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Spotlight on Nicaragua and SDA for Sustainability, Education, and Preventive Health through nutrition Abroad (SEPHA 2013) by Doris Delgado ••• NESTLED BETWEEN EL SALVADOR AND HONDURAS LIES NICARAGUA, ONE OF THE MOST IMPOVERISHED NATIONS IN CENTRAL AMERICA. It has borders that touch both the Caribbean and the Pacific Ocean while also housing Lago de Nicaragua, the largest freshwater body in Central America. Even though the country has access to both freshwater and seawater, as

well as lush fer tile land, Nicaragua’s three macro-regions (Pacific, Central, and Atlantic) suffer from varying degrees of public health and nutritional insecurity. T h e Wo r l d H e a l t h Organization acknowledges that Nicaragua has become one of the poorest countries in Central America. According to the World Health Organization (WHONicaragua, 2006), some, if not most, of the country’s problems can be attributed to the 1990

SDA’s National Nutrition Month celebration took place on March 6th and encouraged everyone to “Eat Right, Your Way, Every Day.” It was a huge success thanks to all of the wonderful SDA members who took part! Check out p. 11 to see pictures from our event!

governmental transition from the Sandinista government to a conservative Republic power. Since this transition, the central region and rural areas of the country (a largely agriculturalbased economy) have seen a d e c l i n e i n p ro s p e r i t y a n d Continued on p. 4

Want to learn about ways you can get involved with the SDA?

Editors: Nancy Sidnam

Visit our website:

Carmen Cortez Assistant Editor: Kathryn Strickland




A message from the departing SDA president

p. 1 Spotlight on Nicaragua and SDA for Sustainability, Education, and Preventive Health through nutrition Abroad (SEPHA 2013)

p. 3 Have you visited the garden yet?

p. 6 Cashew: the sound of a nut sneezing

p. 7 “American Meat” film screening pictures

p. 8 Pre-Race Day Nutrition Strategies for Endurance Athletes

p. 11 National Nutrition Month pictures

p. 12 A Review of “Tapped”

p. 13 Ayurvedic Spices and Herbs p. 14 A Cup of Joe: an Ounce of Prevention for Type 2 Diabetes

p. 16 Spice Up Your Fitness Routine This Summer Season!

p. 17 “Meet and Greet” Event

There is an African Proverb that states, “If

you want to go fast, go alone. If you want to go

far, go together.”

As I write this and contemplate what it

means, I can’t help but think of all of the

changes and accomplishments that happen

when we pull together as an organization. And it

is because of you, the members, that this year’s Executive Board was inspired to

work hard in continuing to grow and improve our organization to provide the best opportunities and experiences possible for our members.

From building, planting, and

opening a student garden on campus to fighting for bike lanes and lactation rooms for student mothers, working with the University Club to serve healthy breakfast, raising almost

$6,000 to send seven of our members to run a nutrition intervention in Central America,

and of course to successfully bringing new and existing programs and events to the campus

community, there is no doubt in my mind that the SDA came together this year to move


I hope that you all continue to be change agents, health and nutrition advocates, and

active members on our campus and in our community.

I thank all of you for your

dedication, time and effort in making the SDA the most active organization on campus this

year. It has been a pleasure to serve as your president, and I look forward to hearing of the

great accomplishments that will no doubt accompany the 2013-2014 year. Best Wishes, Doris Delgado President

CSULA SDA 2012-2013

“Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food.” -Hippocrates


Have you visited the garden yet? CSULA has a new garden on campus thanks to the joint efforts of Associated Students, Inc. (A.S.I) and the Student Dietetic Association (SDA). During spring break, numerous volunteers helped to clean up and clear out the area beside the green house near La Kretz Hall, and the opening ceremony was held on April 17. The plots hold herbs, various types of lettuce, an apple tree, an avocado tree and much more. The art department is also in the process of decorating a bench for the garden. Starting this fall, students will be able to pick produce from the garden on a first-come first-serve basis. A waiver must be signed with the Environmental Policy Committee (EPC) to have access to the produce in the garden. More details about this wonderful opportunity to come later... The opening of the garden is just the beginning, and there are many plans in the works for the future. Some ideas that are being considered include using the produce for a student salad bar or for sandwiches and salads at

Dolcini Cafe; allowing biology classes to use the garden for their research projects, where maybe they have a plot to grow produce and observe the pests that the produce attracts, what type of repellant would ward away pests, or anything else that they are studying; and developing a hydroponics system, where plants are grown in mineral water without any soil, increasing the garden’s produce yield. If you have not yet visited the garden, be sure to stop by soon! It is open Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays from sunup to sundown. And if you’re feeling stressed or just need a place to relax, the garden offers peace and solitude where you can escape to eat your lunch, study, or even set up a yoga mat and mediate. If anyone is interested in helping to maintain the garden during the school year, please contact Maja Broz at (626) 200-5136. - Kathryn Strickland

Spotlight on Nicaragua, continued from p. 1

accessibility to health, thus impacting the overall health indicator statistics for the nation as a whole. Further studies and statistics are needed in order to elucidate a local, sustainable intervention from globally developed nations. Nicaragua continues to struggle in the fight towards becoming a developed country, with nearly 49% of its 5.8 million inhabitants living below the national poverty line, and 64% of them residing in rural areas (World Bank, 2011). The maternal mortality rate per 100,000 live births is 88.2 (Ministry of Health of Nicaragua, 2003), the mortality rate for children under age five is 45 per 1,000 live births (WHO, 2012), and the infant mortality rate is 23 per 1,000 live births (UNICEF, 2010). In 2010, the country had a 1.9% GDP per capita growth rate, allowing the World Bank to categorize the country as a lower-middle income developing country. Nicaragua’s adult literacy rate of 79% and unemployment rate of 5% are comparable to America’s literacy rate of 98.9% and its unemployment rate of 4.6% for the year 2007. Nicaragua still has a high poverty rate in rural areas, but its fertility rate of 2.6 total births per woman and birth rate of 23 per 1,000 people are also comparable to America’s rate of 2.1 total births per woman and birth rate of 14 births per 1000 people. It also has a 72% contraceptive prevalence (CP) among women ages 15-49 and total life expectancy of 74 years, as compared to America’s 79% CP and life expectancy of 78 years. In 2010, the World Bank declared a death rate of 5 per 100,000 in Nicaragua, as compared to 8 per 100,000 in the United States. Although certain health factors of the country have progressed, Nicaragua still remains one of the poorest countries in all of Latin America. The main factors contributing to its high poverty rate can be attributed to low literacy rates in the rural agricultural regions of the country, lack of highway and road infrastructure providing accessibility to education and healthcare, and lack of higher salary employment. This adds to the increasing rate of poverty among the agrarian and indigenous communities in the nation, which blocks the progress and health status of the Nicaraguan citizens as a whole.

Leading causes of death in developing and lower-developed countries tend to be from diseases of an infectious nature. According to the Foundation for Sustainable Development (FSD), Nicaragua’s health disparities and causes of morbidity and mortality are due to poverty, a disorganized health system, and geographic positioning. Infant mortality has been found to be mostly attributed to infectious diseases such as respiratory, diarrhea, meningitis, and malnutrition. Communicable diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS have increasingly plagued the poor rural and indigenous areas. In addition to the incidence of infectious diseases, the prevalence of noncommunicable diseases has placed a double burden on the Central American country. Cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer are among the highest morbidity and mortality rates that the Nicaraguan people are currently facing. Further studies and reviews are needed to determine the causative agents of the double burden that Nicaragua currently faces. Climate and weather play an important role in the food systems of all global inhabitants. For thousands of years the human race has relied on climate, weather, and seasonal predictability to hunt, harvest, and live. Nicaragua has become one of the countries most affected by climate change. Nicaragua’s agrarian population has increasingly faced hardships in harvesting and planting what were once national crops, such as rice. Due to the unpredictable seasonal changes attributed to global warming, the poorest segment of the Nicaraguan population (which happens to be the agrarian and indigenous citizens) is becoming increasingly marginalized. According to eSciencenews.com, such is the devastation of their crops that Nicaragua has become the 3rd leading country affected by climate change, which has led to the subsequent increase in malnutrition and poverty. Now more than ever, it is the great responsibility of the developed countries to work towards reducing the easily remedied causative agents of climate change if an intervention at both a local and global level is to be obtained. In the meantime, I look forward to this trip, which will be sending seven of our nutrition students to Limon, Nicaragua to bring the mothers and children of the rural region nutrition, lactation, food safety, and diabetes education. My goal with this project was to aid


Continued on p. 5

Spotlight on Nicaragua, continued from p. 4


nutrition students by expanding their community nutrition experience from a local perspective to a global perspective, while also helping a developing country in Latin America through nutrition education. Words cannot express how ecstatic I am about the project, and how happy I will be once there. It will represent the accomplishment of a dream I dreamt up and the hard work and dedication put forth to achieve it. My only hope is that I have the strength to come back to the United States after being touched by such a humbling experience.

SDA Volunteer Database Looking for a place to volunteer, but don’t know where to go? Well look no further! We are putting together a comprehensive volunteer database that will include places you can volunteer at for community nutrition and food service experience.  The goal is to include locations both inside and outside the Los Angeles area so that it benefits as many students as possible.  Volunteering is a great resume booster and can help you network with other registered dietitians or health professionals.  

References Environmental Protection Agency. (2010). International Impacts & Adaptation: Climate Impacts on Global Issues. Retrieved from http:// www.epa.gov/climatechange/impacts-adaptation/ international.html e! Science News. (2008). Nicaragua 'among those more affected by climate change'.  Retrieved from http://esciencenews.com/sources/scidev/ 2008/12/18/ nicaragua.among.those.more.affected.climate.change

This project cannot come together without your help. If you have volunteered recently, consider providing us with information about the places you have volunteered at.   Please send any pertinent info, such as: name and location, contact information, minimum length of time to volunteer, number of volunteers accepted, orientation and/or background check required, any other languages required, and whether undergraduate and/or graduate students are accepted.  

Foundation for Sustainable Development. (2012). Child and Maternal Health Issues in Nicaragua. Retrieved from http://www.fsdinternational.org/ country/nicaragua/healthissues Oxfam International.(2012).On the Frontlines of Climate Change - Nicaragua's Miskitos People. Retrieved from http://www.oxfam.org/en/ programs/development/camexca/nicaragua-miskitos PAHO Basic Health Indicator Data Base. (n.d.) Health situation analysis and trends summary. Retrieved from http://www.paho.org/english/dd/ais/ cp_558.htm

Please contact Sam or Kathryn: Sam Karim kingsamantha@yahoo.co.uk (323) 371-0955

Unicef. (2010). At a Glance: Nicaragua. Retrieved from http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/ nicaragua_statistics.html

Kathryn Strickland kathryn.strickland@sbcglobal.net (805) 915-7290 5

cash  ew: by  Minh  Nguyen

The Sound  of  a  Nut  Sneezing.

The cashew  is  a  mysterious  liKle  nut.  To  be  correct,  it  is  actually  the  seed  of  the   plant  Anacardium  occidentale,  which  is  also  related  to  pistachios,  mangoes,  and   poison  ivy. “POISON  IVY??”    Yes,  poison  ivy. In  fact,  this  “nut”  is  encased  in  a  shell  containing  the  same  exact  chemical,   urushiol,  found  in  poison  ivy  plants,  which  can  cause  burning  and  itching  upon   contact.    Talk  about  close  cousins.    Lucky  for  us,  we  can  purchase  these  tasty  morsels  already  shelled  and  ready   for  snacking.    No  poison  aKached. The  top  of  the  cashew  is  called  the  “apple”  or  “fruit.”    It  is  fleshy  and  edible,  and  can  be  described  as  tas1ng   like  a  hybrid  between  mango  and  raw  green  pepper,  with  just  a  touch  of  grapefruit  citrus.  Quite  a  sensory   overload!  Unfortunately,  the  fruit  does  not  transport  well  due  to  its  fragile  exterior  surface.  But  if  you  happen   to  be  in  Central  America  (where  it  is  na1ve  to),  you  may  be  able  to  enjoy  this  exo1c  fruit.  It  can  also  be  found  in   many  other  parts  of  the  world,  including  India,  Vietnam,  and  Brazil  to  name  a  few. This  “nut”  is  high  in  monounsaturated  fats  (which  promote  cardiovascular  health)  and  is  packed  with  essen1al   minerals,  including  iron,  zinc,  copper,  magnesium,  phosphorus,  and  manganese.  It  can  be  enjoyed  in  numerous   ways:  whole,  tossed  in  curries  or  s1r  fries,  as  cashew  buKer,  and  my  current  discovery...cashew  milk! So  do  not  be  a  stranger  to  cashews.  The  next  1me  you  see  one,  say  “BLESS  YOU!”

Cashew Milk Makes  3.5  cups

A delicious  milk  alterna1 ve,  this   cashew  milk  is  creamy   and  heavenly.   The  dried  date  and  cinn amon  add  a   hint  of  natural  sweetne ss,  while  the   pinch  of  sea  salt  round s  out  the   flavors.  You  can  soak  the  cashews   overnight  to  so>en  for   smoother   blending,  but  I  some1m es  skip  that   step  because  I  want  to   drink  it  NOW.     I  do  not  bother  straining  the  finished   product  because  I  paid  good  money   for  these  raw  organic  c ashews!    The   slight  texture  adds  an  a r1san  flair.

Ingredients 1 cup  raw  cashews 3  cups  water 1  dried  date  (pi1ed) 1  tsp  ground  cinnamon Pinch  of  sea  salt Direc,ons 1. Toss  everything  in  the  blender.     Blend  for  2-­‐3  minutes  u nBl   smooth. 2. Serve  chilled.  Enjoy!

“AMERICAN MEAT” FILM SCREENING On January 31st, the SDA and FST took part in the “American Meat” film festival to celebrate the release of the documentary film. A screening of the film was held on campus, and it was followed by a discussion and Q&A session with several panelists, including the film’s director, Graham Meriwether, and CSULA’s very own Dr. Mangalassary. Many thanks to everyone who supported and took part in this event!


Pre-Race Day Nutrition Strategies for Endurance Athletes by Celez Suratos ••• ON SEPTEMBER 8, 2012, I PARTICIPATED IN MY FIRST OLYMPIC DISTANCE TRIATHLON AFTER APPROXIMATELY THREE MONTHS OF TRAINING. A S A G R A D UAT E S T U D E N T S T U DY I N G NUTRITIONAL SCIENCE, I WAS PARTICULARLY INTERESTED IN HOW TO MAKE DIETARY ADJUSTMENTS IN ORDER TO MEET MY CALORIC AND NUTRITIONAL NEEDS FOR INCREASED ENERGY LEVELS DURING TRAINING. Due to my inexperience, my method of meeting such needs were based more on trial and error, when I could have consulted credible resources and experienced triathletes. After reading a considerable amount of literature, I discovered basic strategies any endurance athlete can easily follow in order to perform at their peak. Nutrition considerations should be a priority for anyone who participates in endurance sports. Examples of endurance events include, but are not limited to, running (e.g. marathons), cycling, longdistance swimming, and the combination of all three sports – a triathlon (sprint, Olympic, and Ironman distances). Such events can last anywhere from two to fourteen hours. The endurance athlete should be aware of energy requirements due to exercise demands, short recovery periods during training, and the longevity of race day events. Moreover, gastrointestinal discomfort often occurs with endurance sports. As such, nutrition plays a key role in getting the proper types of fuel at the appropriate time and contributes to performance, the prevention of fatigue, and overall health of the endurance athlete.

between training or low-intensity training regimens may have lower caloric needs compared to the more competitive or elite athlete’s training intensity. Daily total energy/caloric needs are best estimated using the resting energy equation shown in Table 1, then multiplying this figure by the appropriate activity factor, as further described in Table 2. Table 1: Resting Energy Expenditure (REE) calculations based on gender, age, and activity factor (AF)

Gender & Age



Males, REE = (15.3 x BW) + 679 1.6–2.4 18–30 years Males, REE = (11.6 x BW) + 879 1.6–2.4 30–60 years Females, REE = (14.7 x BW) + 496 1.6–2.4 18–30 years Females, REE = (8.7 x BW) + 829 1.6–2.4 30–60 years BW = body weight in kilograms (kg) Table 2: Activity Factors (AF) for males and females

Activity Level Resting (e.g., sleeping) Sedentary: Minimal movement Light: Walking or standing (e.g., walking at 2.5-3 mph) Moderate: Light manual labor (e.g., walking 3.5-4 mph, yard work, dancing) Very Active: Full-time athletes, active military duty, hard laborers Extremely Active: Full-time athletes with daily strenuous training, construction work

AF Male

AF Female













For the endurance athlete, consuming a large number of calories each day can be burdensome. Common everyday activities such as working and sleeping, along with training, can interfere with time to prepare food and eat it. There is also the issue of athletes not being able to eat beyond their satiety level. Careful and organized eating around the athlete’s daily schedule to incorporate 6-8 meals and/ or snacks per day can alleviate issues with underconsumption of calories. A few tips to add extra calories when needed include using low-fat milk in shakes and hot cereals rather than water, liquid meal replacements if consumption of solid foods cannot be

Caloric Intake Energy consumption and expenditure need attention from the endurance athlete, as consuming an insufficient amount of calories can affect performance. Although the amount of calories consumed is increased with the amount of physical activity, variability exists depending on age, gender, and the intensity of physical activity. Rest days 8

Continued on p. 9

Endurance Athletes, continued from p. 8

tolerated, and always keeping snacks on-hand.

protein intake of 1.2-1.7g/kg of BW/day. Intake should be on the higher end of this range as training intensity is increased, or for the more experienced or elite endurance athlete. Lean proteins should be incorporated into the diet and include more than just meat, poultry, and fish. Legumes, nuts, eggs, dairy, and soy products are highly desirable. Because animal sources of proteins tend to be higher in fat, the endurance athlete should be particularly mindful when using these sources to boost caloric intake. Examples of foods with at least 10g of protein and lower in fat include 6 ounces (oz) of yogurt, 2 eggs, 10 oz low-fat milk, and ½-¾ dried beans or lentils. Lean meat, skinless chicken, and fish can provide up to 40-50g of protein.

Carbohydrate Loading Carbohydrates (CHO) are needed by the body for energy, regardless of physical activity level. The dietary practice of consuming foods and beverages high in CHO prior to an endurance event to enhance performance and delay fatigue has been in practice since the technique was first researched in the 1960s. It’s been found that an endurance athlete can boost muscle glycogen, the storage form of CHO, 24 hours to 6 days prior to race day. The methods of doing so and amount of CHO consumed vary based on how many days the athlete plans to apply this technique. One day of consuming approximately 10.5 grams (g) CHO/kilograms (kg) of body weight (BW) can maximize muscle glycogen stores even after intense exercise or physical inactivity. This is ideal for endurance athletes who want to continue with usual training right before race day. One the other hand, another CHO loading technique requires 6 days of preparation. This includes consuming 50% of daily calories in the form of CHO and 5g of CHO/kg of BW/day for the first 3 days, then consuming 70% of daily calories in the form of CHO and 8g of CHO/kg of BW/day along with reduced training during the last 3 days. The endurance athlete who trains 6 consecutive days can also achieve high muscle glycogen by consuming 88% of daily calories in the form of CHO and 12.5g of CHO/kg of BW/day for all 6 days. Not all CHO are created equal, and thus more complex CHO (e.g., whole grains, vegetables, and fruits) should be consumed for sustained energy, fiber, vitamins, and minerals, rather than simple CHO (refined and/or added sugars in any form), which may supply the athlete with quick energy, but lacks high nutritional value.

Water and Electrolyte Balance Water is the largest component in the human body and contributes 45-70% of total body mass. Lean tissue, such as muscle, has a higher water content than fat tissue and contributes more to one’s body mass. The body also contains electrolytes (in water and other fluids), the majority of which are sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, and bicarbonate; each plays a major role in overall body homeostasis. It is normal for all individuals to continually lose water (via urine, sweat, and gastrointestinal tract and respiratory surfaces), but it can be easily replenished and balanced by drinking fluids and eating foods. However, dehydration, usually indicated by a water loss of >2% of body mass, is of concern for the endurance athlete, as it can hinder exercise performance. The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND) and American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) have made recommendations on hydration before and during exercise. To optimize hydration, the endurance athlete should slowly drink 14-22 oz of fluid 2 hours before exercise and 6-12 oz of fluid every 15-20 minutes as tolerated. A suggested method to assess water loss during training is to weigh oneself before and after exercise and hydrate as necessary to prevent dehydration, as previously defined. Post-exercise hydration focuses on both fluid volume and composition. Plain water is not recommended for rehydration, as electrolytes also need to be restored. Excessive plain water intake can lead to hyponatraemia, a condition occurring when there is not sufficient sodium in the bodily fluids. This

Protein Consumption Protein is multi-functional and vital, as it is responsible for the growth and maintenance of muscles and bones, regulates hormones, contributes to nitrogen balance, and provides energy. The endurance athlete should be particularly concerned with protein intake, as it is needed for muscle recovery after exercise. Protein production is increased 10-80% within the first 4-24 hours post-endurance training. The endurance athlete should consume the recommended 9

Continued on p. 10

Endurance Athletes, continued from p. 9

induces swelling of the brain and can lead to seizures, coma, and potentially death. To prevent hyponatraemia during and after exercise, plain water intake should not exceed sweat loss (as sodium is lost in sweat), and electrolyte intake from beverages and foods are recommended.

0763726575Chapter_12_Fink_Practical_Applications _in_Sports_Nutrition.pdf

Conclusion Training for endurance sports is mentally and physically arduous on the participant. Whether you are a novice like me, or more experienced, nutrition considerations should be a priority for all endurance athletes in order to increase and sustain energy and performance. For this special population, following basic caloric intake, carbohydrate, protein, and fluid balance guidelines can ensure success in crossing the finish line!

Hutmacher, R. & Haas, S. (2010, June 8). Understanding the importance of protein. Retrieved from http:// www.usatriathlon.org/abot-multisport/multisportzone/fuel-station/articles/understanding-theimportance-of-protein-060810.aspx

References Eating for endurance: what you can learn from marathoners. (2006). Tufts University health and nutrition letter, 24(2), 4-5.

Houtkooper, L. (2006). Calorie needs estimate. Retrieved from http://cals.arizona.edu/pubs/health/ az1390.pdf

Jeukendrup, A. E., Jentjens, R. L. P. G., & Moseley, L. (2005). Nutritional considerations in triathlon, 35(2), 163-181. Lanham-New, S. A., Stear, S., Shirreffs, S. M., & Collins, A. L. (2011). Sports and exercise nutrition. Ames, IA: Wiley-Blackwell. Murray, B., Stofan, J., & Eichner, E. R. (2003). Hyponatremia in athletes. Sports Science Exchange, 16(1), 1-6. Retrieved from http://www.gssiweb.com/ Article/sse-88-hyponatremia-in-athletes

Fink, H.H., Burgoon, L. A., & Mikesky, A. E. (2008). Endurance and ultra-endurance athletes. In Practical applications in sports nutrition (chapter 12). Retrieved from http://www.jblearning.com/samples/

GREAT AMERICAN BAKE SALE On February 14th, SDA hosted a Valentine’s Day bake sale to benefit Share Our Strength’s No Kid Hungry campaign. We raised over $250, which was more than double our team’s goal. Thanks to everyone who participated and donated! 10

Eat right, your way, every day National nutrition month 2013

A Review of Tapped by Celez Suratos ••• Whether you’re heading to class, work, or the gym, you most likely keep a water bottle handy at all times because you’re on the go, go, go! But when you take a swig from your disposable water bottle, you could be quenching more than just your thirst... Tapped, the 2009 documentary directed by Stephanie Soechtig and Jason Lindsey, discusses the impact that disposable plastic water bottles have on the environment, the economy, and our health. The detriment these bottles have on the environment is not a new issue; most of us know that the oil refining processes used to make plastic leaves behind a carbon footprint, and we realize that many bottles end up in landfills or the ocean rather than the recycling bin. But if those aren’t reasons enough to put the disposable plastic down, consider the implications on your health when you choose bottled water over tap water.

60-70% of the bottled water produced and purchased in the same state. The filmmakers also questioned if the chemical components of plastic bottles can leach into the water and be harmful to our health. Several different brands of bottled water were tested to answer this question:

• One group of bottled water came directly off store

shelves and was found to contain toluene, a chemical found in gasoline and paint thinners, which is linked to adverse reproductive health. • The other group of bottled water was tested after sitting in a car trunk for one week. Those bottles contained styrene, a cancer-causing agent, and phthalate, which can cause dysfunctions in a First, let’s focus on the million dollar question: is developing fetus. bottled water better for you than tap water? Consider this: And what about the chemicals BPA and PET, • 40% of bottled water is just filtered tapped water. often found in plastics? One example is PepsiCo, the company that manufactures Aquafina. After surrendering to • PET or PETE (polyethylene terephthalate) is what you will find coded at the bottom of public pressure, PepsiCo changed their bottles to individual disposable plastic water bottles. It include “public water source” on the label. When contains paraxylene, a chemical from the you purchase bottle water, you are paying for benzene family, which is known to cause cancer. something you can already get for free. • Tap water is held to health standards, constantly • BPA (bisphenol A) is a chemical associated with harder plastics, like those of large gallons of being tested and tightly regulated by the bottled water. Exposure to BPA has been linked Environment Protection Agency (EPA). For to diabetes, prostate cancer, breast cancer, example, in a city with a population of 1 million ADHD, liver disease, ovarian disease and low people, waters are tested 300 times a month, sperm count. and every city provides a water quality report accessible by the public at any time, whereas We are a busy society that depends on modern The bottled water industry is self-monitored. • day conveniences, like the ease of purchasing Manufacturers conduct their own water testing and are not required to submit reports to a bottled water whenever we are thirsty. Tapped asks us to take a step back from our hectic lives governing agency nor publish their findings. • The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and examine the bigger picture behind the bottled If you aren’t already using a oversees the regulation of bottled water only if water industry. reusable water bottle and haven’t made tap water the manufacturers participate in interstate trade. This means that the FDA has no control over the your new BFF, what are you waiting for? 12

Ayurvedic Spices and Herbs by Charlene Wang






In folk  medicine,  cumin  is  used  as  a  carmina1ve,  or  gas  reliever,  for  stomach   disorders,  diarrhea  and  colic.  In  India,  cumin  is  used  to  treat  kidney  and  bladder   stones,  chronic  diarrhea,  leprosy  and  eye  diseases.  Some  of  its  other  healing   proper1es  include  being  used  as  a  diure1c,  stomachic  agent,  s1mulant,  astringent   and  an1spasmodic.  Cumin  is  used  to  aid  in  the  development  for  lacta1on  throughout   pregnancy.  Cumin  has  also  been  proven  to  aid  in  the  treatment  of  carpal  tunnel   syndrome,  as  well  as  diges1ve  issues.   Ginger  is  a  great  remedy  for  loss  of  appe1te,  travel  sickness  and  dyspep1c   complaints.  Ginger  has  been  found  to  be  an1eme1c,  an1tumor,  an1-­‐inflammatory,   an1microbial,  an1oxidant,  an1lipid  and  also  have  cardiotonic  effects.  In  folk   medicine,  ginger  is  used  as  a  carmina1ve,  expectorant  and  astringent.  In  Indian   medicine,  ginger  is  used  for  anorexia,  dyspep1c  symptoms  and  pharyngi1s.  In   Chinese  medicine,  ginger  is  used  to  treat  colds,  nausea,  vomi1ng  and  shortness  of   breath. Many  ancient  civiliza1ons  have  eaten  garlic  due  to  its  strong  healing,  an1-­‐fungal  and   an1-­‐bio1c  proper1es.  Garlic  is  used  to  treat  arteriosclerosis,  hypertension  and  raised   cholesterol  levels.  In  folk  medicine,  garlic  is  u1lized  internally  for  whooping  cough   and  gastrointes1nal  spasms.  In  Indian  medicine,  garlic  is  used  to  treat  for  bronchi1s,   cons1pa1on,  joint  pain  and  fever.  In  homeopathic  medicine,  garlic  treats   inflamma1on  of  the  upper  respiratory  tract,  diges1ve  complaints  and  muscle   rheuma1sm  in  the  lumbar  region.  Garlic-­‐derived  compounds  have  demonstrated   an1microbial  proper1es,  and  garlic  has  also  been  proven  to  have  an1neoplas1c   effects  because  of  its  ability  to  inhibit  cancer  by  interfering  with  carcinogens.  

Cilantro has  been  proven  to  have  an1bacterial  and  an1fungal  effects.  In  folk   medicine,  it  is  used  for  diges1ve  and  gastric  complaints.  In  Chinese  medicine,  cilantro   is  used  for  the  pre-­‐erup1ve  phase  of  chickenpox  and  measles,  hemorrhoids  and  rectal   prolapse.  In  India,  it  is  used  to  treat  nosebleeds,  coughs,  hemorrhoids,  scrofulous,   painful  urina1on,  edema,  bladder  complaints,  vomi1ng,  amoebic  dysentery  and   dizziness. Cinnamon  is  commonly  used  to  help  with  loss  of  appe1te  and  dyspep1c  complaints.   Folk  medicine  internal  uses  include  treatment  of  flatulence  and  exhaus1on.  Indian   medicine  uses  cinnamon  for  toothaches,  nausea  and  vomi1ng,  and  dyspepsia.  The   effects  of  cinnamon  depend  on  the  cinnamaldehyde  in  the  cinnamon  bark’s  essen1al   oil  because  it  is  an1bacterial,  fungista1c,  and  promotes  mo1lity.  The  an1microbial   effects  are  due  to  its  faKy  oils.  It  also  has  an  influence  on  blood  clo_ng.


A Cup of Joe: An Ounce of Prevention for Type 2 Diabetes by Charis Gregorio •••

catechins and anthocyanins are flavonoids that help in the maintenance of healthy brain function and protect against the formation of cancer cells and tumors by serving as an antioxidant. Ponder these benefits the next time you are sipping your favorite cup of Joe.

The Morning Coffee On a typical day in Southern California, I drive by Starbucks on a major road in Orange County and see a long line at the drive-thru as well as inside the store. These days, it seems like everyone is holding a coffee cup. Coffee is one of the most preferred beverages to consume, especially in the morning. According to statistics from the website Statistics Brain, about 30 million Americans consume coffee daily. There are also about 13,000 Starbucks stores in the United States alone. These numbers are a significant reflection of how much coffee is being consumed, utilized, and served on a regular basis. The coffee trend has been part of our culture for so long, and it is not likely to disappear any time soon. Coffee offers more than just robust, bold flavors; the caffeine found in coffee that gives people that little nudge in the morning may also have some wonderful health benefits. Recent studies have shown that moderate coffee consumption can even lower the risk for type 2 diabetes.

Coffee and Type 2 Diabetes How would you like for your cup of brewed java to be an ounce of prevention for type 2 diabetes? Well, here's some great news! Coffee, when consumed moderately, has been linked to a reduction in the risk for type 2 diabetes. In cohort studies done by both the Nurses’ Health study and the Health Professionals Follow-up study, about 74,000 women and 39,000 men were studied and observed for a little more than 20 years. The men and women who participated in the study did not have any existing conditions of type 2 diabetes before entering the study. The study was designed to observe the association between caffeine in coffee, tea, sugarsweetened beverages, and artificially sweetened beverages to type 2 diabetes. After a 20-year follow up, the results showed that coffee had a significant effect in lowering the risk of type 2 diabetes by lowering the plasma blood glucose levels in the number of participants who only consumed caffeinated coffee drinks, as compared to those who drank sugar-sweetened beverages. Another study, done on Dutch men and women, explored the effects of caffeine from coffee on insulin sensitivity and glucose absorption. These men and women were chosen randomly and were given questionnaires and surveys. During the study, the participants were asked to report the amount of coffee consumption daily. This was done using a self – administered questionnaire that allowed each participant to be able to record the number of cups consumed per day. The results showed that the mean number of cups consumed was about 0-9 cups per day. The self-administered questionnaire reported to have lower results compared to the food journal record. The mean number of cups these participants drank that affected the reduction of type 2 diabetes risk was around 2-5 cups daily. A factor to consider in this study is that not all of the participants have similar eating patterns, lifestyles, and socioeconomic backgrounds. Factors that also might have skewed

What is Coffee? It is grown mostly in tropical regions of the world from a small evergreen tree that stands approximately eight meters tall. Coffee is also known by names such as: Arabica coffee, Arabian coffee and Caffea. The part of the coffee plant that is widely used in coffee is the seed, or the coffee bean. These coffee beans go through 9 months of ripening before they can be harvested and then processed in many different ways. Coffee contains biochemical compounds that are beneficial and functional to our health. It contains primarily alkaloid caffeine, which is responsible for releasing catecholamines, the caffeine part of coffee that gives people energy. Interesting Facts About Coffee There is definitely more to coffee than just being an energy drink that helps us get through the day. Coffee contains several beneficial bioactive ingredients such as diterpene, catechins, anthocyanins, caffeic acid, and ferulic acids. The 14

Continued on p. 15

Cup of Joe, continued from p. 14

the results and might have created inaccuracies were smoking, alcohol, and poor diet. These factors were ruled out in concluding that coffee consumption directly affected the reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. After years of follow up, the results proved to be even more favorable to coffee having a glucoselowering effect in moderate consumption of 2-5 cups daily. Conclusion Coffee is more than a pastime drink, a pair to our toast, or a pick-me-upper. It is part of many of our mornings, consumed throughout the work day, and even used by college students to battle the inevitable sleepiness that comes with a long night of cramming for exams and writing papers. Coffee can also serve as a protector from oxidative stresses that occur most during those stressful days and nights. It is also one of the most preferred beverages in the world because of its flavor and health benefits. So next time you take a sip of that freshly brewed coffee, just remember that a cup of Joe can be an ounce of prevention for type 2 diabetes.

References Bhupathiraju, S., Pan, A., Malik,V., Manson, J., Willett, W.,Van Dam, R., Hu, F. 2013. Caffeinated and caffeine-free beverages and risk of type 2 diabetes. American Society for Nutrition. 97(1):155-166 Coffee Drinking Statistics. Statistic Brain. Retrieved from http://www.statisticbrain.com/coffeedrinking-statistics/. Accessed March 9, 2013. Meletis, C., Zabriskie, N., Rountree, R. (2008). Clinical Natural Medicine Handbook, 1st Ed. Mary Ann Liebert Inc. PDR for Herbal Medicines, 4th Edition. 2007. Montvale, NJ: Thomson Healthcare Inc. Starbucks. Wikipedia. Retrieved from http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Starbucks. Accessed March 9, 2013. Van Dam, R., Feskens, E. 2002. Coffee consumption and risk of type 2 Diabetes mellitus. The Lancet. Vol 360:1477-78

Congratulations to all of this year’s graduates!

Spice Up Your Fitness Routine This Summer Season! by Kim Denkhaus ••• Don’t let a busy summer schedule of work, traveling, BBQs and sunny beach days keep you from exercising! Take advantage of the season and follow these simple fitness tips to help you stay motivated and stress-free all summer long!

Eat with the Season As a healthy and environmental friendly means of supporting your local farmer, consider purchasing produce that’s in season: melons, tomatoes, corn, plums, and berries, just to name a few. Eating seasonally gives you the most flavor and nutritional value, and it is also when produce is most affordable! Visit your local farmer's market to find out what else is in season in your area.

Buddy Up When the weather turns warm, don’t be afraid to grab some friends and take your workout routine outside! Hiking, bike rides, and runs on the beach are a great way to socialize, enjoy the beautiful weather and burn calories all at the same time. Make a plan and create a weekly schedule to exercise together. Working out with friends is extremely motivating, and it forces you to hold each other accountable to those workout dates!

Pump it Up This one goes out to women especially. Ladies, don’t be afraid to lift a little iron. Weight bearing activities, such as weight-lifting, can help build and maintain bone density. This is especially important because most people reach peak bone mass, when the body naturally stops making bone, around age 30. After that point, it is important to keep a consistent fitness routine to maintain bone strength and prevent osteoporosis. Muscles fibers react to movement and resistance, so if the resistance is too light, the body will not be challenged to change. Women shouldn’t worry about gaining too much muscle because they produce less of the hormone responsible for bulking up, testosterone, than men do, so they are less likely to bulk and more likely to tone.

Little Things Make the Difference Sneak in exercise and stretching whenever you can- try taking the stairs instead of the elevator or riding your bike to work. Perform tricep dips off a chair, push-ups during commercial breaks, and calf raises while waiting in line at the grocery store. As an alternative to the daily coffee break, try ten minutes of jumping rope to rejuvenate your body and mind. As little as ten minutes of exercise a day over the course Place your health at the top of the list this of a year can have a huge impact on your overall summer season. Exercise is proven to help manage stress and decrease anxiety. Integrating fitness into health. your daily routine will help bring balance to your life. Keep your eye on the prize during these next few Work Hard, Play Hard festive months and remember that anything worth Hit the gym before that next happy hour or having takes work! weekend BBQ- it will make those indulgences taste so much sweeter. Try resistance training to rev up your metabolism. The more muscle tone you have, the more efficiently your body will burn calories. A helpful hint: the lower half of the body contains more muscle mass than the upper half of the body, making the legs and butt a great target for boosting metabolism overall. That is one of the reasons why SDA member Francesca Lucioni, SDA President the squat is called the king of all exercises! However, Doris Delgado, and be sure to work out the upper body as well. These SDA Treasurer Celez muscles are particularly important for daily functions Suratos enjoying a hike like lifting and helping maintain an upright and at Eaton Canyon for confident posture. Building muscle also contributes to SDA Stays Fit Day. joint stability, which will help prevent future injury. 16

“Meet and Greet” Event by Kathryn Strickland •••

On Friday, May 17, the Student Dietetic Association (SDA) hosted an event entitled “Meet and Greet RDs and Other Health Professionals.” About 50 students attended and eight registered dietitians participated. The format of the event could be likened to speed-dating, where students were divided into groups and spent fifteen minutes with each RD, rotating around tables throughout the morning. The eight RDs were Heather Erzen, Nina Paddock, Jessie Rosoff, Cary Kreutzer, Gabriela Rios, Mayumi Nakamura, Elissa Olson, and Victoria Buxton-Pacheco. These dietitians provided us with great advice related to entering the field of nutrition, acting professionally, and forging a successful career path.

Heather Erzen holds a Master of Science degree. She worked on a project in rural Zambia before settling down in Los Angeles and working as a relief dietitian at Huntington Hospital in Pasadena. Three years ago she accepted a job at Children’s Hospital Los Angeles. Her advice was to not be afraid of branching out into a variety of areas in the field that are of interest to you, even if they are not the typical types of jobs performed by registered dietitians. Nina Paddock received her master’s degree in Public Health and has been working with Head Start for fifteen years, where she oversees the Head Start and Early Head Start programs as a Health and Nutrition Manager. Her advice is to never forget about international nutrition, and she suggests that if you have an opportunity to go overseas, don't be afraid to take advantage of it. Jessie Rosoff holds her master’s degree as well. She completed her internship in Boston and later worked at a hospital there for several years. She now works at Children’s Hospital Los Angeles and specializes in the neonatal unit. Her advice is to be comfortable with saying, “I don’t know, let me get back to you” when you aren't sure of something, and to not be afraid of asking for help when you need it.


Cary Kreutzer holds a master’s degree in Public Health. She is currently working on completing her doctorate degree in educational leadership at the University of Southern California. She provides pediatric clinical services to many different hospitals and programs such as the Alta Med Pediatrics and Head Start. She has also taught at California State University, Northridge. Her advice is to have a plan of action for your career path and speak with confidence about that plan. She suggests having an “elevator speech” prepared about yourself that you can recite without hesitation. Gabriela Rios is completing her master’s degree this spring at California State University, Los Angeles. She is a nutrition research manager at the University of Southern California and is currently working on a national study. When it comes to running a private practice, her advice was to not shortchange yourself when you charge clients for your services. After all, you have worked hard and earned it! Mayumi Nakamura holds a master’s degree in Public Health from the University of California, Los Angeles. In the past she has worked at the LAC + USC Medical Center, and currently she works at Children’s Hospital Los Angeles in the gastroenterology division. Her advice is to be proactive and advocate for your clients in the hospital; the doctor is not the nutrition expert- you are! Elissa Olson holds her MBA and is the owner of Nutrition Solutions, a long-term care facility located in Walnut, California. From a young age she has had an entrepreneurial spirit and a will to do anything that she puts her mind to. Her advice is to keep on learning, network with other professionals, and work to become a well-rounded individual. Victoria Buxton-Pacheco received her master's degree from California State University, Los Angeles, where she also completed her internship through the Coordinated Dietetic Program. Currently, she is a part-time professor who works in the nutrition department here at CSULA. Ultimately, these dietitians reminded us to never lose sight of our goals and that we can accomplish anything by being confident and proactive in our approach. Networking through events, leadership, and volunteering is a great way to secure an internship and create contacts as we work towards what will surely be a rewarding career.

Interested in writing an article for our next issue? We’d love to


hear your ideas!





FROM THE EDITORS As another school year comes to a close, we want to congratulate the SDA on a year full of fun, growth and success. Best of luck to those who are graduating, and we will see the rest of you in the fall. Wishing everyone a happy and healthy summer! Nancy, Kathryn and Carmen

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SDA Eatatorial, Issue no. 2  

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