Poland is not sufficiently monitored and evaluated. Hypothesis 2 Professional artists and creators situation is not relevant to the identified developments. I. The research problem: The path leading to the profession Hypothesis 1 Artistic path of education as an important factor in career success.

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Hypothesis 2 "Internationalisation" of the educational path leading to an increased employability. II. The research problem: The professional path of arts graduates Hypothesis 1 Entrepreneurship (as attitude and behaviour) is the biggest challenge for the creators and artists in the labour market. Hypothesis 2 The creative sector is still little recognised as a labour market for artists (in the part including cultural industries (e.g. film, the music industry, art trade) and the industries in which culture becomes a "creative contribution to the production of goods in sectors not directly related to the culture (e.g. ceramics, furniture, clothing). III. The research problem: The characteristics and conditions of practicing profession of creators and artists Hypothesis 1 The necessity to carry out work and collaboration with various organisations, "dual profession" as a defining feature of the presence of the artist on the labour market. Hypothesis 2 Negotiating position of creators and artists on the labour market in the public cultural sector is weaker than in the private sector (cultural industries, non-profit sector). Hypothesis 3 The issues of health insurance and pension systems as key risk factors for practicing the profession of creator and artist. Hypothesis 4 There is a growing need for entrepreneurial behavior of artists in the labour market. IV. The research problem: The economic situation of creators and artists by job, age, gender Hypothesis: 1 Occupation of creator and artist does not guarantee the revenues on the level providing social security. Hypothesis 2 Working outside the public sphere of culture is an economic necessity. V. The research problem: The scale and form of public intervention for the creators and artists Hypothesis 1 Reasonable demanding attitudes of creators and artists in the absence of concrete proposals for solutions at the same time weaken the effectiveness of the protests. 2.2. What kind of field research were conducted and what methods were used? For the purpose of our project we have acquired data with primary research method: 1 surveys and interviews conducted over the telephone and computer-assisted (CATI) 2 focus groups (FGI) 3 in-depth interviews with artists

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2.2.1. Quantitative surveys There have been deliberate choice of four occupational groups:  Visual artists (including painters, graphic artists, designers, sculptors, clothing and interiors designers),  Dancers (including choreographers),  Musicians (including composers, instrumentalists, singers),  Writers (including writers and poets). For inclusion in the research sample, the artist had to obtain in the last 5 years a min. 50% of the revenues from the artistic work and had to have significant environmental recognitions for their work. 127 computer-assisted telephone interviews were completed (CATI) The size of professional groups were as follows: Musicians - 32 people, dancers - 33 people, writers - 30 people, visual artists - 32 people. 59 women and 68 men were in the sample. The largest age group were those born in the years 1971 - 1990 (the proportion was 49.7%). Artists born in the years 1951 - 1970 presented 35.4% of the study population. In a selected group of respondents of the survey, 56% of respondents declared that their income as artists brings from 75 - 100% of their total income regardless of employment forms. 2.2.2. Focus Research Research using focus group interviews (FGI) allowed to collect the views of communities important for the purposes of the project. Crucial for us were the views of employers from different places of artists employment; beginning with the organisations and institutions closely associated with the cultural sector, to the cultural industries and the creative sector. Our interviewees represented all the possible places of employment covered by the study group of artists (museums, theaters, galleries, bands, publishing houses, artistic cafes, advertising agencies, tattoo studio). According to the rules of this type of research two meetings of a group of 6 and 10 people were conducted. The discussion focused on three issues. These were: the image of the artist as an employee, motives and forms of artists employment. 2.2.3. Interviews The purpose of the interviews was to complement the knowledge of development tendencies in the labour market of artists and creators, acquired through the analysis of existing data and conducting quantitative research surveys and focus studies. Scenario of the interview coressponds to the problems defined in the study. In the period from 17 September to 10 October 2013 twelve interviews were conducted. Interviews were conducted with Liliana Bardijewska (writer, translator), Andrzej Bielawski (painter), Robert Bondar (dancer, choreographer), Anna Chadaj (set designer), Magda Jurek (designer), Paweł Kałużyński (painter), Jerzy Kornowicz (composer), Edyta Kozak (dancer), Dariusz Łapinski (composer), Aleksander Milwiw Baron (musician), Mariusz Ścisło (architect) and Wojciech Trzciński (composer). 2.3. The results of field studies carried out in Warsaw metropolis by area of research We will present the results for the three research areas:  paths leading to the profession,  the nature and the practice of the profession, and  economic situation of artists. Hypotheses have been underlined in the text. 2.3.1. Area of research: the path leading to the profession In our study, we assumed that formal art education promotes the development of artistic graduates career. Survey results were quite surprising, in our study sample of respondents (recall: people who declare that at least half of their revenues come from artistic work), only 29.9% of people declared the completion of art

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academy and 11% of respondents completing a secondary art school. The results showed a high diversity of individual groups in terms of education, graduation was declared mostly by musicians (59.2% of representatives of the music competition). Least graduates were in a group of writers. Almost all the artists who were interviewed in-depth graduated from artistic studies. We talked with people recognisable on the market, but it is difficult to say whether it is higher education that has become a guarantor of artistic success. When interviewing graduates of art academies, we asked the question about what artists think is lacking in arts education, and would be useful on the labour market. Designer, Magda Jurek notes: What college has not taught me at all is a self-promotion. It did not give me confidence. And at the beginning I mainly relied on that. I felt that I was doing cool things, but I could not show them to the world. There is not enough of such a knowledge at the academy. Analysing the problem of formal art education, we asked a question about postgraduate education: 22.8% completed the post-graduate (more women (22%) than men (13.2%), including 36.4% of artistic direction and 27.3 % management (a vast majority of women (38.5%, and only 11.1% of men). Trends were confirmed by the artists interviewed. However, if one of them decided to study, it was most usually managerial departments or teacher of art profiles, which were linked directly or indirectly to the artistic work. Paweł Kałużyński (painter), gave such a reason why he decided to finish post-graduate studies for teachers at the Academy: [...] to have a document that authorises me to teach. Mainly it was about teaching children. I wanted to know what the program should be like. Exploring research problems of paths leading to the profession and its practice, specific hypothesis was assumed that the internationalisation of teaching programs and increased networking increases opportunities on the labour market - even abroad. The quantitative research shows a low degree of internationalisation of the examined group, firstly, only 4.7% of respondents identified foreign grants as an important source of financing the arts, only a small percentage of people were declaring the completion of postgraduate studies abroad (5.4%). There was also a small percentage of people declaring to win prizes in international competitions (4%). On the other hand, most of the artists we interviewed were using education abroad. Jerzy Kornowicz (Composer) explains this phenomenon: It is quite common in the artistic community. This gives the possibility to extend the experience and the cognitive field, improving technical capabilities, familiarising yourself with other cultures. Edyta Kozak (dancer): I do not know any contemporary dancer or dance artist in Poland, which would not leave for education, at least partly abroad. These are often summer trips or seasonal ones. 2.3.2. Research area: The characteristics and conditions of professional practice Forms of work Examined artists and creators have been employed for the past five years as artists on full-time jobs, they organised their own self-employment, obtained revenues by civil law contracts or by using their copyright. The full time employment contracts were declared by 25.9% of the respondents, including indefinite contracts 16.5% (mostly dancers, men), for a specified period 9.4% (mostly musicians, women). Running their own business was declared by 28.3% of respondents, with 25.1% for a registered business (mostly visual artists, men) and 3.2% in the foundation (also mostly visual artists but mostly women). More than half of the respondents indicated task contracts (mostly musicians, women) as the most common form of the the civil law contracts. Job orders contracts were declared by 23.5% of the respondents (mostly visual artists and musicians, men). 11.8% of respondents indicated royalties as a source of revenue. Respondents did not expect significant changes in the formal forms of employment in the next five years. In addition, full-time job employed persons did not declare the use of revenues from other legal forms. Freelancing people were asked a similar question ", and this group also most frequently pointed out

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only one form of obtaining revenue (over 70% of responses). Overall, 63.8% of respondents declared only one form of acquiring revenue, 20.8% two forms, incidentally, 3 and 4. It is widely recognised as the standard for artists to work in different occupations and in many organisations. The following research hypothesis was formulated: within the artists labour market there is a need for artists to work in different occupations and provide work and collaboration for various organisations. Neither quantitative nor qualitative research has given us a reason to explicitly confirm dual occupation of creators and artists as a specific feature. As apparent from quantitative research, over 60 % of respondents practiced only one profession. When asked artists rarely worked in occupations of non artistic basis. Most were odd jobs to improve short-term financial situation. At the same time many of them have been engaged in profitable business as managers and / or educators, experts, which, although related to their artistic work, in fact were not of an artistic character. We may risk to say that the so-called second profession of artists is strongly related to their artistic work. This form of activity was not taken by dancers or visual artists. It was confirmed by the responses to the quantitative research; we have asked our respondents whether they provide work not related to their professional artist profession outside the cultural sector. This form of activity was declared by 17.6 % of respondents only (see Figure 1).

100 17,6

82,4

0 yes

no

Fig. 1. Do you work in an institution outside the sphere of culture in the position not related with the performed profession ? [results shown in percentage] Source: Indicator

As for the number of institutions with which cooperation is taken, only 32.3% of respondents did not cooperate with any institution, with one works 20.5% of respondents, with more than four 27.6%. Musicians and visual artists cooperate with the largest number of institutions. 47% of respondents declared to provide art work for non-governmental cultural institutions. It is a work mainly in services and in the case of 71.7% of the respondents it was indicated that these services are different than: administration, local government, education.

Entrepreneurship of artists The subject of our study were selected manifestations of entrepreneurship within the examined group of artists. We included into it:  level of artistic agent institutions usage,  professional level of activity on the internet (marketing, sales). Our research shows that the services of an agent is used by 21.3% of the respondents, mostly by musicians - women (58.3%). Lack of interest in this type of cooperation demonstrated: visual artists (women) and dancers (men). Among the reasons for the lack of demand for services of agents too high costs were mentioned most often (41%, most often by musicians, visual artists - women and men). And lack of need (27%, more often women than men), lack of suitable candidates (21% more men). 142


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Qualitative research well illustrates these trends. Our Interviewees were mostly personaly engaged in creating their own image. This is often due to the economic situation, as in the case of Edyta Kozak, which when asked whether she cooperates with any agency, has she got an agent that helps her? Answers: No, I can not afford it. Dancers in Poland simply can not afford to have an agent. Sometimes the reason is the lack of good agents on the market as in the case of Liliana Bardijewska: There are no such (agents) within the literature field, and there are very few of them in the theater. But I work with the agency organising meetings with authors. But, for example, Aleksander Milwiw has been cooperating with a personal manager. Female designer - Jurek has her own manager. Regarding to the web activity of the examined group, lack of any form of commitment was declared by 25.2% of respondents (more often men (27.9%) than women (22%)) from the group of dancers. Most frequently owning a website was pointed out (57% of respondents including all visual artists), and the Facebook fanpage (18% of respondents). No significant differences in the use of the Internet was observed in order of age, nor sex, nor the kind of artistic activity performed. Figure 2 presents the methods of online presence.

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

57,50

26,80 8,70

9,40

3,90

5,50

own website personal blog profile on the portfolio on portfolio on trade the corporate the website of association website industry website

25,20

3,90 fanpage on facbook

1,60

profile sites twiter account such linkedln, goldenline

1,60

2,40

myspace profile

channel on video sites such as youtube

I'm not activ in the web

Fig. 2. Do you promote your person / artistic activity on the internet, if so, how? [Results shown in percantage] Source: Indicator

Risk factors for practicing the artistic profession Another objective of our study was to verify the statements of existential necessity to perform work: hypothesis: issues of health insurance and pension system as key risk factors for practicing the profession of creator and artist. As many as 25% of the respondents declared that over the past five years there were periods when the respondents lacked health insurance and social security (mostly dancers and writers, men). 12.6% of respondents used the possibility of paying social insurance premiums adressing earlier the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage. They were mainly dancers, women, and visual artists, men. In conducting our interviews, there was also a problem of social benefits. Anna Chadaj describes it this way: Artists in Poland have no social protection that would take into account their specific work, there are no system solutions of pensions and health benefits. Of course, any artist can insure voluntarily and pay a premium (on the same basis as any other person running a business), but for most people working on task contracts (for me too) these costs are too high. In addition, there is a need for regular payment of premiums on a

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monthly basis, with the restrictions that the payments must be maintained continously. However, my professional group earnings are irregular and unstable (fluctuble incomes), so that the monthly payment declaration is a big effort and often exceeds the financial capacity of the artist. " This is what Edyta Kozak, dancer has to say on the issue: [...] Of course, young people want to dance, but sometimes it is literally a 2, 3, 7 years adventure. Those who seriously think about their professional development, even those who finished ballet schools, still do not have any protection. Interviewed artists jointly agree that there is a need of a special service offer dedicated to artists and creators, which would allow them to feel safe in terms of health. Certainly, this reflects a failure of the existing solutions still called “pension provision for creators” proposed by the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage. Most frequently mentioned risks of practicing the profession were: lack of demand for the work of artists (31.5%), lack of support from the state and the lack of copyright protection (21.3%). This is related to the issue of unemployment. In the group of artists only? as much as? 8.9% of people said they were registered as unemployed in the last five years. Given the strict criteria qualifying artists for research purposes, it must be considered that they were forced to become unemployed persons, i.e. those who are willing to work for the current market wages but are unable to find jobs. The employers view By examining the image of artists as workers and their employment reasons, we tried to verify the following hypothesis: the artist is treated as a creative person, inspiring, not to demanding when it comes to payment. All participants of the focus group, when asked the question: who is an artist as an employee (regardless of type of employment) said that it is "a person of passion, with a sparkle in the eye", "different", "creative", "breaking conventions," but also having hard skills training. In the discussion it was pointed out that artists tend to be willing to work for little or no money at all in order to be able to enter the market (young) or in order not to fall out of it (older). At the same time it was stressed that they can negotiate, even more often they leave the wage negotiations and the protection of their copyright to agents (among musicians it is already a standard). The analysis of the opinions shows that there are different expectations depending on whether artists or performers are employed. In the case of the first group "sparkle in the eye", creativity, freshness, fresh perspective is expected. When performers are employed, the most desirable feature is hard professional competence. However in both cases, it is expected that employed artist, "will" find someone more in their environment, that will act as a so-called apostle of the organisation (will attract not only the audience but also (equally good) colleagues to work). Results of in-depth interviews reaffirmed the importance of contacts, networks and personal recommendations for artists who decide to take the job. Aleksander Baron Milwiw points out what helps to enter the market: it definitely helps, what I felt myself, finding the right place for oneself, such a place that brings together the music industry and a bunch of artists. (...). Anna Chadaj, considers contacts to be important. Audience and the client need to know that the person is trustworthy and proven. (...) On the labour market of people associated with the theater, film, television, etc. the most important is to be recommanded by someone. It's not just about supporting your circle and patronage, known as back (although in extreme cases it looks that way), but about the awareness that the person is out there, doing interesting things, is reputable and has a good trademark. Liliana Bardiewska confirms the existence of barriers when entering into the labour market: I felt the tightness while taking the first steps as a translator. Anna Chadaj also met such a difficulty entering the market: Yes. Definitely I felt the tightness. Fortunately, I was able to enter it and work in the environment. 2.3.3. Research area: the economic situation of creators and artists Revenue of artists arouses particular emotions in the context of earnings or rather "non-profit", "work without money," an issue which has been a source of artists protests not only in Poland. When questioned about the revenue - most answered: I do not know 23%, 22% denied to answer. 28.3% of respondents

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declared an annual income of less than 20 thousand. But an 8.6% indicates revenue in the range of 40 - 50 thousand. Over 100 thousand 2%, and that was the oldest age group, representing the musicians environment. Faced with the low annual revenues only 7.9% of respondents were considering giving up the artist profession, the most common answer "I do not know" was provided when asked about a possible future profession. Artists who were interviewed were reluctant to talk about their earnings. Perhaps this is due to the fact that they are often very irregular and difficult to assess. Answers covering the percentage of income from artistic employment and from the other non artistic work were very different one from an other. They ranged from 100% in the case of artistic work of Alexander Milwiw-Baron, Liliana Bardijewska, Magda Jurek, Anna Chadaj, 90%/80% for Dariusz Łapiński, down to the amounts set as a qualifying criterion for the study. 3. Conclusion In the light of economic theory, the labour market is one of the markets of production factors. A characteristic feature of these markets is the fact that the demand on that market is a derivative and that it depends on the demand for products, which these factors are used in order to manufacture. The demand within the labour market depends on the willingness of artists to participate in cultural life (financed from private sources of citizens) and the degree of state involvement in the financing of "collective consumption" of culture. Universal is also an expectation that a creative industry becomes a new way of creating jobs for artists. It should be emphasised that the purpose of state cultural policy is to influence not only the demand side of the market. State intervention of the supply side of market comes through the direct and indirect ways of financing the artists and the infrastructure. The result of this intervention should be the institutions supporting the functioning of all the participants of the labour market as an efficient, giving a sense of the system security, understood by all its participants. Institutions are understood here as standards, regulations and procedures ensuring their observance, their main task is to reduce uncertainty for human interactions. Marek Garbicz writes, "the economy is not a collection of independently operating Robinsons on deserted islands". Research of creators and artists on Polish labour market, as we said at the beginning of this article, is not yet complete. We do not even want to comment on the above-described partial results of the study. We look forward to the results of the Bydgoszcz-Toruń metropolitan area research and the final debate over them of the whole research team. Meanwhile, we share a reflection of a general nature only. The decision to initiate the study of the labour market of creators and artists in Poland, has been taken on the basis of beliefs about the lack of adequate recognition of the issue and information available in the public domain. This belief was confirmed during the analysis of existing data. It shows clearly that Poland does not monitor and regularly analyse the labour market of creators and artists. Valuable and sometimes even priceless are the artistic community initiatives, that successfully attempts to assess the labour market of selected activity sectors. However, on the basis of their results ther is a limited possibility to compare the situation of various groups of professional creators and artists in Poland. Especially since they still adopt different research methods and timing. This can be seen particularly clearly when compared to the foreign experience. Artist within the labour market is of interest to the statistical offices and research centers supported financially by governments and local authorities. In Poland, it is not so. We do not quite know why. Can not we really afford to start the work that would lead to a decent, developed regularly, say every 3, 4 years report on the situation of professional creators and artists. Let us immediately surpass what the critics may say. We are not concerned about creating the conditions for another order from the government. Our aim is to create a solid basis for starting the system solutions CONCEPT for the operation of creators and artists on the labour market in Poland. 63 % of the respondents of our study evaluates state support for artists as bad and very bad. In the context of the other results of the study it sounds like an SOS signal sent by the artists , hence the title of this article: SOSART.

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Literature Begg D., Fisher S., Dornbush R., Ekonomia, t. 1, PWE, Warszawa, 1993. Garbicz M., 2012, Problemy rozwoju i zacofania ekonomicznego, Oficyna Wolters Kluwer Business, Warszawa. Towse R., Ekonomia kultury. Kompendium, Narodowe Centrum Kultury, Warszawa 2011. Dorota Ilczuk is Professor of Economics and Cultural Management at University of Social Sciences and Humanities. (Warsaw). She is the Founder and President of the Pro Cultura Foundation which undertakes Research and Development in the cultural field in Europe. She is the author of over one hundred publications, studies and articles (in Polish and in English), in a wide range of relevant research fields, including: economic aspects of cultural activity and the economics of culture, interdependence between cultural policy and the development of civil society, cultural management, third sector, the privatisation of culture, sponsorship and patronage of culture, economic value of the creative sector and cultural industries and changes in public cultural institutions. Her latest publication is monograph Economics of Culture PWN, Warsaw 2012. She has led many research projects commissioned by Council of Europe, European Commission and European Parliament, the Ministry of Culture and Art and the Polish Scientific Committee (KBN). In the years 2002-2007 Dorota Ilczuk has been the President of CIRCLE – Cultural Information and Research Centres Liaison in Europe. She is a member of the European Cultural Parliament and co-operates with international organisations and science associations such as the European Institute for Comparative Cultural Research (ERICarts), the Association of Cultural Economics International (ACEI) and the International Society for Third Sector Research (ISTR). Teresa Magdalena Dudzik, Ph.D., Graduate of the Foreign Trade Faculty at SGPiS (Central School of Planning and Statistics), employee of the International Management and Marketing Institute at the Warsaw School of Economics. Research areas: marketing management, enterprise sales management, international commercial transactions, business models, issues of managing organizations in a cultural area. Editor-inchief of the monthly magazine „Gospodarka Materiałowa i Logistyka” (“Area of material handling and logistics”) at publishing house PWE (since 1999 r.); Director of the Postgraduate Study in Cultural Management at the Collegium of World Economy. Co-author of following books: “Modele biznesu polskich przedsiębiorstw" (“Business models of polish enterprises”, 2008), "Alianse marketingowe" (“Marketing Alliances”, editor: A Sznajder, 2012), “Zarządzanie silną marką” (“Managing a powerful brand”, editor: M.K. Witek-Hajduk, 2011).

SOSART. Badanie rynku pracy artystów i twórców w Polsce Słowa kluczowe: artysta, rynek pracy, zawód artysta, profesjonalny artysta, wynagrodzenie. Streszczenie: Miał to być artykuł zawierający wyniki realizowanego w latach 2012–2013 przez WSG w Bydgoszczy i Fundację Pro Cultura w Warszawie badania rynku pracy artystów i twórców. Taki będzie tylko po części, bo choć badanie wkracza już w fazę analityczną, to jeszcze nie skończył się etap pozyskiwania danych. I na ostateczne wyniki trzeba jeszcze poczekać. Chcąc spełnić obietnicę daną wydawcy, dzielimy się z czytelnikami swoimi doświadczeniami dotyczącymi przyjętej metody badawczej i częścią wyników pochodzących z badań terenowych. Jednocześnie zachęcamy do lektury raportu końcowego z badania, który znajdzie się w sieci w styczniu 2014 r. Dr hab. Dorota Ilczuk jest profesorem Szkoły Wyższej Psychologii Społecznej, założycielką i prezesem Fundacji Pro Cultura. W latach 2001–2007 pełniła funkcję Prezydenta CIRCLE (Cultural Information and Research Centres Liaison in Europe), europejskiej sieci instytucji zajmujących się badaniami, dokumentacją i informacją w kulturze. Jest członkinią Europejskiego Parlamentu Kulturalnego. Należy do Rady Naukowej Biblioteki Publicznej m.st. Warszawy. Współpracuje z zagranicznymi organizacjami i towarzystwami

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naukowymi, takimi jak ERICArts, Association for Cultural Economics International (ACEI), International Society for Third-Sector Research (ISTR). Jako ekspert Rady Europy i Unii Europejskiejuczestniczy w międzynarodowych programach badawczych poświęconych problemom kultury. Jest autorką i współautorką publikacji książkowych i ponad stu ekspertyz i artykułów z dziedziny ekonomiki kultury i przemysłów kultury, polityki kulturalnej, społeczeństwa obywatelskiego, a także funkcjonowania sektora non profit. Jej ostania publikacja to wydana w 2012 roku przez PWN monografia „Ekonomika kultury”. dr Teresa Magdalena Dudzik – absolwentka Wydziału Handlu Zagranicznego SGPiS, pracownik Instytutu Międzynarodowego Zarządzania i Marketingu Szkoły Głównej Handlowej. Wśród jej zainteresowań naukowych znajdują się: zarządzanie marketingiem, zarządzanie zakupami przedsiębiorstw, międzynarodowe transakcje gospodarcze, modele biznesu przedsiębiorstw, problemy zarządzania organizacjami w sferze kultury. Od 1999 r. Redaktor Naczelna miesięcznika „Gospodarka Materiałowa i Logistyka” (wyd. PWE), Kierownik Podyplomowego Studium Menedżerów Kultury w Kolegium Gospodarki Światowej SGH. Współautorka książek: Modele biznesu polskich przedsiębiorstw (2008), Alianse marketingowe (red. A Sznajder, 2012), Zarządzanie silną marką (red. M.K. Witek-Hajduk, 2011).

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Teresa M. Dudzik,Dorota Ilczuk, Sosart. Study on the Labour Market of Artists and Creators in Poland  

Zarządzanie Kulturą, tom 6 (2013), nr 3 / Culture Management, vol. 6 (2013), no. 3: Teresa M. Dudzik (International Management and Marketing...

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