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The Wines of Italy

The Italian Trade Commission Published by: 33 East 67th Street - New York, NY 10065 8th Edition

Š 2006 Italian Trade Commission

A N

E N D L E S S

A D V E N T U R E

I N

T A S T E

The Wines of Italy


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A N

The Wines of Italy

E N D L E S S

A D V E N T U R E

by Burton Anderson

I N

T A S T E


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Published by: The Italian Trade Commission 33 East 67th Street - New York, NY 10065 Š 2006 Italian Trade Commission - 8th Edition


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The Wines of Italy A N

E N D L E S S

A D V E N T U R E

I N

T A S T E

by Burton Anderson Wines of Italy: soil, sunshine and soul Italian wine through the ages Wine laws & labels A review of Italian wines

3 5 9 11

The South & Islands: Oenotria revisited Sicily Sardinia Calabria Basilicata Apulia Campania

13 15 19 23 26 28 33

Central Italy: Renaissance in the heartland Latium Molise Abruzzi Marches Umbria Tuscany

37 39 43 45 47 51 55

North by Northwest: from Adriatic to Mont Blanc Emilia-Romagna Liguria Lombardy Piedmont Valle d’Aosta

63 65 71 75 78 85

The Northeast: taste of the future in the Venezie Veneto Friuli-Venezia Giulia Trentino-Alto Adige

89 91 96 100

Italian food and wine Glossary Index of DOCG, DOC and IGT wines

105 113 114


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Wines of Italy: soil, sunshine and soul These days it’s often said that good wine can be made anywhere

that are by nature unique. Of course, it’s normal enough to be

on earth that grapes grow. Vineyard and cellar techniques have

unique in Italy with its unmatched multitudes of native vines

become so sophisticated that quality is a constant on six conti-

and its intricate variations in topography and climate that com-

nents and there’s no longer any need

bine with historical and cultural fac-

to contend with a bad vintage or a

tors to give each place its genius loci.

mediocre wine.

That’s why, as you move up and

Progress has dealt a serious

down the country between the

blow to Old World notions about

Alps and the Mediterranean is-

the singular virtues of special plots

lands, you can never be sure what

of land – the mythical gifts of nature

sort of wine you’ll come across

that distinguish one vineyard or ter-

from one place to the next. You

roir from the next. Technology

may taste reds from vines called

seems to have taken the mystery out of making wine much as

Schioppettino in Friuli, Cagnina in Romagna, Cesanese in

point ratings have taken the romance out of writing about it.

Latium or Monica in Sardinia or whites from Pigato in

And yet, in Italy, everywhere you go, you run into wine-

Liguria, Falanghina in Campania, Verdeca in Apulia or Inzolia

makers who still seem to believe in the old-time values of soil,

in Sicily and wonder how their reputations managed to

sunshine and soul. That’s not necessarily because they lack the

remain local. The reason, as often as not, is that their produc-

know-how or equipment to fashion wines for the so-called

ers had never thought in terms of a market beyond the near-

international palate. Revolutionary advances have made Italy’s

est town. For even if Italy leads the world in exports, it has a

wine industry as up-to-the-minute as any of the New World.

wealth of esoteric wines waiting to be discovered.

No, this resistance to global trends seems to reflect the

But even wines from familiar varieties – Nebbiolo,

pride and prejudice that lie behind the will to handcraft wines

Sangiovese, Verdicchio or Aglianico, for example, or, for that

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matter, Cabernet, Pinot Grigio or Merlot – at their best are unique by nature as expressions of soil, sunshine and soul.

Vital if brief information is given on each region’s geography and climate, production figures, grape varieties, traditions

This booklet provides a basic reference to the wines of

and trends, along with listings and abbreviated descriptions of

Italy through a survey of the 20 regions. It begins in the south,

classified wines. There are notes on Italy’s wine laws and how

in those sunny Mediterranean places that the ancient Greeks

to read a label, as well as a glossary of terms.

called Oenotria, the land of wine, and moves north through

A final feature discusses Italian food, la cucina italiana, the

the historic hills past Rome and Florence and over the

preferred way of eating in much of the world today. Specialties

Apennines to the Po valley and the Alps, with some of

from the vast array of regional dishes are singled out and

Europe’s highest vineyards.

described with suggestions of wines to drink with them.


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Italian wine through the ages Italy’s modern accomplishments with wine scarcely begin to

Winemaking in Italy advanced rapidly through the 19th

tell the story of its people’s perennial links to the vine. The

century, as methods of vinification and aging were improved

nature of the place – the influence of Mediterranean sunshine

and the use of corks to seal reinforced bottles and flasks permit-

and mountain air currents on the hillsides of the elongated

ted orderly shipping of wine worldwide. Such names as Chianti,

peninsula and islands – favors what seems to be an almost

Barolo and Marsala became known in Europe and beyond.

spontaneous culture of wine.

A century ago, several Italian wines were recognized as

The heritage dates back some 4,000 years to when prehis-

among the finest of their type: mainly Piedmontese and Tuscan

toric peoples pressed wild grapes into juice that, as if by magic,

reds from the Nebbiolo and Sangiovese varieties. But certain

fermented into wine. The ancient Greeks, expanding into

white wines, still and sparkling, dry or sweet, merited interna-

Italy’s southern reaches, dubbed the colonies Oenotria, the

tional respect. Growers had complemented their local varieties

land of wine.

with foreign vines, such as Cabernet, Merlot and the Pinots.

Etruscans were subtle and serene practitioners of the art of

There was evidence, then as now, that Italy’s multifarious cli-

winemaking in the hills of central Italy, as attested by the art and

mates and terrains favored vines of many different types and

artifacts left in their tombs. The ancient Liguri produced and

styles, and consumers elsewhere in Europe and in North

traded wine in northwestern Italy and southeastern France.

America had come to appreciate these new examples of class.

The Romans propagated the cult of Bacchus to all corners

Then came phylloxera and other scourges to devastate

of the empire, developing a flourishing trade in wine through-

Europe’s vineyards around the turn of the century. Italian

out Mediterranean lands and beyond. So sophisticated was

growers, who had been working with thousands of local vari-

their knowledge of viticulture and enology that their tech-

eties, were forced to reduce the numbers

niques were not equaled again until the 17th or 18th centuries

Many opted for newly developed, more productive clones

when Italians and other Europeans began to regard the making

of both native and foreign vines. Taking advantage of the long,

of wine as science rather than mystique.

sunny growing season, they forced yields upward, reasoning

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The Wines of Italy

that there was usually more profit to be made from quantity

parts of the country have kept the emphasis firmly on tradition-

than quality.

al vines. They have taken the authentic treasures of their ancient

Through the hard times of wars and depression, Italy

land and enhanced them in modern wines whose aromas and

became one of the world’s leading purveyors of low cost wine,

flavors are not to be experienced anywhere else. Italy produces

often sold in containers of outlandish shapes and sizes. Though

a greater range of distinctive wines than any other nation.

such practices were profitable for some, they did little for the image of Italian wine abroad.

6

Although Italy is most noted for its noble reds for aging, trends also favor more immediate types of rosso, including the

For decades responsible producers tried to tighten regula-

vini novelli to be drunk within months of the harvest. Italy is

tions and put the emphasis on quality. But it was not until the

also a major producer of white wines, ranging in style from light

denominazione d’origine laws were passed in the 1960s that a

and fruity to barrel-matured versions of impressive substance

new climate of dignity and trust created the base for what came

and depth. Some regions are noted for bubbly wines, whether

to be known as the modern renaissance of Italian wine.

the lightly fizzy frizzante or the fully sparkling spumante made

Since Vernaccia di San Gimignano became the first DOC

by either the sealed tank charmat or bottle-fermented classico

in 1966, the list has grown to include more than 350 zones

or tradizionale method. This wealth of wines may seem over-

delimited geographically, within which a multitude of wines

whelming. Consumers outside Italy are sometimes bewildered

are controlled for authenticity (see details under Wine Laws &

by the assortment of names of places, grape varieties, propri-

Labels). The honor roll of DOC/DOCG has been complement-

etors and types and in exasperation turn to more limited and

ed by a growing number of wines that qualify under the catego-

comprehensible sources for wine.

ry of indicazione geografica tipica (IGT).

This guide is designed to provide clear and concise infor-

Despite the reduction in numbers through this century,

mation that should allay some of the confusion. But it cannot

Italy still has far more types of vines planted than any other

offer a shortcut to the mastery of Italian wines. That can come

country. These include natives and a virtually complete range

only through experience, as wine drinkers overcome taste

of the so-called international varieties. The number of officially

prejudices and the fear of the unknown to appreciate why

approved Vitis vinifera varieties runs well into the hundreds.

Italian winemakers are proud to be different in an age of

For a while it appeared that the worldwide trend to stan-

worldwide uniformity.

dardize vines and wines would compromise Italy’s role as the

Experts increasingly rate Italy’s premier wines among the

champion of diversity. But, instead, leading producers in many

world’s finest. But what is perhaps most encouraging is that


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Italy’s premium production continues to expand and improve.

under what is known as denominazione di origine controllata

Italians have become increasingly committed to meeting the

or, by the initials, as DOC. At last count there were 320 DOC

growing demand for wines of quality and character at every

appellations, all delimited geographically. Wines from another

level of price.

33 zones have been distinguished as DOCG, the G for garanti-

Italians over the centuries have pioneered laws to control

ta or guaranteed authenticity of wines of “particular esteem.”

the origins and protect the names of wines. The ancient

DOCG has expanded from the original six – Barbaresco,

Romans defined production areas for dozens of wines. In 1716,

Barolo, Brunello di Montalcino, Vino Nobile di Montepulciano

the Grand Duchy of Tuscany delimited the zones for important

and Chianti – to cover 27 other zones around the country

wines, setting a precedent for modern legislation. Yet only

where wines must meet standards of typology and quality

since the mid-1960s have controls been applied nationwide

imposed by commissions of experts.


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Wine laws & labels Within the DOC and DOCG zones well over 2,000 types of

region down to a few choice plots around a remote village. DOC

wine are produced. They may be defined by color or type (still,

and DOCG wines rate the European Union designation

bubbly or sparkling; dry, semisweet or sweet; natural or forti-

VQPRD (for quality wine produced in determined regions).

fied). Or they may be referred to by

The laws also permit certain DOC

grape variety (e.g. Trentino has 26

and DOCG wines to carry names of

types of wine including 20 varietals).

communities, areas of geographical

Wines may also be categorized by

or historical importance in the zones

age (young wine to be sold in the

and names of individual vineyards of

year of harvest as novello or aged as

established reputation. The steadily

vecchio, stravecchio or riserva) or by

growing numbers and quantities of

a special subzone as classico or

DOC and DOCG appellations have

superiore. The term superiore or

been complemented by the addition

scelto may also apply to a higher degree of alcohol, a longer

of the IGT (indicazione geografica tipica) system. IGT has rap-

required period of aging or lower vine yields. (Most definitions

idly expanded the number of official appellations among wines

can be found in the Glossary.)

that range from locally admired to internationally acclaimed.

DOC applies to wines from specified grape varieties grown

Curiously, not long ago, some of Italy’s finest wines had

in delimited zones, vinified and aged following set methods to

been referred to as vini da tavola, “table wines” made by pro-

meet prescribed standards of color, odor, flavor, alcohol con-

ducers who by chance or by choice worked outside the DOC

tent, acidity, and so on. Regulations of each DOC are deter-

norms. Most such wines now fall into IGT categories, such as

mined by producers in the zone (often grouped in a consor-

Toscano in Tuscany or Sicilia in Sicily. Those wines must be

tium) guided by the national wine committee. DOC/DOCG

made from approved grape varieties in blends or alone, in

zones may range in scale from the vineyard areas of an entire

which case the variety may be mentioned on labels.

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The volume of classified wines is approaching a majority of

IGT wines must carry the official appellation, the producer’s or

national production. But it is important to remember that the

bottler’s name and province of bottling, the quantity of wine con-

most reliable guide to the quality of any wine from anywhere is

tained (certified by the letter “e”); and the alcohol grade by vol-

the reputation of the individual producer or estate. Certain

ume. DOCG wines must have the official pink strip seal at the

names are worth getting to know. Labels of DOC/DOCG and

top of the bottle.


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A review of Italian wines The following survey of the wines of Italy’s 20 regions follows a

Each of the 20 regions is a political entity with certain pow-

geographical pattern that divides the country into four sec-

ers of its own in balance with national laws. Every region is fur-

tions: The South and Islands; Central regions; North Central

ther divided into provinces which take the name of a principal

and Northwest regions; Northeast regions. Similarities often

city or town. A capsule introduction to each region lists the

exist within these sections in terms of climate and geography,

capital and provinces, size and population, average annual wine

as well as in grape varieties, vineyard maintenance and enolog-

production and rank in each category.

ical practices. But the divisions are rather arbitrary, designed

There is also a listing, first of DOCG and DOC wines and

more to aid the reader’s orientation than to point out clear dis-

then of IGT wines. Since a great deal of information needed to

tinctions. Italian wines are most accurately perceived region by

be packed into limited space, each wine is described through

region and place by place.

abbreviations that follow this key:

R

Red (rosso)

Ft

Fortified or naturally high in alcohol (liquoroso)

W

White (bianco)

VT

Late harvest (vendemmia tardiva)

P

Pink (rosato, rosé, chiaretto, cerasuolo)

Rs

Reserve (riserva)

Dr

Dry (secco, brut)

Sw

Sweet or semisweet (dolce, amabile, abboccato)

Sup Superior (superiore, in reference to higher alcohol, longer aging or a specific subzone)

Sp

Sparkling (spumante)

Fz

Fizzy or faintly bubbly (frizzante, frizzantino, vivace)

Ag

Aged, as required by DOC or DOCG in number of years

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The South & Islands: Oenotria revisited Sicily, Sardinia, Calabria, Basilicata, Apulia, Campania The six regions of Italy’s south take in the sun-washed vine-

But lately producers in all six regions have learned that the

yards that prompted the ancient Greeks to nickname their

future lies in quality. The result has been a rapid improvement

colonies Oenotria, the land of wine. From Hellas they brought

in the class and style of bottled wines that increasingly live up

to Magna Græcia vines that are still

to the ancient promise of Oenotria.

planted today, under such names as

The revolution in vineyard and

Aglianico, Greco, Malvasia, Gagliop-

cellar techniques has permitted pro-

po and Moscato.

duction of dry, balanced modern

The Romans in their turn recog-

wines of international appeal. Some

nized the potential of the slopes that

of Italy’s most impressive red wines

gave them Falernum, Caecubum,

originate in the south. First among

Mamertinum and other heady

them is Campania’s Taurasi, a

wines that were eulogized by poets

DOCG wine from Aglianico, also

from Horace to Virgil. Many outsiders left their marks on these

the source of Basilicata’s Aglianico del Vulture. In Apulia,

Mediterranean shores. Foremost among them were the

Negroamaro, Primitivo and Uva di Troia make reds of depth

Spaniards, who dominated until the Risorgimento and brought

and style. Calabria boasts sterling reds from Gaglioppo. On the

vines into Sardinia, Sicily and other places centuries after the

island of Sardinia, Cannonau and Carignano stand out. In

Arabs and Phoenicians planted what may have been the first

Sicily, Cerasuolo di Vittoria has gained DOCG status for a wine

“foreign” vines in Italy.

based on Calabrese or Nero d’Avola, a variety that plays a role

Through much of the 20th century, the vineyards of the

in a number of highly rated reds in the ranks of Sicilia IGT.

Italian Mezzogiorno were noted mainly for copious quantities

The south was long noted for white wines of unique

of wine. Apulia and Sicily were perennial leaders in volume,

strength of character. Examples are the barrel-aged classics of

much of it in bulk blending wines shipped to northerly places.

Sicily’s Marsala and Sardinia’s Vernaccia di Oristano and tradi-

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tional sweet wines from various varieties of Moscato, Malvasia

Adriatic seas. Fine wines are made in hot places—the slopes of

and Greco. But trends favor dry whites of modern style and dis-

Vesuvius, the isle of Ischia, Apulia’s Salento peninsula, Sicily’s

tinct personality. Leading the list are the DOCGs of Fiano di

western coast and Sardinia’s Campidano. But many wines of

Avellino and Greco di Tufo in Campania and Vermentino di

scope come from higher, cooler places – the hills around

Gallura in Sardinia. But fine whites are now made throughout

Avellino in Campania, Basilicata’s Vulture, Sicily’s Etna and

the south from both native and international varieties.

central highlands, Apulia’s interior plateau and Sardinia’s east-

The misconception that the Mezzogiorno has a universal-

ern coastal range.

ly torrid climate overlooks the fact that much of the territory is

Major wineries from elsewhere in Italy have invested in the

temperate and parts are downright chilly. Conditions depend

south, where the climate permits consistent quality from year

on altitude and proximity to the Tyrrhenian, Ionian or

to year for wines of premium class at reasonable prices.


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Sicily (Sicilia) Contrasts are not the least of those things in which Sicily

Nero d’Avola and Frappato is recognized as Cerasuolo di

abounds. So perhaps it is not surprising that this ancient island

Vittoria Classico from around the town of Vittoria. Other

boasts one of Italy’s most dynamic wine industries or that a

wines from the surrounding area may become Vittoria DOC.

region noted chiefly in the past for strong and often sweet

A major share of Sicily’s DOC production is represented by

amber Marsala and Moscato has switched the emphasis

Marsala, a wine originated by English merchant traders two

toward dry, modern wines—both red and white—that have

centuries ago. Marsala, Sicily’s proudest traditional wine, has

made an impact on international markets.

enjoyed a comeback among connoisseurs, who favor the dry

Sicily has taken the lead in winemaking in the modern south because producers have finally resolved to live up to the

Vergine and Superiore Riserva with the warmly complex flavors that rank them with the finest fortified wines of Europe.

promise that was already admired millennia ago by the Greeks

The other DOC wine made in quantity is the pale white,

and Romans. The largest island in the Mediterranean, has

bone dry Bianco d’Alcamo, part of the broader Alcamo appel-

128,000 hectares of vineyards, more than any other Italian

lation. Moscato di Pantelleria, from the remote isle off the coast

region. Yet, with the emphatic shift away from quantity to qual-

of Tunisia, is among the richest and most esteemed of Italian

ity, wine production has diminished to about two-thirds of the

sweet wines in the Naturale and Passito Extra versions.

levels of the early 1990s.

Malvasia delle Lipari, from the volcanic Aeolian isles, is a

Sicily’s rising status is reflected in the recent promotion of

dessert wine as exquisite as it is rare. The dry white and red

Cerasuolo di Vittoria to DOCG. That pale but potent red from

wines of Etna, whose vines adorn the lower slopes of the vol-

Palermo is the administrative center of Sicily, whose other provinces are Agrigento, Caltanissetta, Catania, Enna, Messina, Ragusa, Siracusa and Trapani. The largest of Italy’s 20 regions (25,710 square kilometers), Sicily ranks 4th in population (5,098,000). Sicily’s average annual wine production of 6,940,000 hectoliters (3rd in volume among the regions) includes 5% DOC/DOCG. White wine accounts for about 70% of Sicily’s production.

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Sicily (Sicilia)

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20 mi 50 km

DOCG 1 Cerasuolo di Vittoria (Classico) DOC 2 Alcamo 3 Contea di Sclafani 4 Contessa Entellina

5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Delia Nivolelli Eloro Erice Etna Faro Malvasia delle Lipari Mamertino di Milazzo

12 13 14 15 16 17

Marsala Menfi Monreale Moscato di Noto Moscato di Pantelleria Moscato Passito di Pantelleria

18 19 20 21 22 23 24

Moscato di Siracusa Riesi Salaparuta Sambuca di Sicilia Santa Margherita di Belice Sciacca Vittoria


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cano, show class. Production of the other traditional DOCs— the dry, red Faro and the sweet Moscatos of Noto and Siracusa—has been slight in recent times, but the volume of premium wine has increased somewhat with the addition of DOCs from various parts of the island. The greatest surge in volume of quality wine has come not with DOC/DOCG—which still represents only about 5 percent of total production—but with the rapid expansion of IGT, primarily under the regionwide Sicilia appellation. Many fine

diva W-Sw; Ansonica W-Dr; Cabernet Sauvignon R-Dr; Calabrese RDr; Catarratto W-DR; Chardonnay W-Dr; Grecanico W-Dr; Grillo WDr; Merlot R-Dr; Müller Thurgau W-Dr; Sauvignon W-Dr; Syrah R-Dr Contea di Sclafani: Bianco W-Dr/Sp; Dolce W-Sw; Dolce Vendemmia Tardiva W-Sw Ag-1.5; Rosato P-Dr/Sp; Rosso R-Dr; Novello R-Dr; Ansonica W-Dr/Sp; Cabernet Sauvignon R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Calabrese R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Catarratto W-Dr/Sp; Chardonnay W-Dr/Sp; Grecanico WDr/Sp; Grillo W-Dr/Sp; Merlot R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Nerello Mascalese R-Dr; Perricone R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Pinot Bianco W-Dr/Sp; Pinot Nero R-Dr, Rs Ag2; Sangiovese R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Sauvignon W-Dr/Sp; Syrah R-Dr, Rs Ag-2

wines come from native varieties, notably Nero d’Avola (or Calabrese), Nerello Mascalese and Perricone (or Pignatello) among the reds and Inzolia and Grecanico among the whites. Also prominent are such international varieties as Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Syrah, which show real promise in Sicily whether as single varietals or in blends. About 75 percent of Sicily’s wine is produced by cooperatives, but the number of privately owned estates has been growing. Prominent wine houses from northern and central Italy have invested in vineyards and cellars on the island. Methods of vine training in the sunny, temperate hills have been improved to reduce yields of grapes for wines of real character.

Contessa Entellina: Bianco W-Dr; Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag2; Ansonica W-Dr, Ansonica Vendemmia Tardiva W-Sw; Cabernet Sauvignon R-Dr; Chardonnay W-Dr; Grecanico W-DR; Merlot R-Dr; Pinot Nero R-Dr; Sauvignon W-Dr Delia Nivolelli: Bianco W-Dr/Sp; Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Ansonica WDr/Sp; Cabernet R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Chardonnay W-Dr/Sp; Damaschino W-Dr/Sp; Grecanico Dorato W-Dr/Sp; Grillo W-Dr/Sp; Merlot RDr, Rs Ag-2; Müller Thurgau W-Dr/Sp; Nero d’Avola R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Perricone or Pignatello R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Sangiovese R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Sauvignon W-Dr/Sp; Syrah R-Dr, Rs Ag-2 Eloro: Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-DR; Frappata R-Dr; Nero d’Avola R-Dr; Pachino R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Pignatello R-Dr

DOCG (1) Cerasuolo di Vittoria (Classico): R-Dr

DOC (23) Alcamo: Bianco di Alcamo W-Dr/Sp; Bianco Classico W-Dr; Rosato P-Dr/Sp; Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Rosso Novello R-Dr; Vendemmia Tar-

Erice: Bianco W-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Ansonica or Inzolia W-Dr; Cabernet Sauvignon R-Dr; Calabrese or Nero d’Avola R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Catarratto W-Dr; Chardonnay W-Dr; Frappato R-Dr; Grecanico WDr; Grillo W-Dr; Merlot R-Dr; Moscato W-Sw; Müller Thurgau WDr; Passito W-Sw; Perricone or Pignatello R-Dr; Sauvignon W-Dr, also

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VT W-Sw; Spumante W-Dr/Sw/Sp; Syrah R-Dr; Zibibbo VT W-Sw

Moscato di Pantelleria: Naturalmente Dolce W-Sw; Spumante WSw-Sp; Liquoroso W-Sw-Ft

Etna: Bianco W-Dr; Bianco Sup W-Dr; Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr Faro: R-Dr, Ag-1 Malvasia delle Lipari: W-Sw; Passito (also Dolce Naturale) W-Sw; Liquoroso W-Sw-Ft Mamertino di Milazzo: W-Dr, Rs Ag-2; R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Calabrese or Nero d’Avola R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Grillo-Ansonica or Grillo-Inzolia W-Dr, Rs Ag-2

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Marsala: Oro or Ambro W-Dr/Sw/Ft; Rubino R-Dr/Sw/Ft; Fine Ag1 (Oro, Ambro, Rubino, Secco, Semisecco, Dolce); Superiore Ag-2 (Oro, Ambro, Rubino, Secco, Semisecco, Dolce); Superiore Riserva Ag-4; Vergine or Soleras Ag-5 (Oro, Ambro, Rubino, Secco, Semisecco, Dolce); Ag-5, Vergine or Soleras Stravecchio or Riserva Ag-10; Cremovo or Cremovo Zabaione W-Sw or R-Sw Menfi: Bianco W-Dr; Feudi dei Fiori W-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Vendemmia Tardiva W-Sw; Ansonica or Inzolia W-Dr; Bonera R-Dr Ag-1, Rs Ag-2; Cabernet Sauvignon R-Dr; Chardonnay W-Dr; Grecanico W-Dr; Merlot R-Dr; Nero d’Avola R-Dr; Sangiovese R-Dr Monreale: Bianco W-Dr, also Sup; Novello R-Dr; Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Ansonica or Inzolia W-Dr; Cabernet Sauvignon R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Calabrese or Nero d’Avola R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Catarratto W-Dr; Chardonnay W-Dr; Grillo W-Dr; Merlot R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Perricone RDr, Rs Ag-2; Pinot Bianco W-Dr; Pinot Nero R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Sangiovese R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Syrah R-Dr, Rs Ag-2 Moscato di Noto or Moscato di Noto Naturale: W-Sw; Spumante W-Sw-Sp; Liquoroso W-Sw-Ft

Moscato Passito di Pantelleria: W-Sw; Liquoroso W-Sw-Ft, Extra W-Sw Ag-1 Moscato di Siracusa: W-Sw Riesi: Bianco W-Dr/Sp, also Vendemmia Tardiva W-Sw Ag-2; Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, also Novello, Superiore R-Dr Ag-2, Rs Ag-3 Salaparuta: Bianco W-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-2, also Novello; Catarratto W-Dr; Cabernet Sauvignon R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Chardonnay W-Dr; Grillo W-Dr; Inzolia W-Dr; Merlot R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Nero d’Avola R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Syrah R-Dr, Rs Ag-2 Sambuca di Sicilia: Bianco W-Dr; Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Cabernet Sauvignon R-Dr; Chardonnay W-Dr Santa Margherita di Belice: Bianco W-Dr; Rosso R-Dr; Ansonica WDr; Catarratto W-Dr; Grecanico W-Dr; Nero d’Avola R-Dr; Sangiovese R-Dr Sciacca: Bianco W-Dr; Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Riserva Rayana W-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Cabernet R-Dr; Chardonnay W-Dr; Grecanico W-Dr; Inzolia W-Dr; Merlot R-Dr; Nero d’Avola R-Dr; Perricone or Pignatello R-Dr, Rs; Sangiovese R-Dr Vittoria: Rosso R-Dr; Novello R-Dr; Ansonica or Inzolia W-Dr; Calabrese or Nero d’Avola R-Dr, Frappato R-Dr

IGT (6) Colli Ericini, Fontanarossa di Cerda, Salemi, Salina, Sicilia, Valle Belice


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The Wines of Italy

Sardinia (Sardegna) Isolation in mid-Mediterranean has made Sardinia the most

northwestern coastal area around Sassari and Alghero are noted

idiosyncratic of Italian regions. The island’s history has been

for premium whites. Vermentino dominates the dry wines,

influenced as much by foreigners – Spaniards in particular – as

notably in Vermentino di Gallura DOCG, though the Torbato

by other Italians.

under Alghero DOC can be equally impressive. Vermentino, a

The island’s vines tell a story of their own, frequently with

variety also planted in Liguria and parts of Tuscany, makes a

a Spanish accent. The Mediterranean stalwarts are there in the

white of winning style in the Gallura hills, though it can be pro-

various clones of Moscato and Malvasia, but several other vari-

duced throughout the region under the Sardinia DOC.

eties are unique in Italy, such as Girò, Cannonau, Nuragus, Monica, Semidano, Torbato and Vernaccia di Oristano.

Moscato can be either still or sparkling, but it is always sweet, notably from Sorso and Sennori and the Gallura hills

Sardinians have sharply reduced vineyards and volume of

and the town of Tempio Pausania in the north. Malvasia may

production recently while notably improving the general qual-

be sweet, but is perhaps most impressive dry from the town of

ity of thier wines. The island’s most productive vineyard area is

Bosa and the Planargia hills on the western side of the island, as

the Campidano, the fertile plains and low rolling hills north-

well as under the Cagliari DOC. Still another refined sweet

west of the capital and major port of Cagliari. The varieties

white is Semidano, which has a DOC for all of Sardinia, though

grown there – Girò, Malvasia, Monica, Moscato, Nasco and

it is most noted from the town of Mogoro.

Nuragus – carry the name of Cagliari in their denominations.

The most distinctive of Sardinian wines is Vernaccia di Ori-

The wooded slopes of the northern Gallura peninsula and the

stano. From a vine of uncertain origin grown in the flat, sandy

Cagliari is the administrative center of Sardinia, whose other provinces are Nuoro, Oristano and Sassari. The region ranks 3rd in size (24,090 square kilometers) and 12th in population (1,654,000). Sardinia’s average annual wine production of 930,000 hectoliters (14th in volume among the regions) includes more than 10% DOC/DOCG. Production of red and white wine are about equally divided in Sardinia.

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Tirso river basin around Oristano, it becomes a Sherry-like amber wine with a rich array of nuances in bouquet and flavor. The most popular white variety is Nuragus, which is believed to have been brought there by the Phoenicians. Its

Bianco W-Dr-Sp; Spumante Rosso R-Dr-Sp; Cabernet R-Dr; Cagnulari R-Dr; Chardonnay W-Dr/Sp; Sangiovese R-Dr; Sauvignon W-Dr; Torbato W-Dr/Sp; Vermentino W-Dr/Fz Arborea: Sangiovese R-P-Dr; Trebbiano W-Dr/Fz

name derives from the island’s prehistoric stone towers known as nuraghe. Nuragus is the source of a modern dry white, clean

Campidano di Terralba: R-Dr

and crisp in flavor. The island’s important red varieties are Cannonau, a relative of the Granacha brought from Spain, and Carignano and

Cannonau di Sardegna (Capo Ferrato, Jerzu, Oliena or Nepente di Oliena): Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Liquoroso Dolce Naturale R-Sw; Liquoroso Secco R-Dr-Ft

Monica, also of Spanish origin. Cannonau and Monica can be dry or sweet, though trends favor the dry type toned down in strength 20

from its traditionally heroic proportions. Vineyards in the rugged eastern coastal range around Nuoro are noted for rich, red Cannonau. Wines of note comes from the towns of Oliena, Jerzu and Dorgali and the coastal hills of Capo Ferrato. Cannonau also makes a fine sweet wine, which can be reminiscent of Port. A rising star among red wines is Carignano del Sulcis, from

Carignano del Sulcis: R-Dr, Rs Ag-2, Sup Ag-2, Novello R-Dr, Passito R-Sw; Rosato P-Dr/Fz Girò di Cagliari: Secco R-Dr; Liquoroso R-Sw-Ft, Rs Ag-2; Liquoroso Secco R-Dr-Ft, Rs Ag-2 Malvasia di Bosa: Dolce Naturale W-Sw Ag-2; Secco W-Dr Ag-2; Liquoroso Dolce W-Sw-Ft Ag-2; Liquoroso Secco W-Sw-Ft Ag-2

the southwest, where certain wineries have emerged with notable style recently. A curiosity among the reds is the moderately sweet Girò di Cagliari. In addition to its 20 wines of DOC

Malvasia di Cagliari: Secco W-Dr; Liquoroso W-Sw-Ft, Rs Ag-2; Liquoroso Secco W-Dr-Ft, Rs Ag-2

and DOCG, Sardinia has 15 IGTs, the most of any region.

Mandrolisai: Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, Sup Ag-2

DOCG (1) Vermentino di Gallura: W-Dr, also Sup

Monica di Cagliari: Secco R-Dr; Liquoroso Dolce R-Sw-Ft, Rs Ag-2; Liquoroso Secco R-Sw-Ft, Rx Ag-2

DOC (19)

Monica di Sardegna: R-Dr/Fz, Sup Ag-1

Alghero: Bianco W-Dr/Fz; Rosato P-Dr/Fz; Rosso R-Dr, also Novello; Liquoroso R-Sw-Ft, Ag-3, Rs Ag-5; Passito R-Sw or W-Sw; Spumante

Moscato di Cagliari: W-Sw; Liquoroso W-Sw-Ft, Rs Ag-1


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The Wines of Italy

Sardinia (Sardegna)

1

DOCG Vermentino di Gallura

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

DOC Alghero Arborea Campidano di Terralba Cannonau di Sardegna (Capo Ferrato, Jerzu, Oliena)* Carignano del Sulcis Girò di Cagliari Malvasia di Bosa Malvasia di Cagliari Mandrolisai Monica di Cagliari Monica di Sardegna* Moscato di Cagliari Moscato di Sardegna (Gallura, Tempio Pausania)* Moscato di Sorso Sennori Nasco di Cagliari Nuragus di Cagliari Sardegna Semidano (Mogoro)* Vermentino di Sardegna* Vernaccia di Oristano * Wines may be produced in all approved viticultural areas throughout the region

20 mi 50 km

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Moscato di Sardegna (Gallura, Tempio Pausania): W-Sw/Sp

Vermentino di Sardegna: W-Dr/Sw/Sp

Moscato di Sorso Sennori: W-Sw; Liquoroso Dolce W-Sw-Ft

Vernaccia di Oristano: W-Dr, Ag-2.5, Sup Ag-3.5; Liquoroso W-SwFt Ag-2.5; Liquoroso Secco W-Dr-Ft Ag-2.5

Nasco di Cagliari: Secco W-Dr; Liquoroso Dolce W-Sw-Ft, Rs Ag-2; Liquoroso Secco W-Dr-Ft, Rs Ag-2 Nuragus di Cagliari: W-Dr/Sw/Fz Sardegna Semidano (Mogoro): W-Sw/Sp; Passito W-Sw

IGT (16) Barbagia, Camarro, Colli del Limbara, Isola dei Nuraghi, Marmilla, Nuoro or Provincia di Nuoro, Nurra, Ogliastra, Parteolla, Planargia, Romangia, Sibiola, Tharros, Trexenta, Valle del Tirso, Valli di Porto Pino


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Calabria Calabria, which forms the toe of the Italian boot, is a predomi-

reserve version has the capacity to age beyond a decade from cer-

nately mountainous region with marked variations in microcli-

tain vintages. There is also a rosato to drink young and a bianco

mates between the sunny coastal hills along the Ionian and

from Greco grapes that can show impressive youthful freshness.

Tyrrhenian seas and the chilly heights of the Sila and Aspromonte

Melissa, an adjacent DOC zone, makes red and white

massifs. Two grape varieties of Greek origin dominate –

wines similar to Cirò. But red wines from the same Gaglioppo

Gaglioppo in red wines, Greco in whites – though the types of

grown at higher altitudes – Pollino, Donnici and Savuto, for

wine they make can vary markedly from one place to another.

example – are lighter in body and color, sometimes with fresh

Calabria’s best-known wine is Cirò, which grows in low

scents and flavors reminiscent of Alpine reds. The dark Greco

hills along the Ionian coast between the ancient Greek cities of

Nero variety is also used in certain reds of Calabria.

Sybaris and Kroton (Sibari and Crotone today). Local legend has

Recent experiments have also shown unexpected class in

it that Cirò descended directly from Krimisa, the wine Cala-

the ancient Magliocco variety for red wines, as well as convinc-

brian athletes drank to celebrate victory in an early Olympiad.

ing style with Cabernet Sauvignon. Chardonnay and Sauvignon

Lately Cirò has taken on contemporary touches as new

also show promise in Calabria’s hills.

methods of vine training and temperature-controlled winemak-

Among the whites, the rare Greco di Bianco stands out as

ing have diminished the alcoholic strength (as well as the

an exquisite but increasingly rare sweet wine. From a local vari-

propensity to oxidize), making the wine rounder, fuller in fruit

ety of Greco grown near the Ionian coast at the town of Bianco,

and fresher in bouquet. The classic Cirò is red, which in the

it has a rich, velvety texture and an intriguing citrus-like bou-

Catanzaro is the administrative center of Calabria, whose other provinces are Cosenza, Crotone, Reggio di Calabria and Vibo Valentia. The region ranks 10th in both size (15,080 square kilometers) and population (2,064,000). Calabria’s average annual wine production of 800,000 hectoliters (16th in volume among the regions) includes about 5% DOC. Red wine accounts for about 85% of Calabria’s production.

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The Wines of Italy

24

quet. The nearly identical Greco di Gerace is a non-DOC wine

Novello R-Dr; Greco W-Dr

that carries the ancient place name. From the same area comes Mantonico di Bianco, a Sherry-like amber wine with hints of almond and citrus in bouquet and flavor.

Melissa: Bianco W-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, Sup Ag-2 Pollino: R-Dr, Sup Ag-2

DOC (12)

Sant’Anna di Isola Capo Rizzuto: R-Dr

Bivongi: Bianco W-Dr; Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-2, also Novello R-Dr

San Vito di Luzzi: Bianco W-Dr; Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr

Cirò: Bianco W-Dr; Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, also Classico and Sup, Rs Ag-2

Savuto: R-Dr, Sup Ag-2 Scavigna: Bianco W-Dr; Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr

Donnici: Bianco W-Dr; Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-2, also Novello R-Dr

Verbicaro: Bianco W-Dr; Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-3

Greco di Bianco: W-Sw Ag-1

IGT (13)

Lamezia: Bianco W-Dr; Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-3, also

Arghillà, Calabria, Condoleo, Costa Viola, Esaro, Lipuda, Locride, Palizzi, Pellaro, Scilla, Val di Neto, Valdamato, Valle del Crati


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Calabria

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

DOC Bivongi Cirò Donnici Greco di Bianco Lamezia Melissa Pollino Sant’Anna di Isola Capo Rizzuto San Vito di Luzzi Savuto Scavigna Verbicaro 25

20 mi 50 km


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Basilicata Basilicata, also known as Lucania, is a region of arid hills and desolate mountains that can be cold for a southerly place. But the upland climate has its advantages for viticulture, in wines that show enviable aromas and flavors. Basilicata has three DOCs: the classic red Aglianico del Vulture and the recent appellations of Terra dell’Alta Val d’Agri and 26

Matera. Aglianico, one of southern Italy’s finest red wines, is rapidly gaining admirers elsewhere. The Aglianico vine – also the base of Campania’s Taurasi – was brought to Basilicata by the Greeks, perhaps as long ago as the 6th or 7th century B.C.E. (Its name is a corruption of Hellenico). On the slopes of the

varieties in its six types of wine, including the red Sangiovese,

extinct volcano of Monte Vulture it makes a robust, deeply col-

Primitivo and Cabernet Sauvignon and the white Greco Bianco

ored wine that can improve for many years from fine vintages,

and Malvasia Bianca di Basilicata.

becoming increasingly refined and complex in flavor. There are also youthful versions of the wine, sometimes semisweet and

DOC (3)

even sparkling. Terra dell’Alta Val d’Agri red and rosé are based

Aglianico del Vulture: R-Dr, Vecchio Ag-3, Rs Ag-5; Spumante RDr/Sw-Sp

on Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon. Matera uses a range of

Potenza is the administrative center of Basilicata, whose other province is Matera. The region ranks 14th in size (9,992 square kilometers) and 18th in population (608,000). Basilicata’s average annual wine production of 400,000 hectoliters (17th in volume among the regions) includes 6% DOC. Red wine accounts for about 80% of Basilicata’s production.


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Basilicata

27 20 mi 50 km

DOC 1 Aglianico del Vulture 2 Matera‡ 3 Terre dell’Alta Val d’Agri ‡ Covering the entire province of Matera, including the comune of Tricarico, part of which is isolated to the east of Potenza

Matera: Bianco W-Dr; Rosso R-Dr; Greco W-Dr; Moro R-Dr; Primitivo R-Dr; Spumante W-Dr-Sp Terre dell’Alta Val d’Agri: Rosso R-Dr, Ag-1, Rs Ag-2; Rosato P-Dr

IGT (2) Basilicata, Grottino di Roccanova


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Apulia (Puglia)

28

Apulia, the heel of the Italian boot, is a long, relatively level

Murge plateau. Dry wines from there tend to have moderate

region with a prolific production of wine. In the past, Apulia

strength, with impressive fruit, good acidity and ample bouquet.

often surpassed all other regions in output, though its former

Red wines generally derive from the native Uva di Troia or

title of “Europe’s wine cellar” no longer carries as much weight.

Bombino Nero, as well as Montepulciano and Sangiovese.

As traditional markets for strong blending wines have dimin-

White wines are dominated by the Verdeca variety, though

ished, Apulia’s producers have increasingly put the accent on pre-

Bianco d’Alessano, Malvasia, Trebbiano and Bombino Bianco

mium quality. Many have come forth with good to excellent

are also evident.

wines: dry, balanced reds, whites and rosés, as well as sweet wines from a great range of grape varieties, both native and foreign.

The leading DOC zone of northern Apulia is Castel del Monte, an appellation that enjoys an international reputation.

Apulia has 25 DOC zones, the most of any southern region.

It has a fine rosé and a full-bodied red that often gains stature

Steady improvement in quality along with an increase in quanti-

with age. In much of the north the emphasis is on red wines

ty of classified wine (including the six IGT categories) has led to a

under such DOCs as Rosso Canosa, Rosso Barletta and Rosso

growing reputation for wines widely appreciated for value abroad.

di Cerignola.

Apulia can be divided roughly into two viticultural sectors

Just north of the Brindisi-Taranto line white wines domi-

by a hypothetical line crossing the region between Brindisi and

nate, in particular those of the Itria valley – Locorotondo and

Taranto. To the north, the terrain is rolling to hilly and the cli-

Martina Franca – home of the conical roofed stone houses

mate is temperate, even relatively cool at certain heights in the

known as trulli. Throughout the region experimentation is

Bari is the administrative center of Apulia, whose other provinces are Brindisi, Foggia, Lecce and Taranto. The region ranks 7th in both size (19,363 square kilometers) and population (4,086,000). Apulia’s average annual wine production of 7,220,000 hectoliters (2nd in volume among the regions) includes about 10% DOC. Red and rosé wine accounts for about 70% of Apulia’s production.


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The Wines of Italy

under way with international varieties: Chardonnay, Pinot Bianco and Sauvignon among the whites; Cabernet, Merlot, Malbec, Pinot Nero and Syrah among the reds. South of the Brindisi-Taranto line lies Salento, a peninsula of low, rolling hills that extends between the Adriatic and Ionian seas to the easternmost point of Italy. Though hot, Salento is not quite torrid, thanks to the play of sea currents and breezes that waft across the Adriatic from the Balkans. Salento’s traditional wines were the powerful, inky reds from Primitivo, Negroamaro and Malvasia Nera. But increasing attention is being given to fresher reds and rosés, as well as to some unexpectedly bright and fruity white wines. Primitvo di Manduria, the early ripening variety of Salento is related to California’s Zinfandel. Though it once served primarily as a blending wine, Primitivo from a new wave of producers has shown undeniable class in a style that stands comparison with its American counterparts. Among the many DOCs of Salento, Salice Salentino stands out for its robust red and refined rosé, though wines from such appellations as Squinzano, Brindisi, Alezio and Copertino can show unexpected class. The Salento IGT applies to red wines that often carry individual names. White wines also show promise, Chardonnay in particular, though Salento is also renowned for flowery rosés that rank with Italy’s finest.

DOC (25) Aleatico di Puglia: Dolce Naturale R-Sw, Rs Ag-3; Liquoroso R-SwFt, Rs Ag-3

29


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The Wines of Italy

Alezio: Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-2

Martina or Martina Franca: W-Dr/Sp

Brindisi: Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-2

Matino: Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr

Cacc’e mmitte di Lucera: R-Dr

Moscato di Trani: Dolce Naturale W-Sw; Liquoroso W-Sw-Ft Ag-1

Castel del Monte: Bianco W-Dr/Fz; Rosato P-Dr/Fz; Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-2, also Novello; Aglianico R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Aglianico Rosato PDr/Fz; Bombino Bianco W-Dr/Fz; Bombino Nero R-Dr; Cabernet RDr, Rs Ag-2; Chardonnay W-Dr/Fz; Pinot Bianco W-Dr/Fz; Pinot Nero R-Dr; Sauvignon W-Dr/Fz; Uva di Troia R-Dr, Rs Ag-2

Nardò: Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-2

Copertino: Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-2

Primitivo di Mandria: R-Dr; Dolce Naturale R-Sw; Liquoroso Dolce Naturale R-Sw Ag-2; Liquoroso Secco R-Dr Ag-2

30

Galatina: Bianco W-Dr/Fz; Rosato P-Dr/Fz; Rosso R-Dr, also Novello; Chardonnay W-Dr; Negroamaro R-Dr, Rs Ag-2 Gioia del Colle: Bianco W-Dr; Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr; Aleatico R-Sw, Rs Ag-2; Aleatico Liquoroso Dolce R-Sw; Primitivo R-Dr/Sw, Rs Ag-2

Orta Nova: Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr Ostuni: Bianco W-Dr; Ottavianello R/P-Dr

Rosso Barletta: R-Dr, Invecchiato Ag-2 Rosso Canosa: R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Canusium R-Dr, Rs Ag-2 Rosso di Cerignola: R-Dr, Rs Ag-2

Gravina: W-Dr/Sw/Sp Leveranno: Bianco W-Dr; Bianco Passito W-Sw; Bianco Vendemmia Tardiva W-Dr/Sw; Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-2, also Novello; Malvasia Bianca W-Dr; Negroamaro Rosato P-Dr; Negroamaro Rosso R-Dr

Salice Talentino: Bianco W-Dr; Rosato P-Dr/Sp; Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag2; Aleatico Dolce R-Sw, Rs Ag-2; Aleatico Liquoroso Dolce R-Sw, Rs Ag-2; Pinot Bianco W-Dr/Sp San Severo: Bianco W-Dr/Sp; Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr

Lizzano: Bianco W-Dr/Fz/Sp; Rosato P-Dr/Fz/Sp; Rosso R-Dr/Fz, also Novello; Malvasia Nera R-Dr, Sup Ag-1; Negroamaro Rosato PDr; Negroamaro Rosso R-Dr, Sup Ag-1

Squinzano: Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-2

IGT (6) Locorotondo: W-Dr/Sp

Daunia, Murgia, Puglia, Salento, Tarantino, Valle d’Itria


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Apulia (Puglia)

31

20 mi 50 km

1 2 3 4 5 6

DOC Aleatico di Puglia* Alezio Brindisi Cacc’e mmitte di Lucera Castel del Monte Copertino

7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Galatina Gioia del Colle Gravina Leverano Lizzano Locorotondo Martina or Martina Franca

14 15 16 17 18 19 20

* Wines may be produced in all approved viticultural areas throughout the region

Matino Moscato di Trani Nardò Orta Nova Ostuni Primitivo di Manduria Rosso Barletta

21 22 23 24 25

Rosso Canosa Rosso di Cerignola Salice Salentino San Savero Squinzano


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Campania

32

20 mi 50 km

DOCG 1 Fiano di Avellino 2 Greco di Tufo 3 Taurasi

4 5 6 7 8 9

DOC Aglianico del Taburno Aversa Campi Flegrei Capri Castel San Lorenzo Cilento

10 Costa d’Amalfi (Furore, Ravello, Tramonti) 11 Falerno del Massico 12 Galluccio 13 Guardia Sanframondi o Guardiolo 14 Ischia

15 16 17 18 19 20

Penisola Sorrentina Sannio Sant’Agata de’ Goti Solopaca Taburno Vesuvio


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Campania It’s become increasingly evident why the ancient Romans

Modernization has by no means swept away respect for tra-

admired Campania Felix as the most felicitous of wine regions.

dition. In Campania, a majority of producers strives to make the

Over the last decade, the region of Naples has dramatically

most of native vines, including an honor roll of so-called “archae-

improved the quality of its modern wines, now classifying near-

ological varieties” which do indeed date back to antiquity.

ly 90 percent of production as DOC or IGT.

The noblest of red varieties is Aglianico, which makes the

Things truly are changing in Campania’s vineyards, where

red Taurasi, as well as the red Falerno del Massico and others.

a new spirit of achievement and sense of pride has been bol-

Taurasi has been called “the Barolo of the south,” due to its size

stered by the introduction of thoroughly modern winemaking

and ability to age, though its style is proudly its own.

techniques. Evidence of the new era is the elevation of three

Greco, a name applied to various vines prominent in the

ancient wines to the elite category of DOCG: Taurasi, Fiano di

south, reaches heights in Greco di Tufo. Fiano, praised by the

Avellino and Greco di Tufo.

Romans, is the base of the inimitable Fiano di Avellino. Falan-

The Romans favored the vineyards along the coast north of

ghina, which seems to have been the base of the white version

Naples where Falernian, the most treasured wine of the empire,

of Falernian, has become the region’s fastest spreading variety.

was grown. They also praised the wines of volcanic Vesuvius

Campania’s DOC zones also include the fabled islands of

and the wooded hills of Avellino. Even earlier, the Greeks had

Capri and Ischia, as well as the recently revived Penisola

recognized the privileged nature of the place, introducing vines

Sorrentina and Costa d’Amalfi, taking in the terraced seaside

which still stand out today as Aglianico, Greco and Falanghina.

vineyards from Sorrento to Amalfi.

Naples (Napoli) is the administrative center of Campania, whose other provinces are Avellino, Benevento, Caserta and Salerno. The region ranks 12th in size (13,595 square kilometers) and 2nd in population (5,793,000). Campania’s average annual wine production of 1,770,000 hectoliters (9th in volume among the regions) includes 10% DOC/DOCG. Red wine accounts for about 60% of Campania’s production.

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The recent regionwide IGT of Campania, which applies to red, white and rosè wines and nine native varietals, has rapidly

DOCG (3) Fiano di Avellino: W-Dr; Apianum W-Dr

increased the quantity of classified wine to about 75 percent of total production.

Greco di Tufo: W-Dr, also Spumante Sp-Dr Ag-3


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The Wines of Italy

Taurasi: R-Dr Ag-3, Rs Ag-4

Palummo R-Dr; Piedirosso or Per’e Palummo Passito R-Sw

DOC (17)

Penisola Sorrentina: Bianco W-Dr; Bianco Sorrento W-Dr; Rosso RDr/Fz; Rosso Sorrento R-Dr; Gragnano or Lettere R-Dr/Fz

Aglianico del Taburno: Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr Ag-2, Rs Ag-3 Aversa: Asprinio W-Dr/Sp Campi Flegrei: Bianco W-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, also Novello; Falanghina W-Dr/Sp; Piedirosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Piedirosso Passito Dolce R-Sw; Piedirosso Passito Secco R-Dr Capri: Bianco W-Dr; Rosso R-Dr Castel San Lorenzo: Bianco W-Dr; Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr; Barbera R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Moscato W-Sw/Sp; Moscato Lambiccato W-Sw

Sannio: Bianco W-Dr/Fz; Rosato P-Dr/Fz; Rosso R-Dr/Fz, also Novello; Spumante Metodo Classico W-Dr-Sp Ag-1.2; Aglianico RDr/Sp, also Passito R-Sw; Rs Ag-2; Barbera R-Dr/Sp, also Passito RSw; Coda di Volpe W-Dr/Sp, also Passito W-Sw; Falanghina WDr/Sp, also Passito W-Sw; Fiano W-Dr/Sp; Greco W-Dr/Sp, also Passito W-Sw; Moscato W-Sw/Sp, also Passito W-Sw; Piedirosso RDr/Sp; Sciascinoso R-Dr/Sp, also Passito R-Sw Sant’Agata de’ Goti: Bianco W-Dr; Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, also Novello; Aglianico R-Dr Ag-2, Rs Ag-3; Falanghina W-Dr, also Passito W-Sw; Greco W-Dr; Piedirosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-2

Cilento: Bianco W-Dr; Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr; Aglianico R-Dr Ag-1 Costa d’Amalfi (Furore, Ravello, Tramonti): Bianco W-Dr; Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-2 Falerno del Massico: Bianco W-Dr; Rosso R-Dr Ag-1, Rs Ag-2; Primitivo R-Dr Ag-1, Rs Ag-2 Galluccio: Bianco W-Dr; Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-2 Guardia Sanframondi or Guardiolo: Bianco W-Dr; Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-2, also Novello; Spumante W-Dr-Sp; Aglianico RDr, Rs Ag-2; Falanghina W-Dr Ischia: Bianco W-Dr; Bianco Spumante W-Dr-Sp; Bianco Sup W-Dr; Rosso R-Dr; Biancolella W-Dr; Forastera W-Dr; Piedirosso or Per’e

Solopaca: Bianco W-Dr; Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, Sup Ag-1; Spumante W-Dr-Sp; Aglianico R-Dr Ag-1; Falanghina W-Dr Taburno: Bianco W-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, also Novello; Spumante W-DrSp; Coda di Volpe W-Dr; Falanghina W-Dr; Greco W-Dr; Piedirosso R-Dr Vesuvio: Bianco W-Dr; Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr; Lacryma Christi W-P-R-Dr/Sp; Lacryma Christi Liquoroso W-Sw-Ft

IGT (10) Beneventano, Campania, Colli di Salerno, Dugenta, Epomeo, Irpinia, Paestum, Pompeiano, Roccamonfina, Terre del Volturno

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Central Italy: Renaissance in the heartland Latium, Molise, Abruzzi, Marches, Umbria, Tuscany The historical hills at the heart of the peninsula boast condi-

combines with the ubiquitous Trebbiano in Est! Est!! Est!!! di

tions of ample sunshine and moderate temperatures highly

Montefiascone and most other whites of the region.

favorable to vines. What is often called the modern renaissance

Umbria has had the chance to pick and choose. Though

in Italian wine began in Tuscany,

Sangiovese is still often used for

with the renovation of its noble

red wines, the native Sagrantino

reds. But by now the six regions

has come to the fore in the Mon-

between the Tyrrhenian and Adri-

tefalco zone where wines of

atic seas are realizing their eminent

unusual depth and power are

potential as they move to the fore-

classified as DOCG. The Pro-

front of Italian winemaking.

canico strain of Trebbiano is

The regions of central Italy are divided physically, and to some

prominent in the widely known white wines of Orvieto.

degree culturally, by the Apennines. To the west, on the Tyr-

A trend, more evident in Tuscany than elsewhere, has been

rhenian side, lie Tuscany, Latium and landlocked Umbria. To

the introduction of popular outside varieties – Cabernet

the east, on the Adriatic side, lie Marches, Abruzzi and Molise.

Sauvignon, Merlot, the Pinots, Chardonnay and Sauvignon

The realm of Sangiovese is Florence's region of Tuscany,

Blanc. But efforts are also being directed at upgrading worthy

where it prevails in Chianti – the nation’s archetypal red – as

natives, including the white Vernaccia di San Gimignano,

well as in the growingly prestigious Brunello di Montalcino,

Umbria's Grechetto and Latium’s red Cesanese.

Vino Nobile di Montepulciano and many of the unclassified wines known as “Super Tuscans.”

Along the Adriatic coast, two native varieties stand out: the white Verdicchio in the Marches and the red Monte-

White Malvasia reigns in Rome’s region of Latium. It is

pulciano, which originated in Abruzzi but is widely planted

prominent in Frascati and the wines of the Alban hills, and

in Marches and Molise .Montepulciano can be remarkable on

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38

its own, as the base of the DOCG Conero in the Marches and

DOC zones, where it has surpassed its long-time reputation as

Montepulciano d’Abruzzo, DOCG as Colline Teramane. But it

a tasty fish wine to stand among the noblest native white vari-

also has a natural affinity for blends with Sangiovese in such

eties of Italy in wines that gain stature with age. Trebbiano,

fine reds as the Marches’ Rosso Piceno. Verdicchio has under-

planted throughout the six regions, reaches heights in Abruzzi,

gone a revolution in the Marches’ Castelli di Jesi and Matelica

where top producers make whites of surprising depth.


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The Wines of Italy

Latium (Lazio) Rome’s region is intrinsically linked to white wine – to Frascati

The use of low temperature processing and sterile filtration

and Marino and the other golden-hued bianchi of the Castelli

have transformed their personalities into dryer, crisper, more

Romani, as well as to the fabled Est! Est!! Est!!! from the north-

durable wines with a propensity to travel that has opened up

ern Latium town of Montefiascone.

commercial horizons. Still, with only occasional exceptions, the

The ancient Romans drank white wines, too, though

whites of Latium are pleasantly fleshy and fruity, wines that go

Horace and company reserved their greatest praise for the red

enticingly well with a great range of foods but are not the sort

Falernian and Caecuban – which were grown along the coast in

to be laid away or fussed over.

southern Latium and Campania. Although white wine

Their immediacy is by no means a negative attribute, as evi-

accounts for an overwhelming share of the region’s production,

denced by the established world market for Frascati, followed by

certain of its red wines have been impressing connoisseurs.

Marino and less publicized but worthy neighbors such as Colli

Latium’s hills, favored by ample sunshine on fertile vol-

Albani, Colli Lanuvini, Castelli Romani, Velletri and Montecom-

canic soils, seem to be naturally suited to the production of

patri Colonna. Though some admirers argue that the richer,

white wines based on various types of Malvasia and Trebbiano

stronger abboccato or cannellino versions are what Malvasia is all

grapes. Rome’s wines, led by Frascati and Marino, were tradi-

about, most modern consumers seem to prefer them softly dry.

tionally abboccato, pleasingly soft though not so sweet as to

Latium’s DOC reds vary in composition. Aprilia, in the

overwhelm the flavor of food. They were easy, everyday wines

reclaimed stretches of what were once the Pontine Marshes,

not designed to last long or travel far.

turns out considerable quantities of Merlot and Sangiovese.

Rome (Roma), Italy’s capital, is also the administrative center of Latium, whose other provinces are Frosinone, Latina, Rieti and Viterbo. The region ranks 9th in size (17,207 square kilometers) and 3rd in population (5,255,000). Latium’s average annual wine production of 2,400,000 hectoliters (8th in volume among the regions) includes 45% DOC and 30% IGT. White wine accounts for more than 80% of Latium’s production.

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The reds of Cerveteri, Cori and Velletri are based on Monte-

Sw/Fz/Sp or Dolce R-Sw/Fz/Sp

pulciano and Sangiovese. The native Cesanese makes richly flavored dry and sweet reds in the three DOC zones of the Prenestina and Ciociaria hills southeast of Rome. Aleatico makes a Port-like dessert wine on the northern shores of Lake Bolsena at Gradoli. The sweet Moscato di Terracina from the

Cesanese di Olevano Romano or Olevano Romano: Secco RDr/Fz/Sp or Amabile R-Sw/Fz/Sp or Dolce R-Sw/Fz/Sp Circeo: Bianco W-Dr; Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, also Novello; Sangiovese R-Dr; Sangiovese Rosato P-Dr; Trebbiano W-Dr

southern coast is a candidate for DOC. Cabernet and Merlot are the stars of a number of highly

Colli Albani: W-Dr/Sp, also Novello and Superiore

praised modern reds of Latium, which prove that the fortunes of premium wine production are not confined to whites. 40

DOC (26) Aleatico di Gradoli: R-Sw; Liquoroso R-Sw-Ft, Rs Ag-2 Aprilia: Merlot R-Dr; Sangiovese R-Dr; Trebbiano W-Dr Atina: Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Cabernet R-Dr, Rs Ag-2

Colli della Sabina: Bianco W-Dr/Fz/Sp; Rosato P-Dr/Fz; Rosso RDr/Fz/Sp, also Novello Colli Etruschi Viterbesi: Bianco W-Dr/Fz; Rosato P-Dr/Fz; Rosso RDr/Fz, also Novello; Canaiolo R-Dr; Grechetto W-Dr/Fz, also Novello; Greghetto R-Dr; Merlot R-Dr; Moscatello W-Sw/Fz, also Novello; Moscatello Passito W-Sw; Procanico W-Dr/Fz; Rossetto WDr; Sangiovese Rosato P-Dr/Fz; Violone R-Dr

Bianco Capena: W-Dr, also Superiore

Colli Lanuvini: W-Dr, also Superiore

Castelli Romani: Bianco W-Dr/Fz, Rosato P-Dr/Fz; Rosso R-Dr/Fz, also Novello

Cori: Bianco W-Dr; Rosso R-Dr Est! Est!! Est!!! di Montefiascone: W-Dr/Sp, also Amabile W-Sw/Sp

Cerveteri: Bianco W-Dr/Fz/Sw; Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr/Sw, also Novello

Frascati: W-Dr, also Novello and Superiore; Amabile and Cannellino W-Sw; Spumante W-Dr-Sp

Cesanese del Piglio or Piglio: Secco R-Dr/Fz/Sp or Amabile RSw/Fz/Sp or Dolce R-Sw/Fz/Sp

Genazzano: Bianco W-Dr, also Novello; Rosso R-Dr, also Novello

Cesanese di Affile or Affile: Secco R-Dr/Fz/Sp or Amabile R-

Marino: W-Dr, also Superiore; Spumante W-Dr-Sp


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Latium (Lazio)

41

20 mi 50 km

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

DOC Aleatico di Gradoli Aprilia Atina Bianco Capena Castelli Romani Cerveteri Cesanese del Piglio or Piglio

8 Cesanese di Affile or Affile 9 Cesalese di Olevano Romano or Olevano Romano 10 Circeo 11 Colli Albani 12 Colli della Sabina 13 Colli Etruschi Viterbesi

14 Colli Lanuvini 15 Cori 16 Est! Est!! Est!!! di Montefiascone 17 Frascati 18 Genazzano 19 Marino 20 Montecompatri Colonna

21 22 23 24 25 26

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Montecompatri Colonna: W-Dr/Fz, also Superiore

Velletri:Bianco W-Dr,also Superiore; Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-2;Spumante W-Dr-Sp

Nettuno: Bianco W-Dr/Fz; Rosato P-Dr/Fz; Rosso R-Dr, also Novello; Bellone or Cacchione W-Dr/Fz; R

Vignanello: Bianco W-Dr, also Superiore; Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-2, also Novello; Greco W-Dr/Sp

Orvieto (shared with Umbria): W-Dr, also Superiore

Zagarolo: W-Dr, also Superiore

Tarquinia: Bianco W-Dr/Fz, also Amabile W-Sw; Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, also Novello and Amabile R-Sw

IGT (5) Civitella d’Agliano, Colli Cimini, Frusinante, Lazio, Nettuno


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Molise The often overlooked region of Molise, which was once an appendix of Abruzzi, gained official status in wine in the 1980s

Molise

with the DOCs of Biferno and Pentro di Isernia. The sunny hillsides between the Apennines and the Adriatic show an aptitude for vines that has permitted Molise to begin to match on a small scale the quality of wines of its neighbors in Abruzzi,

43

Latium, Apulia and Campania. The DOC of Molise applies to a mix of native Italian and international varieties, creating new possibilities for producers who have been striving to establish an identity with wine

20 mi

beyond the region. The rolling hills and the mild Adriatic cli-

50 km

mate favor wines of class, though the evidence in bottle is not as widespread as it might be. The IGT category of Osco or Terre degli Osci refers to the Oscan people who inhabited Molise in prehistoric times. The other IGT category is Rotae.

DOC 1 Biferno 2 Molise* 3 Pentro di Isernia * Wines may be produced in all approved viticultural areas throughout the region

Campobasso is the administrative center of Molise, whose other province is Isernia. The region ranks 19th in both size (4,438 square kilometers) and population (329,000). Molise’s average annual wine production of 300,000 hectoliters (18th in volume among the regions) includes about 5% DOC. Red wine accounts for about 75% of Molise’s production.


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DOC (3) Biferno: Bianco W-Dr; Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-3 Molise: Novello R-Dr; Aglianico R-Dr/Fz, Rs Ag-2; Cabernet Sauvignon R-Dr/Fz; Chardonnay WDr/Fz/Sp; Falanghina WDr/Fz; Greco Bianco W-Dr/Fz; Montepulciano R-Dr/Fz, Rs Ag-2; Moscato W-Sw/Fz/Sp; Pinot Bianco W-Dr/Fz/Sp; Sangiovese R-

Dr/Fz; Sauvignon W-Dr/Fz; Tintilia R-Dr/Fz, Rs Ag-2; Trebbiano W-Dr/Fz Pentro di Isernia: Bianco W-Dr; Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr

IGT (2) Osco or Terre degli Osci, Rotae


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Abruzzi (Abruzzo) In a nation of myriad appellations, Abruzzi offers wine drinkers

robust, with a capacity to age but with a supple smoothness

refreshing simplicity in the long-standing regionwide DOCs for

that can make it eminently drinkable even when young. The

Montepulciano and Trebbiano d’Abruzzo, which account for

red and riserva from the Teramo area have been distin-

an abundance of good red and white wines along with a bit of

guished under the DOCG of Montepulciano d’Abruzzo

rosé – or Cerasuolo.

Colline Teramane.

The region, whose surface is two-thirds mountains and

The rest of Montepulciano d’Abruzzo is DOC, applying to

one-third hills, boasts highly favorable conditions for

both the red wine and the cherry hued rosé of Cerasuolo. Two

grapevines. Growers generally favor the predominant

other subzones are noted: Casauria or Terre di Casauria and

Montepulciano and Trebbiano, though in recent times they’ve

Terre dei Vestini.

planted other varieties, some covered by the DOC of Controguerra and the nine IGT appellations.

Much Trebbiano is based on the prolific Tuscan variety, which makes light, crisp whites of subtle aroma and flavor.

The native Montepulciano (not to be confused with the

Some growers work with the “true” Trebbiano d'Abruzzo

town of that name in Tuscany where Vino Nobile is made)

(which may or may not be related to the Bombino Bianco of

is a vine of convincing character that has been winning

Apulia). A choice few have managed to make Trebbiano of

admirers abroad. In parts of the Abruzzi, notably in the low

remarkable depth and texture, with a propensity to develop

hills of the northern province of Teramo, Montepulciano

complexity over four or five years, sometimes even more, of

becomes a red of irresistible character – full-bodied, even

aging. Those wines are relatively rare.

L’Aquila is the administrative center of Abruzzi, whose other provinces are Chieti, Pescara and Teramo. The region ranks 13th in size (10,798 square kilometers) and 14th in population (1,277,000). Abruzzi’s average annual wine production of 3,450,000 hectoliters (5th in volume among the regions) includes about 20% DOC/DOCG. Red wine accounts for about 55% of Abruzzi’s production.

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Abruzzi (Abruzzo)

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DOCG (1) Montepulciano d’Abruzzo Colline Teramane: R-Dr Ag-2, Rs Ag-3

DOC (3) Controguerra: Bianco W-Dr/Fz; Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-2, also Novello; Passito W/R-Sw Ag-1; Passito Annoso W/R-Sw Ag-3; Spumante WDr-Sp; Cabernet R-Dr; Chardonnay W-Dr; Ciliegiolo R-Dr; Malvasia W-Dr; Merlot R-Dr; Moscato Amabile W-Sw; Passerina W-Dr; Pinot Nero R-Dr; Riesling W-Dr Montepulciano d’Abruzzo (Casauria or Terre di Casauria, Terre dei Vestini): Cerasuolo P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-2 Trebbiano d’Abruzzo: W-Dr

IGT (9) Alto Tirino, Colli Aprutini, Colli del Sangro, Colline Frentane, Colline Pescaresi, Colline Teatine, Del Vastese or Histonium, Terre di Chieti, Valle Peligna

20 mi 50 km

DOCG 1 Montepulciano d’Abruzzo Colline Teramane DOC 2 Controguerra 3 Montepulciano d’Abruzzo* (Casauria or Terre di Casauria, Terre dei Vestini) 4 Trebbiano d’Abruzzo* * Wines may be produced in all approved viticultural areas throughout the region


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Marches (Marche) Verdicchio is the bestseller among the wines of this peaceful

Verdicchio from both DOC zones makes good sparkling

Adriatic region. But the Marches’ long-time devotion to whites

wine as well, usually by the sealed tank method of fermenta-

no longer obscures the merits of its reds, recently recognized in

tion, but also occasionally by the classical method in bottle.

the DOCGs of Conero and Vernaccia di Serrapetrona.

The red wines of the Marches are based chiefly on Sangiovese

The Castelli di Jesi DOC zone, covering a vast tract of hills

and Montepulciano – sometimes blended, sometimes not. The

west of the port of Ancona, is the home of the Verdicchio that

most important in terms of volume is Rosso Piceno, dominated by

made an impression abroad as a fresh flavored fish wine in

Sangiovese. It comes from a DOC zone covering much of the east-

green amphora bottles. But a new style of Verdicchio has

ern flank of the region, stretching from the superiore area between

emerged as a white wine of distinguished character in standard

Ascoli Piceno and the sea north through the coastal hills to

bottles. Verdicchio di Matelica, grown in limited quantities in a

Senigallia. Rosso Conero, dominated by Montepulciano, has

mountainous zone, can have more body and strength than

gained even more praise, thanks to the devotion to quality shown

wines from Jesi.

by its leading producers. It originates in a zone on the slopes of

Class has risen so steadily that even Verdicchio still sold in the

the Conero massif south of Ancona. Both Rosso Conero and

hourglass-shaped amphora seems a cut above the general level of

Rosso Piceno were habitually made to drink within two to four

popular whites. Some producers now make wines of such impres-

years, when they are persuasively round and fresh in flavor. But

sive depth and complexity with age that Verdicchio is increas-

certain producers have made wines that age remarkably well

ingly ranked among the noblest native white varieties of Italy.

from good vintages – sometimes for well over a decade.

L’Ancona is the administrative center of the Marches, whose other provinces are Ascoli Piceno, Macerata and Pesaro-Urbino. The region ranks 15th in size (9,694 square kilometers) and 13th in population (1,455,000). Marches’ average annual wine production of 1,150,000 hectoliters (11th in volume among the regions) includes 43% DOC/DOCG. White wine accounts for nearly 60% of the Marches’ production.

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Two unique red wines are gradually gaining more than

Colli Maceratesi: W-Dr

local reputations: Vernaccia di Serrapetrona, recently promoted to DOCG, and Lacrima di Morro d’Alba. Vernaccia from the village of Serrapetrona may be either dry or sweet but it is always sparkling. Lacrima, a local vine of mysterious origin,

Colli Pesaresi: Bianco W-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, also Novello; Focara Rosso R-Dr; Roncaglia Bianco W-Dr; Sangiovese R-Dr, also Novello Esino: Bianco W-Dr/Fz; Rosso R-Dr, also Novello

makes reds of flavors ranging from fruity dry to mellow sweet. Sangiovese is prominent in the northern DOC zone of Colli Pesaresi, where wines bear a family resemblance to the reds of neighboring Romagna. Bianchello del Metauro is usu-

Falerio dei Colli Ascolani: W-Dr I Terreni di San Severino: Rosso R-Dr Ag 1.5, Sup Ag-2; Rosso Passito R-Sw Ag-2; Moro R-Dr Ag 1.5

ally light and zesty but can show style from certain places. Esino DOC, which coincides with parts of the two 48

Lacrima di Morro d’Alba: R-Dr/Sw

Verdicchio zones, provides red and white wines, usually fresh and fruity. The white Falerio dei Colli Ascolani, from hills around Ascoli to the south, can show class when the Pecorino and Passerina varieties.

Offida: Passerina W-Dr/Sp, also Vino Santo W-Dr Ag-3, Passito WSw Ag-2; Pecorino W-Dr; Rosso R-Dr Ag 2.5 Pergola: Rosso R-Dr, also Novello R-Dr, Passito R-Sw

Although the emphasis remains strongly on native vines, recent results with such outside varieties as Cabernet Sauvi-

Rosso Conero: R-Dr, Rs Ag-2.5

gnon, Merlot, Chardonnay and Sauvignon have shown eminent promise in the temperate hills of the Marches. The regionwide March IGT accounts for a major share of production.

Rosso Piceno: R-Dr, Sup Ag-1, also Novello Verdicchio dei Castelli di Jesi (Classico): W-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Classico, also Sup, Rs Ag-2; Passito W-Sw Ag-1; Spumante W-Dr-Sp, Rs Ag-1

DOCG (2) Conero: R-Dr Ag-2

Verdicchio di Matelica: W-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Passito W-Sw Ag-1; Spumante W-Dr-Sp

Vernaccia di Serrapetrona: R-Dr/Sw-Sp

IGT (1) DOC (13) Bianchello del Metauro: W-Dr

Marche


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Marches (Marche)

DOCG 1 Conero 2 Vernaccia di Serrapetrona

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

20 mi 50 km

DOC Bianchello del Metauro Colli Maceratesi Colli Pesaresi Esino Falerio dei Colli Ascolani I Terreni di San Severino Lacrima di Morro d’Alba Offida Pergola Rosso Conero Rosso Piceno Verdicchio dei Castelli di Jesi (Classico) Verdicchio di Matelica

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Umbria Umbria was historically renowned for white wine, thanks

juice for a while before fermentation. Just lately Orvieto’s

mainly to the prominence of Orvieto. But the scenic hills of the

abboccato and amabile versions have made a comeback as

“green heart of Italy” have an undeniable aptitude for red wine,

dessert wines.

as exemplified in the region’s two DOCGs: Montefalco Sagrantino and Torgiano Rosso Riserva.

Although Procanico (a local species of Trebbiano) and Malvasia prevail in Orvieto, growers in the zone have been

Orvieto was once the most celebrated of Italian whites as a

working successfully with such outside varieties as

semisweet or abboccato wine, praised by the popes, princes

Chardonnay, Sauvignon and the Pinots, as well as the

and painters who sojourned in the hill town north of Rome

admirable local Grechetto. Red wine from the area is covered

with its splendid cathedral and sweeping views over the

by the DOCs of Rosso Orvietano and Lago di Corbara.

Umbrian landscape. But as tastes changed Orvieto was modi-

The first Umbrian red to achieve prominence was

fied from a soft, golden wine into a pale, pure, crisp creature of

Torgiano Rosso riserva, which gained special status as DOCG

modern enology.

(though the Torgiano DOC appellation covers a range of other

Modern Orvieto is a commercial success as one of Italy’s

wines). A modern classic based on Sangiovese, Torgiano Rosso

best-selling DOC whites with a solid following abroad.

riserva has been known to age to unique splendor for two

Recently, some producers have achieved more character in the

decades or more.

wine through lower grape yields and more meticulous selec-

The Umbrian wine that has made the greatest recent

tion and by letting the grape skins remain in contact with the

impact is Sagrantino di Montefalco. Sagrantino, an ancient vari-

Perugia is the administrative center of Umbria, whose other province is Terni. The region ranks 16th in size (8,456 square kilometers) and 17th in population (833,000). Umbria’s average annual wine production of 90,000 hectoliters (15th in volume among the regions) includes 35% DOC/DOCG. Production of red and white wine is about equally divided in Umbria.

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ety grown only around the hill town of Montefalco, is an intriguing native that makes both dry and sweet wines of unmistakable grandeur. It, too, has been granted a special DOCG, separate from the DOC Montefalco for lighter red and white wines. Among the many outside varieties planted in Umbria,

Rs Ag-2; Spumante Classico W-Sp; Vin Santo W-Sw Ag-1.5; Cabernet Sauvignon R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Gamay R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Grechetto W-Dr; Merlot R-Dr, Rs Ag-2 Colli Martani: Grechetto W-Dr; Grechetto di Todi W-Dr; Sangiovese R-Dr Ag-1, Rs Ag-2; Trebbiano W-Dr

Merlot and Barbera have been prominent for more than a century. More recently, Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay have shown promise in varietal wines and in blends. Even Pinot Nero has given indications of more than the usual class here.

Colli Perugini: Bianco W-Dr; Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, also Novello; Spumante W-Sp; Vin Santo W-Sw; Chardonnay W-Dr; Cabernet Sauvignon R-Dr; Grechetto W-Dr; Merlot R-Dr; Pinot Grigio W-Dr; Sangiovese R-Dr; Trebbiano W-Dr

Umbria has numerous curiosities among its vines and wines, though few of the local rarities ever leave the region. Vin Santo, 52

pressed from semidried Grechetto or Malvasia grapes, is usually sweet and most prized by Umbrians as a wine for any occasion.

DOCG (2) Montefalco Sagrantino or Sagrantino di Montefalco: Secco R-Dr Ag-3; Passito R-Sw Ag-3

Lago di Corbara: Rosso R-Dr Ag-1; Cabernet Sauvignon R-Dr Ag-1; Merlot R-Dr Ag-1; Pinot Nero R-Dr Ag-1 Montefalco: Bianco W-Dr; Rosso R-Dr Ag-1.5, Rs Ag-2.5 Orvieto (shared with Latium) and Orvieto Classico: W-Dr, also Sup W-Dr/Sw; Orvieto Classico W-Dr, also Sup W-Dr/Sw (Classico applies to wines from the original zone in Umbria)

Torgiano Rosso Riserva: R-Dr Ag-3

DOC (11) Assisi: Bianco W-Dr; Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, also Novello

Rosso Orvietano or Orvietano Rosso: R-Dr; Aleatico R-Sw; Cabernet R-Dr; Cabernet Franc R-Dr; Cabernet Sauvignon R-Dr; Canaiolo R-Dr; Ciliegiolo R-Dr; Merlot R-Dr; Pinot Nero R-Dr; Sangiovese R-Dr

Colli Altotiberini: Bianco W-Dr; Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr Colli Amerini: Bianco W-Dr; Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, also Novello and Sup; Malvasia W-Dr Colli del Trasimeno or Trasimeno: Bianco W-Dr/Fz, also Bianco Scelto; Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, also Novello and Rosso Scelto Ag-1,

Torgiano: Bianco W-Dr; Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr Ag-1; Spumante W-Sp Ag-2; Chardonnay W-Dr; Cabernet Sauvignon R-Dr Ag-1; Pinot Grigio W-Dr; Pinot Nero R-Dr Ag-1; Riesling Italico W-Dr

IGT (6) Allerona, Bettona, Cannara, Narni, Spello, Umbria


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Umbria

20 mi 50 km

DOCG 1 Montefalco Sagrantino or Sagrantino di Montefalco 2 Torgiano Rosso Riserva

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

DOC Assisi Colli Altotiberini Colli Amerini Colli del Trasimeno or Trasimeno Colli Martani Colli Perugini Lago di Corbara Montefalco Orvieto and Orvieto Classico Rosso Orvietano or Orvietano Rosso Torgiano

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Tuscany (Toscana) Florence’s region continues to advance its position as the

Chianti is produced in eight distinct zones and adjacent

nation’s most dynamic producer of premium wines. Tuscany’s

areas that cover a vast territory of central Tuscany around the

modern renaissance in wine began in Chianti, in the central

original core of Chianti Classico. In those gorgeously rugged

hills around Siena and Florence, but it rapidly spread to take in

hills variations in soil and climate contribute as much to the

the strip along the Mediterranean coast that was not previous-

individuality of each authentic estate wine as do winemakers’

ly noted for vineyards.

quests for creative styles. Some Chianti is still fairly fresh, easy

Notable progress has been made with classical reds based on

and quaffable, though a growing portion is full-bodied and

the native Sangiovese vine – Chianti, Brunello di Montalcino,

elaborate and capable of becoming aristocratic with age. Those

Vino Nobile di Montepulciano and Carmignano – all DOCG.

variables can be confusing, but for consumers who persist,

But growing success with other reds (especially the prestigious

Chianti offers some of the best value in wine today.

non-DOC wines known as “Super Tuscans”) has been augmented by new styles of whites to enhance the region’s reputation.

Much of Chianti is identified by its subzones, most prominently Classico, whose producers’ consortium is symbolized by

Chianti, still the dominant force in Tuscan viniculture, has

a black rooster. Many estates also emphasize the name of a spe-

long rated as the most Italian of wines. This is partly because it

cial vineyard as a mark of distinction. What Chianti has in com-

is the most voluminous and widely sold classified wine, but also

mon with all of the traditional red wines of Tuscany is its major

because it has a personality that cannot be pinned down. Its

grape variety Sangiovese.

multifarious nature is quintessentially Italian.

From good vintages, pure Sangiovese wines are rich in

Florence (Firenze) is the administrative center of Tuscany, whose other provinces are Arezzo, Grosseto, Livorno, Lucca, MassaCarrara, Pisa, Pistoia, Prato and Siena. The region ranks 5th in size (22,997 square kilometers) and 9th in population (3,529,000). Tuscany’s average annual wine production of 2,600,000 hectoliters (7th in volume among the regions) includes 65% DOC/DOCG. Red wine accounts for about 75% of Tuscany’s production.

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body and intricate in flavor with deep ruby-garnet colors. Some

Reale di Carmignano DOC applies to red, rosé and Vin Santo.

are smooth and round almost from the start, but others need

Pomino, which was also cited in the decree of 1716, is a high-

years to develop the nuances of bouquet and flavor unique to

altitude DOC zone with a red that blends Sangiovese with

well-aged Tuscan reds.

Cabernet and Merlot and a special white that includes

Tuscany’s appellation of greatest stature is Brunello di

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Chardonnay and Pinot.

Montalcino, a DOCG from a fortress town south of Siena

The production of upscale alternative wines, which began

where reds of legendary power and longevity have command-

as a trend in the 1970s, became an essential factor in the gener-

ed lofty prices. Conceived by the Biondi Santi family a century

al improvement of Tuscan reds. Cult wines that have become

ago, Brunello is now issued under some 200 labels, representing

known as “Super Tuscans” continue to prosper.

small farms, established estates and even international corpora-

Yet Sassicaia, the pure Cabernet that in the 1970s con-

tions. Brunello producers also make the DOCs of Rosso di

vinced the world that Italy could make modern reds of interna-

Montalcino (a younger wine from Sangiovese), the sweet white

tional appeal, now has a DOC of its own under the Bolgheri

Moscadello di Montalcino (from Moscato) and a range of

appellation. The Sangiovese-Cabernet blend of Tignanello

wines that carry the appellation Sant’Antimo.

served as the model for Tuscany’s new style of red wine aged in

Not far from Montalcino is Montepulciano with its Vino

small oak barrels or barriques instead of ancient casks. Then

Nobile, made from a type of Sangiovese known as Prugnolo

came Cabernet-Sangiovese blends and, later, reds from Merlot,

Gentile. The nobile entered the name centuries ago, appar-

Syrah and Pinot Nero.

ently in homage to its status among the nobility. In the 17th

The “Super Tuscans” rank among the most esteemed and

century, the poet Francesco Redi described Montepulciano’s

expensive red wines of Italy. Though not classified as DOC/

red as “king of all wines.” After a lapse of decades, Vino Nobile

DOCG, most are entitled to the regionwide Toscana IGT.

has made an impressive comeback under DOCG and is once

Inspired by the success of Cabernet and Merlot in Bolgheri,

again living up to its name. Producers may also produce the

wines from the coastal sector of Tuscany have risen rapidly in

DOC Rosso di Montepulciano as a younger alternative to

prestige to challenge the central hills for supremacy. In the

Vino Nobile.

heart of the Maremma, as the coastal hills of southwestern

Carmignano rates special mention as a wine singled out for

Tuscany are known, lies the Morellino di Scansano zone,

protection by the Grand Duke of Tuscany in 1716. That rare red

source of a red based on Sangiovese that is strongly on the rise.

from Sangiovese and Cabernet ranks as DOCG, while Barco

Other DOC zones of promise include Val di Cornia, Monte-


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cucco, Monteregio di Massa Marittima, Montescudaio,

Pisane, Montalbano, Montespertoli, Rufina): R-Dr, also Sup, Rs Ag-2

Caparbio, Sovana and Terratico di Bibbona. The pride of many a Tuscan winemaker is the rich Vin Santo, which has become DOC in many zones around the

Chianti Classico: R-Dr Ag-1, Rs Ag-2 Vernaccia di San Gimignano: W-Dr, Rs Ag-1

region. Pressed from partly dried grapes and aged in small wooden barrels, Vin Santo can be an exquisite dessert or aperitif wine. Most Vin Santo is made from white varieties, mainly Malvasia and Trebbiano, though the type called Occhio di Pernice comes from red wine grapes. Until recently, Tuscan whites rarely enjoyed much prestige, probably because most of them consisted of the pedestrian varieties of Trebbiano and Malvasia. Exceptions to the rule stand out from the crowd. Vernaccia di San Gimignano, from the ancient Vernaccia vine, has enjoyed a revival that led to its promotion as the region’s first white DOCG. Vermentino has spread through

Vino Nobile di Montepulciano: R-Dr Ag-2, Rs Ag-3

DOC (36) Ansonica Costa dell’Argentario: W-Dr Barco Reale di Carmignano: Rosso R-Dr; Rosato or Vin Ruspo P-Dr; Vin Santo W-Sw Ag-3, Rs Ag-4; Vin Santo Occhio di Pernice R-Sw Ag-3, Rs Ag-4 Bianco della Valdinievole: W-Dr; Vin Santo W-Dr/Sw Ag-3 Bianco dell’Empolese: W-Dr; Vin Santo W-Dr/Sw Ag-3

the coastal hills as a white variety of real promise. Recently, whites of depth and complexity have been pro-

Bianco di Pitigliano: W-Dr, also Sup; Spumante W-Dr-Sp

duced in Tuscany, made from such international varieties as Chardonnay, Sauvignon and Pinot Bianco and Grigio, all of which are finding comfortable environments in cooler parts of the region’s hills.

Bianco Pisano di San Torpè: W-Dr; Vin Santo W-Dr/Sw Ag-3, Rs Ag-4 Bolgheri (Sassicaia): Bianco W-Dr; Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr; Rosso Sup Ag-2; Sassicaia R-Dr Ag-2; Vin Santo Occhio di Pernice R-Sw Ag3, Rs Ag-4; Sauvignon W-Dr; Vermentino W-Dr

DOCG (6) Brunello di Montalcino: R-Dr Ag-5, also Vigna, Rs Ag-6

Candia dei Colli Apuani: W-Dr/Sw/Fz; Vin Santo W-Sw Ag-3

Carmignano Rosso Riserva: R-Dr Rs Ag-3

Capalbio: Bianco W-Dr; Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-3; Vin Santo R-Dr/Sw Ag-3; Sauvignon W-Dr; Cabernet Sauvignon R-Dr; Sangiovese R-Dr; Vermentino W-Dr

Chianti (Colli Aretini, Colli Fiorentini, Colli Senesi, Colline

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DOCG 1 Brunello di Montalcino 2 Carmignano Rosso Riserva 3 Chianti A Colli Aretini B Colli Fiorentini C Colli Senesi D Colline Pisane E Montalbano F Montespertoli G Rufina 4 Chianti Classico 5 Vernaccia di San Gimignano 6 Vino Nobile di Montepulciano

DOC 7 Ansonica Costa dell’Argentario 8 Barco Reale di Carmignano 9 Bianco della Valdinievole 10 Bianco dell’Empolese 11 Bianco di Pitigliano 12 Bianco Pisano di San Torpè 13 Bolgheri (Sassicaia) 14 Candia dei Colli Apuani 15 Capalbio 16 Colli dell’Etruria Centrale 17 Colli di Luni 18 Colline Lucchesi 19 Cortona 20 Elba 21 Montecarlo

22 Montecucco 23 Monteregio di Massa Marittima 24 Montescudaio 25 Morellino di Scansano 26 Moscadello di Montalcino 27 Orcia 28 Parrina 29 Pietraviva 30 Pomino 31 Rosso di Montalcino 32 Rosso di Montepulciano 33 San Gimignano 34 Sant’Antimo 35 Sovana 36 Terratico di Bibbona 37 Val D’Arbia

38 Valdichiana 39 Val di Cornia (Campiglia Marittima, Piombino, San Vincenzo, Suvereto) 40 Vin Santo del Chianti A Colli Aretini B Colli Fiorentini C Colli Senesi D Colline Pisane E Montalbano F Montespertoli G Rufina 41 Vin Santo del Chianti Classico 42 Vin Santo di Montepulciano


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Tuscany (Toscana)

59

20 mi 50 km


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Colli dell’Etruria Centrale: Bianco W-Dr; Rosato P-Dr; Rosso or Vermiglio R-Dr, also Novello; Vin Santo W-Dr/Sw Ag-3, Rs Ag-4; Vin Santo Occhio di Pernice R-Sw Ag-3, Rs Ag-4

Montescudaio: Bianco W-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Vin Santo W-Sw Ag-4; Cabernet R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Chardonnay W-Dr; Merlot R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Sangiovese R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Sauvignon W-Dr; Vermentino W-Dr

Colli di Luni (shared with Liguria): Bianco W-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag2; Vermentino W-Dr

Morellino di Scansano: R-Dr, Rs Ag-2 Moscadello di Montalcino: W-Sw/Fz; Vendemmia Tardiva W-Sw

Colline Lucchesi: Bianco W-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Vin Santo WDr/Sw Ag-3; Vin Santo Occhio di Pernice R-Sw Ag-3; Merlot R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Sangiovese R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Sauvignon W-Dr; Vermentino W-Dr

Orcia: Bianco W-Dr, also Vigna; Novello R-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, also Vigna; Vin Santo W-Sw Ag-3 Parrina: Bianco W-Dr; Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-2

60

Cortona: Rosato P-Dr; Vin Santo W-Dr/Sw Ag-3, Rs Ag-5; Vin Santo Occhio di Pernice R-Sw Ag-8; Cabernet Sauvignon R-Dr; Chardonnay W-Dr; Grechetto W-Dr; Gamay R-Dr; Merlot R-Dr; Pinot Bianco WDr; Pinot Nero R-Dr; Riesling Italico W-Dr; Sangiovese R-Dr; Sauvignon W-Dr; Syrah R-Dr. (All types may refer to a vineyard or Vigna) Elba: Bianco W-Dr; Bianco Spumante W-Dr-Sp; Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Vin Santo W-Dr/Sw Ag-3, Rs Ag-4; Vin Santo Occhio di Pernice R-Sw Ag-3; Aleatico R-Sw; Ansonica W-Dr; Ansonica Passito W-Sw; Moscato W-Sw

Pietraviva: Bianco W-Dr, also Sup; Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, also Sup Ag-2; Cabernet Sauvignon R-Dr; Canaiolo Nero R-Dr; Chardonnay W-Dr; Ciliegiolo R-Dr; Malvasia Bianca Lunga W-Dr; Merlot R-Dr; Sangiovese R-Dr Pomino: Bianco W-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-3; Vin Santo W/R-Sw Ag-3 Rosso di Montalcino: R-Dr, also Vigna Rosso di Montepulciano: R-Dr

Montecarlo: Bianco W-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Vin Santo WDr/Sw Ag-3; Vin Santo Occhio di Pernice R-Sw Ag-3, Rs Ag-4 Montecucco: Bianco W-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Sangiovese R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Vermentino W-Dr Monteregio di Massa Marittima: Bianco W-Dr; Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-2, also Novello; Vermentino W-Dr; Vin Santo W-Dr/Sw Ag-3; Vin Santo Occhio di Pernice R-Sw Ag-3, Rs Ag-4

San Gimignano: Rosso R-Dr. Rs Ag-2, also Novello; Rosato P-Dr; Cabernet Sauvignon R-Dr; Chardonnay W-Dr; Sangiovese Rosato PDr; Vin Santo W-Sw Ag-3; Vin Santo Occhio di Pernice R-Sw Ag-3 Sant’Antimo: Bianco W-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, also Novello; Vin Santo WDr/Sw Ag-3, Rs Ag-4; Vin Santo Occhio di Pernice R-Sw Ag-3, Rs Ag4; Cabernet Sauvignon; Chardonnay W-Dr; Merlot R-Dr; Pinot Grigio W-Dr; Pinot Nero R-Dr; Sauvignon W-Dr


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Sovana: Rosso, also Sup, Rs Ag-2.5; Rosato P-Dr; Aleatico R-Sw, also Sup, Rs Ag-2.4; Cabernet Sauvignon Sup R-Dr, Rs Ag-2.5; Merlot Sup R-Dr, Rs Ag-2.5; Sangiovese Sup R-Dr, Rs Ag-2.5 Terratico di Bibbona: Bianco W-Dr; Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, also Sup; Cabernet Sauvignon R-Dr, also Sup; Merlot R-Dr, also Sup; Sangiovese R-Dr, also Sup; Trebbiano Toscano W-Dr; Vermentino W-Dr Val d’Arbia: W-Dr; Vin Santo W-Dr/Sw Ag-3 Valdichiana: Bianco or Bianco Vergine W-Dr; Rosato P-Dr; Rosso RDr; Vin Santo W-Dr/Sw Ag-3, Rs Ag-4; Chardonnay W-Dr; Grechetto W-Dr; Sangiovese R-Dr Val di Cornia (Campiglia Marittima, Piombino, San Vincenzo, Suvereto): Bianco W-Dr; Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag- 3 Vin Santo del Chianti (Colli Aretini, Colli Fiorentini, Colli Senesi, Colline Pisane, Montalbano, Montespertoli, Rufina): W-Dr/Sw Ag-3, Rs Ag-4; Occhio di Pernice R-Sw Ag-3, Rs Ag-4 Vin Santo del Chianti Classico: W-Dr/Sw Ag-3, Rs Ag-4; Occhio di Pernice R-Sw Ag-3 Vin Santo di Montepulciano: W-Sw Ag-3, Rs Ag-5; Occhio di Pernice R-Sw Ag-8

IGT (6) Alta Valle della Greve, Colli della Toscana Centrale, Maremma Toscana, Montecastelli, Toscana or Toscano, Val di Magra

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North by Northwest: from Adriatic to Mont Blanc Emilia-Romagna, Liguria, Lombardy, Piedmont, Valle d’Aosta The five regions of north-central and northwestern Italy

Piedmont stands tall in the quality field with the most

cover much of the great arc of the Alps and Apennines that

DOC/DOCG zones of any region, even though it ranks only

walls in the Po as it flows east through its broad valley to the

sixth in over all production. Emilia-Romagna contributes quan-

Adriatic. The types of wine – like

tity with the fourth largest output

the topography, soil and climate

among the regions after Veneto,

– vary to extremes in these re-

Apulia and Sicily.

gions, which are grouped rather

In contrast, Valle d’Aosta and

loosely as neighbors but, in true

Liguria are mere dabblers in wine.

Italian style, maintain their own

Valle d’Aosta, the smallest region,

proud identities.

produces by far the least volume

This most affluent part of

of wine from its rocky Alpine

Italy comprises the “industrial tri-

slopes. Its DOC output is sur-

angle” between Milan, Turin and the Mediterranean port of

passed by some single wineries in other regions. Liguria, with

Genoa and the agriculturally fluent flatlands of the Po and its

little space for vines between the mountains and the

tributaries. Since property is valuable and mountains take up a

Mediterranean, is second to the last in production, offering

major share of space, vineyards are confined and wine is a com-

wines that are intriguingly esoteric.

modity that must be either financially or spiritually rewarding.

Despite the proximity of France, whose vines have been

Yet between the cool terraces of the Alps and the often torrid

warmly welcomed elsewhere in Italy, growers in Piedmont,

fields of the Po basin, contrasts abound. Alongside some of

Valle d’Aosta and Liguria prefer their own vines and tend to

Italy’s most revered bottles can be found some of its most friv-

make wine in their own style.

olous. But whether the label says Barolo or Lambrusco, the winemaker no doubt takes his work seriously.

Pedmont’s host of worthy natives includes Barbera, Dolcetto, Grignolino, Freisa, Cortese, Arneis, Brachetto, the

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Canelli clone of Moscato and the noblest of them all Nebbiolo,

Valtellina. It also boasts spreads of Chardonnay and Pinot vines

source of Barolo, Barbaresco and Gattinara. The vines of Valle

for the growingly prestigious sparkling wines of Franciacorta

d’Aosta often have French names – Petit Rouge, Gros Vien,

and Oltrepò Pavese.

Blanc de Valdigne, for instance – due to the Savoyard history of

Emilia-Romagna had been a leading exporter of wines with

the region. Liguria favors the local Vermentino, Rossese and

shipments to America of sweet and bubbly Lambrusco, whose

Pigato, while working with its own version of Dolcetto, known

vines spill over the fertile plains of Emilia. But lately growers

as Ormeasco.

have been concentrating on distinctive wines from the hills.

Lombardy, the most populous region, ranks only thir-

Best known are the Albana and Sangiovese of Romagna, but

teenth in wine production, but it does boast a major concentra-

Barbera, Cabernet, Chardonnay and Sauvignon from the

tion of Nebbiolo vines for the DOC reds of the mountainous

Apennine foothills of Emilia are gaining notice.


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Emilia-Romagna Emilia-Romagna, as the hyphenated name reveals, consists of

have tasted the wine in its authentic dry style. Most Lambrusco

two distinct sectors that coincide more or less at the capital of

shipped away is amabile or sweet, while most of what is drunk

Bologna. To the west lies Emilia, with its prosperous towns

at home is dutifully dry and more often than not DOC. Though

strung like jewels along the ancient Emilian Way: Modena,

there are historical precedents for both types, the dry is consid-

Reggio, Parma, Fidenza, Fiorenzuola, as far as Piacenza on the Po.

ered the unparalleled match for the region’s rich cooking.

East of Bologna lies Romagna with the towns of Faenza, Forlì, Cesena, Ferrara, Ravenna and the Adriatic resort of Rimini.

Even the hill wines of Emilia tend to be frothy. Vineyards in the foothills of the Apennines to the south render fun-loving

Emilia-Romagna’s wines might be considered northern Italy’s

whites made from Malvasia, Trebbiano and Ortrugo and zesty

most eccentric, different on the whole from those of their neigh-

reds from Barbera and Bonarda. But there is a definite trend in

bors, often facile in style but always refreshingly individualistic.

the DOC zones of Colli Piacentini, Colli Bolognesi and Colli di

In Emilia the premier wine is Lambrusco, in frothy shades

Parma to make still and somewhat serious wines from such

of purple to pink, made from grapes grown on high trellised

varieties as Sauvignon, Chardonnay, the Pinots, Barbera,

vines, mainly in the flatlands south of the Po. Romagna’s wines

Cabernet and Merlot. Natural conditions favor wines of depth

come primarily from the native Sangiovese, Trebbiano and

and finesse, but markets seem to favor the lightweights.

Albana, the variety the accounted for Italy’s first white DOCG.

Moving into Romagna, the plains of the Po basin between

Lambrusco is produced in volume in the four DOC zones

Ferrara and Ravenna are noted for fruit, vegetables and ultra

around Modena and Reggio, though few consumers abroad

productive vines, most of which are sources of blending wines.

Bologna is the administrative center of Emilia-Romagna, whose other provinces are Ferrara, Forlì, Modena, Parma, Piacenza, Ravenna, Rimini and Reggio nell’Emilia. The region ranks 6th in size (22,124 square kilometers) and 8th in population (3,960,000). Emilia-Romagna’s average annual wine production of 6,060,000 hectoliters (4th in volume among the regions) includes 33% DOC/DOCG. Red wine accounts for about 60% of Emilia-Romagna’s production.

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The hills south of Imola, Faenza, Forlì, Cesena and Rimini are

DOC (20)

known for wines from the native Albana, Sangiovese and

Bosco Eliceo: Bianco W-Dr/Sw/Fz; Fortana R-Dr/Sw/Fz; Merlot RDr; Sauvignon W-Dr/Sw/Fz

Trebbiano, all of which carry the name Romagna. Albana di Romagna, which emerged in 1987 as Italy's first DOCG white wine, is most often dry and still with a distinctive almond undertone and occasionally some complexity. Albana’s best expression seems to be as a richly sweet passito from partly dried grapes. The traditional semisweet and bubbly versions are usually consumed at home. Romagna’s Trebbiano, distinct from other vines of the name, is almost always light and fresh, whether still or bubbly, with a fragility that makes it best in its youth.

Cagnina di Romagna: R-Dr Colli Bolognesi (Colline di Oliveto, Colline di Riosto, Colline Marconiane, Monte San Pietro, Serravalle, Zola Predosa): Bianco W-Dr/Fz; Barbera R-Dr/Fz, Rs Ag-3; Cabernet Sauvignon R-Dr, Rs Ag-3; Chardonnay W-Dr/Fz/Sp; Merlot R-Dr; Pignoletto WDr/Fz/Sp, also Sup; Pinot Bianco W-Dr/Fz/Sp; Sauvignon W-Dr/Fz, also Sup. (Each of the 6 subzones qualifies certain varietal wines with specific requirements under its appellation) 67

The favorite of Romagnans is Sangiovese, usually a robust red with a certain charm in its straightforward fruity flavors. But increasingly producers of Sangiovese are making reserve wines of greater depth of bouquet and flavor with the capacity to age gracefully.

Colli Bolognesi Classico Pignoletto: W-Dr Colli della Romagna Centrale: Bianco W-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Cabernet Sauvignon R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Chardonnay W-Dr, Rs Ag 1.5; Sangiovese R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Trebbiano W-Dr

In Romagna, too, trends favor Sauvignon, Chardonnay, the Pinots and Cabernet. But many producers are devoting major efforts to developing superior strains of Sangiovese and Albana, while building interest in such rare local wines as the DOC

Colli di Faenza: Bianco W-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Pinot Bianco WDr; Sangiovese R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Trebbiano W-Dr

percent of total production.

Colli di Imola: Bianco W-Dr/Fz, also Sup; Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-1.5, also Novello; Barbera R-Dr/Fz; Cabernet Sauvignon R-Dr. Rs Ag-1.5; Chardonnay W-Dr/Fz; Pignoletto W-Dr/Fz; Sangiovese R-Dr, Rs Ag1.5; Trebbiano W-Dr/Fz

DOCG (1)

Colli di Parma: Rosso R-Dr; Malvasia W-Dr/Sw/Sp; Sauvignon WDr/Sp

Albana di Romagna: Secco W-Dr; Amabile or Dolce W-Sw; Passito W-Sw

Colli di Rimini: Bianco W-Dr; Rosso R-Dr; Biancame W-Dr; Cabernet

white Pagadebit and red Cagnina and Bosco Eliceo Fortana. Emilia-Romagna has ten IGTs which account for about 35


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Emilia-Romagna

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20 mi 50 km

DOCG 1 Albana di Romagna

2 3 4 5

DOC Bosco Eliceo Cagnina di Romagna Colli Bolognesi Colli della Romagna Centrale

6 Colli Bolognesi Classico Pignoletto 7 Colli di Faenza 8 Colli di Imola 9 Colli di Parma 10 Colli di Rimini 11 Colli di Scandiano e di Canossa

12 Colli Piacentini 13 Lambrusco di Sorbara 14 Lambrusco Grasparossa di Castelvetro 15 Lambrusco Salamino di Santa Croce 16 Pagadebit di Romagna 17 Reggiano

18 19 20 21

Reno Romagna Albana Spumante Sangiovese di Romagna Trebbiano di Romagna


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Sauvignon R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Rebola W-Dr/Sw; Rebola Passito W-Sw Colli di Scandiano e di Canossa: Bianco W-Dr/Fz/Sp; Bianco Classico W-Dr/Fz; Cabernet Sauvignon R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Chardonnay W-Dr/Fz/Sp; Lambrusco Grasparossa R-Dr/Fz; Lambrusco Montericco R-Dr/Fz; Malbo Gentile R-Dr/Fz, also Novello; Malvasia WDr/Sw/Fz/Sp; Marzemino R-Dr/Fz; Pinot W-Dr/Fz/Sp; Sauvignon W-Dr/Fz; Sauvignon Passito W-Sw Colli Piacentini (Gutturnio, Monterosso Val d’Arda, Trebbianino Val Trebbia): Gutturnio R-Dr/Fz, Sup Ag-1, Rs Ag-2; Gutturnio Classico R-Dr, Sup Ag-1, Rs Ag-2; Monterosso Val d’Arda WDr/Sw/Fz/Sp; Trebbianino Val Trebbia W-Dr/Sw/Fz/Sp; Val Nure W-Dr/Sw/Fz/Sp; Novello R-Dr; Vin Santo W-Sw Ag-4; Vin Santo di Vigoleno W/Sw Ag-5; Barbera R-Dr/Fz; Bonarda R-Dr/Sw/Fz/Sp; Cabernet Sauvignon R-Dr; Chardonnay W-Dr/Fz/Sp; Malvasia WDr/Sw/Fz/Sp; Malvasia Passito W-Sw Ag-1; Ortrugo W-Dr/Sw/ Fz/Sp; Pinot Grigio W-Dr/Fz/Sp; Pinot Nero R/P/W-Dr/Fz/Sp; Pinot Spumante W/P-Dr-Sp; Sauvignon W-Dr/Fz

69

Lambrusco di Sorbara: R/P-Fz/Dr/Sw

Reno: Bianco W-Dr/Sw/Fz; Montuni W-Dr/Sw/Fz; Pignoletto WDr/Sw/Fz

Lambrusco Grasparossa di Castelvetro: R/P-Fz/Dr/Sw

Romagna Albana Spumante: W-Sp-Dr/Sw

Lambrusco Salamino di Santa Croce: R/P-Fz/Dr/Sw

Sangiovese di Romagna: R-Dr, Rs Ag-2, also Novello

Pagadebit di Romagna (Bertinoro): Secco W-Dr/Fz; Amabile WSw/Fz; Bertinoro Secco W-Dr/Fz, Amabile W-Sw/Fz

Trebbiano di Romagna: W-Dr/Fz/Sp

IGT (10) Reggiano: Bianco Spumante W-Dr-Sp; Rosso R-Dr/Fz, also Novello; Lambrusco R/P-Fz/Dr/Sw, also Novello; Lambrusco Salamino R/PFz/Dr/Sw

Bianco di Castelfranco Emilia, Emilia or dell’Emilia, Fontana del Taro, Forlì, Modena or Provincia di Modena, Ravenna, Rubicone, Sillaro or Bianco di Sillaro, Terre di Veleja, Val Tidone


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Liguria The rugged terrain of this slender seaside region makes grape

Genoa, though some wines are still scarcely known beyond their

growing a challenge, meaning that vineyards are scattered

localities. Most of Liguria’s limited commercial wine production

along the Italian Riviera and wine production is limited. Still,

is concentrated along the Ponente coast to the southwest. The

even if hard to get to, some of the wines of Genoa’s region are

first wine to be classified was Rossese di Dolceacqua, whose

well worth the search.

soft fruit and full flavor make it an uncommonly attractive red.

The legend among Liguria’s wines is Cinque Terre, a

The extensive Riviera Ligure di Ponente DOC zone covers the

white made around the “five lands,” a series of fishing villages

other classic wines of the area: the white Pigato and Ver-

nestled in the cliffs along the coast north of La Spezia. Vines

mentino and the red Ormeasco (a local Dolcetto) and Rossese.

there have been planted since antiquity on scarcely accessible

Within the DOC zone are areas with special subdenomina-

terraces, some close enough to the Ligurian Sea to catch the

tions for certain wines: Albenga and Finale for Pigato, Rossese

spray from breaking waves. Most Cinque Terre is dry, though

and Vermentino and Riviera dei Fiori for all types. Like

the sweet Sciacchetrà is coveted by those in the know.

Vermentino, Pigato is a white of undeniable class whose

Near La Spezia and crossing the border of Tuscany is the

prospects seem limited only by lack of vineyard space.

DOC zone of Colli di Luni where red and white wines, notably

Most other wines of Liguria are curiosities, local whites and

Vermentino, show class. The recent DOCs for Colline di

reds that are usually at their best young and close to home.

Levanto and Golfo del Tigullio cover most of the other vine-

Such rarities as Buzzeto and Granaccia, Coronata and Lumas-

yards along the Riviera Levante, the coast to the southeast of

sina are uniquely and proudly Ligurian.

Genoa (Genova) is the administrative center of Liguria, whose other provinces are Imperia, La Spezia and Savona. The region ranks 18th in size (5,421 square kilometers) and 11th in population (1,633,000). Liguria’s average annual wine production of 120,000 hectoliters (19th in volume among the regions) includes about 30% DOC. White wine accounts for about 65% of Liguria’s production.

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72

DOC (8)

trà R-Dr; Passito and Passito Liquoroso R-Sw-Ft Ag-1

Cinque Terre (Costa de Sera, Costa de Campu, Costa da Posa): W-Dr Cinque Terre Sciacchetrà: W-Sw Ag-1, Rs Ag-3 Colli di Luni (shared with Tuscany): Bianco W-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Vermentino W-Dr

Riviera Ligure di Ponente (Albenga, Finale, Riviera dei Fiori): *Ormeasco R-Dr, Sup Ag-1; *Ormeasco Siac-trà P-Sw; Pigato W-Dr; Rossese R-Dr; Vermentino W-Dr (*Ormeasco is made only in the Riviera dei Fiori subzone; other varietals are made in all 3) Rossese di Dolceacqua or Dolceacqua: R-Dr, Sup Ag-1

Colline di Levanto: Bianco W-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, also Novello Golfo del Tigullio: Bianco W-Dr/Fz; Rosato P-Dr/Fz; Rosso R-Dr/Fz, also Novello; Spumante W-Dr-Sp; Passito W-Sw Ag-1; Bianchetta Genovese W-Dr/Fz; Ciliegiolo R-Dr/Fz, also Novello; Moscato WSw; Moscato Passito W-Sw Ag-1; Vermentino W-Dr/Fz Pornassio or Ormeasco di Pornassio: Rosso R-Dr, Sup Ag-1; Sciac-

Val Polcevera: Bianco W-Dr/Fz; Rosato P-Dr/Fz; Rosso R-Dr/Fz, also Novello; Passito W-Sw; Spumante W-Dr-Sp; Bianchetta W-Dr/Fz; Coronata W-Dr; Vermentino W-Dr/Fz

IGT (3) Colline del Genovesato, Colline Savonesi , Golfo dei Poeti La Spezia or Golfo dei Poeti


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Liguria

73

20 mi 50 km

DOC 1 Cinque Terre 2 Cinque Terre SciacchetrĂ

3 Colli di Luni 4 Colline di Levanto 5 Golfo del Tigullio

6 Pornassio or Ormeasco di Pornassio 7 Riviera Ligure di Ponente

8 Rossese di Dolceacqua or Dolceacqua 9 Val Polcevera


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Lombardy (Lombardia)

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20 mi 50 km

DOCG 1 Franciacorta 2 Sforzato di Valtellina or Sfursat di Valtellina 3 Valtellina Superiore (Grumello, Inferno, Sassella, Valgella)

4 5 6 7 8

DOC Botticino Capriano del Colle Cellatica Garda (Garda Classico) Garda Bresciano or Riviera del Garda Bresciano

9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Garda Colli Mantovani Lambrusco Mantovano Lugana Moscato di Scanzo Oltrepò Pavese San Colombano al Lambro San Martino della Battaglia

16 Terre di Franciacorta 17 Valcalepio 18 Valtellina


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Lombardy (Lombardia) Wine does not rank high on the list of Lombardy’s numerous

pride in their preferences for the metodo classico sparkling

industries. The citizens of this most populous and well-to-do

wines of Franciacorta, which have attained the status of DOCG

region are better noted as consumers than producers of wine.

(while the red and white wines of the zone come under the

Lombardy boasts some highly favorable places for vines in a

Terre di Franciacorta DOC). The region’s most productive

region where the Alpine climate is tempered by the lakes of

zone, Oltrepò Pavese is Italy's leading source of Pinot Nero

Garda, Iseo, Como and Maggiore in the north, and the Apen-

grapes. In the past, growers let much of the supply slip away to

nines to the south. Still, even though output is much less than

Piedmontese and other bottlers of sparkling wine. But a grow-

that of neighboring Veneto, Emilia-Romagna and Piedmont,

ing quantity of bottle-fermented wine has been issued under

Lombardy does produce a notable share of fine wine.

the DOC of Oltrepò Pavese, sometimes labeled as Metodo

Just why the inhabitants – the eclectic Milanese, in partic-

Classico Classese.

ular – downplay local wines is hard to explain. But regional

Only a fraction of the wine produced annually in Oltrepò

wines are often upstaged on restaurant lists by the reds of

Pavese is sold as DOC. Yet some very good wines are made

Tuscany and Piedmont and the whites of the Venezie (Veneto,

there, not only Pinots but robust Barbera, Bonarda and Oltrepò

Trentino and Friuli). Many of the 6 million bottles of Nebbiolo

Pavese Rosso, plus fruity white Rieslings and Moscatos. Local

reds produced annually in the Alpine Valtellina are spirited

sparkling wines are also made by tank methods of fermentation.

away by the neighboring Swiss before Italians have a chance at

The Valtellina is highly respected abroad, and not only in

them. On the other hand, Lombardians do take considerable

Switzerland. DOCG has been granted to Valtellina Superiore

Milan (Milano) is the administrative center of Lombardy, whose other provinces are Bergamo, Brescia, Como, Cremona, Lecco, Lodi, Mantova, Pavia, Sondrio and Varese. The region ranks 4th in size (23,861 square kilometers) and 1st in population (9,029,000). Lombardy’s average annual wine production of 1,000,000 hectoliters (13th in volume among the regions) includes about 60% DOC/DOCG. Red wine accounts for some 60% of Lombardy’s production.

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and its four subdistricts: Grumello, Inferno, Sassella and Val-

DOCG (3)

gella. Those wines have gained favor in Italy and abroad, along

Franciacorta: W-Dr-Sp Ag2, Millesimato Ag-3, also Crémant or Satèn; Rosé P-Dr-Sp Ag2, Millesimato Ag-3

with a bit of the rich and mellow Sfursat or Sforzato, which is included in the Valtellina DOC. The Superiore reds of Valtellina are among the most austere of Nebbiolos, due to the coolness of the terraced mountain vineyards, so steep in places that grapes are hauled in with baskets on cables. But the apparent lightness is deceptive, for some have the strength and stamina to improve for well over a decade. Good wines are made in the provinces of Bergamo, Mantova and even Milano, but the prize for quality and variety 76

goes to Brescia, which boasts a majority of the region’s

Sforzato di Valtellina or Sfursat di Valtellina: R-Dr Ag-2 Valtellina Superiore (Grumello, Inferno, Sassella, Valgella): R-Dr Ag-2, Rs Ag-3; Grumello or Inferno or Sassella or Valgella R-Dr Ag-2, Rs Ag-3

DOC (15) Botticino: R-DR, Rs Ag-2 Capriano del Colle: Bianco or Trebbiano W-Dr/Fz; Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-2, also Novello

DOC/DOCGs: Botticino, Capriano del Colle, Cellatica, Franciacorta, Terre di Franciacorta, Garda Bresciano, San Martino della Battaglia and two zones that share territory with Veneto: Garda and Lugana. Under Garda DOC are four wines from the Garda Classico area in the province of Brescia. The white Lugana, which compares with Soave Classico in class, has been growing in stature. Lombardy’s most admired wines of the moment are from Franciacorta. Terre di Franciacorta DOC applies to a sturdy red

Cellatica: R-Dr, Sup Ag-1 Garda (shared with Veneto; Garda Classico is only in Lombardy): Garda Classico Bianco W-Dr; Garda Classico Chiaretto P-Dr; Garda Classico Groppello R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Garda Classico Rosso R-Dr, Sup Ag-1; Frizzante W-Dr-Fz; Rosé P-Dr; Barbera R-Dr/Fz; Cabernet RDr; Cabernet Sauvignon R-Dr; Chardonnay W-Dr/Sp; Cortese W-Dr; Corvina R-Dr; Garganega W-Dr; Marzemino R-Dr; Merlot R-Dr; Pinot Bianco W-Dr/Sp; Pinot Grigio W-Dr; Pinot Nero R-Dr; Riesling W-Dr/Sp; Riesling Italico W-Dr; Sauvignon W-Dr; Tocai W-Dr

from Cabernet, Barbera and Nebbiolo, as well as to white wines from Pinot Bianco and Chardonnay. But Franciacorta’s reputation has been built on the outstanding bottle-fermented sparkling wines fashioned by estates. Nearly a third of Italy’s bottle-fermented sparkling wine is produced in the Brescia area, but only wines from select vineyards in the zone qualify as Franciacorta DOCG.

Garda Bresciano or Riviera del Garda Bresciano: Bianco W-Dr, Sup Ag-1; Chiaretto P-Dr, Sup Ag-1; Rosso R-Dr, Sup Ag-1, also Novello; Spumante Rosato P-Dr-Sp; Groppello R-Dr Garda Colli Mantovani: Bianco W-Dr; Rosso R-Dr; Cabernet R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Chardonnay W-Dr; Merlot R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Pinot Bianco W-


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Dr; Pinot Grigio W-Dr; Sauvignon W-Dr; Tocai Italico W-Dr

San Colombano al Lambro: R-Dr

Lambrusco Mantovano: Rosato P-Dr-Fz; Rosso R-Dr-Fz; Oltrepò Mantovano P/R-Dr-Fz; Viadanese-Sabbionetano P/R-Dr-Fz

San Martino della Battaglia (shared with Veneto): W-Dr; Liquoroso W-Sw-Ft

Lugana (shared with Veneto): W-Dr, Sup Ag-1; Spumante W-Dr-Sp

Terre di Franciacorta: Bianco W-Dr, Vigna Ag-1; Rosso R-Dr, Vigna Ag-2

Oltrepò Pavese: Rosato P-Dr/Fz; Rosso R-Dr/Fz, Rs Ag-2; Spumante Bianco W-Dr-Sp Ag-1.5, Millesimato Ag-2; Spumante Rosato P-DrSp Ag-1.5, Millesimato Ag-2; Barbera R-Dr/Fz; Bonarda R-Dr/Sw/Fz; Buttafuoco R-Dr/Fz; Cabernet Sauvignon R-Dr; Chardonnay WDr/Fz/Sp; Cortese W-Dr/Fz/Sp; Malvasia W-Dr/Sw/Fz/Sp; Moscato W-Sw/Fz/Sp; Pinot Grigio W-Dr/Fz/Sp; Pinot Nero R/P/W-Dr/Fz; Pinot Nero Spumante R/P/W-Dr/Fz Ag-1.5, Millesimato Ag-2; Riesling Italico W-Dr/Fz; Riesling Renano W-Dr/Sp; Sangue di Giuda R-Dr/Sw/Fz; Sauvignon W-Dr/Sp Pornassio or Ormeasco di Pornassio: Rosso R-Dr. Sup Ag-1; Sciactrà R-Dr; Passito and Passito Liquoroso R-Sw-Ft Ag-1

Valcalepio: Bianco W-Dr; Rosso R-Dr Ag-1, Rs Ag-3; Moscato Passito W-Sw Ag-1.5; Moscato di Scanzo W-Sw Ag-1.5 Valtellina Rosso or Rosso di Valtellina: R-Dr

IGT (12) Alto Mincio, Benaco Bresciano, Bergamasca, Collina del Milanese, Mantova or Provincia di Mantova, Montenetto di Brescia, Pavia or Provincia di Pavia, Quistello, Ronchi di Brescia, Sabbioneta, Sebino, Terrazze Retiche di Sondrio.

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Piedmont (Piemonte)

78

Piedmont is admired above all for its red wines, led by the regal

Piedmont, Italy’s westernmost region with borders on

Barolo and Barbaresco. But the most popular of the region’s

Switzerland and France, is hemmed in by the Alps and the

wines worldwide is the white, sweet, bubbly Asti.

Apennines, which explain why its name means “foot of the

An overwhelming majority of Piedmont’s wines derive

mountain.” Though it ranks only sixth among the regions in

from native vines. Beyond the noble Nebbiolo – source of

total production, Piedmont is considered a giant of Italian wine

Barolo, Barbaresco, Gattinara, Ghemme and Roero, which are

in every other way.

all DOCG – Barbera ranks as the most popular vine for reds,

Piedmont has the most DOC/DOCG zones with 52 and

followed by Dolcetto, which is enjoyed for its mellow, round

stands proud as the region with the largest percentage of its

flavors. Brachetto makes sweet, fragrant bubbly red that is

wines officially classified. It has no IGT. For craftsmanship,

DOCG as Brachetto d’Acqui. Freisa and Grignolino lead a host

respect for tradition and devotion to native vines in their his-

of local varieties in rounding out the honor roll of reds.

torical habitats, the Piedmontese have no rivals in Italy.

Still, among classified wines, whites represent about a third

The climate is rigid by Italian standards, with distinct

of the volume. First comes Asti, whose DOCG applies to both

changes of season. Winters are cold with plenty of snow.

sparkling Spumante – or simply Asti – and the softly bubbly

Summers are for the most part hot and dry. Spring and fall are

Moscato d’Asti. With an average annual output of nearly 60

temperate to cool with fog normal at harvest time.

million liters, the Asti appellation ranks second in volume to Chianti among Italy's classified wines.

A majority of the region’s vineyards are located in the Langhe and Monferrato hills, which are connected to the

Turin (Torino) is the administrative center of Piedmont, whose other provinces are Alessandria, Asti, Biella, Cuneo, Novara, Torino, Verbano-Cusio-Ossola and Vercelli. The region ranks 2nd in size (25,399 square kilometers) and 5th in population (4,288,000). Piedmont’s average annual wine production of 2,830 000 hectoliters (6th in volume among the regions) includes nearly 85% DOC/DOCG. Red wine accounts for about 65% of Piedmont’s production.


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Apennines in the southeast. But several wines of significance

than white, and about half of the red is Barbera, which can also

are also grown along the foothills of the Alps to the north

be attractive in youthfully fruity and bubbly versions. Three

between Lake Maggiore and Valle d’Aosta.

other red wines that have recovered after decades of decline are

The focal point of premium production is the town of Alba on the Tanaro River. In the nearby Langhe hills, Barolo

the crimson Grignolino, the often fizzy Freisa and the buoyantly sweet and bubbly Brachetto from Acqui.

(“king of wines and wine of kings”) is produced at the rate of

In the other major area of Nebbiolo production, the hills to

about 6 million bottles a year and Barbaresco, which many

the north, modern styles are emerging in such reds as Carema,

experts rate its equal, rarely reaches 2.5 million bottles. Both

Lessona, Sizzano, Fara and the long vaunted Gattinara, which

come from Nebbiolo, which gives them the powerful structure

along with neighboring Ghemme has been granted DOCG.

that makes them capable of improving for many years from fine vintages.

Piedmont is a leading producer of sparkling wines. Foremost among them is Asti, the world’s most popular sweet

The traditional Barolo and Barbaresco were admired

bubbly wine. The market for this fragrant white is actually larg-

almost as cult wines, though often criticized as too elaborate for

er abroad than in Italy. In fact, worldwide demand is so great

modern palates. But the combination of favorable vintages

that a shortage of Moscato di Canelli grapes has developed.

from 1996 on and perfection of techniques among winemak-

Piedmont is also a major producer of dry sparkling wines by

ers, many of them young, seems to be changing the old-fash-

both the classical and tank fermentation methods, though

ioned image. Barolo and Barbaresco have retained their ample

many of the Chardonnay and Pinot grapes used for them orig-

dimensions while becoming better balanced and more

inate outside the region, mainly in neighboring Oltrepò Pavese

approachable than before.

in Lombardy or in Trentino-Alto Adige.

The Alba area is renowned for its smooth, supple Dolcetto

Among still whites, Gavi, from the Cortese grape, shows a

under several appellations, and for first-rate Nebbiolo and

crisp yet elegant style that explains why admirers consider it

white Arneis from Roero, where it is DOCG with the red. But

one of the best with seafood and why it was recently promoted

the most dramatic progress in the Asti and Alba areas has come

to DOCG. Smoothly fruity Arneis continues to gain ground in

with the ubiquitous Barbera, which after ages of being consid-

Roero, where the light, zesty Favorita is also emerging. The

ered rather common has rapidly taken on aristocratic airs.

ancient variety of Erbaluce di Caluso makes both dry white

Certain aged Barberas have emerged to stand comparison with fine Nebbiolo reds. Piedmontese drink more red wine

wines, also sparkling, and the esteemed Passito Riserva that ages for five years.

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Piedmont (Piemonte)

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20 mi 50 km


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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

DOCG Asti (Asti Spumante, Moscato d’Asti) Barbaresco Barolo Brachetto d’Acqui Dolcetto di Dogliani or Dogliani Gattinara Gavi or Cortese di Gavi Ghemme Roero and Roero Arneis

DOC (10) Alba DOC zones: Barbera d’Alba Dolcetto d’Alba Dolcetto di Diano d’Alba

Nebbiolo d’Alba Verduno Pelaverga or Verduno (11) Asti DOC zones: Albugnano Barbera d’Asti Cisterna d’Asti Dolcetto d’Asti Freisa d’Asti Freisa di Chieri Grignolino d’Asti Loazzolo Malvasia di Casorzo d’Asti Malvasia di Castelnuovo Don Bosco (12) Monferrato DOC zones: Barbera del Monferrato Cortese dell’Alto

* Wines may be produced in all approved viticultural areas throughout the region (#) Denotes a production area common to more than one DOC wine

Monferrato Dolcetto d’Acqui Dolcetto di Ovada Gabiano Grignolino del Monferrato Casalese Monferrato (Casalese) Rubino di Cantavenna Ruchè di Castagnole Monferrato (13) Novara DOC zones: Boca Colline Novaresi Fara Sizzano (14) Vercelli DOC zones: Bramaterra Coste della Sesia

15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

Lessona Alta Langa Canavese Carema Collina Torinese Colline Saluzzesi Colli Tortonesi Dolcetto delle Langhe Monregalesi Erbaluce di Caluso or Caluso Langhe Piemonte* Pinerolese Valsusa

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Although Piedmontese growers were among the first to experiment with such foreign varieties as Cabernet and the Pinots early in the19th century, those vines had largely faded

DOCG (9) Asti: Asti or Asti Spumante W-Sw-Sp; Moscato d’Asti W-Sw-Fz Barbaresco: R-Dr Ag-2, Rs Ag-4

from favor. Just recently, though, Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot Bianco and Nero and, especially, Chardonnay have shown

Barolo: R-Dr Ag-3, Rs Ag-5

promise. The regional Piemonte DOC applies in part to

Brachetto d’Acqui: R-Sw-Fz; Spumante R-Sw-Sp

sparkling wines from Chardonnay, Pinots and other varieties. Still, as admirers have noted, even wines from international varieties bear a stamp that is unmistakably Piedmontese.

Dolcetto di Dogliani Superiore or Dogliani: R-Dr Ag-1 Gattinara: R-Dr Ag-3, Rs Ag-4


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Gavi or Cortese di Gavi: W-Dr/Fz/Sp

or Uva Rara R-Dr, also Novello; Croatina R-Dr, also Novello; Nebbiolo or Spanna R-Dr, also Novello; Vespolina R-Dr, also Novello

Ghemme: R-Dr Ag-3, Rs Ag-4 Colline Saluzzesi: R-Dr; Pelaverga R-Dr; Quagliano R-Sw/Sp Roero and Roero Arneis: Roero R-Dr Ag-2, Rs Ag-3; Roero Arneis W-Dr, Spumante W-Dr/Sp

DOC (43)

Colli Tortonesi: Bianco W-Dr; Chiaretto P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, also Novello; Barbera R-Dr, Sup Ag-1; Cortese W-Dr/SwFz/Sp; Dolcetto RDr, also Novello

Albugnano: R-Dr, Sup Ag-1; Rosato P-Dr Cortese dell’Alto Monferrato: W-Dr/Fz/Sp Alta Langa: Spumante Bianco W-Dr/Sp Ag-2; Spumante Rosato PDr/Sp Ag-2; Spumante Rosso R-Dr/Sp Ag-2 Barbera d’Alba: R-Dr, Sup Ag-1 Barbera d’Asti: R-Dr, Sup Ag-1

Coste della Sesia: Bianco W-Dr; Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, also Novello; Bonarda R-Dr; Croatina R-Dr; Nebbiolo or Spanna R-Dr; Vespolina R-Dr Dolcetto d’Acqui: R-Dr, Sup Ag-1

Barbera del Monferrato: R-Dr, Sup Ag-1 Dolcetto d’Alba: R-Dr, Sup Ag-1 Boca: R-Dr Ag-3 Dolcetto d’Asti: R-Dr, Sup Ag-1 Bramaterra: R-Dr Ag-2, Rs Ag-3 Dolcetto delle Langhe Monregalesi: R-Dr Canavese: Bianco W-Dr; Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, also Novello; Barbera R-Dr; Nebbiolo R-Dr

Dolcetto di Diano d’Alba or Diano d’Alba: R-Dr, Sup Ag-1

Carema: R-Dr Ag-3, Rs Ag-4

Dolcetto di Ovada: R-Dr, Sup Ag-1

Cisterna d’Asti: R-Dr, Sup Ag-1

Erbaluce di Caluso or Caluso: Bianco W-Dr; Spumante W-Dr/Sp; Passito W-Sw Ag-4, Rs Ag-5

Collina Torinese: Rosso R-Dr, also Novello; Barbera R-Dr; Bonarda R-Dr/Sw; Malvasia R-Sw/Fz; Pelaverga R-Dr

Fara: R-Dr Ag-3

Colline Novaresi: Bianco W-Dr; Barbera R-Dr, also Novello; Bonarda

Freisa d’Asti: R-Dr/Sw/Fz/Sp, Sup Ag-1

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Freisa di Chieri: R-Dr/Sw/Fz/Sp, Sup Ag-1 Gabiano: R-Dr, Rs Ag-2 Grignolino d’Asti: R-Dr Grignolino del Monferrato Casalese: R-Dr Langhe: Bianco W-Dr; Rosso R-Dr; Arneis W-Dr; Chardonnay WDr, also Vigna; Dolcetto R-Dr; Favorita W-Dr, also Vigna; Freisa RDr/Fz, also Vigna; Nebbiolo R-Dr Lessona: R-Dr Ag-2 84

Loazzolo: W-Sw Ag-2, Vendemmia Tardiva W-Sw Ag-2 Malvasia di Casorzo d’Asti or Casorzo: P/R/Sw/Fz; Passito R-Sw; Spumante P-Sw-Sp

Spumante W-Dr/Sp; Pinot Nero Spumante W-Dr/Sp; Pinot Spumante W-Dr/Sp; Pinot-Chardonnay Spumante W-Dr/Sp

Malvasia di Castelnuovo Don Bosco: R/Sw/Fz; Spumante R-Sw/Sp Monferrato (Casalese): Bianco W-Dr; Chiaretto or Ciaret P-Dr, also Novello; Rosso R-Dr, also Novello; Monferrato Casalese Cortese WDr; Dolcetto R-Dr, also Novello; Freisa R-Dr/Fz, also Novello

Pinerolese: Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr; Barbera R-Dr; Bonarda R-Dr/Sw; Dolcetto R-Dr; Doux d’Henry R-Dr; Freisa R-Dr/Fz; Ramie R-Dr Rubino di Cantavenna: R-Dr Ag-1

Nebbiolo d’Alba: Secco R-Dr Ag-1; Spumante R-Sw/Sp

Ruchè di Castagnole Monferrato: R-Dr

Piemonte: Spumante W-Dr-Sp; Barbera R-Dr, also Novello; Bonarda R-Dr/Sw, also Novello; Brachetto R-Sw/Fz, also Novello; Chardonnay W-Dr/Sp; Chardonnay-Pinot Spumante W-Dr-Sp; Cortese WDr/Sp; Grignolino R-Dr, also Novello; Moscato W-Sw/Fz; Moscato Passito W/Sw Ag-1; Pinot Bianco Spumante W-Dr/Sp; Pinot Grigio

Sizzano: R-Dr Ag-3 Valsusa: R-Dr, also Novello R-Dr Verduno Pelaverga or Verduno: R-Dr


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Valle d’Aosta This tiniest of regions, tucked into Italy’s mountainous northwestern corner against the borders of Switzerland and France, Valle d’Aosta has precious little space for vines on its rocky Alpine

Valle d’Aosta

terraces. But the minuscule amounts of wine it does produce are distinct from anything else in Italy or its foreign neighbors. A regionwide DOC known as Valle d’Aosta or Vallée 85

d’Aoste covers various categories of wine whose names are given in Italian and French, the official second language. These include the red wines of Arnad-Montjovet, Chambave, Donnas, Enfer d’Arvier, Nus and Torrette. The DOC covers the dry white wine of Morgex and La Salle, whose vineyards in the shadow of Mont Blanc are reputed to be the highest in con-

20 mi

tinental Europe, and the sweet white Chambave Moscato and

50 km

Nus Malvoisie. Valle d’Aosta DOC also applies to Bianco, Rosato and Rosso (including Novello) and eight varietal wines. Grape varieties used range from Piedmontese (Nebbiolo,

DOC 1 Valle d’Aosta o Vallée d’Aoste

Dolcetto, Moscato) to French (Chardonnay, the Pinots,

Aosta is the administrative center and lone province of Valle d’Aosta, which ranks 20th among the regions in both size (3,264 square kilometers) and population (120,000). Valle d’Aosta’s average annual wine production of 20,000 hectoliters (20th in volume among the regions) includes more than 50% DOC. Red wine accounts for nearly 80% of Valle d’Aosta’s production.


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Gamay), to the teutonic Müller Thurgau. But the most intriguing wines of Valle d’Aosta stem from varieties it calls its own. These include the Petit Rouge of Enfer d’Arvier and Torrette, the Blanc de Valdigne of Morgex and La Salle, the Petite Arvine of the varietal white of the name, the Vien for the red wine of Nus and the Malvoisie (apparently a mutation of Pinot Gris) for the rare dessert white of Nus. Six cooperative wineries with 450 growers account for about three-quarters of Valle D’Aosta’s wine and are largely responsible for a steady improvement in quality. Valle d’Aosta has no IGT. But whether the wines are classified or not, they could never be more than

curios that are most compelling when drunk on the spot.

DOC (1) Valle d’Aosta or Vallée d’Aoste: Bianco/Blanc W-Dr/Fz; Rosato /Rosé P-Dr; Rosso/Rouge R-Dr, also Novello; Arnad Montjovet R-Dr, Sup Ag-1; Blanc de Morgex et de La Salle W-Dr/Fz; Chambave Moscato/Muscat W-Dr/Sw; Chambave Moscato Passito/Muscat Fletri W-Dr/Sw Ag-1; Chambave Rosso/Rouge R-Dr; Chardonnay W-Dr; Donnas R-Dr Ag-2; Enfer d’Arvier R-Dr; Fumin R-Dr; Gamay R-Dr; Müller Thurgau W-Dr; Nus Malvoisie W-Dr; Nus Malvoisie Passito W-Sw Ag-1; Nus Rosso/Rouge R-Dr; Petit Rouge R-Dr; Petite Arvine W-Dr; Pinot Grigio/Pinot Gris W-Dr; Pinot Nero/Pinot Noir R-Dr or W-Dr; Premetta R-Dr; Torrette R-Dr, also Sup


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The Northeast: taste of the future in the Venezie Veneto, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Trentino-Alto Adige The three northeastern regions, known collectively as the Tre

The determining quality factor in all three regions is the cli-

Venezie or simply the Venezie, set the pace in Italy in the craft-

mate influenced by the Alps, of which the Venezie are on the

ing of modern wines from a great range of varieties both native

sunny side, protected from the damp cold of central Europe.

and international. They began in

Vineyard conditions range from

the 1970s by introducing new

cool at high altitudes to warm near

techniques for production of white

the Adriatic Sea and along the val-

wines, following up in recent dec-

leys of the Po, Adige, Piave and

ades with ever more sophisticated

Tagliamento rivers. Although the culture of the

methods for reds. Two of Italy’s leading wine

Venezie, like the name, was deter-

schools are located in the Venezie

mined by the ancient Venetian

(at San Michele all’Adige in

Republic, strong influences can be

Trentino and Conegliano in Veneto). The world’s largest vine

felt from Austria and the Balkans. One result is a cosmopolitan

nursery is at Rauscedo in Friuli. The nation’s most important

mix of vine varieties. Growers here work with an amazing

wine fair, Vinitaly, is held each spring in Verona.

assortment of native and imported vines to produce what are

Veneto leads the way, after recently replacing Apulia and

indisputably a majority of Italy’s fine white wines and a multi-

Sicily as the largest producer of wine among the 20 regions,

tude of reds, ranging from the young and simplistic to the aged

while increasing its leadership with the volume of DOC, due in

and complex.

large part to the Verona trio of Soave, Valpolicella and

In contemporary times, white wines, led by Soave and

Bardolino. Friuli-Venezia Giulia and Trentino-Alto Adige are

Pinot Grigio, had become popular around the world. But pro-

modest producers in terms of volume but boast enviable per-

ducers in Friuli and Trentino-Alto Adige have fashioned wines

centages of classified wines in the total.

of depth and style to dispel the notion that Italian whites are by

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90

nature light and fresh. Recently the trend that had favored

tinguished Teroldego, Lagrein and Marzemino hold their own

whites in the Venezie has started to reverse with increased

against Cabernet, Merlot and Pinot Nero. White varieties have

plantings of varieties for red wines.

gained prominence there, led by Chardonnay, the Pinots,

Verona’s Soave, Valpolicella and Bardolino derive from

Sauvignon and Gewürztraminer.

native varieties. But in the central and eastern Veneto and

Since so many varieties are grown, the practice in all three

Friuli imported varieties – such as Merlot, Cabernet, the

regions has been to group wines under a single DOC name for

Pinots, Chardonnay and Sauvignon – share vineyard space

a large geographical area, such as Veneto’s Piave, Friuli’s Collio

with the local Tocai, Prosecco, Verduzzo, Refosco, Schiop-

and Colli Orientali and the province-wide appellations of

pettino, Ribolla Gialla and Raboso.

Trentino and Alto Adige. Though the lists may be long, this

In Trentino-Alto Adige red wines still prevail, dominated by the ubiquitous Schiava or Vernatsch, though the more dis-

geographical identity seems to aid consumers in connecting places with types of wine.


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Veneto Venice’s region has emerged in recent times as Italy’s largest

of Italian dry whites ranks third after Chianti and Asti in vol-

producer of wine with a major quantity classified as DOC or

ume among classified wines.

DOCG. Leading the flow is Verona’s famous trio of Soave,

Valpolicella, made from a blend of Corvina, Rondinella and

Bardolino and Valpolicella. But since DOC represents about a

Molinara grapes, has been fourth in volume among DOCs.

third of the total, Veneto also figures as a major producer and

Valpolicella is noted as a hearty red to drink relatively young,

exporter of IGT wines, often of moderate price.

though grapes from its vineyards in the hills north of Verona can

The Veneto has three general areas of premium wine production: the western province of Verona in the hills between

also be partly dried and made into the richly dry Amarone della Valpolicella or the opulently sweet Recioto della Valpolicella.

Lake Garda and the town of Soave; the central hills in the

Amarone, amply structured and long on the palate, ranks

provinces of Vicenza, Padova and Treviso; the eastern plains of

among Italy’s most authoritative red wines with a list of admir-

the Piave and Tagliamento river basins along the Adriatic coast

ers growing around the world. It is unquestionably one of the

northeast of Venice.

great red wines for aging.

Verona’s classic wines are bona fide natives. Soave, from

Bardolino, from the same basic grapes as Valpolicella, is

Garganega and Trebbiano di Soave, is usually dry and still,

enviably easy to drink, whether in the red Superiore, which has

though sparkling and sweet Recioto versions are also produced.

become DOCG, or the dark pink Chiaretto version. Bardolino

Soave Superiore and Recioto di Soave have been promoted to

has also gained in popularity as a Vino Novello, another catego-

DOCG, while regular Soave remains DOC. The most popular

ry in which Veneto leads production in Italy. Bardolino, from

Venice (Venezia) is the administrative center of Veneto, whose other provinces are Belluno, Padova, Rovigo, Treviso, Verona and Vicenza. The region ranks 8th in size (18,391 square kilometers) and 6th in population (4,488,000).Veneto’s average annual wine production of 7,600,000 hectoliters (1st in volume among the regions) includes more than 30% DOC/DOCG. White wine accounts for about 55% of Veneto’s production.

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the shores of Lake Garda, also ranks high in terms of volume among classified wines.

The plains northeast of Venice take in the Piave DOC

Another Veronese DOC wine of note is Bianco di Custoza,

zone, where Merlot and Cabernet dominate a large range of

a crisp white much appreciated in northern Italy. A distinctive

trendy varietals, though the local red Raboso and white

DOC produced between Verona and Vicenza is Lessini Durel-

Verduzzo still attract admirers. Lison-Pramaggiore (previously

lo, a steely dry white, usually sparkling, that seems destined for

noted for white Tocai and Cabernet and Merlot) has a full list

wider recognition. The Veronese also make alternative wines

of popular varietals.

of distinction, especially the reds produced by the so-called

Merlot and Cabernet Franc have been the workhorse vari-

ripasso method in which the basic Valpolicella is refermented

eties of the central and eastern Veneto for decades, often in light

with the pomace of Amarone to gain body and structure.

and easy wines to drink young. But some producers blend the

The Veneto’s central hills take in several DOC zones. Near 92

mentation or the classical bottle fermentation methods.

Vicenza are Gambellara, with whites similar to those of neigh-

two, increasingly with Cabernet Sauvignon, and age the wines in small oak barrels to develop greater style and complexity.

boring Soave, and Colli Berici, where varietal wines from Tocai,

Among white varieties, Pinot Grigio, Sauvignon and

the Pinots, Merlot and Cabernet prevail. Also in the province is

Chardonnay continue to gain ground, often in youthfully fruity

Breganze, where Cabernet, Merlot and whites from the Pinots

versions but also as oak-aged wines of depth and style.

and Chardonnay have earned a reputation, though the most

Veneto shares five DOC zones with other regions: Garda,

admired wine is often the sweet Torcolato. Near Padova are the

Lugana and San Martino della Battaglia with Lombardy, Lison-

Colli Euganei range of hills, whose sheer slopes render a range

Pramaggiore with Friuli-Venezia Giulia and Valdadige with

of red and white varietals.

Trentino-Alto Adige.

Treviso’s province takes in the hills north of Venice between the towns of Conegliano and Valdobbiadene, noted

DOCG (3)

for the popular Prosecco, a dry to softly sweet white, almost

Bardolino Superiore (Classico): R-Dr, Sup Ag-1 (Classico applies to wines from the original zone)

always bubbly. A refined version is known as Superiore di Cartizze. The adjacent Montello e Colli Asolani zone is noted for Prosecco, Cabernet and Merlot. Producers of Prosecco have used their experience with sparkling wine to build markets with Pinot and Chardonnay, made either by the tank fer-

Recioto di Soave (Classico): W-Sw Ag-1; Spumante W-Sw-Sp (Classico applies to wines from the original zone) Soave Superiore: W-Dr, Rs Ag-2 (Classico applies to wines from the original zone)


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Arcole: Bianco W-Dr/Sp; Rosso R-Dr, also Novello; Cabernet R-Dr, Rs Ag2; Cabernet Sauvignon R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Chardonnay W-Dr/Fz; Garganega W-Dr; Merlot R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Pinot Bianco W-Dr; Pinot Grigio W-Dr

Dr, Rs Ag-2, also Novello; Cabernet R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Cabernet Franc RDr, Rs Ag-2; Cabernet Sauvignon R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Chardonnay WDr/Sp; Fior d’Arancio Passito W-Sw; Fior d’Arancio Spumante WSw/Sp; Merlot R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Moscato W-Sw/Sp; Pinello W-Sw/Fz; Pinot Bianco W-Dr/Sp; Serprino W-Dr/Fz; Tocai Italico W-Dr

Bagnoli di Sopra or Bagnoli (Classico): Bianco W-Dr; Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Passito W-Sw Ag-2; Spumante W/P-Dr-Sp; Cabernet R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Friularo R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Merlot R-Dr, Rs Ag-2 (Classico applies to all wines but Passito and Spumante from the original zone; all wines may be qualified as Vigna)

Conegliano Valdobbiadene or Conegliano or Valdobbiadene: WDr/Sw/Fz; Spumante W-Dr/Sw/Sp; Superiore di Cartizze WDr/Sw/Sp

DOC (25)

Bardolino (Classico): R-Dr, also Novello; Chiaretto P-Dr/Sp (Classico applies to wines from the original zone) Bianco di Custoza: W-Dr/Sp Breganze: Bianco W-Dr, also Sup; Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, also Sup, Rs Ag-2; Cabernet R-Dr, also Sup, Rs Ag-2; Cabernet Sauvignon R-Dr, also Sup, Rs Ag-2; Chardonnay W-Dr, also Sup; Marzemino R-Dr, also Sup, Rs Ag-2; Pinot Bianco W-Dr, also Sup; Pinot Grigio W-Dr, also Sup; Pinot Nero R-Dr, also Sup, Rs Ag-2; Sauvignon W-Dr, also Sup; Torcolato W-Sw Ag-1, Rs Ag-2; Vespaiolo W-Dr, also Sup Colli Berici: Spumante W-Dr-Sp; Cabernet R-Dr, Rs Ag-3; Chardonnay W-Dr; Garganega W-Dr; Merlot R-Dr; Pinot Bianco W-Dr; Sauvignon W-Dr; Tocai Italico W-Dr; Tocai Rosso R-Dr; Tocai Rosso di Barbarano or Barbarano R-Dr Colli di Conegliano: Bianco W-Dr; Rosso R-Dr Ag-2; Refrontolo Passito R-Sw; Torchiato di Fregona W-Sw Ag-1 Colli Euganei: Bianco W-Dr; Bianco Spumante W-Dr/Sp; Rosso R-

Corti Benedettine del Padovano: Bianco W-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, also Novello; Rosato P-Dr; Passito W-Sw; Cabernet R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Cabernet Sauvignon R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Chardonnay W-Dr/Fz/Sp; Merlot RDr; Moscato Spumante W-Sw/Sp; Pinot Bianco W-Dr; Pinot Grigio W-Dr; Raboso R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Refosco del Peduncolo Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Sauvignon W-Dr; Tocai Italico W-Dr Gambellara (Classico): W-Dr; Recioto W-Sw/Sp; Vin Santo W-Sw Ag-2 (Classico applies to wines from the original zone) Garda (shared with Lombardy): Frizzante W-Dr-Fz; Rosé P-Dr; Barbera R-Dr/Fz; Cabernet R-Dr; Cabernet Sauvignon R-Dr; Chardonnay W-Dr/Sp; Cortese W-Dr; Corvina R-Dr; Garganega WDr; Marzemino R-Dr; Merlot R-Dr; Pinot Bianco W-Dr/Sp; Pinot Grigio W-Dr; Pinot Nero R-Dr; Riesling W-Dr/Sp; Riesling Italico WDr; Sauvignon W-Dr; Tocai W-Dr (Classico applies to wines from the original zone in Lombardy) Lison-Pramaggiore (shared with Friuli-Venezia Giulia): Cabernet RDr/Sp, Rs Ag-3; Cabernet Franc R-Dr/Sp, Rs Ag-3; Cabernet Sauvignon R-Dr/Sp, Rs Ag-3; Chardonnay W-Dr/Sp; Refosco del Peduncolo Rosso R-Dr/Sp; Merlot R-Dr/Sp, Rs Ag-2; Pinot Bianco W-

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Dr/Sp; Pinot Grigio W-Dr/Sp; Riesling Italico W-Dr/Sp; Sauvignon W-Dr/Sp; Tocai Italico W-Dr/Sp; Tocai Italico Classico W-Dr/Sp; Verduzzo W-Dr/Sw/Sp (Classico applies to Tocai Italico from the original zone around Lison in Veneto) Lugana (shared with Lombardy): W-DR, Sup Ag-1; Spumante WDr/Sp Merlara: Bianco W-Dr/Fz; Rosso R-Dr, also Novello; Cabernet R-Dr; Cabernet Sauvignon R-Dr; Malvasia W-Dr; Marzemino Frizzante RDr-Fz; Merlot R-Dr; Tocai W-Dr

94

Montello e Colli Asolani: Rosso R-Dr, Sup Ag-2; Cabernet R-Dr, Sup Ag-2; Cabernet Franc R-Dr, Sup Ag-2; Cabernet Sauvignon R-Dr, Sup Ag-2; Chardonnay W-Dr/Sp; Merlot R-Dr, Sup Ag-2; Pinot Bianco W-Dr/Sp; Pinot Grigio W-Dr; Prosecco W-Dr/Sw/Fz; Prosecco Spumante W-Dr/Sw/Sp Monti Lessini or Lessini: W-Dr, also Sup; Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Spumante W-Dr-Sp Ag 1.5; Durello W-Dr, also Sup; Durello Passito WDr/Sw, also Sup; Durello Spumante W-Dr-Sp, also Sup Piave or Vini del Piave: Cabernet R-Dr, Rs Ag-3; Cabernet Sauvignon R-Dr, Rs Ag-3; Chardonnay W-Dr; Merlot R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Pinot Bianco W-Dr; Pinot Grigio W-Dr; Pinot Nero R-Dr; Raboso RDr Ag-3; Tocai Italico W-Dr; Verduzzo W-Dr/Sw Recioto della Valpolicella (Classico, Valpantena): R-Sw; Spumante R-Sw/Sp (Classico applies to wines from the original zone; Valpantena to a sector of the territory) Riviera del Brenta: Bianco W-Dr/Fz; Spumante W-Dr/Sp; Rosso RDr, also Novello; Rosato P-Dr; Cabernet R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Chardonnay

W-Dr/Fz/Sp; Merlot R-Dr; Pinot Bianco W-Dr/Fz/Sp; Pinot Grigio W-Dr; Raboso R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Refosco del Peduncolo Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Tocai W-Dr San Martino della Battaglia (shared with Lombardy): W-Dr; Liquoroso W-Sw-Ft Soave (Classico): W-Dr, also Sup; Spumante W-Dr-Sp (Classico applies to wines from the original zone) Valpolicella (Classico, Valpantena, Amarone della Valpolicella): R-Dr, Sup Ag-1; Amarone della Valpolicella R-Dr Ag-2 (Classico applies to wines from the original zone; Valpantena to a sector of the territory) Valdadige (shared with Trentino-Alto Adige): Bianco W-Dr; Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr; Chardonnay W-Dr; Pinot Grigio W-Dr; Pinot Bianco W-Dr; Schiava R-Dr Vicenza: Bianco W-Dr/Fz, also Spumante W-Dr-Sp, also Passito WSw; Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-2, also Novello; Rosato P-Dr/Fz; Cabernet RDr, Rs Ag-2; Cabernet Sauvignon R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Chardonnay WDr/Sp; Garganega W-Dr/Sp; Manzoni Bianco W-Dr; Merlot R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Moscato W-Sw/Sp; Pinot Bianco W-Dr/Sp; Pinot Grigio W-Dr; Pinot Nero R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Raboso R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Riesling W-Dr; Sauvignon W-Dr

IGT (10) Alto Livenza, Colli Trevigiani, Conselvano, Marca Trevigiana, Vallagarina (shared with Trentino-Alto Adige), Veneto, Veneto Orientale, Veronese or Provincia di Verona, Venezie or delle Venezie, (shared with Friuli-Venezia Giulia and Trentino-Alto Adige) Vigneti delle Dolomiti (shared with Trentino-Alto Adige)


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Veneto

95

20 mi 50 km

DOCG 1 Bardolino Superiore (Classico) 2 Recioto di Soave (Classico) 3 Soave Superiore DOC 4 Arcole 5 Bagnoli di Sopra or Bagnoli (Classico) 6 Bardolino (Classico)

7 8 9 10 11 12

Bianco di Custoza Breganze Colli Berici Colli di Conegliano Colli Euganei Conegliano-Valdobbiadene or Conegliano or Valdobbiadene 13 Corti Benedettine del Padovano 14 Gambellara (Classico)

15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

Garda Lison-Pramaggiore Lugana Merlara Montello e Colli Asolani Monti Lessini or Lessini Piave or Vini del Piave Recioto della Valpolicella (Classico, Valpantena) 23 Riviera del Brenta 24 San Martino della Battaglia

25 Soave (Classico) 26 Valpolicella (Classico, Valpantena, Amarone della Valpolicella) 27 Valdadige 28 Vicenza


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Friuli-Venezia Giulia

96

The compact region of Friuli-Venezia Giulia, commanding the

the class of certain wines. The exchange of air currents

northern Adriatic Sea with borders on Austria and Slovenia,

between the Alps and the Adriatic has created a highly favor-

continues to set the pace with modern Italian white wine.

able habitat for vines on the region’s terraced slopes called

Drawing from worthy native varieties and the choicest of the

ronchi. Varietal wines dominate the multitude of types includ-

international array, Friulians have applied studied vineyard

ed in Friuli-Venezia Giulia’s nine DOC categories (including

techniques and avant-garde enology to the production of high-

part of Lison-Pramaggiore, shared with Veneto). Only the

ly distinctive whites, as well as some eminently attractive reds.

Friuli Grave zone is large by national standards. The others are

Friuli has two DOC zones of outstanding class in Collio

decidedly elite.

Goriziano, or simply Collio, and Colli Orientali del Friuli, adja-

Friuli has built a glowing reputation for white wines made

cent areas that follow the border of Slovenia from Gorizia west

by relatively small wineries and estates. The whites had long

and northwest to Tarcento. Recently singled out for DOCG

been dominated by Tocai Friulano, a variety related to

was Ramandolo, a rare, sweet white from the Verduzzo grape

Sauvignon Vert or Sauvignonasse. But a European court has

grown in the hills north of Udine.

ruled that Tocai must change its name so as not to be confused

Carso is a unique zone in the hills above the seaport and regional capital of Trieste. The other six DOC zones cover low

with the Tokay or Tokaji of Hungary—which, curiously, is the name of a wine but not a vine.

hills or plains, but quality there can be convincing, most

Friuli’s Malvasia Istriana, Ribolla Gialla and Verduzzo also

notably from Isonzo, which rivals Collio and Colli Orientali for

can be intriguing, as can such admirable foreign varieties as

Trieste is the administrative center of Friuli-Venezia Giulia, whose other provinces are Gorizia, Pordenone and Udine. The region ranks 17th in size (7,855 square kilometers) and 15th in population (1,184,000). Friuli-Venezia Giulia’s average annual wine production of 1,180,000 hectoliters (10th in volume among the regions) includes about 65% DOC/DOCG. White wine accounts for about 55% of Friuli’s production.


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Sauvignon, Chardonnay and Pinot Bianco and the ever popular Pinot Grigio. The Friulian style in whites favors the exquisitely

Friuli-Venezia Giulia

fresh and fruity, with delicate fragrance and flavor that express clear varietal character. Many producers consider their whites to be too pure and linear to benefit from wood aging. But there are a growing number of exceptions to the rule, in white wines that gain depth and complexity from blending, oak aging and other artistic touches. Friulian reds were traditionally light and fruity, best to drink within two to five years of the harvest. That style applied to the predominant Merlot and Cabernet Franc, as well as to

97

Pinot Nero and the worthy native variety of Refosco. But certain winemakers have heightened structure and nuance by blending Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and other varieties and

20 mi

aging the wine in small oak barrels.

50 km

Friulians have shown an encouraging tendency to revive varieties that had been neglected. Foremost among the legends is Picolit, a white that ranked as one of Europe’s finest sweet

DOCG 1 Ramandolo

wines around 1800, when it was favored by the Hapsburgs and other royal families. Despite low yields, Picolit has been coming back. So has Verduzzo, notably in Ramandolo. Ribolla Gialla, a native of Collio, has benefited from new methods that make it into a dry white of character. Among the reds are Refosco, also known as Terrano, which can be made either light and fruity or into a durable wine for aging. Though rare and odd, Franconia and Tazzelenghe make distinctive reds, but perhaps the Pignolo and Schioppettino varieties have the most intriguing potential.

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

DOC Carso Colli Orientali del Friuli (Cialla, Ramandolo, Rosazzo) Collio Goriziano or Collio Friuli Annia Friuli Aquileia Friuli Grave Friuli Isonzo Friuli Latisana Lison-Pramaggiore


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DOCG (1) Ramandolo (Classico): W-Sw

DOC (9) Carso: Rosso R-Dr; Terrano R-Dr; Cabernet Franc R-Dr; Cabernet Sauvignon R-Dr; Chardonnay W-Dr; Malvasia W-Dr; Merlot R-Dr; Pinot Grigio W-Dr; Refosco R-Dr; Sauvignon W-Dr; Terrano R-Dr; Vitouska W-Dr

98

Colli Orientali del Friuli (Cialla, Rosazzo): Bianco W-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Rosato P-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Cabernet R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Cabernet Franc R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Cabernet Sauvignon R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Chardonnay W-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Malvasia W-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Merlot R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; M端ller Thurgau W-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Picolit W-Sw, Rs Ag-2; Pignolo R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Pinot Bianco W-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Pinot Grigio WDr, Rs Ag-2; Pinot Nero R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Refosco R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Ribolla Gialla W-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Riesling W-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Sauvignon W-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Schioppettino R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Tazzelenghe R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Tocai Friulano W-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Traminer Aromatico W-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Verduzzo Friulano W-Dr/Sw, Rs Ag-2 (All preceding wines have a Superiore version requiring lower vine yields and a higher degree of natural alcohol); Cialla: Bianco W-Dr, Rs Ag-4; Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-4; Picolit W-Sw Ag-2, Rs Ag-4; Refosco R-Dr Ag-2, Rs Ag-4; Ribolla Gialla W-Dr, Rs Ag-4; Schioppettino R-Dr Ag-2, Rs Ag-4; Verduzzo Friulano W-Sw Ag-2, Rs Ag-4; Rosazzo: Bianco W-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Picolit W-Sw. Rs Ag-2; Pignolo R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Ribolla Gialla W-Dr, Rs Ag-2 Collio Goriziano or Collio: Bianco W-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-3; Cabernet R-Dr, Rs Ag-3; Cabernet Franc R-Dr, Rs Ag-3; Cabernet Sauvignon R-Dr, Rs Ag-3; Chardonnay W-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Malvasia W-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Merlot R-Dr, Rs Ag-3; M端ller Thurgau W-

Dr, Rs Ag-2; Picolit W-Sw; Pinot Bianco W-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Pinot Grigio W-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Pinot Nero R-Dr, Rs Ag-3; Ribolla Gialla W-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Riesling Italico W-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Riesling W-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Sauvignon W-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Tocai Friulano W-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Traminer Aromatico W-Dr, Rs Ag-2 Friuli Annia: Bianco W-Dr/Fz; Rosato P-Dr/Fz; Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Spumante W-Dr-Sp; Cabernet Franc R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Cabernet Sauvignon R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Chardonnay W-Dr/Fz; Malvasia W-Dr/Fz; Merlot R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Pinot Bianco W-Dr/Fz; Pinot Grigio W-Dr/Fz; Refosco del Peduncolo Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Sauvignon W-Dr; Tocai Friulano W-Dr; Verduzzo Friulano W-Dr/Sw/Fz Friuli Aquileia: Bianco W-Dr; Rosato P-Dr/Fz; Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-2, also Novello; Cabernet R-Dr, Rs Ag-2, also Novello; Cabernet Franc R-Dr, Rs Ag-2, also Novello; Cabernet Sauvignon R-Dr, Rs Ag-2, also Novello; Chardonnay W-Dr/Fz; Chardonnay Spumante W-Dr/Sp; Malvasia Istriana W-Dr/Fz; Merlot R-Dr, Rs Ag-2, also Novello; M端ller Thurgau W-Dr/Fz; Pinot Bianco W-Dr; Pinot Grigio W-Dr; Refosco R-Dr, Rs Ag-2, also Novello; Riesling W-Dr; Sauvignon WDr; Tocai Friulano W-Dr; Traminer Aromatico W-Dr; Verduzzo Friulano W-Dr/Sw Friuli Grave: Bianco W-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Rosato P-Dr/Fz; Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-2, also Novello; Spumante W-Dr/Sp; Cabernet R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Cabernet Franc R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Cabernet Sauvignon R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Chardonnay W-Dr/Fz/Sp, Rs Ag-2; Merlot R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Pinot Bianco W-Dr/Fz/Sp, Rs Ag-2; Pinot Grigio W-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Pinot Nero R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Refosco dal Peduncolo Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Riesling W-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Sauvignon W-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Tocai Friulano W-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Traminer Aromatico W-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Verduzzo Friulano W-Dr/Sw/Sp, Rs Ag-2 (All preceding wines except Rosato


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99

and Spumante have a Superiore version requiring lower vine yields and a higher degree of natural alcohol) Friuli Isonzo or Isonzo del Friuli: Bianco W-Dr/Fz; Rosato P-Dr/Fz; Rosso R-Dr/Fz; Rosso Spumante R-Dr-Sp; Vendemmia Tardiva WDr/Sw; Cabernet R-Dr; Cabernet Franc R-Dr; Cabernet Sauvignon RDr; Chardonnay W-Dr; Franconia R-Dr; Malvasia W-Dr; Merlot RDr; Moscato Giallo W-Sw; Moscato Giallo Spumante W-Sw-Sp; Moscato Rosa P-Sw; Moscato Rosa Spumante P-Sw-Sp; Pinot Bianco WDr/Sp; Pinot Grigio W-Dr; Pinot Spumante W-Dr-Sp; Refosco del Peduncolo Rosso R-Dr; Riesling W-Dr; Riesling Italico W-Dr; Sauvignon W-Dr; Schioppettino R-Dr; Tocai Friulano W-Dr; Traminer Aromatico W-Dr; Verduzzo Friulano W-Dr/Sw/Sp Friuli Latisana: Rosato P-Dr/Fz, also Novello; Spumante W-Dr/Sp; Cabernet R-Dr, Rs Ag-2, also Novello; Cabernet Franc R-Dr, Rs Ag-2, also Novello; Cabernet Sauvignon R-Dr, Rs Ag-2, also Novello; Chardonnay W-Dr/Fz; Franconia R-Dr, Rs Ag-2, also Novello; Malvasia

Istriana W-Dr/Fz; Merlot R-Dr, Rs Ag-2, also Novello; Pinot Bianco W-Dr/Fz; Pinot Grigio W-Dr; Pinot Nero R-Dr/Fz, Rs Ag-2, also Novello; Refosco dal Peduncolo Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-2, also Novello; Riesling Renano W-Dr; Sauvignon W-Dr; Tocai Friulano W-Dr; Traminer Aromatico W-Dr; Verduzzo Friulano W-Dr/Sw/Fz (All preceding wines except Rosato and Spumante have a Superiore version requiring lower vine yields and a higher degree of natural alcohol) Lison-Pramaggiore (shared with Veneto): Cabernet R-Dr/Sp, Rs Ag3; Cabernet Franc R-Dr/Sp, Rs Ag-3; Cabernet Sauvignon R-Dr/Sp, Rs Ag-3; Chardonnay W-Dr/Sp; Refosco del Peduncolo Rosso R-Dr/Sp; Merlot R-Dr/Sp, Rs Ag-2; Pinot Bianco W-Dr/Sp; Pinot Grigio WDr/Sp; Riesling Italico W-Dr/Sp; Sauvignon W-Dr/Sp; Tocai Italico W-Dr/Sp; Verduzzo W-Dr/Sw/Sp

IGT (3) Alto Livenza, Venezia Giulia, Venezie or delle Venezie (shared with Trentino-Alto Adige and Veneto)


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Trentino-Alto Adige

100

Trentino-Alto Adige, Italy’s northernmost region, is walled in

DOC takes in wines from distinct zones noted for class: Colli di

by the Dolomites and the Rhaetian Alps, so that only about 15

Bolzano/Bozner Leiten, Meranese di Collina/Meraner, Santa

percent of the region’s land is cultivable and much of it is used

Maddalena/St. Magdalener, Terlano/Terlan, Valle d’Isarco/Ei-

to produce fruit and wine grapes. The difficulty of growing

sacktal, and Val Venosta/Vinschgau.

vines on steep, often terraced hillsides compels growers to

Although experts agree that the Alpine climate favors

emphasize quality. About three-quarters of production is DOC

grapes for perfumed white wines, the historical emphasis has

and a major share of the wine is exported.

been on reds, which still account for more than half of the

Trentino-Alto Adige, with borders on Austria and

region’s production.

Switzerland, is split into two distinct provinces. Trentino,

The dominant vine variety of Alto Adige is Schiava or

around the city of Trento (or Trent) to the south, is historically

Vernatsch, a source of light, bright reds that flow north prodi-

Italian in language and culture. Alto Adige, around the city of

giously to German-speaking countries. The most highly regard-

Bolzano (or Bozen) to the north, is known as Südtirol to the

ed of these is St. Magdalener or Santa Maddalena, grown on the

prominent German-speaking population. The South Tyrol,

picturesque slopes overlooking Bolzano. The best known wine

historically part of Austria, is officially bilingual.

is Caldaro or Kalterersee, produced from vines around the

Production of the numerous varietal wines is centered in

pretty lake of that name.

two large DOC zones: Trentino in the south and Alto Adige or

The ranks of roseate ruby wines from Schiava extend

Südtirol, the province’s blanket appellation. The Alto Adige

through the South Tyrol along the Adige river into Trentino

Trento (Trent) is the administrative center of Trentino-Alto Adige, whose other province is Bolzano (Bozen). The region ranks 11th in size (13,607 square kilometers) and 16th in population (930,000). Trentino-Alto Adige’s average annual wine production of 1,110,000 hectoliters (12th in volume among the regions) includes about 75% DOC. Red wine accounts for about 52% of the region’s production.


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and Veneto under the Valdadige or Etschtaler appellation.

sometimes considered light by international standards, the best

That applies to red and white wines of popular commercial

of them have an unexpected propensity to age. Pinot Bianco,

standards. Other reds show greater class. Alto Adige’s native

Riesling, Sylvaner and Müller Thurgau have been known to

Lagrein and Trentino’s Teroldego stand with northern Italy’s

remain fresh and vital for a decade or more. But the emphasis

most distinguished vines, making wines of singular personality.

remains on the popular Pinot Grigio and, increasingly, on

Lagrein thrives on the gravelly plains along the Adige at

Chardonnay and Gewürztraminer.

Gries, a quarter of Bolzano where the wine achieves full, round,

Trentino, which boasts Italy’s largest production of Char-

plush qualities with a bit of age. Santa Maddalena has a long-

donnay, is a leader with sparkling wines by the classical method,

standing reputation as a refined light red. Teroldego, grown on

many of which qualify under the prestigious Trento DOC. Alto

the Rotaliano plain north of Trento, is an unusually attractive

Adige has also stepped up sparkling wine production.

red when young, but with a capacity to age splendidly from

Ultimately, producers in both provinces have been making

good vintages. Trentino’s Marzemino makes a fresh, lively red

whites of greater weight and complexity—in particular from

for casual sipping. In both provinces, increasing space has been

Chardonnay, Sauvignon, Pinot Bianco and Gewürztraminer,

devoted to Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot, which can reach

whose name derives from the South Tyrolean village of Tramin.

impressive heights whether alone or in blends. The region also

Red wines have also taken on greater dimensions, notably

produces some of Italy’s finest rosés, the most impressive being

in Lagrein and Teroldego and combinations of Cabernet and

Lagrein Kretzer. The sweet Moscato Rosa, with its gracefully

Merlot, but also with Pinot Nero. They are gradually enhancing

flowery aroma, is a rare and prized dessert wine.

the status of a region whose sterling record with DOC still has-

The growing demand for white wines has influenced grow-

n’t fully expressed the extraordinary quality potential.

ers to plant more of the international premium varieties. The

Despite the traditional flow north to German-speaking

heights are favorable to aromatic whites: Sylvaner, Veltliner,

countries, the wines of Trentino-Alto Adige—whites in particu-

Gewürztraminer, Müller Thurgau and white Moscato. But the

lar—have been making steady progress in Italy and, recently, on

quality of Chardonnay, Pinot Bianco and Grigio and Sauvignon

distant markets, such as the United States and United Kingdom.

from certain cellars can also stand with Italy’s finest. Trentino’s native Nosiola makes a tasty dry white and is also the base of

DOC (7)

Vino Santo, an opulent dessert wine from the Valle dei Laghi

Alto Adige/Südtirol/Sudtirolo (Colli di Bolzano/Bozner Leiten, Meranese di Collina/ Meraner, Santa Maddalena/St. Magdalener,

north of Lake Garda. Although the region’s white wines are

101


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Terlano/Terlan, Valle d’Isarco/Eisacktal, Val Venosta/Vinschgau): Bianco/Weiss W-Dr; Bianco/Weiss Passito W-Sw, Rs Ag-2; Spumante W-Dr-Sp, Metodo Classico Ag-1.7, Rs Ag-3; Spumante Rosé or Rosato/Kretzer P-Dr/Sp, Metodo Classico Ag-1.7, Rs Ag-3; Cabernet RDr, Rs Ag-2; Cabernet-Lagrein R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Cabernet-Merlot R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Cabernet Sauvignon and/or Franc R-Dr, Rs Ag-2, also VT R-Sw; Chardonnay W-Dr, also Passito and VT W-Sw; Chardonnay Spumante W-Dr-Sp, Metodo Classico Ag-1.7, Rs Ag-3; Lagrein Dunkel/Scuro RDr, also Gries or Grieser Lagrein, Rs Ag-2, also VT R-Sw; Lagrein Kretzer/Rosato P-Dr, also Gries or Grieser Lagrein; Malvasia/Malvasier R-Dr, also VT R-Sw; Merlot R-Dr, Rs Ag-2, also VT R-Sw; Merlot Rosato/Kretzer P-Dr; Moscato Giallo/Goldenmuskateller W-Dr/Sw, also Passito and VT W-Sw; Moscato Rosa /Rosenmuskateller R-P-Sw, also VT R-P-Sw; Müller Thurgau W-Dr; Pinot Bianco/ Weissburgunder W-Dr/Sp, also Passito and VT W-Sw; Pinot Grigio/Ruländer W-Dr, also Passito and VT W-Sw; Pinot Nero/Blauburgunder R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Pinot Nero Rosato or Rosé /Blauburgunder Kretzer P-Dr, also VT P-Sw; Pinot Nero/Blauburgunder Spumante W-Dr-Sp or P-Dr-Sp, Metodo Classico Ag-1.7, Rs Ag-3; Riesling Italico/ Welschriesling W-Dr, also VT W-Sw; Riesling Renano/Rheinriesling W-Dr, also Passito and VT W-Sw; Sauvignon W-Dr, also Passito and VT W-Sw; Schiava/Vernatsch R-Dr, also VT R-Sw; Schiava Grigia/Grauvernatsch R-Dr, also VT R-Sw; Sylvaner or Silvaner W-Dr, also Passito and VT W-Sw; Traminer Aromatico/Gewürztraminer W-Dr, also VT W-Sw; Colli di Bolzano/Bozner Leiten R-Dr; Meranese di Collina/Meraner or Meraner Hügel R-Dr (Burgravio or Burggräfler from a special subzone); Santa Maddalena/St Magdalener R-Dr (Classico or Klassisch or Klassisches Ursprungsgebiet may apply to wines from the original zone); Terlano/Terlan W-Dr/Sp, also Passito and VT W-Sw; Chardonnay WDr/Sp, also Passito and VT W-Sw; MüllerThurgau W-Dr/Sp, also Passito and VT W-Sw; Pinot Bianco/Weissburgunder W-Dr/Sp, also Passito and VT W-Sw; Riesling Italico/Weischriesling W-Dr/Sp, also

VT W-Sw; Riesling Renano/Rheinriesling W-Dr/Sp, also Passito and VT W-Sw; Sauvignon W-Dr/Sp, also Passito and VT W-Sw; Sylvaner or Silvaner W-Dr/Sp, also Passito and VT W-Sw (Classico or Klassisch or Klassisches Ursprungsgebiet may apply to wines from the original zone); Valle Isarco/Eisacktaler Kerner W-Dr, also Passito and VT W-Sw; Klausner Leitacher R-Dr; MüllerThurgau W-Dr, also Passito and VT WSw; Pinot Grigio/Ruländer W-Dr, also Passito and VT W-Sw; Sylvaner or Silvaner W-Dr, also Passito and VT W-Sw; Traminer Aromatico /Gewürztraminer W-Dr, also Passito and VT W-Sw; Veltliner W-Dr, also Passito and VT W-Sw (Bressanone or Brixen or Brixner may apply to wines from the original zone); Val Venosta/Vinschgau Chardonnay WDr, also Passito and VT W-Sw; Kerner W-Dr, also Passito and VT W-Sw; MüllerThurgau W-Dr, also Passito and VT W-Sw; Pinot Bianco/Weissburgunder W-Dr, also Passito and VT W-Sw; Pinot Grigio/Rülander WDr, also Passito and VT W-Sw; Pinot Nero/Blauburguncer R-Dr, also VT R-Sw; Riesling W-Dr, also Passito and VT W-Sw; Schiava/Vernatsch RDr, also VT W-Sw; Traminer Aromatico/Gewürztraminer W-Dr, also Passito and VT W-Sw (VT in this listing stands for Vendemmia Tardiva for wines from late harvested grapes) Caldaro or Lago di Caldaro/Kalterersee or Kalterer (Classico/Klassisch) R-Dr, also Scelto or Auslese (Classico or Klassisch may apply to wines from the original zone) Casteller: R-Dr/Sw, also Sup Teroldego Rotaliano: R-Dr, also Sup, Rs Ag-2; Rosato P-Dr, also Sup Trentino (Sorni): Bianco W-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Rosato or Kretzer P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Cabernet R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Cabernet Franc R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Cabernet Sauvignon R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Chardonnay W-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Lagrein R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Lagrein Rosato P-Dr; Marzemino R-Dr,


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Trentino-Alto Adige

DOC 1 Alto Adige/Südtirol/Sudtirolo* A Colli di Bolzano/Bozner Leiten B Meranese di Collina/Meraner C Santa Maddalena/St. Magdalener D Terlano/Terlan E Valle d’Isarco/Eisacktal F Val Fenosta/Vinschgau 2 Caldaro or Lago di Caldaro/Kalterersee or Kalterer (Classico/Klassisch) 3 Casteller 4 Toroldego Rotaliano 5 Trentino** 6 Trento** 7 Valdadige/Etschtaler

20 mi 50 km

Rs Ag-2; Merlot R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Moscato Giallo W-Sw, alsoLiquoroso W-Sw-Ft; Moscato Rosa P-Sw, also Liquoroso P-Sw-Ft; Müller Thurgau W-Dr; Nosiola W-Dr; Pinot Bianco W-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Pinot Grigio W-Dr; Pinot Nero R-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Rebo R-Dr; Riesling W-Dr; Riesling Italico W-Dr; Sauvignon W-Dr, Rs Ag-2; Traminer Aromatico W-Dr; Vino Santo W-Sw Ag-3 Sorni: Bianco R-Dr; Rosso R-Dr (Vendemmia Tardiva versions are permitted for Chardonnay, Moscato Giallo, Moscato Rosa, Müller Thurgau, Nosiola, Pinot Bianco, Pinot Grigio, Riesling Italico, Riesling Renano, Sauvignon and Traminer Aromatico for richly dry to sweet wines aged for at least 14 months)

* Wines may be produced in all approved viticultural areas throughout Alto Adige ** Wines may be produced in all approved viticultural areas throughout Trentino

Trento: W-Dr-Sp or P-Dr-Sp Ag-1.5, con annata (vintage dated) Ag2, Rs Ag-3 Valdadige/Etschtaler: Bianco W-Dr; Rosato P-Dr; Rosso R-Dr; Chardonnay W-Dr; Pinot Grigio W-Dr; Pinot Bianco W-Dr; Schiava R-Dr

IGT (5) Atesino delle Venezie, Mitterberg or Mitterberg tra Cauria e Tel or Mitterberg zwischen Gfrill und Töll, Vallagarina (shared with Veneto), Venezie or delle Venezie (shared with Friuli-Venezia Giulia and Veneto), Vigneti delle Dolomiti (shared with Veneto)

103


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Italian food and wine “The main thing to remember about Italian cuisine,” says a

What sets the cooking of Italy apart from that of any other

Florentine chef introducing his cooking courses for foreigners,

country is the variety of ingredients and spontaneity of the

“is that it doesn’t exist. First, because the term cuisine is French,

preparation. In places you can find the Mediterranean diet at

but more important because in my country, thank heaven, we

its purest in extra virgin olive oil with durum wheat pasta,

have no uniform way of cooking.”

bread, fresh herbs, vegetables and fruit, fish and cheese, and wine

He might have added that “Northern Italian cuisine” was

from the nearest hillside. But you can also find some of the richest

invented abroad, apparently to indicate restaurants that do not

fare of Europe with fresh egg pasta and sauces based on butter and

serve pizza or spaghetti and meatballs smothered in tomato

cream, meat pâtés and cold cuts, beef, pork, poultry and game, lush

sauce. To suggest anything more than arbitrary links between

pastries and sweets, and wine lists that carry grand old vintages

the regional dishes of northern Italy—the braised beef and

from regions north and south. It depends on the time and place,

creamy risottos of Piedmont, the seafood and herb-inspired

of course, but wherever you dine in Italy expect to be surprised.

touches of Liguria, the pasta and pork delicacies of Emilia or the

Still, there is no denying that some cooks have attempted

schnitzel and dumpling fare of Alto Adige, for instance—is lit-

to standardize the fare. You can find spaghetti alla carbonara on

tle short of heresy. The same could be said of the southern

menus in Milan and costoletta alla milanese in Rome, peper-

regions where, however, the flavors of the Mediterranean

onata in Verona and polenta in Palermo. All healthy citizens

remain generally more intact than elsewhere.

regularly eat pasta in some form or other and nearly every vil-

On analysis, la cucina italiana is a miscellany of regional,

lage north and south has a pizzeria. But the variations from

provincial, local and family dishes that vary from season to sea-

place to place are infinite, and as any experienced gastronome

son and cook to cook. It is a deliciously random fund of little

will insist, you have to travel to the place of origin to taste the

treasures, of recipes rarely written down but passed intuitively

foods and wines of Italy together at their authentic best.

from one generation to another, modified according to the produce available and enhanced by knowing hands.

Cognoscenti will tell you that the ultimate in fonduta con tartufi (cheese fondue with white truffles) is made around Alba

105


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106

in Piedmont and served with a local Dolcetto. Sicily’s rare pasta

a vivacious white Asprinio from Aversa. A typical Italian meal

con le sarde (with sardines and wild fennel) is at its best around

may range through three to five dishes, sometimes more. But

Messina matched with a white from Etna.

let’s consider the fundamental courses of antipasti (appetizers

For zampone sausage with lentils it’s Modena and a dry

or openers), primo (pasta, risotto or soup) and secondo (main

Lambrusco di Sorbara; for risi e bisi (rice and peas) it’s Venice

courses, usually meat, poultry or fish) with some further sug-

and a Tocai from Friuli; for trenette noodles with pesto it’s

gestions for vegetables, cheeses, fruit and desserts.

Genoa and a rare white Lumassina; for ossobuco (braised veal

Here are some matches of foods and wines that comple-

shank) and risotto milanese it’s Milan and a Barbera from

ment each other. Still, despite what you might have heard

Oltrepò Pavese; for tagliatelle noodles and meat ragù it’s

about obligatory pairing of local dishes with local wines, the

Bologna and a hearty red Sangiovese di Romagna; for bistecca

food of Italy is usually admirably adaptable. So, naturally

alla fiorentina with white beans it’s Florence and a robust Chian-

enough, are the wines. Experiments with other combinations

ti Classico. And, of course, for pizza napoletana it’s Naples and

are only to be encouraged.

ANTIPASTI (Appetizer)

WINES

Asparagi al burro e parmigiano (asparagus with butter

Collio Sauvignon

and grated Parmigiano) Bagna caôda (raw vegetables dipped into “hot bath”

Barbera d’Asti

of olive oil, garlic, anchovies) Bresaola (sliced air-dried beef of Valtellina)

Valtellina Rosso

Carpaccio (paper-thin slices of raw veal with shavings

Colli Euganei Merlot

of mushrooms and Grana Padano) Crostini di fegato (chicken liver pâté on crisp bread)

Chianti Colli Fiorentini

Fiori di zucchini fritti (fried zucchini flowers)

Orvieto Classico

Frutti di mare (raw or poached seafood salad)

Verdicchio dei Castelli di Jesi Classico


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ANTIPASTI (Appetizer)

WINES

Granseola alla veneziana (spider crab minced with olive

Soave Classico Superiore

oil, pepper, lemon and served in its shell) Mozzarella in carrozza (breaded and fried sandwich

Greco di Tufo

of buffalo mozzarella and anchovy Ostriche (raw oysters)

Gavi

Peperonata (stewed peppers)

Cerasuolo di Vittoria

Prosciutto di San Daniele con fichi (Friulian cured raw

Colli Oriental del Friuli Tocai Friulano

ham with figs) 107

PRIMI (First course)

WINES

Bucatini all’amatriciana (slim pasta pipes with salt pork,

Montepulciano d’Abruzzo

chili pepper, sometimes tomato, grated Pecorino Romano) Cassòla (spicy Sardinian fish soup with a dozen types

Vermentino di Gallura

of crustaceans and mollusks) Crespelle con ricotta e spinaci (crêpes rolled and stuffed

Alto Adige or Trentino Chardonnay

with ricotta and spinach) Fettuccine al burro (egg noodles with butter, cream,

Frascati Superiore

grated Parmigiano) Gnocchi di patate con ragù (potato gnocchi with meat

Valpolicella Classico Superiore

sauce and grated cheese) Lasagne al forno (sheets of pasta layered with meat and bechamel and baked in the oven)

Rosso Piceno


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PRIMI (First course)

WINES

Orecchiette con cime di rapa (ear-shaped pasta with

Castel del Monte Rosato

turnip greens, garlic, chili pepper) Panissa (thick Piedmontese risotto with red beans, pork)

Monferrato Barbera

Pasta e fagioli (thick bean soup with pasta)

Friuli Grave Merlot

Ribollita (Tuscan vegetable-bean soup thickened with

Morellino di Scansano

bread and topped with extra virgin olive oil) Risotto alla certosina (rice with crayfish, frogs, perch,

Oltrepò Pavese Pinot Bianco

vegetables and mushrooms) 108

Tortelli di zucca (egg pasta envelopes filled with

Lugana Superiore

pumpkin and topped with grated Grana Padano) Tortellini in brodo (stuffed egg pasta rolls in capon

Albana di Romagna Secco

broth with grated Parmigiano) Spaghetti alla carbonara (with salt pork, eggs, pepper

Velletri Rosso

and grated Parmigiano and Pecorino Romano) Spaghetti con le vongole veraci (with tiny clams sautĂŠed

Ischia Biancolella

with olive oil, garlic, parsley)

SECONDI (Main course)

WINES

Abbacchio alla cacciatora (baby lamb cooked with

Cerveteri Rosso

rosemary, garlic, anchovies) Arista di maiale (pork loin roast with rosemary, garlic, wild fennel pollen)

Vino Nobile di Montepulciano


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SECONDI (Main course)

WINES

Baccalà alla vicentina (dried cod cooked with milk,

Colli Berici Tocai Rosso

onions, anchovies, Parmigiano) Brasato al Barolo (beef braised in Barolo)

Barolo

Bollito misto (beef, veal, hen and sausage simmered and

Colli Piacentini Gutturnio

served with sauces such as piquant green salsa verde) Branzino al forno (baked sea bass)

Collio Bianco Riserva

Fegato alla veneziana (calf’s liver sautéed with onions)

Breganze Cabernet

Fritto misto di pesce (crisp fried shrimp, squid and other

Trentino Sauvignon

fresh fish) Melanzane alla parmigiana (eggplant baked with tomato, buffalo mozzarella, Parmigiano)

Vesuvio Rosato


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SECONDI (Main course)

WINES

Pollo alla diavola (spicy charcoal grilled chicken)

Rosso Conero

Porceddu (suckling pig roasted on a spit at an open hearth)

Cannonau di Sardegna Secco

Scampi alla griglia (charcoal grilled scampi with

Friuli Isonzo Sauvignon

lemon and herbs) Trota al burro (Alpine brook trout pan roasted with

Alto Adige Müller Thurgau

butter and herbs) Vitello tonnato (cold veal slices with creamy tuna sauce

Franciacorta Brut Millesimato

and capers) 110

VERDURA (Vegetables) The wine to serve with most vegetable dishes or greens depends on whether they are a main course or a side dish. In the second case, the fish, meat or poultry would determine the choice. Most vegetable dishes alone call for a wine on the light side—a white, rosé or young red. Some vegetables, like asparagus and spinach, are hard to match. Others, like raw artichokes or salad with vinegar, are usually better without wine.

FORMAGGI (Cheese)

WINES

Mild, soft cheese, such as Bel Paese, Stracchino,

Light to medium-bodied whites, such Mozzarella di Bufala,

Fior di Latte or Ricotta

as Orvieto, Frascati, Soave, Lugana, Albana di Romagna, Alcamo Bianco, Ischia Bianco, Sauvignon, Verdicchio

Lightly ripened or seasoned cheeses such as Fontina,

Rosés or light reds, such as Kalterersee,

fresh Pecorino or Caciotta, Toma or Tuma, Robiola,

Bardolino, Garda Chiaretto, Dolcetto di Dogliano,

lightly smoked Provola, Burrata

Grignolino, Marzemino, Rosato di Salento


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FORMAGGI (Cheese)

WINES

Ripe or medium-aged cheeses, such as Grana Padano,

Robust, medium-aged reds, such as

Parmigiano Reggiano, Pecorino Toscano, Pecorino

Barbaresco, Barolo, Barbera d’Asti, Brunello di Montalcino,

Sardo, Asiago, Castelmagno, Monte Veronese, Caciocavallo

Torgiano Rosso Riserva, Taurasi, Aglianico del Vulture. Valtellina Superiore, Alto Adige Lagrein Dunkel, Teroldego Rotaliano

Sharp, very ripe or peppery cheeses, such as Bitto,

Choices may vary from dry but rich

Provolone Piccante, Gorgonzola Naturale, Pecorino

reds, such as Valtellina Sfursat, Amarone della Valpolicella,

Siciliano, Ragusano, Pecorino Romano

Montefalco Sagrantino or Primitivo di Manduria to dry fortified wines, such as Marsala Vergine or Vernaccia di Oristano to sweet wines such as Recioto di Soave, Vin Santo, Aleatico or Picolit

FRUTTA (Fruit) Italians usually eat fruit fresh and without a specific wine to accompany, though lightly sweet and bubbly Moscato d’Asti or Prosecco or Malvasia go nicely with many things.

DOLCI (Dessert) Desserts can create problems with choices, since Italy has both an astonishing variety of sweets and nearly as many sweet wines, few of them well known abroad. There are some traditional matches: Tuscan almond biscuits with Vin Santo, zabaglione with Marsala Superiore Dolce and Milan’s panettone Christmas cake with sparkling Asti. As a rule, lightly sweet desserts go best with lightly sweet wines, so fruit tarts, pound cakes, sherbets and pastries might be matched with gently bubbly Moscato d’Asti or Verduzzo Friulano or a Malvasia from Colli Piacentini or Sardinia. Richer sweets take sweeter or stronger wines, such as Malvasia delle Lipari or Moscato Passito di Pantelleria. It is never easy to find the perfect wine with sweets laced with chocolate, rum, candied fruit or spices, such as ginger or cinnamon, though that doesn’t stop gourmets from trying.

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Glossary The following Italian terms may be found on labels or literature about wine

112

A

E

Abboccato - Lightly sweet Alcool - Alcohol, usually stated by % of volume Amabile – Semisweet Annata - Vintage year Azienda agricola or agraria or vitivinicola - Farm or estate that produces all or most of the grapes for wines sold under its labels

Enoteca - Literally wine library, referring to both publicly sponsored displays and privately owned shops Enologo - Enologist with a university degree; enotecnico is a winemaking technician with a diploma Ettaro - Hectare (2.471 acres) the standard measure of vineyard surface in Italy Ettolitro - Hectoliter, or 100 liters, the standard measure of wine volume in Italy Etichetta - Label

B Bianco - White Botte - Cask or barrel Bottiglia - Bottle Brut - Dry (sparkling wine)

C Cantina - Cellar or winery Cantina sociale - Cooperative winery Casa vinicola - Wine house or merchant (commerciante) whose bottlings come mainly from purchased grapes or wines Cascina - Farmhouse, often used for estate Cerasuolo - Cherry-hued rosĂŠ Chiaretto - Deep rosĂŠ Classico - The historic core of a DOC zone. Consorzio - Consortium of producers.

D Dolce - Sweet

F Fattoria - Farm or estate Frizzante or Frizzantino - Fizzy or faintly fizzy

I Imbottigliata - Bottled (all'origine implies at the source) lnvecchiato - Aged

L Liquoroso - Strong wine, sometimes fortified but often of naturally high alcoholic grade

M Maso - A holding, often referring to a vineyard or estate. Masseria - Farm or estate Metodo Charmat - Sparkling wine made by the sealed tank method


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Metodo classico or tradizionale - Terms for sparkling wine made by the bottle fermentation method that originated in Champagne. The term mĂŠthode champenoise can not be used in Italy Millesimato - Vintage dated sparkling wine

P Passito or Passita - Partially dried grapes and the strong, usually sweet wine made from them Podere - Small farm or estate Produttore - Producer

R Recioto -Wine made from partly dried grapes, often sweet and strong Riserva - Reserve, for DOC or DOCG wine aged a specific time. Rosato - RosĂŠ Rosso - Red

113

S Scelto - Selected, term used for certain DOC wines. Auslese in German (Alto Adige) Secco - Dry Semisecco - Medium sweet, usually in sparkling wine Spumante - Sparkling in dry or sweet wines Superiore - Denotes DOC wine that meets standards above the norm (higher alcohol, longer aging, a special subzone), though conditions vary

T Tenuta - Farm or estate

U Uva - Grape

V Vecchio - Old, to describe aged DOC wines; Stravecchio, very old, applies to the longest aged Marsala and to some spirits.

Vendemmia - Harvest or vintage. Vendemmia tardiva or late harvest defines wines from grapes left to ripen fully on the vine Vigna or vigneto - Vineyard. Vigna may be used under DOC/DOCG for approved single-vineyard wines. Vignaiolo/Viticoltore - Terms for grape grower. Vino da tavola - Table wine, applies loosely to most non-DOC or IGT classified wine Vino novello - New wine, usually red, that must be bottled and sold within the year of harvest Vitigno - Vine or grape variety Vivace - Lively, as in lightly bubbly wines


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Index of DOCG, DOC and IGT wines

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DOCG Albana di Romagna Asti (Asti Spumanti, Moscato d’Asti) Barbaresco Bardolino Superiore (Classico) Barolo Brachetto d’Acqui Brunello di Montalcino Carmignano Cerasuolo di Vittoria (Classico) Chianti (Colli Aretini, Colli Fiorentini, Colli Senesi, Colline Pisane, Montalbano, Montespertoli, Rufina) Chianti Classico Conero Dolcetto di Dogliani Superiore or Dogliani Fiano di Avellino Franciacorta Gattinara Gavi or Cortese di Gavi Ghemme Greco di Tufo Montefalco Sagrantino or Sagrantino di Montefalco Montepulciano d’Abruzzo Colline Teramane Ramandolo (Classico) Recioto di Soave (Classico) Roero and Roero Arneis Sforzato di Valtellina or Sfursat di Valtellina Soave Superiore Taurasi Torgiano Rosso Riserva Valtellina Superiore (Grumello, Inferno, Sassella, Valgella) Vermentino di Gallura Vernaccia di San Gimignano Vernaccia di Serrapetrona Vino Nobile di Montepulciano

Emilia-Romagna Piedmont Piedmont Veneto Piedmont Piedmont Tuscany Tuscany Sicily Tuscany

65 78 78 91 78 78 55 55 15 55

Tuscany Marches Piedmont Campania Lombardy Piedmont Piedmont Piedmont Campania Umbria

55 49 78 33 75 78 78 78 33 51

Abruzzi Friuli-Venezia Giulia Veneto Piedmont Lombardy Veneto Campania Umbria Lombardy

45 96 91 78 75 91 33 51 75

Sardinia Tuscany Marches Tuscany

19 55 49 55

DOC Aglianico del Taburno Aglianico del Vulture Albugnano Alcamo Aleatico di Gradoli Aleatico di Puglia Alezio Alghero Alta Langa Alto Adige (Colli di Bolzano, Meranese di Collina, Santa Maddalena, Terlano, Valle d’Isarco, Val Venosta) Ansonica Costa dell’Argentario Aprilia Arborea Arcole Assisi Atina Aversa Bagnoli di Sopra or Bagnoli (Classico) Barbera d’Alba Barbera d’Asti Barbera del Monferrato Barco Reale di Carmignano Bardolino (Classico) Bianchello del Metauro Bianco Capena Bianco dell’Empolese Bianco della Valdinievole Bianco di Custoza Bianco di Pitigliano Bianco Pisano di San Torpè Biferno Bivongi Boca Bolgheri (Sassicaia) Bosco Eliceo

Campania Basilicata Piedmont Sicily Latium Apulia Apulia Sardinia Piedmont Trentino-Alto Adige

Tuscany Latium Sardinia Veneto Umbria Latium Campania Veneto Piedmont Piedmont Piedmont Tuscany Veneto Marches Latium Tuscany Tuscany Veneto Tuscany Tuscany Molise Calabria Piedmont Tuscany Emilia-Romagna

33 26 78 15 39 28 28 19 78 100

55 39 19 91 51 39 33 91 78 78 78 55 91 49 39 55 55 91 55 55 43 23 78 55 65


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Botticino Bramaterra Breganze Brindisi Cacc’e mmitte di Lucera Cagnina di Romagna Caldaro or Lago di Caldaro or Kalterer (Classico) Campi Flegrei Campidano di Terralba Canavese Candia dei Colli Apuani Cannonau di Sardegna (Capo Ferrato, Jerzu, Oliena or Nepente di Oliena) Capalbio Capri Capriano del Colle Carema Carignano del Sulcis Carso Castel del Monte Castel San Lorenzo Casteller Castelli Romani Cellatica Cerveteri Cesanese del Piglio or Piglio Cesanese di Affile or Affile Cesanese di Olevano Romano or Olevano Romano Cilento Cinque Terre (Costa de Sera, Costa de Campu, Costa da Posa) Cinque Terre Sciacchetrà Circeo Cirò Cisterna d’Asti Colli Albani Colli Altotiberini Colli Amerini Colli Berici Colli Bolognesi (Colline di Oliveto, Colline di Riosto, Colline Marconiane, Monte San Pietro, Serravalle, Zola Predosa)

Lombardy Piedmont Veneto Apulia Apulia Emilia-Romagna Trentino-Alto Adige Campania Sardinia Piedmont Tuscany Sardinia

75 78 91 28 28 65 100 33 19 78 55 19

Tuscany Campania Lombardy Piedmont Sardinia Friuli-Venezia Giulia Apulia Campania Trentino-Alto Adige Latium Lombardy Latium Latium Latium Latium

55 33 75 78 19 96 28 33 100 39 75 39 39 39 39

Campania Liguria

33 71

Liguria Latium Calabria Piedmont Latium Umbria Umbria Veneto Emilia-Romagna

71 39 23 78 39 51 51 91 65

Colli Bolognesi Classico Pignoletto Colli del Trasimeno or Trasimeno Colli dell’Etruria Centrale Colli della Romagna Centrale Colli della Sabina Colli di Conegliano Colli di Faenza Colli di Imola Colli di Luni Colli di Parma Colli di Rimini Colli di Scandiano e di Canossa Colli Etruschi Viterbesi Colli Euganei Colli Lanuvini Colli Maceratesi Colli Martani Colli Orientali del Friuli (Cialla, Rosazzo) Colli Perugini Colli Pesaresi Colli Piacentini (Gutturnio, Monterosso Val d’Arda, Trebbianino Val Trebbia) Colli Tortonesi Collina Torinese Colline di Levanto Colline Lucchesi Colline Novaresi Colline Saluzzesi Collio Goriziano or Collio Conegliano Valdobbiadene or Conegliano or Valdobbiadene Contea di Sclafani Contessa Entellina Controguerra Copertino Cori Cortese dell’Alto Monferrato Corti Benedettine del Padovano Cortona Costa d’Amalfi (Furore, Ravello, Tramonti) Coste della Sesia Delia Nivolelli

Emilia-Romagna Umbria Tuscany Emilia-Romagna Latium Veneto Emilia-Romagna Emilia-Romagna Liguria Tuscany Emilia-Romagna Emilia-Romagna Emilia-Romagna Latium Veneto Latium Marches Umbria Friuli-Venezia Giulia Umbria Marches Emilia-Romagna

65 51 55 65 39 91 65 65 71 55 65 65 65 39 91 39 49 51 96 51 49 65

Piedmont Piedmont Liguria Tuscany Piedmont Piedmont Friuli-Venezia Giulia Veneto

78 78 71 55 78 78 96 91

Sicily Sicily Abruzzi Apulia Latium Piedmont Veneto Tuscany Campania Piedmont Sicily

15 15 45 28 39 78 91 55 33 78 15

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Dolcetto d’Acqui Dolcetto d’Alba Dolcetto d’Asti Dolcetto delle Langhe Monregalesi Dolcetto di Diano d’Alba or Diano d’Alba Dolcetto di Ovada Donnici Elba Eloro Erbaluce di Caluso or Caluso Erice Esino Est! Est!! Est!!! di Montefiascone Etna Falerio dei Colli Ascolani Falerno del Massico Fara Faro Frascati Freisa d’Asti Freisa di Chieri Friuli Annia Friuli Aquileia Friuli Grave Friuli Isonzo or Isonzo del Friuli Friuli Latisana Gabiano Galatina Galluccio Gambellara (Classico) Garda Bresciano or Riviera del Garda Bresciano Garda Classico Garda Colli Mantovani Garda Genazzano Gioia del Colle Girò di Cagliari Golfo del Tigullio Gravina Greco di Bianco Grignolino d’Asti Grignolino del Monferrato Casalese

Piedmont Piedmont Piedmont Piedmont Piedmont Piedmont Calabria Tuscany Sicily Piedmont Sicily Marches Latium Sicily Marches Campania Piedmont Sicily Latium Piedmont Piedmont Friuli-Venezia Giulia Friuli-Venezia Giulia Friuli-Venezia Giulia Friuli-Venezia Giulia Friuli-Venezia Giulia Piedmont Apulia Campania Veneto Lombardy Lombardy Lombardy Lombardy Veneto Latium Apulia Sardinia Liguria Apulia Calabria Piedmont Piedmont

78 78 78 78 78 78 23 55 15 78 15 49 39 15 49 33 78 15 39 78 78 96 96 96 96 96 78 28 33 91 75 75 75 75 91 39 28 19 71 28 23 78 78

Guardia Sanframondi or Guardiolo I Terreni di San Severino Ischia Lacrima di Morro d’Alba Lago di Corbara Lambrusco di Sorbara Lambrusco Grasparossa di Castelvetro Lambrusco Mantovano Lambrusco Salamino di Santa Croce Lamezia Langhe Lessona Leveranno Lison-Pramaggiore Lizzano Loazzolo Locorotondo Franca Lugana Malvasia delle Lipari Malvasia di Bosa Malvasia di Cagliari Malvasia di Casorzo d’Asti or Casorzo Malvasia di Castelnuovo Don Bosco Mamertino di Milazzo Mandrolisai Marino Marsala Martina or Martina Franca Matera Matino Melissa Menfi Merlara Molise Monferrato (Casalese) Monica di Cagliari Monica di Sardegna Monreale Montecarlo Montecompatri Colonna Montecucco

Campania Marches Campania Marches Umbria Emilia-Romagna Emilia-Romagna Lombardy Emilia-Romagna Calabria Piedmont Piedmont Apulia Friuli-Venezia Giulia Veneto Apulia Piedmont Apulia Lombardy Veneto Sicily Sardinia Sardinia Piedmont Piedmont Sicily Sardinia Latium Sicily Apulia Basilicata Apulia Calabria Sicily Veneto Molise Piedmont Sardinia Sardinia Sicily Tuscany Latium Tuscany

33 49 33 49 51 65 65 75 65 23 78 78 28 96 91 28 78 28 75 91 15 19 19 78 78 15 19 39 15 28 26 28 23 15 91 43 78 19 19 15 55 39 55


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Montefalco Montello e Colli Asolani Montepulciano d’Abruzzo (Casauria or Terre di Casauria, Terre dei Vestini) Monteregio di Massa Marittima Montescudaio Monti Lessini or Lessini Morellino di Scansano Moscadello di Montalcino Moscato di Cagliari Moscato di Noto or Moscato di Noto Naturale Moscato di Pantelleria Moscato di Sardegna (Gallura, Tempio Pausania) Moscato di Siracusa Moscato di Sorso Sennori Moscato di Trani Moscato Passito di Pantelleria Nardò Nasco di Cagliari Nebbiolo d’Alba Nettuno Nuragus di Cagliari Offida Oltrepò Pavese Orcia Orta Nova Orvieto Orvieto Classico Ostuni Pagadebit di Romagna (Bertinoro) Parrina Penisola Sorrentina Pentro di Isernia Pergola Piave or Vini del Piave Piemonte Pietraviva Pinerolese Pollino Pomino Pornassio or Ormeasco di Pornassio Primitivo di Mandria

Umbria Veneto Abruzzi

51 91 45

Tuscany Tuscany Veneto Tuscany Tuscany Sardinia Sicily Sicily Sardinia Sicily Sardinia Apulia Sicily Apulia Sardinia Piedmont Latium Sardinia Marches Lombardy Tuscany Apulia Latium Umbria Umbria Apulia Emilia-Romagna Tuscany Campania Molise Marches Veneto Piedmont Tuscany Piedmont Calabria Tuscany Lombardy Apulia

55 55 91 55 55 19 15 15 19 15 19 28 15 28 19 78 39 19 49 75 55 28 39 51 51 28 65 55 33 43 49 91 78 55 78 23 55 75 28

Recioto della Valpolicella (Classico, Valpantena) Reno Riesi Riviera del Brenta Riviera Ligure di Ponente (Albenga, Finale, Riviera dei Fiori) Romagna Albana Spumante Rossese di Dolceacqua or Dolceacqua Rosso Barletta Rosso Canosa Rosso Conero Rosso di Cerignola Rosso di Montalcino Rosso di Montepulciano Rosso Orvietano or Orvietano Rosso Rosso Piceno Rubino di Cantavenna Ruchè di Castagnole Monferrato Salaparuta Salice Talentino Sambuca di Sicilia San Colombano al Lambro San Gimignano San Martino della Battaglia San Severo San Vito di Luzzi Sangiovese di Romagna Sannio Sant’Agata de’ Goti Sant’Anna di Isola Capo Rizzuto Sant’Antimo Santa Margherita di Belice Sardegna Semidano (Mogoro) Savuto Scavigna Sciacca Sizzano Soave (Classico) Solopaca Sorni Sovana Squinzano

Veneto Emilia-Romagna Sicily Veneto Liguria Emilia-Romagna Liguria Apulia Apulia Marches Apulia Tuscany Tuscany Umbria Marches Piedmont Piedmont Sicily Apulia Sicily Lombardy Tuscany Lombardy Veneto Apulia Calabria Emilia-Romagna Campania Campania Calabria Tuscany Sicily Sardinia Calabria Calabria Sicily Piedmont Veneto Campania Trentino-Alto Adige Tuscany Apulia

91 65 15 91 71 65 71 28 28 49 28 55 55 51 49 78 78 15 28 15 75 55 75 91 28 23 65 33 33 23 55 15 19 23 23 15 78 91 33 100 55 28

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Taburno Tarquinia Teroldego Rotaliano Terratico di Bibbona Terre dell’Alta Val d’Agri Terre di Franciacorta Torgiano Trebbiano d’Abruzzo Trebbiano di Romagna Trentino (Sorni) Trento Val d’Arbia Val di Cornia (Campiglia Marittima, Piombino, San Vincenzo, Suvereto) Val Polcevera Valcalepio Valdadige Veneto Valdadige/Etschtaler Valdichiana Valle d’Aosta o Vallée d’Aoste Valpolicella (Classico, Valpantena, Amarone della Valpolicella) Valsusa Valtellina Rosso or Rosso di Valtellina Velletri Verbicaro Verdicchio dei Castelli di Jesi (Classico) Verdicchio di Matelica Verduno Pelaverga or Verduno Vermentino di Sardegna Vernaccia di Oristano Vesuvio Vicenza Vignanello Vin Santo del Chianti (Colli Aretini, Colli Fiorentini, Colli Senesi, Colline Pisane, Montalbano, Montespertoli, Rufina) Vin Santo del Chianti Classico Vin Santo di Montepulciano Vittoria Zagarolo

Campania Latium Trentino-Alto Adige Tuscany Basilicata Lombardy Umbria Abruzzi Emilia-Romagna Trentino-Alto Adige Trentino-Alto Adige Tuscany Tuscany

33 39 100 55 26 75 51 45 65 100 100 55 55

Liguria Lombardy Trentino-Alto Adige 91 Trentino-Alto Adige Tuscany Valle d’Aosta Veneto

71 75 100 100 55 85 91

Piedmont Lombardy Latium Calabria Marches Marches Piedmont Sardinia Sardinia Campania Veneto Latium Tuscany

78 75 39 23 49 49 78 19 19 33 91 39 55

Tuscany Tuscany Sicily Latium

55 55 15 39

IGT Allerona Alta Valle della Greve Alto Livenza Alto Livenza Alto Mincio Alto Tirino Arghillà Atesino delle Venezie Barbagia Basilicata Benaco Bresciano Beneventano Bergamasca Bettona Bianco di Castelfranco Emilia Calabria Camarro Campania Cannara Civitella d’Agliano Colli Aprutini Colli Cimini Colli del Limbara Colli del Sangro Colli della Toscana Centrale Colli di Salerno Colli Ericini Colli Trevigiani Collina del Milanese Colline del Genovesato Colline Frentane Colline Pescaresi Colline Savonesi Colline Teatine Condoleo Conselvano Costa Viola Daunia Del Vastese or Histonium Dugenta Emilia or dell’Emilia Epomeo

Marches Tuscany Friuli-Venezia Giulia Veneto Lombardy Abruzzi Calabria Trentino-Alto Adige Sardinia Basilicata Lombardy Campania Lombardy Marches Emilia-Romagna Calabria Sardinia Campania Marches Latium Abruzzi Latium Sardinia Abruzzi Tuscany Campania Sicily Veneto Lombardy Liguria Abruzzi Abruzzi Liguria Abruzzi Calabria Veneto Calabria Apulia Abruzzi Campania Emilia-Romagna Campania

49 55 96 91 75 45 23 100 19 26 75 33 75 49 65 23 19 33 49 39 45 39 19 45 55 33 15 91 75 71 45 45 71 45 23 91 23 28 45 33 65 33


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Esaro Fontana del Taro Fontanarossa di Cerda ForlĂŹ Frusinante Golfo dei Poeti La Spezia or Golfo dei Poeti Grottino di Roccanova Irpinia Isola dei Nuraghi Lazio Lipuda Locride Mantova or Provincia di Mantova Marca Trevigiana Marche Maremma Toscana Marmilla Mitterberg or Mitterberg tra Cauria e Tel Modena or Provincia di Modena Montecastelli Montenetto di Brescia Murgia Narni Nettuno Nuoro or Provincia di Nuoro Nurra Ogliastra Osco or Terre degli Osci Paestum Palizzi Parteolla Pavia or Provincia di Pavia Pellaro Planargia Pompeiano Puglia Quistello Ravenna Roccamonfina Romangia Ronchi di Brescia Rotae Rubicone

Calabria Emilia-Romagna Sicily Emilia-Romagna Latium Liguria Basilicata Campania Sardinia Latium Calabria Calabria Lombardy Veneto Marches Tuscany Sardinia Trentino-Alto Adige Emilia-Romagna Tuscany Lombardy Apulia Marches Latium Sardinia Sardinia Sardinia Molise Campania Calabria Sardinia Lombardy Calabria Sardinia Campania Apulia Lombardy Emilia-Romagna Campania Sardinia Lombardy Molise Emilia-Romagna

23 65 15 65 39 71 26 33 19 39 23 23 75 91 49 55 19 100 65 55 75 28 49 39 19 19 19 43 33 23 19 75 23 19 33 28 75 65 33 19 75 43 65

Sabbioneta Salemi Salento Salina Scilla Sebino Sibiola Sicilia Sillaro or Bianco di Sillaro Spello Tarantino Terrazze Retiche di Sondrio Terre del Volturno Terre di Chieti Terre di Veleja Tharros Toscana or Toscano Trexenta Umbria Val di Magra Val di Neto Val Tidone Valdamato Vallagarina Valle Belice Valle d’Itria Valle del Crati Valle del Tirso Valle Peligna Valli di Porto Pino Veneto Veneto Orientale Venezia Giulia Venezie or delle Venezie

Veronese or Provincia di Verona Vigneti delle Dolomiti

Lombardy Sicily Apulia Sicily Calabria Lombardy Sardinia Sicily Emilia-Romagna Marches Apulia Lombardy Campania Abruzzi Emilia-Romagna Sardinia Tuscany Sardinia Marches Tuscany Calabria Emilia-Romagna Calabria Trentino-Alto Adige Veneto Sicily Apulia Calabria Sardinia Abruzzi Sardinia Veneto Veneto Friuli-Venezia Giulia Friuli-Venezia Giulia Trentino-Alto Adige Veneto Veneto Trentino-Alto Adige Veneto

75 15 28 15 23 75 19 15 65 49 28 75 33 45 65 19 55 19 49 55 23 65 23 100 91 15 28 23 19 45 19 91 91 96 96 100 91 91 100 91

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About the author:

Burton Anderson, a native of Minnesota, is an internationally acclaimed authority on Italian wine. A former editor of the Interna120

tional Herald Tribune in Paris, he has lived in Tuscany for nearly 30 years writing about Italian wine, food and travel. He was awarded the “Targa d’onore e di merito” of the Italian Sommeliers Association as “the Italian wine personality most followed and credited abroad” and the “Gran Medaglia d'Argento di Cangrande”.

Other books include: Burton Anderson’s Best Italian Wines Diane Publishing Co. (2004) Wines of Italy (pocket guide) Mitchell Beazley (2004) The Wine Atlas of Italy Mitchell Beazley (1999) Franciacorta, Italy’s Sanctuary of Sparkling Wine Giorgio Mondadori (1999) Vino, the Wines & Winemakers of Italy Atlantic-Little Brown Books (1980)


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Other references on Italian wine: Other sources recommended for reference or reading include: Barolo to Valpolicella, the Wines of Northern Italy by Nicolas Belfrage, Mitchell Beazley (2004) Brunello to Zibibbo, the Wines of Tuscany, Central and Southern Italy by Nicolas Belfrage Mitchell Beazley (2003) Italian Wines 2006 Gambero Rosso (2006) Italian Wines for Dummies by Mary Ewing-Mulligan and Ed McCarthy, For Dummies (2001) The World Atlas of Wine by Hugh Johnson and Jancis Robinson, Barnes & Noble (2003)

121

The Oxford Companion to Wine by Jancis Robinson (Editor), Oxford University USA (2006) Vino Italiano: the Regional Wines of Italy by Joseph Bastianich & David Lynch, Clarkson Potter (2005) Wines of Italy: Il Gusto Italiano del Vino by Patricia Guy, Tide-Mark Press (2003)

Get the latest updates and most current list of wine appellations online at:

www.ItalianMade.com


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The Wines of Italy

The Italian Trade Commission Published by: 33 East 67th Street - New York, NY 10065 8th Edition

Š 2006 Italian Trade Commission

A N

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A D V E N T U R E

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T A S T E

The Wines of Italy

The wines of Italy  

Overview of Italian wines

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