Cold Mixed Cold Applied High Performance Non-Toxic Solar Reflective Sustainable
Green Paving Materials for Road, Street, Highway and General Pavement Applications
Setting the Standard for
Sustainable Paving Materials
NaturalPAVE ® XL Resin Pavement ™ A clean technology product from Soil Stabilization Products Company, Inc. (SSPCo), non-toxic NaturalPAVE XL Resin Pavement mixtures are manufactured and installed without the use of heat. This cool process eliminates the high levels of energy consumption and the air pollution associated with production and installation of hot mix asphalt pavement materials. When NaturalPAVE XL Resin Pavement mixtures are installed, the finished pavements are typically solar reflective (high albedo) and have superior insulation values. These cool pavements provide a high performance, green alternative to asphalt pavement and concrete. When it comes to pavement materials NaturalPAVE XL Resin Pavement sets the standard for sustainablility. The aggregate base course material was treated with SSPCo’s EMC SQUARED® Stabilizer, an economical and sustainable concentrated liquid stabilizer treatment for base course materials that increases stability without the excessive rigidity (cracking) typical of cement treated base (CTB) materials. In testing conducted at University of Nevada Reno (UNR), the EMC SQUARED System treatment improved the resilient modulus of base course material by a factor of more than 5 times. Materials engineering consultants Professional Service Industries (PSI) provided layer equivalency factors and commented that the treated base course had a layer equivalency factor and load carrying capacity approximately equivalent to that of typical hot mix asphalt pavement.
Final Compaction of the EMC Squared® System Stabilized Base Course
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NaturalPAVEÂŽ XL Resin Pavementâ„˘
Marshall Stability Pavement Strength And Durabilty
8,870 lbs Stability
12,922 lbs Stability
Concrete, with its slab-like behavior and requirement for expansion joints, is classified and tested as a rigid pavement material. Hot mix asphalt pavement and NaturalPAVE XL Resin Pavement, with more elastic behavior and joint-free construction, are classified and tested as flexible pavement materials. The Marshall Stability Test Method (ASTM D 1559) has long been a standard procedure used by materials testing laboratories for evaluation of hot mix asphalt pavement mixtures and other types of flexible pavement materials. The stability of a pavement mixture is tested after the pavement specimen is heated to 140Â° Fahrenheit temperature, which is representative of hot weather service conditions. Stability is the maximum load resistance that a pavement mix test specimen will develop under compression. Stability translates into the resistance of a paving mixture to distortion, to displacement, to shearing stresses, to rutting and to shoving. Stability is dependent upon both internal friction and cohesion. Internal friction is primarily a combination of the frictional and interlocking resistance of the aggregate in the mix. Cohesion is primarily a measure of the adhesive quality and binding force of the binder material and the efficiency of the specific application rate of the binder in relationship to the specific aggregate material. The Marshall Design Criteria provided by the Asphalt Institute requires minimum values for different traffic classifications starting at 750 pounds for light traffic, 1200 pounds for Medium Traffic and 1800 pounds for Heavy Traffic. Cold mix pavement mixtures formulated with NaturalPAVE XL Resin Pavement Binder largely provide far higher stability values due to the unique bonding characteristics of the NaturalPAVE XL product technology. Marshall test results of mixtures using
15,700 lbs Stability
Hot Mix Apshalt Pavement a combination of pavement quality dense graded aggregate materials and the NaturalPAVE XL Resin Pavement Binder often approach or exceed 10,000 pound stabilities, which is the top end of the testing capability of the Marshall Test apparatus.* As part of the Marshall Stability test, a “flow” measurement is also taken to evaluate the relative flexibility of different pavement mixtures. A higher stability measure indicates greater bonding strength. A higher flow number indicates greater flexibility and greater resistance to fatigue cracking. The high stability and high flexibility of NaturalPAVE XL Resin Pavement mixtures are visually demonstrated by the condition of the pavement specimens at left following the Marshall Stability test. Hot mix asphalt pavement specimens, as pictured at right, often break apart in pieces at the point where their peak stability is measured. NaturalPAVE XL Resin Pavement specimens, with far higher binding strength and flexibility usually bulge to some small degree, rather than break apart, at the point where peak stability is achieved.
Generally 4,000 - 6,000 lbs. Stability
“Typical Marshall Stability values for hot mix asphalt [are] 4,000 to 6,000 pounds. The NaturalPAVE XL samples tested in our laboratory had Marshall Stability values of 8,000 to 18,000 pounds. NaturalPAVE XL also maintained a higher flow number which, in combination with the stability results, would indicate that the material has good rut resistance, as well as good flexibility for fatigue cracking resistance.” ~ Kleinfelder, Inc. “...it does appear the Resin Pavement (NaturalPAVE XL) can withstand higher loads with a more plastic deformation than the conventional Asphaltic Concrete mixture.” ~ Alpha Geotechnical & Materials, Inc. As indicated in the quotation above, NaturalPAVE XL Resin Pavement mixtures regularly have significantly higher stability and flow test values than the hot mix asphalt pavement mixtures currently in nationwide use. *Correction factors are used to compensate for the variations in thickness between different pavement specimens prepared for testing. Once correction factors are calculated the recorded Marshall Stability test results can greatly exceed 10,000 pounds.
Marshall Stability Apparatus
Resilient Modulus Pavement Strength And Durabilty
Resilient Modulus testing is the method now standardized by the U.S. Department of Transportation’s Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) for the evaluation of pavement materials performance. This is the state of the art test method, recognized both nationally and internationally. In the interest of replicating the dynamic loading conditions that pavement layers experience under automobile and truck traffic, Resilient Modulus testing evaluates the elasticity of the pavement material and its ability to be resilient and return to its original shape and size without any permanent deformation, or damage, after repetitive loading cycles are applied. The comparative resiliency of a pavement material allows pavement design engineers to determine the load bearing capacity of a certain layer thickness of a specific pavement material and to evaluate layer equivalency. In other words, “How many inches of conventional Hot Mix Asphalt Pavement are required to provide the same layer equivalency as a one inch thick layer of a typical NaturalPAVE® XL Resin Pavement™ material?” All pavement materials behave differently at different temperatures and in the Resilient Modulus testing series reported here, which was conducted at the University of Oklahoma pavement materials testing laboratory, the NaturalPAVE specimens were tested at both 77°F (25°C) and 120°F (49°C). The Marshall Stability Test method, which SSPCo mostly uses to evaluate NaturalPAVE XL Resin Pavement mix performance in comparison with Hot Mix Asphalt pavement materials, is conducted at 140°F (60°C), a temperature that is fairly typical of black, heat absorbent Hot Mix Asphalt pavement surfacing in full sun exposure during the summertime. The Marshall Stability Test method measures the bonding strength and the resistance of the pavement material to rutting and shoving under heavy loading conditions. It is well known that Hot Mix Asphalt pavement materials suffer rapid loss of strength and
resiliency in hot weather conditions, so it is not surprising that NaturalPAVE mixtures are commonly several times the strength of Hot Mix Asphalt pavement materials in Marshall Stability testing. As indicated in the written report on the University of Oklahoma testing series authored by Terrracon Consultants, Inc., the Reslient Modulus values for NaturalPAVE XL Resin Pavement are far higher than hot mix asphalt in all cases, and NaturalPAVE retained its stability at high temperatures far more effectively. The Hot Mix Asphalt pavement had far lower Reslient Modulus values when tested at 77°F (25°C) and then lost stability at twice the rate as NaturalPAVE Resin Pavement when temperatures were increased. The Resilient Modulus testing demonstrated that a one inch layer of NaturalPAVE XL Resin Pavement is equivalent, at all of the stress levels and temperatures used in the evaluation, to thicker layers of Hot Mix Asphalt pavement. Based upon the Reslient Modulus test values that were recorded at 77°F (25°) temperatures, the one inch thick layer of NaturalPAVE was equivalent to two inches of Hot Mix Asphalt, and on the test values at the 120°F (49°C) temperature, the one inch thick layer of NaturalPAVE was equivalent to more than four inches of Hot Mix Asphalt pavement. Taking all the testing data into account, a layer of NaturalPAVE XL Resin Pavement would be equivalent to a Hot Mix Asphalt pavement material of approximately twice the layer thickness. In hotter climates, the results of both Marshall Stability and Resilient Modulus testing indicate that significantly more than two inches of Hot Mix Asphalt would be required in order to be equivalent to a one inch layer of NaturalPAVE XL Resin Pavement. For additional information on this Resilient Modulus testing series, see our document “Layer Equivalency Between NaturalPAVE XL Resin Pavement and Hot Mix Asphalt” available on our website, www.sspco.com
With the understanding that pavement materials must endure very low temperatures as well as hot temperatures during the annual cycle of the seasons, the same NaturalPAVE mix that was evaluated in the Resilient Modulus
NaturalPAVE® XL Resin Pavement™
Specimen #1 Tested at 77° F
Load P (lbs)
1784 2674 3561 4432
Deviatoric Stress Sd
90.6 135.8 180.9 225.1 135.62
Resilient Modulus MR (ksi)
1932 1821 1712 1514 1458 1687.4*
* A Resilient Modulus test result of 1687.4 KSI equals 1,687,400 PSI
testing series at University of Oklahoma was previously evaluated for low temperature performance at the University of Nevada Reno pavement materials testing laboratory. This NaturalPAVE mix performed without problem down to -30°C (-22°F) temperatures, meeting the low temperature performance requirements for asphalt pavement materials used in colder regions such as the New England states, while a second NaturalPAVE mix tested without problem to below -40°C (-40°F) temperatures.
Thermal Stress Restrained Specimen Test Low Temperature Performance Marshall Stability testing provides impressive high temperature performance measurement for NaturalPAVE XL Resin Pavement mixtures. The NaturalPAVE XL pavement binder technology is equally impressive in low temperature performance. The Thermal Stress Restrained Specimen Test (TSRST) is a standard test for evaluating hot mix asphalt pavement binders. With a requirement of -28° Centigrade performance typical for most of the hot mix asphalt pavement binders used in northern cold climate states, NaturalPAVE XL Resin Pavement mixtures have performed effectively at temperatures as low as -40° Centigrade.
Thermal Conductivity NaturalPAVE XL
Hot Mix Asphalt Worse
3.0 2.0 1.0 Average Thermal Conductivity
Thermal Conductivity Arizona State University SMART Materials Testing Facility
The thermal conductivity of a pavement material is also relevant to its effectiveness as a cool pavement. A pavement that has high thermal conductivity, such as asphalt, is going to rapidly absorb the solar energy and transmit heat through the pavement into the base course materials and subgrade soils below the pavement. As indicated by testing at the ASU SMART Materials Testing Facility, both asphalt and concrete pavment materials conduct heat more rapidly than NaturalPAVE® XL Resin Pavement™. This means NaturalPAVE XL Resin Pavement has superior insulation value, or thermal resistance. In combination with high solar reflectance, this advantage in thermal resistance makes NaturalPAVE XL Resin Pavement the standard for cool pavement technology.
Solar Reflectance The most important aspect of a cool pavement is its ability to reflect rather than absorb solar energy. Among the traditional pavement materials, concrete is the most reflective (high albedo), while black asphalt is the least reflective (low albedo) and most absorbent of solar energy. Typically NaturalPAVE® XL Resin Pavement™ mixtures are formulated with light colored aggregate mixtures and consequently have high solar reflectance similar to concrete pavements. The differences in pavement surface temperatures between heat absorbent asphalt and highly reflective NaturalPAVE XL Resin Pavement can be significant. As part of its educational mission regarding sustainable living practices for the Las Vegas Valley, the Springs Preserve in Las Vegas, Nevada, has an outdoor exhibit displaying the difference in residual heat between objects that reflect solar energy and objects that are non-reflective and absorb solar energy. Using the lizard thermometer sculptures pictured below, visitors can observe the temperature differences throughout the day between the reflective white lizard and the heat absorbent black lizard. The 119.4°F and 153.5°F temperatures displayed were recorded mid-morning on a summer day while the air temperatures were still under 100°F. They closely parallel the actual temperatures of VALUE reflective NaturalPAVE XL Resin Pavement and heat absorbent black asphalt pavement surfaces in these same weather conditions. NaturalPAVE XL Resin Pavement is the ideal surfacing for overlaying existing asphalt, as well as for new pavement installations and paving projects where the relationship of pavement surface temperatures to human health, urban heat island effect and climate change are of concern.
The NaturalPAVE® XL Resin Pavement™ specimens pictured below have solar reflectance measurements that help in meeting or exceeding the minimum Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) of 29 to qualify as high albedo pavement materials. Use of such pavement materials reduces heat absorption and radiance as required for a LEED® Rating System Point toward “Green Building” Certification from the USGBC as per Credit SS 7.1 (Heat Island Effect) for light-colored/high albedo pavement.
Outdoor exhibit with temperature sensors to display the difference in residual heat from reflective and non-reflective objects
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Caltrans photo - Thomas Ritter Safety Enhancement of Shoulder Areas
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Pavement Surface Temperature Measurements Recorded with Infrared Thermometer Access Roads and Accessible Trails
Ambient Temperature........... 103º F / 39.5º C NaturalPAVE......................... 120º F / 48.8º C Concrete Pavement.............. 121º F / 49.4º C Buff Colored Concrete.......... 134º F / 56.6º C Weathered Asphalt............... 144º F / 60.5º C
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Soil Stabilization Products Company, Inc.
PO Box 2779, Merced, CA 95344-0779 Phone: (800) 523-9992 or (209) 383-3296 Fax: (209) 383-7849 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Beware of Imitations Many cold applied products are sold for binding of aggregate under the titles of stabilized aggregate or stabilized decomposed granite (dg). Other products recently introduced now describe themselves as resin pavements, or mimic the NaturalPAVE® registered trademark and describe themselves as natural pavement or natural resin pavement. Having limited bonding strength, these erodible mixtures are marketed without providing pavement performance testing information. Not surprisingly, the end-user is often disappointed by the rapid deterioration of their installation. Specifiers, installation contractors, and project owners should request and review pavement material testing information prior to selecting products for pavement installations. NaturalPAVE® XL Resin Pavement™, similar to hot mix asphalt, is a surface course pavement material that is reliant on the workmanship of the pavement contractor during placement operations and on the strength and stability of the base course and underlying layers upon which it is constructed. SSPCo is a supplier of pavement materials only and not a contractor, engineer, installer, or construction inspector.
This publication is intended for use by professional personnel who are competent to evaluate the significance and limitations of the information provided. It was reviewed carefully prior to publication. Final determination of the suitability of any information or material for the use contemplated, or for its manner of use, is the sole responsibility of the user.
NaturalPAVE, EMC SQUARED and the SSPCo globe logo are registered trademarks of Soil Stabilization Products Company, Inc. RESIN PAVEMENT is a trademark of Soil Stabilization Products Company, Inc. LEED is a registered trademark of the U.S. Green Building Council. © 2010 Soil Stabilization Products Company, Inc. - All Rights Reserved