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COMPARISON OF TYPICAL DYNAMIC MODULUS FOR HOT MIX ASPHALT (HMA) MIXTURE AND NATURALPAVE® XL RESIN PAVEMENT™

1800

130°F

100°F

Results after 72 Hours of curing

70°F

40°F

Hotter

Results after 168 Hours of curing

NATURALPAVE

ASPHALT

NATURALPAVE

ASPHALT

NATURALPAVE

ASPHALT

NATURALPAVE

NATURALPAVE ASPHALT

ASPHALT

1600 1400 200

400

600

800

1000

1200

Stronger

Dynamic Modulus (E*), ksi

2000

2200

2400

2600

2800

3000

Dynamic modulus is the main input required for design of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) pavements using the nationally recognized AASHTO Mechanistic-Emperical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG). HMA pavement materials are viscoelastic in nature and their dynamic modulus values vary dramatically in response to changes in loading rate and temperature. For example, HMA materials exhibit much lower dynamic modulus values (significant strength loss) as pavement temperatures increase. In contrast, the impact of changes in loading rate and temperature on the dynamic modulus of the NaturalPAVE XL Resin Pavement material is only moderate and good strength values are retained at all loading rates and temperatures. While retaining viscoelastic behavior, coldmixed NaturalPAVE XL Resin Pavement materials have the further advantage of gaining strength with additional curing time.

28.4°F

Results after 720 Hours of curing

The above chart references data from a report by Peter Sebaaly, Ph.D., P.E. University of Nevada, Reno, Director of the Western Regional Superpave Center. The original charts are provided on the following pages of this document.

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COMPARISON OF TYPICAL DYNAMIC MODULUS FOR HOT MIX ASPHALT (HMA) MIXTURE AND NATURALPAVE® XL RESIN PAVEMENT™ Typical Dynamic Modulus Data for Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) Mixture

Dynamic Dynamic Modulus Modulus |E*|, |E*|,ksiksi

10000 10000

1000 1000

100 100

10 10

1 1

0.1 0.1

1 1

28.4°F 28.4°F

Figure 7

40°F 40°F

Frequency, Hz Frequency, Hz 70°F 70°F

10 10

100°F 100°F

Figure Sample in Dynamic Modulus Set-up. Figure3.7.NaturalPAVE Typical Dynamic Modulus Data for HMA testing Mixture. Figure 7. Typical Dynamic Modulus Data for HMA Mixture. Dynamic Modulus for the NaturalPAVE Mixture Cured for 72 hours

100 100

130°F 130°F

 

 

Dynamic modulus |E*|, ksi

Figures 8, 9, and 10 compare the magnitude of the E* property at various temperatures and Figures 8, 9, and 10 compare the magnitude of the E* property at various temperatures and loading frequency of the NaturalPAVE mixture at the three curing stages. The bars in Figures 8 – 10000 loading frequency of the NaturalPAVE mixture at the three curing stages. The bars in Figures 8 – 10 represent the average E* values while the whiskers on top of the bars represent the limits of 10 represent the average E* values while the whiskers on top of the bars represent the limits of the 95% confidence interval (CI) of the measured E* property. An examination of the data in the 95% confidence interval (CI) of the measured E* property. An examination of the data in Figures 8 – 10 leads to the following two conclusions: Figures 8 – 10 leads to the following two conclusions: 1000

The magnitude of the E* at the three curing conditions is impacted by temperature and The magnitude of the E* at the three curing conditions is impacted by temperature and frequency of loading indicating a visco-elastic behavior of the NaturalPAVE mixture. frequency of loading indicating a visco-elastic behavior of the NaturalPAVE mixture. Therefore, the E* master curve is the appropriate property to characterize the stiffness of Therefore, the E* master curve is the appropriate property to characterize the stiffness of the NaturalPAVE mixture in a mechanistic pavement design. 100 the NaturalPAVE mixture in a mechanistic pavement design. The variations of the measured E* properties among the three replicates is minimal. The variations of the measured E* properties among the three replicates is minimal. Therefore, an average E* of the three replicates can be used to represent the stiffness of Therefore, an average E* of the three replicates can be used to represent the stiffness of the NaturalPAVE mix at any combination of temperature and frequency of loading. the NaturalPAVE mix at any combination of temperature and frequency of loading. 10

Figure 11 compares the master curves 1 of the NaturalPAVE mixtures at the three curing 0.1 10 100 Figure 11 compares the master curves of the NaturalPAVE mixtures at the three curing conditions. Examination of the data presented in Figure 11 leads to the following observations: Frequency, Hz leads to the following observations: conditions. Examination of the data presented in Figure 11 40°F 70°F 100°F as the curing130°F The E* 28.4°F property of the NaturalPAVE mix significantly increases period is The E* property of the NaturalPAVE mix significantly increases as the curing period is increased from 72 to 168 hrs at all combinations of temperature and frequency Figure 4. Dynamic Mixture Cured for 72 and hoursfrequency at 104oF. of increased from 72Modulus to 168 for hrstheatNaturalPAVE all combinations of temperature of loading. However, the rate of increase in the E* property is significantly reduced as the loading. ratePh.D., of increase inof the E* property isthesignificantly as the The above figures are from aHowever, report by Peterthe Sebaaly, University Nevada, of Western Regionalreduced Superpave Center. curing period is increased fromP.E.168 to 720 hrs. Reno, ThisDirector indicates that the aging process of curing period is increased from 168 INC. to 720 hrs. This indicates that the aging process of SOIL STABILIZATION PRODUCTS the NaturalPAVE mixCOMPANY, slowsinfo@sspco.com down significantly after the 168 hrs period. This is Ph: (800)523-9992 or (209)383-3296, Fax: (209)383-7849, the NaturalPAVE mix Email: slows down significantly after the 168 hrs period. This is 5

Figure 4

 

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COMPARISON OF TYPICAL DYNAMIC MODULUS FOR HOT MIX ASPHALT (HMA) MIXTURE AND NATURALPAVE® XL RESIN PAVEMENT™ Dynamic Modulus for the NaturalPAVE Mixture Cured for 168 hours 10000 Dynamic Dynamic Dynamic modulus modulus modulus |E*|, |E*|,ksi |E*|, ksi ksi

10000 10000 1000 1000 1000 100 100 100 10 0.1 10 10 0.1 0.1 28.4°F

Figure 5

1 1 1 40°F

Frequency, Hz Frequency, 70°F Hz Frequency, Hz

10

100

10 10

100 100 130°F

100°F

Figure 5. Dynamic Modulus 40°F for the NaturalPAVE for 168 hours at130°F 104oF. 28.4°F 70°F Mixture Cured 100°F 28.4°F

40°F

70°F

100°F

130°F

o Figure Figure 5. 5. Dynamic Dynamic Modulus Modulus for for the the NaturalPAVE NaturalPAVE Mixture Mixture Cured Cured for for 168 168 hours hours at at 104 104oF. F. Dynamic Modulus for the NaturalPAVE Mixture Cured for 720 hours

Dynamic Dynamic Dynamic Dynamic modulus modulus modulus modulus |E*|, |E*|,ksi |E*|, ksi |E*|,ksi ksi

10000 10000

Figure 6

10000 10000 1000 1000 1000 1000 100 100 100 100 10 10

0.1 0.1 10 10 0.1 0.1 28.4°F

1 1 40°F

1 1

Frequency, Hz Frequency, Hz 70°F Frequency, Frequency, Hz Hz

10 10 10 10

100 100 100°F

100 100 130°F

o Figure 5. Dynamic Modulus for the NaturalPAVE Mixture Cured for 168 hours at 104 oF. 28.4°F 40°F 70°F 100°F 130°F Figure 6. Dynamic Modulus for the NaturalPAVE Mixture Cured for 720 hours at 104 The above figures are from a report by Peter Sebaaly, 40°F Ph.D., P.E. University of Nevada, Western Regional Superpave Center. F. 28.4°F 70°F Reno, Director of the100°F 130°F

SOIL STABILIZATION PRODUCTS COMPANY, INC.

6. Modulus for the Ph: (800)523-9992Figure or (209)383-3296, Fax: (209)383-7849, Figure 6. Dynamic Dynamic ModulusEmail: for info@sspco.com the NaturalPAVE NaturalPAVE 6

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o Mixture F. Mixture Cured Cured for for 720 720 hours hours at at 104 104oF.

The SSPCo Globe and NaturalPAVE are registered trademarks of Soil Stabilization Products Company, Inc. Resin Pavement is a trademark of Soil Stabilization Products Company, Inc. © 2011 Soil Stabilization Products Company, Inc. - All Rights Reserved


 = 0sin(ωt)

Stress

 =  sin(ωt)  COMPARISON OF TYPICAL  DYNAMIC MODULUS FOR Time HOT MIX Time AND ASPHALTtime(HMA) MIXTURE shift = φ sin(ωt-φ) ® ™ RESIN = PAVEMENT NATURALPAVE Strain time shift = XL φ

Stress

0

0

0

0

 = 0sin(ωt-φ)

0

Strain The American Association of State Highway Transportation Officials (AASHTO) has developed a 0 nationally recognized pavement design system known as the AASHTO Mechanistic - Empirical Time Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG). Dynamic Modulus testing is used to evaluate viscoelastic pavement materials such as Hot Time behavior related to various Mix Asphalt (HMA) and NaturalPAVE XL Resin Pavement. The variations in pavement material combinations of loading frequency and temperature are then presented for each pavement material as a Dynamic Modulus (E*)  Master Curve. The cold-mixed NaturalPAVE XL Resin Pavement gains strength over time as illustrated by the three E* Master Dynamic Modulus E *  0 Curves. As shown below, the typical Hot Mix Asphalt pavement weakens dramatically as pavement temperatures increase, providing  0 0 E * when only 5 to 10 percent the strength of the NaturalPAVE Resin Pavement tested at 130OF temperature. DynamicXL Modulus

0

3000

Typical E* Master Curve

Dynamic Modulus |E*|at 70F,70F, ksi|E*|, Dynamic Modulus |E*|at ksi ksi Dynamic Dynamic Modulus Modulus |E*|, ksi

2500 Typical E* Master Curve for a HMA MixTypical E* Master Curve 3000 10,000

10,000 2000 2500

1,000 1500 2000 1,000

100 1000 1500 100

500 1000

10

010 500 0

0.1

1

0.5

1

5

10

25

Frequency (Hz)

1.E-05 1.E-04 1.E-03 1.E-02 1.E-01 1.E+00 1.E+01 1.E+02 1.E+03 1.E+04 1.E+05 11.E-06 0.1 0.5 1 5 10 25 40°F 1.E-01 70°F 1.E+00 100°F 130°F1.E+02 1.E+03 1.E+04 1.E+05 Frequency, Hz 1.E+01 1.E-06 1.E-05 1.E-04 28.4°F 1.E-03 1.E-02 Frequency (Hz)

Figure 2

Frequency, Hz

Figure14°F 10. Dynamic 40°F Modulus for the NaturalPAVE Mixture Cured for 720 hoursPredicted at 104oF. Frequency, 70°F 100°FHz 130°F E* 28.4°F

40°F

70°F

of 40°F the Dynamic70°F Modulus

100°F

130°F

130°F Master Curve Predicted Figure 2. a Typical for o E* Figure 10. Dynamic Modulus for the NaturalPAVE Mixture CuredE* for 720 hours at 104 F.a HMA Dynamic Modulus Master Curves for the NaturalPAVE Mix Mix. Figure 2. Components of the Dynamic Modulus Test and a Typical E* Master Curve for a HMA 10000 Mix. 1000 Dynamic Dynamic Modulus Modulus |E*|at 70F, |E*|at ksi 70F, ksi

14°F 10000 Components

4

1000 100

4

100 10 10 1 1.E-07

1.E-05

1.E-03

1.E-01

1.E+01

1.E+03

1.E+05

1.E+07

1.E+03

1.E+05

1.E+07

Frequency, Hz

1 1.E-07

Figure 11

100°F Test and

1.E-05

E* after 3days curing at 104F

1.E-03

1.E-01

1.E+01

Frequency, Hz

Frequency, Hz E* after 7days curing at 104F

E* after 30days of curing at 104F

The above figures are from a report by Peter Sebaaly, Ph.D., P.E. University of Nevada, Reno, Director of the Western Regional Superpave Center.

Figure Modulus for curing the NaturalPAVE Mixture Cured for 72,at168, E*11. afterDynamic 3days curing at 104F Master E*Curves after 7days at 104F E* after 30days of curing 104F

SOIL STABILIZATION PRODUCTS COMPANY, INC.at 104oF. and 720 hours

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Figure 11. Dynamic Modulus Master Curves for 10 the NaturalPAVE Mixture Cured for 72, 168, and 720 hours at 104 F. The SSPCo Globe and NaturalPAVE are registered trademarks of Soil Stabilization Products Company, Inc. Resin Pavement is a trademark of Soil Stabilization o Products Company, Inc. © 2011 Soil Stabilization Products Company, Inc. - All Rights Reserved


COMPARISON OF TYPICAL DYNAMIC MODULUS FOR HOT MIX ASPHALT (HMA) MIXTURE AND NATURALPAVE® XL RESIN PAVEMENT™

Dynamic Dynamic Dynamic Modulus Modulus Modulus Dynamic |E*| |E*| Modulus |E*| atat at 1010 10 Hz, |E*| Hz, Hz, ksiksi ksi at 10 Hz, ksi

The Director of the Western Regional Superpave Center, Dr. Sebaaly, states in his report: Figures 11 and 12 show the E* (Dynamic Modulus) property of the NaturalPAVE mix under fast (i.e. 10 Hz) and slow (i.e. 1 Hz) loading conditions, respectively. The data in Figures 11 and 12 clearly show that the NaturalPAVE mix gains significant stiffness during the early part of the pavement life while it shows low risk for severe long term aging. The combination of the high magnitude of the E* (Dynamic Modulus) at the three curing stages and the moderate impact of temperature and frequency of loading makes the NaturalPAVE mixture a good candidate for a surface layer under a wide range of temperature, loading speed, and loading magnitude. The data shown in Figures 11 and 12 indicate that the NaturalPAVE mixture is expected to perform well under normal traffic loading (i.e. 10 Hz) and under the extreme conditions of high temperature and slow loading (i.e. 1 Hz). 10000

Dynamic Modulus for the NaturalPAVE Mixture at various Curing Periods under Fast Loading 10000 10000 10000 1000

1000 1000 1000 100 0 100 100 100

72

144

216

288

360

432

504

576

648

720

792

Curing Time, hrs 0 0 0

72 72 72

144 144 144

12. Dynamic Modulus for the FigureFigure 12

70°F 360 288 504 288 360 432 432100°F 504 576 576 648 648 720 720 792 792 288 360 432 504 576 648 720 792 Curing Curing Time, Time, hrs hrs NaturalPAVE Curing Mixture Time, hrs at various Curing Periods 70°F 100°F 70°F 100°F Loading. 70°F 100°F 216 216 216

under Fast

Dynamic Modulus for the NaturalPAVE at variousMixture Curing at Periods Slow Loading Figure 12. Dynamic Modulus for Mixture the NaturalPAVE variousunder Curing Periods under Fast Dynamic Dynamic Dynamic Modulus Modulus Dynamic Modulus Dynamic Dynamic |E*| |E*| Modulus |E*| Modulus atat at 1 1Hz, 1Hz, |E*| Hz, |E*| ksiksi ksi at at10 110Hz, Hz, Hz,ksi ksi ksi

Figure 12. Dynamic Modulus for the NaturalPAVE 10000 Loading.Mixture at various Curing Periods under Fast 10000 10000 Loading. 10000 10000 10000 1000 1000 1000

1000 1000 1000 100 100 100

0 0 0

72 72 72

144 144 144

216 216 216

288 360 432 504 504 576 648 720 792 288 360 360 432 432 576 648 648 720 720 792 792 288 504 576 Curing Time, hrs Curing Curing Time, Time, hrs hrs 100 100 Figure 13 70°F 100°F 100 70°F 100°F 70°F 360 0 72 504 0 72 144 144 216 216 288 288 360 432 432100°F 504 576 576 648 648 720 720 792 792 0 72 144 216 288 360 432 504 576 648 720 792 The above figures are from a report by Peter Sebaaly, Ph.D., P.E. University ofTime, Nevada, Reno, Director of the Western Regional Superpave Center. Curing Curing Mixture Time, hrs hrs at various Curing Periods under Fast Figure 12. Dynamic Modulus for the NaturalPAVE 13. Dynamic Modulus forCOMPANY, the NaturalPAVE Mixture Curing hrs at various Curing Periods under SOIL Figure STABILIZATION PRODUCTS INC. Time, Loading. 70°F 100°F 70°F 100°F Ph: (800)523-9992 or (209)383-3296, Fax: (209)383-7849, Email: info@sspco.com Slow Loading. 70°F 100°F The SSPCo Globe and NaturalPAVE are registered trademarks of Soil Stabilization Products Company, Inc.

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COMPARISON OF TYPICAL DYNAMIC MODULUS FOR HOT MIX ASPHALT (HMA) MIXTURE AND NATURALPAVE® XL RESIN PAVEMENT™ Dynamic Modulus Setup Dynamic Modulus Set-Up Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) specimen in Testing Aparatus

Applied Stress & Measured St

 = 0sin(ω

Stress 0

Tim time shift = φ

Set-Up

 = 0sin(ωt

Applied Stress & Strain Measured Strain 0

Tim

 = 0sin(ωt) E *  Applied Stress & Modulus Measured Strain Dynamic

Stress Modulus Set-Up Dynamic 0

Typical E* Master Curve

Stress

 = 0sin(ωt)

Dynamic Modulus |E*|at 70F, ksi

10,000

Time

0

1,000

Time

time shift = φ

Strain

Strain

0 0

0

 = 0sin(ωt-φ)

time shift = φ 100

 = 0sin(ωt-φ)

0

10

Time

Time

1

1.E-06 1.E-05 1.E-04 1.E-03 1.E-02 1.E-01 1.E+00 1.E+01 1.E+02 1.E+03 1.E+04

Dynamic Modulus

14°F

0 0 40°F

E* 

Frequency, Hz 70°F

100°F

130°F

Pred

Figure 4. Components of the Dynamic Modulus Test and a Typical E* Master Curve Typical E* Master Curve The above figures are from a report by Peter Sebaaly, Ph.D., P.E. University 0 of Nevada, Reno, Director of the Western mix. Regional Superpave Center. E *  SOIL STABILIZATION PRODUCTS COMPANY, INC.

Dynamic Modulus

0

, ksi

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COMPARISON OF TYPICAL DYNAMIC MODULUS FOR HOT MIX ASPHALT (HMA) MIXTURE AND NATURALPAVE® XL RESIN PAVEMENT™

The engineering evaluation of the NaturalPAVE XL Resin Pavement material was conducted under the direction of Peter Sebaaly, Ph.D., P.E., Director of the Western Regional Superpave Center, one of five centers established by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) to support the implementation of the Superpave Technology for hot mix asphalt materials. Dr. Sebaaly is also the Director of the Nevada Technology Transfer Center (funded by FHWA and Nevada DOT), and Professor of Civil Engineering in the Civil and Environmental Engineering Department at University of Nevada Reno where the Pavement/ Materials Program and materials testing laboratory are located.

Dynamic Modulus Setup

NaturalPAVE XL Resin Pavement specimen in Testing Aparatus The above figures are from a report by Peter Sebaaly, Ph.D., P.E. University of Nevada, Reno, Director of the Western Regional Superpave Center.

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COMPARISON OF TYPICAL DYNAMIC MODULUS FOR HOT MIX ASPHALT (HMA) MIXTURE AND NATURALPAVE® XL RESIN PAVEMENT™ Evaluation of NaturalPAVE XL Resin Pavement in Pavements/Materials Laboratory This laboratory evaluation under the direction of Dr. Sebaaly included Dynamic Modulus (E*) testing, the state of the art test method for evaluating Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) materials, which are classified as flexible pavements, and providing input for AASHTO MEPDG pavement designs. Cold-mixed NaturalPAVE XL Resin Pavement materials also exhibit flexible behavior and Dynamic Modulus values similar to or higher than HMA materials. Consequently, the Dynamic Modulus test method is equally appropriate for evaluation of NaturalPAVE XL Resin Pavement materials and for pavement design purposes. The Dynamic Modulus test method is particularly adapted for evaluating HMA pavement materials because they exhibit dramatic changes in behavior under various combinations of traffic loads, speed, and environmental conditions, most notably changes in temperature. HMA materials are therefore described as viscoelastic in behavior. As evidenced in Figure 6 on Page 2, Typical Dynamic Modulus Data for Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) Mixture, and in Figure 2 on Page 4, Typical E* Master Curve for a HMA Mix, a HMA pavement mixture can vary in Dynamic Modulus from under 10,000 psi (10 ksi) under slow loading in warmer weather to 2 million psi (2,000 ksi) when pavement temperatures cool to just above or slightly below freezing. Coldmixed NaturalPAVE XL Resin Pavement materials have the advantage of gaining strength with additional curing time, most similar in this regard to concrete mixtures, which while classified as rigid pavement materials, also continue to gain strength with time. After just three days curing time, the Dynamic Modulus of the NaturalPAVE XL Resin Pavement in the worst case testing conditions, slow loading at 130OF pavement temperature, was at 200,000 psi (200 ksi), “...a very stable mix at the early stage of the pavement life...,” reports Dr. Sebaaly, and over 20 times the strength of typical HMA tested in these same conditions. After 30 days curing, the Dynamic Modulus values for the NaturalPAVE XL Resin Pavement vary from 300,000 psi (300 ksi), in worst case testing condition, up to above 2.7 million (2,700 ksi) in the testing conducted at cooler temperatures. By the point the Dynamic Modulus testing temperature is raised to 70OF and with just three days curing time, the NaturalPAVE XL Resin Pavement mix is already several times stronger than the HMA and approximately eight times stronger at 30 days. While the typical HMA material varies in its Dynamic Modulus by a factor of over 200 times under changing loading

rates and temperature changes from below freezing to 130OF, the NaturalPAVE material is far more consistent in strength retention with less than 7% of the variation in Dynamic Modulus exhibited by HMA. Dr. Sebaaly’s conclusion: “This indicates that the NaturalPAVE mixture behaves as viscoelastic but it is not as much influenced by variations in temperature and loading frequency as the typical HMA mixture.” While tested under fast and slow loading, the NaturalPAVE mix “... shows minimal potential for severe long term aging.” Dr. Sebaaly summarizes the report “The combination of the high magnitude of the E* (Dynamic Modulus) property at the three curing stages and the moderate impact of temperature and frequency of loading makes the NaturalPAVE mixture a good candidate for a surface layer under a wide range of temperature, loading speed, and loading magnitude. The data shown in Figures 11 and 12 indicate that the NaturalPAVE mixture is expected to perform well under normal traffic loading (10 Hz) and under the extreme conditions of high temperature and slow loading (1 Hz).” The cold temperature (below freezing) behavior of NaturalPAVE XL Resin Pavement materials has also been evaluated in this same laboratory under the direction of Dr. Sebaaly in a previous laboratory study using the Thermal Stress Restrained Specimen Test, or TSRST procedure. The TSRST procedure is used to evaluate the low temperature performance of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) binder products. Asphalt binder products are formulated for service through a range of temperature conditions typical for the area where they are being used and their behavior is classified according to the Superpave Performance Grading (PG) System developed as part of the Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP) funded by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). For perspective, HMA materials specified for cold climate applications, such as in the Upper Midwest and New England States, are specified for cold temperature performance as low as -28OC (PG 64-28) and -34OC temperatures (PG 6434), with the -28OC and -34OC representing the cold weather component of the PG grading system. The NaturalPAVE XL Resin Pavement mixtures averaged -36.3OC performance in the TSRST evaluation, exceeding the low temperature performance requirements for the PG grade with the cold temperature specification of -34OC (-29OF).

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