The Centre for Social Research and Development (CSRD)
THE MANUAL COMMUNITY CONSULTATION AND MONITORING ON THE IMPACT OF HYDROPOWER
The Centre for Social Research and Development (CSRD)
THE MANUAL COMMUNITY CONSULTATION AND MONITORING ON THE IMPACT OF HYDROPOWER
By Lam Thi Thu Suu Coordinator of the Vietnam Rivers Network (VRN) Director of the Centre for Social Research and Development (CSRD)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
SECTION 1. INTRODUCTION ................................................................
1.1. Background .................................................................................. 1.2. Concept of community and participation ......................................
1.3 The necessity and objectives of this manual ............................... 1.4 Public Consultation during the implementation process of a
hydroelectric project ..................................................................... 1.5 Knowledge, skills and behaviour for particpants in the conversation /consultation process .............................................. SECTION 2. LEGAL BASIS....................................................................
4 5 6
SECTION 3. STAGES FOR COMMUNITY TO JOIN CONSULTATION AND MONITORING OF HYDROPOWER ........................................................ 7 3.1 Contributing ideas concerning water resource planning, reservoir planning and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) .......... 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6
Public consultation in EIA report .................................................. Consultation of relocation, compensation and resettlement plans Supervision of post-resettlement issues ...................................... Monitoring on environmental issues ........................................... Managing monitoring results of environmental issues after the
existence of hydroelectric reservoirs ........................................... Appendix 1 ............................................................................................. Appendix 2 ............................................................................................. Appendix 3 ............................................................................................. Appendix 4 ............................................................................................. Appendix 5 ............................................................................................. Appendix 6 ............................................................................................. Appendix 7 .............................................................................................
7 8 10 11 19 21 22 26 27 29 31 32 33
SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background
According to the report of the Commission on Science, Technology, Environment and Government, by 2013 the whole country of Vietnam has had 113 terraced Hydroelectric power plants on some major rivers and 1,108 small hydropower plants are now being projected. In the view of sustainable development, any projects can be considered as a contribution to the general prosperity for society when it does not make life of any members of the society worse. However, the issue is difficult to apply in practice because the majority of development projects often have inequitable distribution of benefits and risk sharing. Besides positive results, studies have shown that the implementation of policies and laws related to hydropower development has had a significant impact on people's livelihoods and the environment. The results of a study by the Vietnam River Network (VRN) and its member organisations shows: - Hydropower alters the flow of rivers, causes erosion of the riverbanks plus drought and flooding in the downstream regions. - Hydropower alters the ecosystem of the river and the behavior of aquatic species, many species even cannot survive because of this. - Because of Hydropower, people have had to leave their houses and resettle. They have to face a great deal of difficulties in their livelihoods and customs in the new place, especially land and water resources which do not meet the requirements for food production and living. - Hydropower results in the loss of a large area of forest land. - People in the downstream areas of the river, in which hydroelectric power plants are located, are the most heavily affected by hydropower. According to the World Commission on Dams (WCD), people had little opportunity to contribute ideas and to participate in consultations and monitoring the problems caused by hydropower. Lack of participation of affected people and communities has made problems become more serious and has made difficulties for government administration.
Concept of community and participation
There are many concepts of community, however this manual is aimed at the community which includes the: - Commune People's Committee, - Village authority, - Socio-political organisations at village and commune levels - Plus, individuals and organisations that have been affected directly and indirectly by a project and who used to live, work and had the right to use water and land in these river basins.
TÔI ĐỀ NGHỊ THẾ NÀY
VỚ VẨN, TÔI KHÔNG ĐỒNG Ý
TÔI SẼ QUYẾT ĐỊNH VIỆC NÀY?
SỰ THAM GIA CỘNG ĐỒNG
? Ý kiến hay quá
(Source: Vũ Ngọc Long)
1.3 The necessity and objectives of this manual The development of this manual is important as it illustrates the many evidences of hydropower impacts on the environment and society. This manual was produced when state policies and guidelines were aimed at promoting the role of community participation and supervision. If this role is developed well, the community will help share in environmental management and also in the reduction of impacts for themselves and for the whole community. This handbook was designed to be easy to understand and use for: - Farmers - Groups of men and women, who have few opportunities to study - The Commune People's Committee - Village authorities - Socio-political organisations at village and commune levels The objective of this manual is to meet the terms and rules of law in Vietnam. It was produced on the basis of real experiences of the Centre for Social Research and Development (CSRD) and Vietnam River Network (VRN) in the process of working with stakeholders and the communities affected by hydropower projects in the Central region. Some examples are taken from the results of research carried out by the community with the support of CSRD. The purpose of this manual is to help communities identify opportunities and ways to participate in the process of consultation and monitoring on the impact of hydropower. Through a number of tools, guidelines and checklists, the community can perform their own role of consultation and supervision in the most effective way.
1.4 Public Consultation during the implementation process of a hydroelectric project Stage for the Dams
Tasks required by Law
- Energy in Comprehensive Plans â€“ national level. - Basin water resources in Comprehensive Plans. - Reservoir in Comprehensive Plans. - Peport on Strategic Environmental Assessment (CCP) - Public consultation
Contruction plan for the hydropower project (provincial)
- Determining the correct location for project. - Survey - Project documents, which include: ď ł Environmental Impact Assesment report (EIA). ď ł Relocation plans, compensation and resettlement assistance. - Community con siltation (communities affected, communities, the unions)
Community con siltation (communities affected, communities, the unions)
- Appraisal of the EIA - Appraisal of stratrgic environmental assessment. - Community participation in the consultation and monitoring of EIA approval process. - Public consultation for relocation plan, compensation and resettlement assistance
Public consultation for relocation plan, compensation and resettlement assistance
Conducted clearance (compensation, relocated people)
- Provide information to be the community about the plan finally carried out the project (planning, compensation and commitment to support resettlement, committed to environmental management) - Conduct compensation, resettlement assistance. - Community participation in monitoring the process of compensation, relocation and and resettlement support (veus commitments)
resettlement support (veus Build
- Community participation in the post resettlement monitoring (vs.investor commitments) - Community participation in monitoring environmental issues
- Community participation continued resettlement guardian (vs.commitments) - Community monitoring continues to participate in environmental issues
Community participation in monitoring the process of compensation, relocation and resettlement support (veus commitments)
Community participation in monitoring environmental issues Community monitoring continues to participate in environmental issues 4
1.5 Knowledge, skills and behaviour for particpants in the conversation /consultation process
Having knowledge of environmental protection law, biodiversity law, forest protection and development law, water resources law. Having knowledge of the value of our environment, river ecology, water, forests, land for economic life, culture and the spirit of people. Understanding the compensation asset measurement processes. Having desirable attitudes towards environment protection and the value of our natural environment. Understanding the central policy and decisions of local government on compensation, support in resettlement due to hydropower. Having skills to calculate the cost of environmental and social damage at family level, village level, community level and commune level. Having ability to argue and present issues to investors of hydroelectric projects and the population. Being fair-minded and always putting collective interests above personal interests. Having skills of summarization of ideas and drawing up meeting minutes (for the representative to sign and keep as record of the meeting).
SECTION 2 LEGAL BASIS
Participation of the community in consultation and monitoring hydropower projects is an important activity in environmental protection in order to exercise the rights of the community.These rights are clearly expressed in legal documents included in the Grassroots Democracy Act, the Constitution, Environmental Protection Law, Water Resources Law and circulars and decrees under this legislation (for details of the legal basis, see appendix 1). Depending on the time and stage of hydropower projects, local communities can organise to take part in the process. Communities have sufficient legal basis for the right to participate in consultation and monitoring during the following stages:
Contributing ideas concerning water resource planning, reservoir planning and about strategic environmental assessment (SEA).
Participating in consultation in the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and evaluation of the EIA report.
Consultation on relocation, compensation and resettlement
Monitoring post-resettlement issues.
Monitoring environmental issues.
SECTION 3 STAGES FOR COMMUNITY TO JOIN CONSULTATION AND MONITORING OF HYDROPOWER 3.1 Contributing ideas concerning comprehensive basin water resource planning, reservoir planning and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)
Beneficiaries and affected people
Commune’s authority and mass organisations
Commune People’s Committee
Clearly understand information concerning the reservoir Understand and be able to analyze opportunities and risks posed by the planning, compounded impacts of the reservoir system (and other projects) in the river basin Express opinion of ‘agreement or ‘disagreement’ to reservoir planning (if joining public consultation)
Understand and widely disseminate information concerning planning Create favorable conditions for diverse participation of people during public consultation Collect opinions from people who cannot join the consultation workshops Understand thoroughly and synthesize main opinions into a meeting minute Seek approval on the content of the minute before signing and submitting
Understand and widely disseminate information concerning planning Create favorable conditions for diverse range of people to participation during public consultation Collect opinions from people who cannot join the consultation workshop Understand thoroughly and synthesize main opinions into a meeting minute Consult with experts/scientists if necessary Seek approval on the content of the minute before signing and submitting
For further information on effective consultations in water resources planning, reservoir planning and strategic environment assessment (SEA), please see table in appendix 2
Public consultation in EIA report Maximum 10 working days
Investors send consultation documents, summary of the project and environmental issues and mitigation plans: - Commune Peopleâ€™s Committee (CPC). - Representatives of local communities and organizations directly affected by the project
CPC calls for a dialogue between investors and community representatives
Community written opinions (agree/ disagree with the plan of investors)
Maximum 15 working days
- The representatives should sign the record written by him / her self, or by a person from the affected communities. - The record must be read aloud and agreed by the members before being signed by the representative.
People in Environmental Issues - Observing and participating fully in the community consultation meetings. - Focussing on the key issues of the impact/ rick on the environment that might be caused by the project. - Strongly arguing for/ agreeing with the mitigation options, preventing and responding to environmental incidents that may accur due to the project. - Strongly giving opinion “agree”/ “disagree” on the project. - Other relevant cooments, information.
Associations, Social worker
- Focussing on the causes of the main aspects of the project. - Understanding the plans of relocation, compensation, support and resettlement - Consultation requirements for specific affected group. - Organising discussions for affected groups (based on issues, gender, age, career, interests). - Fully and accurately summarizing information before being signed and sent by the representative.
3.3 Consultation of relocation, compensation and resettlement plans
Supervision of post-resettlement issues
Steps of supervision
3.4.2 The process of monitoring results
Some reference tools
The first tool Drawing diagrams comparing the situation, living conditions between the former place and the new location Objective of this tool - Represents changes and differences in:
Landscape between the old residence and the new one; reflects the better aspect / or the worst aspect of re-settled people's lives and natural landscapes.
Helping people in saving documentary images of the old place and the new location.
Provide an opportunity to draw a diagram - People can work in a team or individually. -
Drawing is based on their memories and real observations.
People can draw using their own creativity and inspiration. They may utilise different perspectives.
They can use colour according to their own preference and experience.
They can use representative begends/ or symbols in the diagram. Some suggestions: How far is it from the residential areas to the forests, to the rivers and to the water sources? Which plants are there and what are the opportunities and difficulties comparing the old place and the new location?
Picture1: The illustration of Research group for indigenous knowledge in Nuoc Lang village, Phuoc Xuan commune, Phuoc Son district, Quang Nam province
The second tool This tool is to draw up the tables of area changes and soil quality types in the former and the new location (residential land, garden land, cultivated land, fishponds and farmland ) Objective of this tool: -
To reflect the differences in quality and quantity of land that served for people’s livelihood before and after the resettlement.
Through these tools people can explain the better aspects or the worst aspects of their income, food security, people’s health and environmental issues in the resettlement areas.
Direction to implement -
People directly create a table of area changes and soil quality.
Some suggested questions to create the table 1. Before the resettlement, what was the average land area of each household? What was the maximum area and the minimum one? Who had the most land? Who had the least land? Why? Which types of trees were planted? How was productivity? How was the soil quality? What were the difficulties of land use? 2. In the same way, continue to apply these questions for the situation after the relocation.
Table form (see Appendix 4)
Picture 3: Local people working as a group to produce the table of changes.
The third tool This tool is to draw up tables comparing reforestation and forest exploitation between the period of living in the former place and in the new location ďƒ˜ Objective of this tool: -
To describe the current state of exploitation, reforestation and forest products before and after the development of hydropower.
To provide evidence of the current state (rich/poor) of the forest and forest products and to give explanation for the cause of this situation.
ďƒ˜ Some suggested questions to create the table and draw pictures/diagrams 1. Before the development of hydroelectric dams, which animals or birds often lived in the forest or were hunted by villagers? Which types of trees were cut down? Which types of trees were planted in the forest? Where were the extraction and afforestation locations? What was the purpose of forest exploitation? For what reasons were plants grown and animals raised? Which tools did the farmers use to make use of the forest? 2. After the development of hydroelectric dams, how were the forest uses changed? 3. Continue with similar questions to know the method, the purpose of exploitation, reforestation and the current state of forests. Table format (see Appendix 5).
Picture 4: Locally drawn picture showing some of the areas where local people in two villages used to hunt.
The fourth tool Seasonal Calendar of livelihood activities before and after the resettlement
Objective of this tool: -
To reflect the differences between seasonal livelihood activities before and after the resettlement.
To know the difficulties/opportunities related to livelihoods over the years.
In addition, the seasonal calendar can be useful for planning to organise other activities with residents more appropriately. Some suggested questions:
1. Before resettlement, which plants were used to be grown by the villagers and at which time of the year? 2. At what time of the year do specific tasks of manufacturing operations take place?
Picture 5: Seasonal Calendar, Nuoc Lang village, Phuoc Xuan commune, Phuoc Son district Sơn, tỉnh Quảng Nam
The fifth tool A table tool describes the differences in environmental conditions and water resources between the former place and the new one
ďƒ˜ Objective of this tool -
To represent the better aspects/ the worst aspects of environment and water resources in the old place and the new location.
To analyze environmental factors, water resources, health, conditions and quality of life before and after resettlement
ďƒ˜ Some suggested questions -
Where was the source of residential water? How was residential water taken? How was the quality of water? (clean or dirty, clear or not? more or less, often or not?); How did residential water affect health issues? How was the temperature conditions inside and outside of the house in each season?
Table format (see Appendix 7).
Picture 6: Measuring well water level.
Monitoring on environmental issues
With the knowledge and local experiences, residents have enough ability to monitor issues related to the environment as follows:
3.5.1 Water Environment (measurement of water level and quality of the flow) ďƒ˜ Instructions to implement monitoring on water environment -
Using a piece of string as a measure place in a fixed position each time
Measure the water level from the bottom to the top weekly / monthly / seasonally.
Establish a fixed measurement point.
Monitor and record water levels weekly / monthly / seasonally from this same point.
Take a sample of water at the same specific position each time and observe the color and smell of the water.
Picture 5: Using a piece of string to measure the river water level place in a Duong Hoa commune.
Picture 6: Establish a fixed measurement point by local people
3.5.2 Aquatic Animals & Plants (aquatic, local underwater species) ďƒ˜ Instructions to monitor aquatic ecosystems -
Taking a sample of fish and measuring the length of it.
Taking pictures that reflects the amount of fish / state of fish in the river
Picture 9: The river in the past and now in Duc Tinh village, Dai Hong commune, Dai Loc district, Quang Nam province.
Draw a diagram showing the diversity and the density of aquatic species before and after the appearance of the dam.
Create a summary table of fluctuation of the fish and shrimp species. (See Appendix 8 for examples).
Write stories about the meaning of the fish, the shrimp for cultural life, spirituality, health of the local children, women, men and the sick. 19
3.5.3 Forests (area, types of plant, local plants) ďƒ˜ Direction to monitor forest changes. -
Observe and take photographs of the forest degradation and deforestation.
Picture 10: The home and garden area of the local people in Hai village were flooded under the Dak Mi 4C reservoir.
Create a table showing the changes in hunting and gathering of forest products before and after the appearance of dams. (Examples were shown in Appendix 9).
Write a story about the meaning of animal and plant species in the forests, especially for cultural life, spirituality and health of the local (children, women, men and the sick.
3.5.4 Alluvial consolidation and erosion ďƒ˜ Direction to monitor on alluvial changes. -
Observe and take photographs of the riverbank consolidation and erosion.
Write a story about alluvial consolidation, riverbank erosion, river stability or the changes to the river.
Picture 11 & 12: VuGia river water at the wharf 14, Dai Hong commune, Dai Loc district, Quang Nam.
3.6 Managing monitoring results of environmental issues after the existence of hydroelectric reservoirs ďƒ˜ The community can report to: -
Environment and Natural Resources Division at District and Commune levels.
Environmental Protection Branch of the Province ďƒ˜ The community can take legal action and complain
Remember Communities can seek for support and advice from non-government organisations and other civil society organisations in the process of taking part in consultation and monitoring hydroelectric power plants. APPENDICES
Appendix 1 The domestic legal basis for the participation of citizens in the process of developing and monitoring hydropower
Article 43 Constitution of 2013: Everyone has the right to live in a healthy environment and the obligation to protect the environment. Article 162, Law on environmental protection 2014 complaints and denunciations, environmental lawsuits: 1. Organisations, individuals are entitled to file of complain and lawsuit against any breach of environmental protection in accordance with the law. 2. Individuals are entitled to report any breach of environmental protection to the authorities according to the law on claims and denunciations, following: a) Causing pollution, depletion and environmental incidents; b) Infringement of the rights and interests of the State, organisations, communities, families and individuals. 3. Time limit for filing a lawsuit over environment shall begin when the aggrieved individuals detection of the damage caused by the breach of environmental protection regulations by other organisations, individuals. 4. State agencies, competent person receiving complaints and denunciations shall have to consider and resolve in accordance with the law on complaints and denunciations.
Law on water resource 2012: -
The d, Item 1 Article 16:
Assurance of publicity and involvement of local communities and related stakeholders in the planning process. -
Item 2, Article 16:
Hydropower Plan must be consistent with water resource planning.
The e, article 53: In the process of planning to organize public consultation for the beneficiaries people and potential risk to local people while to exploitation and use of water resources by the construction of the reservoir.
Item 3, article 53:
Organisations and individuals that manage and operate the reservoir are responsible maintain a minimum flow, work safety, and downstream areas, if causing damage, need to pay compensation.
Decree 29/2011 / ND-CP -
Article 7: Appraisal of strategic environmental assessment reports â€Ś. â€œWhen necessary, an agency responsible for appraising a strategic environmental assessment report shall: Consult concerned socio-political organisations, social organisations.
Article 14: There must be a public consultation process, consult the
representatives, residents and organisations directly affected by the
assessment. Results of public consultation must be presented in the profile reports environmental impact assessment submitted to the competent authority for approval..
Appendix 2 Checklist for contribution of opinion about comprehensive planning of water resources, planning and reservoir strategic environmental assessment (SEA)
Has the information on planning been widely circulated to the community and relevant organisations as well as potential risks caused by proposed plan?
Have the beneficiaries and those at risk from the proposed plan been invited to participate in consultation meetings on planning, locating the hydropower projects, or meeting the strategic environmental assessment?
Have the groups who are at risk due to the proposed plan and who are without the opportunities and conditions to participate in the meetings been consulted in their homes, or feedback sought from them?
Have women written in or attended to the list of meetings and expressed their opinions, or sent comments?
During the meeting, has a two-way communication process taken place? Have informed residents had the opportunity to respond or expressed opinions?
Have the double/cumulative effects of hydroelectric systems (and other projects) on river basins been put forward and recognized in the meeting?
Have draft reports about the meetings held to collect opinions been agreed as to potential risks before representing and signing to send?
Appendix 3 Checklist for public consultation in the EIA and appraisal of EIA No.
Public consultation in the EIA and appraisal of EIA
Was the information about the proposed hydropower projects first distributed to allow consultation?
Was information on the project and predictions concerning environmental impacts widely circulated in a form and language understand able the affected people?
Are there at least 50 per cent of disadvantaged groups, including women, informed and invited to the consultations?
Did a two-way exchange of information and dialogue process between citizens and consultation group take place?
Was report of the results from the consultation recorded by the affected community?
Was the information on social impacts raised and discussed at the meeting?1
Did those people who were at risk of suffering impacts, who were without the opportunity or conditions to attend the consultation meeting, have the right to get their opinions heard at home or via some means?
Was there consultation and dialogue between investors with other affected groups (groups of people downstream, groups of people who fish on the river, the groups of people who are dependent on forest products to live?
Has the report of the results of the consultation / dialogue been written by those consulted or the consultant?
Did the report of the results of the consultation / dialogue reflect fully and accurately the consensus, critical opinions, agreements or non-agreeing opinions?
Was report signed by representatives and did they send it to the investor within 15 days after receiving offers of consultation?
Consultation / dialogue in planning for the moving, compensation and support for resettlement
Has the information on hydropower projects and plans for relocation and resettlement been sent to a large number of people affected by the relocation, compensation and resettlement before working?
Has the announcement and content of hydropower projects and plans for relocation and resettlement been widespread in the form and language understand able to displaced people?
Did the displaced people who are resettled have the opportunity to inspect their new habitat, new lands, and the outline of the design for resettlement area plan before the consultation process?
Did the people engaging in the dialogue have the ability to calculate the extent of the effect of hydropower projects on peopleâ€™s lives and the costs at the household level, community level or village level?
Were there at least 50 per cent of disadvantaged groups, including women informed and/or invited to consult and to express their opinions?
Did the two-way exchange of information and dialogue process take place between citizens and the consultation group?
Did consultation / dialogue take place more than once for different livelihood groups?
Has the report of the results of the consultation / dialogue been written by those affected or the consultation group?
Did report of the results of the consultation / dialogue reflect fully and accurately the consensus, critical opinions, agreeing or nonagreeing opinions?
Appendix 4 The form and illustrate example to accesss changes in landscape and gardens between the host village and new location Content
Which households forest land?
What is the average area for each household? Do they hold a land title? What trees do the local people plant on forest land? How many households have productive land? What is the productive land?
Which households this land?
Why do they own much land? What are the households who own the least land and how large is this? How many household own the least land? What is the area they own? Which these?
Why do they own less land? How productive land?
Example 1 Quality assessment of afforestation land between the previous village and new location in the Nuoc Lang village, PhuocXuan commune, Phuoc Son district, Quang Nam.
What to plant?
Acacia, cinnamon, sau dau, boi loi (local name)
How good is productivity?
Plants grow well (But were not harvested because the area was buried by Dak Mi Hydropower Dam.)
The same in the previous village
Most are have not been harvested, but were planted about 2-3 years ago. They received compensation for 2000 / trees (3-4 years), and 500 / small trees (<2 years). Good or bad soil?
Flat land, high humidity, few stones in the soil, soil layer thickness > 50 cm, black soil.
Soil is stony and very poor quality, the cultivation layer about 10cm thick.
How is the farming conditions?( Far or
Close to home, from home to forest land is about 20 minutes
Far from home, 1 hour for walking from home to forest.
near the water resource, easy or hard to cultivated.)
walk (1 km), flat roads and can ride (located along the national highway 14 A).
Rough road, just is able to walk, can not travel by motorbike (road under construction).
The cost for working the land
Cost less because of good soil, without rocks.
Cost more because the soil has rocks.
Who carries out the work?
All of the village, including young and old.
Old people cannot work because of rough road, transport is too difficult
Evaluation forms change in non timber forest products (NTFPs) In the past
After the construction of hydropower dam
Species Use The place to exploited Method to exploited Cost Income Actual situation
Appendix 6 The form for the evaluation of hydropower impacts to the environment and residential water. Before the resettlement
After the resettlement
Residential water was the residential water? Where
How was residential taken/transported ?
How was the quality of water? (clean or dirty, clear or not? more or less, often or not) How does residential water affect health issues? The cost for collecting water. Air/Temperature What was the temperature conditions
inside and outside of the house in each season? How does water affect health? Habitats and landscapes Othersâ€Ś..
Appendix 7 Example illustrating the volatility of some fish on the Ta Trach reservoir and after 2013
The species disappeared
Fish species reduced more than 50%
Fish species that has normal output
Fish species that has increased
Chinh (reduced 90%)
Leo (reduced 90%)
Ca soc (reduced 70%)
Tom Da (reduced 70%)
Tom dat (reduced 60%)
Turtle (reduced 70%)
Ro phi don tinh
Lau gai (reduced 50%)
Example to illustrate for character of some fish on the Ta Trach reservoir both before and after 2013. Content Carp
- Breeding in July and August, 2 months later have seen baby fish. The fish is white colour, the fish scale is thick. Having the largest weight of up to 3kg and 60 cm. - Live at a depth of 3-10 m, usually live in areas of clean, standing water. - The main foods are found in mud and moss.
Local people catch with mesh nets. Per day per person catch two fish, the average weight is 1kg.
No longer any catch.
- Reduced 100 %. - Reason: Stagnant and polluted water, so the fish cannot survive.
The fish is black, a round body and long. This fish often lives in different environments, can live in standing and clean water. The largest fish weighing around 2kg. Their main foods are insects and small fish.
Less sick fish, caught 2-3 kg / person per day. Local people often catch by drop nets, fishing rods, electrical. This fish is sold for about 70,000 VND / kg (current prices).
- Reduced by 50 %. - Reason: Stagnant and polluted water, so the fish is sick, dead, with reduced output.
Chinh ( trac lac)
Fish round, long, slippery, black back, white belly. The largest fish weighing around 8 kg, 1,2 m. Normally fish weighs 3.5 kg, 80 cm. Their main foods are small fish and shrimp. They live in standing water, flowing water and clean water (often living in waterfall areas). Do not know where fish, spawn – locals have never seen the fish eggs (Only saw small fish like chopsticks). Often seen from the dam area, this is the waterfalls area.
Caught between September, October – March (1 kg/day/person), other months less. (0,3 kg/day/person . The local people catch with drop nets, fishing rods, electrical. This fish is sold for about 300.000 VND /kg for fish heavier than 5g; 1g – 1 kg about 200.000 VND; 600.000 VND/kg for fish <1g).
Fish disease (scabies) found in April and May. Caught 1-2 kg / person per day. Often caught by drop nets, fishing rods, electrical. Reduced 95%. People rarely catch fish, 23fish/per year, with the largest fish weighing 1kg . Now (1, 2 billion for small fish; 500.000 VND/kg for fish >1g).
- Reduced 95%. Fewer baby fish seen on the waterfalls (10 km from the dam.) - No longer the big weight. - Reason: Stagnant and pollution water
The table form for volatility of several mammal species on the Dak Mi 4 reservoirs before and after the Dak Mi 4 hydropower was built. No.
In the past
After construction of the hydropower dam
The stream in Nuoc Lang commune
The corn field
Cassavas and corn
Appearing in old mountain field: >100
Mang ( local name)
Son duong (Local name)
No longer (no road, the area of different commune)
The table form for volatility of forest products and NTFPs between the time before and after the Dak Mi 4 hydropower was built. No.
In the past Species
Has appeared been? Yes/No
Different tables can be established to describe the behavior, habitat and trends of other plants and animals typical of the local community. 35
According to the report of the Commission on Science, Technology, Environment and Government, by 2013 the whole country of Vietnam has had 1...
Published on Mar 16, 2016
According to the report of the Commission on Science, Technology, Environment and Government, by 2013 the whole country of Vietnam has had 1...