Funding Leadership and Opportunities for Women Enhancing Opportunities for Womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Enterprises A programme funded by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands Government and managed by SNV Netherlands Development Organisation
Towards feminine business & leadership: A KAP analysis of women doing business in Vietnam
Lam Thi Thu Suu, Nguyen Quy Hanh & Tran Thanh Tam August 2016
Disclaimer This report has been produced with the assistance of Lam Thi Thu Suu, Nguyen Quy Hanh and Tran Thanh Tam from the Center for Social Research and Development (CSRD). The content of this report is the sole responsibility of the Consultants and can in no way be taken to reflect the views of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands Government and SNV Netherlands Development Organisation.
This document is part of the “Enhancing Opportunities for Women’s Enterprises” programme, which is funded by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands government under the Funding Leadership and Opportunities for Women funding window (FLOW/EOWE). The research team takes this opportunity to record our sincere thanks to business women from Quang Binh, Binh Dinh, Ninh Thuan and Binh Thuan and their men who saved their busy schedules for the group discussions and actively shared their views, thoughts and feelings as well as their needs and visions. Some of them delayed several urgent calls of order in order to stay until the end of the discussions. We are also grateful to women and men who agreed to talk and tell us their personal and professional stories with failures and successes, with moments of laughs and tears, which provided the analysis with vivid examples of women running business in changing contexts. We wish to thank Women’s Unions of all three local levels for all logistical and administrative arrangements to make all meetings with local people possible and fruitful, especially those who went with us to various corners of the villages, sometimes over the lunchtime or after the normal working hours for extra interviews. They were not only good companions but also taking a good role of coresearchers. We also would like to thank SNV experts, especially Leonie and Sabdiyo for valuable guidance and comments and Nhue for lending his helping hand throughout this venture.
Table of Contents Objectives:
Disclaimer...................................................................................................................................................... ii Acknowledgement ....................................................................................................................................... iii Table of Contents ......................................................................................................................................... iv Abbreviations ................................................................................................................................................ v Introduction.................................................................................................................................................. vi Executive Summary .......................................................................................................................................ix Chapter 1: Four regions, one economy in transition ............................................................................ 1 1. The changing context of development ................................................................................................. 1 2. Four provinces....................................................................................................................................... 2 3. One economy in transition.................................................................................................................... 3 Chapter 2: Women as the lady of the house........................................................................................ 5 1. Standardised women and men ............................................................................................................. 5 2. Role of women and men in domestic life: Women as housekeepers................................................... 7 3. When men do the housework .............................................................................................................. 9 4. Women as purse-string holders ........................................................................................................... 9 5. Decision making .................................................................................................................................. 11 Chapter 3: Women doing business: Continuation and change............................................................ 12 1. Women doing business ....................................................................................................................... 12 2. The continuation of domestic “functions” .......................................................................................... 13 3. Changes ............................................................................................................................................... 14 Chapter 4: Women taking leadership: “Clean kitchen, clean house, clean village lane” ...................... 17 1. Women as leaders............................................................................................................................... 17 2. Social changes ..................................................................................................................................... 18 3. Women in social life and networking.................................................................................................. 18 Chapter 5: Conclusion and recommendations: Towards feminine business and leadership................. 20 1. Conclusions ......................................................................................................................................... 20 2. General recommendations ................................................................................................................. 21 3. Specific recommendations .................................................................................................................. 21 References ................................................................................................................................................... 23 Annex .......................................................................................................................................................... 24
Civil Society Organisations
“Enhancing Opportunities for Women’s Enterprises” Programme
Focus Group Discussions
“Funding Leadership Opportunities for Women” Programme
Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices
Women’s Economic Empowerment
Introduction Introduction to the program The “Enhancing Opportunities for Women’s Enterprises” (EOWE) is a five year programme being implemented by the Netherlands Development Organisation SNV in Kenya and Vietnam. The Programme is part of the Funding Leadership Opportunities for Women (FLOW) programme funded by the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Social Development Department (DSO). FLOW/EOWE will be implemented in collaboration with local partners in four provinces of Vietnam, including Quang Binh, Binh Dinh, Ninh Thuan and Binh Thuan, leveraging on existing projects and relationships to ensure more benefits for women. The programme aims at advancing women’s economic participation and self-reliance in Vietnam by creating a conducive environment for female entrepreneurship as a vehicle for change. It shall enhance implementation of gender sensitive policies while tackling socioeconomic barriers at local levels to improve the enabling environment for Women’s Economic Empowerment (WEE) in trade. In addition, it will support women to enter business, as well as those already in businesses, to increase their profitability and viability so as to address inequalities in the economic arena. FLOW/EOWE will build the capacity of local actors to be central pillars of this change. The programme’s objectives:
Increase capacity of government actors to implement and localise female entrepreneurship friendly policies and institutions; Increase capacity of local actors, including CSOs, to create bottom-up pressure for women’s economic empowerment and leverage existing policy frameworks to enhance the enabling environment; Challenge gender norms inhibiting women’s access to economic opportunities through behavioural change; Enhance women’s capacity and confidence to lead successful businesses.
Introduction to the research The overall objective of this survey is to establish attitudes and practices of women and men in four targeted provinces in Vietnam on economic gender equality within the household. The survey will help to get to underlying social norms that constrain women’s economic empowerment. The KAP findings will guide programme activities and recommend where the programme can be most effective in changing social norms. The key research question:
Which attitudes and prevailing social norms of target groups in four provinces in Vietnam influence economic gender equality within the household? How are those attitudes and norms currently practiced? How can these norms be shifted?
This KAP focuses on:
Contexts in which women can leverage and negotiate with their husbands How to energise and incentivise men to take part in the household (what would trigger them to be more involved in household decision-making) The role of social norms, religion and culture in the gender division of labour. How can we start to change this from being “set in stone” to something that is managed within the household? Role of other household members such as children and mothers-in-law could be explored here too.
Research methodology Together with the field survey and observation, the main method used in this research included Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews. The set-up is to have FGDs with target group women and primary male adults in households of target group women. In total, there conducted 16 FGDs (16FGDs: 2F/2M per province, 4 provinces) with 117 participants (61F/56M) in 4 districts: Quang Ninh (Quang Binh), Tuy Phuoc (Binh Dinh), Ninh Phuoc (Ninh Thuan) and Tuy Phong (Binh Thuan). In addition, a total of 38 in-depth interviews were conducted. The FGDs and interviews conducted in Phuoc Dan (Ninh Phuoc) and Phu Lac (Tuy Phong) are with Cham ethnic groups, which provided cases of matriarchy for this analysis. Detailed of methods, tools and guiding questions for FGDs and interviews are presented in Annex. Province, District
Quang Binh, Quang Ninh
Binh Dinh, Tuy Phuoc
Ninh Thuan, Ninh Phuoc
Binh Thuan, Tuy Phong
Monogendered group discussions No. Gender F M 2 10 8
In-depth interviews No. 4
Gender F M 2 2
Phuoc Dan Phu Lac
Rice milling, pig raising, agrochemical retailing, convenient stores, restaurants Rice planting, pig raising, conical hat making, bread producing, Rice selling, food store, pork selling, agrochemical retailing, karaoke shop Rice selling, construction materials, convenient stores, fabric shops, glass and aluminium stores Rice and agro-product selling, convenient stores, tailor shops Knitting, pottery Rice and onion selling, agricultural services, convenient stores Rice milling, peanut milling, convenient stores, agrochemical retailing
The research team adopted a range of participatory techniques to maximise community involvement, particularly of the targeted beneficiaries and generate different layers of participant’s meaning and understanding on such abstract issues as gender and equity. The
FGDs offered good chances for local different ideas and thinking shared, reconceived and reimagined. At the end of each province’s working period, a validation session was organised to exchange consultations with relevant stakeholders and target groups. Such sessions aimed not only to present main research findings to receive local feedbacks on information validity, but more importantly, to offer a chance for various stakeholders think about their role, commitment and involvement in working for the advancement of women in business and leadership. This KAP analysis was conducted in the same time of the Gender analysis to provide the baseline research on gender and economic development equity for the SNV’s EOWE programme. By so doing, and under the same research leader, the two studies avoided overlapping research topics while argumentations are strengthened through daily information sharing in the field. While Gender analysis tries to touch a wide range of gender issues, KAP focuses on social norms that influence women’s economic empowerment. Limitations of the research This research might face method and perspective biases. The main source of data collected for this analysis is based on qualitative methods, that is group discussions and in-depth interviews. It is however important to note that applying this more qualitative and participatory approach to KAP helps to deepen our understanding of related culture specific knowledge, causal attitudes and complex knowledge-behaviour relationship, which are frequently simplified to be measured and generalised in traditional KAP survey questionnaires (see Launiala 2009). In this research, methods triangulation was applied and sources of secondary and primary data doubly checked. Secondly, the limited number of women and men participants (n=155), who were selected based on local Women’s Union connection and their availability, in this research could hardly represent the heterogeneity of business sectors and perspectives of women doing business in four provinces, especially when matriarchy-based ethnic minority groups, the Chams were added. Very often, talking with “bigger” business persons required us to visit them at their houses or factories. Those in-depth interviews well supplemented our areas of information insufficiency, as such helped to achieve our confidence of saturation. Also, contributions of different stakeholders via validation sessions enriched our data sources and analysis. Structure of the report Apart from this Introduction, the present report is structured within five main chapters. Following Chapter 1 which present basic information about the research areas, Chapters 2 to 4 try to capture and analyse the dynamics of KAP on women in domestic life, in doing business and in taking leadership. Chapter 5 highlights main conclusions and recommendations for future development interventions.
This survey is to establish attitudes and practices of women and men in four targeted provinces in Central Vietnam on economic gender equality within the household. The analysis hold the view that the four Confucian essential characteristics of ‘industriousness, appropriate self-presentation, communication skills, and virtue’ are still relevant in defining a today’s Vietnamese feminine ideal, with a strong emphasise on women’s hard-working and painstaking qualities. It also becomes clear that women accept their roles of a homemaker, including housekeeping and moneykeeping, as women’s functions, natural bent, and ways of living. If letting the husband to do housework, the wife will not feel comfortable. Even a female director of a company manages to cook for her husband and children within her busy schedule. When women do business, they have to manage to fulfil a “huge” load of work, including housework and business. Good women leaders are supposed to harmonise family and social responsibilities. As the purse-string holders, women bear the constant but invisible pressure of allocating and balancing the family fund, frequently very limited. When doing business and loans needed, such pressures become so intense that they “feel sad when the sun goes down” because they have “work hard to pay the debts”. Unlike the common thinking of matriarchy that women have all powers in household and community issues, the Cham matrilineal society with its long co-existence and interactions with the Kinh’s male dominance culture, has distinctive features. Cham women take the responsibility of taking care for the family and clan, which hinders women from going far away from their home and clan. Cham men have wider social and professional mobility. As such Cham men have higher opportunity and accessibility to education and social life. Women are playing an important role in economic development of the transforming peasant economy of the researched regions. Women’s businesses tend to be multiple sectors and within the female’s fields of strengths. For business managed by women, they are the persons who make decisions on the products to sell, prices, markets, methods of trading. Business women continue to act as the manager of production, employees and finance while participating directly into the production process and business development; the husbands take over the external affairs and social networking. Women entrepreneurship provides huge potential to create ix
positive changes, individually and collectively, of womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s voices and participation in social life and leadership. The findings from this KAP analysis suggest the promotion of integrated feminine business and leadership can challenge the current social norms and enhance women empowerment.
Chapter 1 FOUR REGIONS, ONE ECONOMY IN TRANSITION
This chapter provides general information on Vietnam’s development context and the four surveyed regions in the four Coastal Central provinces of Vietnam. It also highlights main features of economic and social development of the research areas. 1. The changing context of development Vietnam’s economic liberalisation and deeper international integration over the past decades has achieved applaudable achievements in poverty reduction and social advancement. Yet the country’s aspirations to modernity, industrialisation and quality of life in a new phase of development requires balancing economic prosperity with environmental sustainability and social equity and inclusion (WB & DPI-VN 2016). The interaction of globalisation and global situations of “double exposure” for local O'Brien 2008). The pure growth-led marginalisation of disadvantaged groups, Quy Hanh 2014).
environmental change can cause the dangerous impacted communities (see Leichenko and L. development projects have created double such as women and ethnic minorities (Nguyen
In its recent development, Viet Nam has recorded significant achievements in promoting gender equality and women’s empowerment by the passage of the 2006 Law on Gender Equality and the 2007 Law on the Prevention and Control of Domestic Violence. Women Associations of all levels have annual and long-term programs to enhance to role and power of women in social life and economic development, such as moral qualities of women "Selfconfidence, self-esteem, faithfulness, resourcefulness" to meet the requirements of the national industrialization and modernization, or “Educating 5 million mothers for good parenting”. The key role of Vietnam’s women in a peasant economy as elsewhere is well documented especially in planting, animal husbandry and saving activities. In a commercialised and globalised economy, women entrepreneurship has been bolstered. “When we look back at the development of Vietnamese society, particularly economic development, women hold a key position, as they directly participate in the national labour force and in paid labour. For instance, in agriculture – one of the country’s key sectors – women make up some 70 per cent of the labour force, and in production alone, they make up not a modest workforce in export-oriented industries, such as garment and textile, footwear, light industry, and seafood processing. Also, women’s economic roles will be much more significant in the future as Viet Nam more deeply integrates into the world, while these industries continue to spearhead the economy.” (Vietnamnews 7/3/2016)
The changing environments of Vietnam’s economic development and women advancement policy can potentially lift up gender constraints and promote women’s business and leadership if internal resources and external supports are mobilised and integrated. 2. The four regions 2.1. An Ninh Commune and Duy Ninh Commune, Quang Ninh District (Quang Binh Province) These two communes are shallow areas, and the rice granaries of the province. Household economy still depends on agricultural activities, including farming, vegetable planting, husbandry and afforestation. There is a remarkable transformation on the development of integrated farm plantation, small business and trading, material trading, agricultural, construction materials and other services – in line with the development of modern society. There are 105 registered enterprises operating mainly in the fields of construction, services and trade. The district consists of 47 cooperatives and 04 people's credit funds. Economy accounts for 85 % of households; annually, business registration number of households increased by an average of 250 households and industries grow increasingly diverse . It is noted that there is an increase number of men who go to work far away from home, living in the other cities/provinces in a short time. Thus women in these husband-absent families bear burdens of family affairs and production activities. 2.2. Phuoc Son Commune and Phuoc Hung Commune, Tuy Phuoc District (Binh Dinh Province) These two agriculture-based communes have marked strong economic restructuring with an increasing proportion of trade and services. The proportion of agriculture – industry and construction - trade and services in Phuoc Hung commune in 2015 is 34.75 % - 22.63 % 42.62 % respectively. Phuoc Son commune has transformed more than 1,189 hectares of rice cultivation from 3 to 2 crops per year. Agricultural development is oriented towards higher added-values. Large scale rice fields have been piloted. Industry intension is promoted, with focuses on the development of traditional crafts and small scale businesses in rural areas. The commune has 689 household and individual businesses registered, of which 457 are trade and services establishments. Rapidly growing garment industry is observed. The People's Credit Fund of Phuoc Hung has supported more than 500 loan turns per year with more than 100 billion VND in 2009-2013. Phuoc Hung was recognised as a new rural commune in August 2015 while Phuoc Son is in its construction process for the period of 2011-2020. Under new rurality investment, the two communes are changing their urban faces, with newly-constructed and upgraded roads, public buildings, markets, irrigation systems. It is the plan of the district to build up Tuy Phuoc a new rural district between 2016 and 2020. 2.3. An Hai Commune and Phuoc Dan Town, Phuoc Ninh District (Ninh Thuan Province) Ninh Phuoc is the key agricultural zone of the province. The district stretches over diverse topographic features of mountains, river systems, lowland and sea coast, which offer favourable conditions for varied economic development opportunities. The district is located
in Dinh river downstream, which causes frequent flooding during October and November annually though the region face severe drought in the other months of the year. Viticulture is the main crop of Ninh Phuoc’s agriculture; however in recent years there has been a shift towards other forms of farming such as apples and dragon fruits. An Phuoc is one of the poorest agriculture-dependent communes of the province. According to the commune’s 2005 report, rural business and service have been encouraged. There are around 700 registered household businesses in 2005, creating an initial trading network connecting the rural and urban areas. The Chams take the highest proportion of the four ethnic groups in the district, accounting for over 30% of the district population. The Chams residing in Phuoc Dan town are famous for the Bau Truc pottery village and My Nghiep weaving village. 2.4. Phu Lac Commune and Lien Huong Town, Tuy Phong District (Binh Thuan Province) Tuy Phong possesses multiple terrains that provide conditions for the development of diverse economic sectors. The district’s fishery includes sea fishing, aquaculture and fish processing. The salt industry with its two major companies uses nearly 800 hectares for production. Traditional main crops are rice, grapes, dragon fruits, and recently Sterculia foetida L. The leading companies in such field as textile and thermoelectricity have promoted local service development. The district has also a number of tourist attractions and community-based tourist night-streets operated. While Phu Lac is largely Cham-based and agriculture-dependent commune, Lien Huong is much more urbanised as an active central node of the district’s trade network. In the end of 2015, Lien Huong Ward recorded 1330 registered businesses, of which 204 are categorised under industry-construction, 95 transportation and the rest trade and services. 3. One economy in transition Despite their specific features, the research areas shares three important characteristics of a transitional economy that need to be taken into account for future design of any interventions. It is not hard to recognise that there has been a rapid pace of change with new constructions, displayed residential and industrial planning, and better economic and social conditions at the front gates of households. Such impressive transformation of the local socio-economic life has been fuelled by the national industrialisation and modernisation and the international economic integration. Also local economic potentialities are further exploited and expanded. The new rural program has provided rural communities with new infrastructure and to many extents “compulsory” economic shifting oriented by increased industry and service sectors. Second, the locally-originated economic development in the researched region, especially in rural communes, is still in dependence on and/or in connection with the peasant economy transformation. Such agriculture related economic activities include agricultural chemical trading, agroproduct trading, and agricultural services such as rice milling, harvesting. Traditional handicrafts have been developed with application of modern machines and designs. The attachment of the peasant economics can also be linked with the business doing philosophy largely based on the consumption-labour balance. As further analysed in
Chapter 3, men and women work hard as much as they can to meet their householdâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s consumption and needs, including children education, and then fade out their business as all the debt are paid, economic situations get better off and children have their own family. The third feature is the emergence of light industries and services for the urban population. Textiles offer hundreds of jobs for local people, especially women in Binh Dinh and Ninh Thuan. Such businesses also aim to expand their international markets and high-tech investment. Other services such as convenient shops, cafe, restaurants and wedding services are prominently women-led.
Chapter 2 WOMEN AS THE LADY OF THE HOUSE
This chapter attempts to highlight two social norms on women role of women being the lady of the house: women as the housekeepers and women as purse-string holders. These two women-attached roles can be explained through the images of standardised men and women. This chapter also tries to figures out in which cases men take over the housework. Patterns of decision-making at household levels are also identified. 1. Standardised women and men A general statement and agreement from our interviews and discussion is that today, men and women are more equal at home and in society. 'Behind every great man there is a great woman’. As a married couple, the two should support each other and make decisions together to be happy and successful. Both women groups and men groups contend that the nature of women is painstaking and diligent. They love their husband and children and should take good care of their home. Going to market and cooking foods are their responsibilities. They cover all the housework; putting the family first than the society. Women generally agree that men should not go to the market. The ideal type of women, under men’s expectation, is that one that is resourceful, taking good and comprehensive care of the family, pampering and putting up with their husband, and cooking good meals for family. Ideal men Women’s points of view
Men’s points of view
Love their wife, loyal, do not run after the other woman
Love their husband and children
Take good care of their wife, optimistic and happy, even when being tired, no complaints
Serious, courteous, not insolent to the elderly
Work hard to earn for family, spend time on teaching the kids, respect by the others (friends invite to drink coffee when he’s out) •
Gentle, nice speaking, courteous to parents, good behavior
Resourceful, take good care of family
Keep their word
In the special case of Binh Dinh women, who are famous for their strong personality as in “Come to Binh Dinh, you can see Binh Dinh women dancing with rod and performing martial arts”, they are also known for other remarkable spirits, like their love of the family, loyalty and bravery. Ideal Binh Dinh women Women’s points of view
Men’s points of view
Cannot be tough with a tough person, should use “sweet words”
Tear is the weapon of women, we have to speak really heart-rending words
Usually will try to make it up within the day. There’s a case “cold war” lasted up to 6 months.
“Before he hung out a lots, so I talked and complained much. Now he has been getting more mature, he’s also gentle, so I should say nice words, keeping the family in harmony.”
90% of Binh Dinh women are gentle, resourceful and take good care of their husband
The wife take care of cooking, children, sewing; encourage husband when he’s tired or down, remind husband when he’s drinking too much (can ask for help from mother in law to admonish the husband).
Within the Cham families, under matriarchy, the wife plays the important role of housework, family and clan management (taking over the ceremonial offerings from the paternal side), an ideal woman also needs to be resourceful and faithful to their men. ““With a husband beside, no matter how ugly a woman is, she is still a fairy”, meanwhile “a beautiful woman without a husband is as ugly as nut grass”. Ideal Cham men Women’s points of view
Men’s points of view
Ideal Cham woman
Leading a good life, setting a good example, democratic in family discussions
Respecting each others
Self-improving, good family management
Forgiveness, good example, good person for family to lean on
Being moral, care to the others, respect both the younger and the older
Good vision, responsible in protecting family, good sense of judgement
Resourceful in family life
Good care-taking and teaching of children
Take over the main responsibility of family income
Outsider’s comment “This family is blessed” should be assured
3 things Cham women never do: prostitute, drinking and begging
Unlike the common thinking of matriarchy that women have all powers in household and community issues, the Cham matrilineal society with its long co-existence and interactions with the Kinh’s male dominance culture, has distinctive features: Matri-surnames: Children take the surname of the mother, however, it is now not compulsory any more, so they can take either the surname of their mother or father. Matrilocality: The children follow the mother, daughters are entitled to inherit the fortune, daughters take over the tradition of the family, sons follow their wife. The youngest daughter has to take care of the old parents. Before being born, the child is lying beside the mother (inside her actually), so when he dies, he has to be by his mother’s side too, in the same cemetery of the mother’s family) Matriarchal power: Power of governing the family: playing an important role in the marriage, funerals, ceremonies, taking over all the worshipping since the husband is “external to clan”, managing the children; the oldest woman has the power to decide everything in the family, taking care of the family and continue the family is such a duty. Power of finance management: The wife manages all the property. In cases of breaking up, the children live with the mother and the property of the couple will become that of the wife. Social power: In worshipping ceremonies or community festivals, all the women take some responsibilities.
In Cham’s traditions, women take the responsibility of taking care for the family and clan, which hinders women from going far away from their home and clan. Cham men have wider social and professional mobility. As such Cham men have higher opportunity and accessibility to education and social life. In their development history, the Chams do not have Queens, but Kings. In short, it is apparent that the four Confucian essential characteristics of ‘industriousness, appropriate self-presentation, communication skills, and virtue’ are still relevant in defining a today’s Vietnamese feminine ideal (see also Knodel et al. 2004), despite the fact that not all of the four features are equally acknowledged or even fully recognised to be under the Confucian thought by local respondents. The modern Vietnamese women’s qualities of “selfconfidence, self-respect, faithfulness, resourcefulness” recently propagandised are highly reflected in practice through “faithfulness, resourcefulness”. To this extent, the Vietnamese traditional image of the “egret wading at the riverside”1 aptly represents of the depth of the Vietnamese women’s hard-working and painstaking characters. Or relevance is another symbolic expression of a house, in which men are the framework while women are connectors to strengthen the framing of the house. 2. Roles of women and men in domestic life: Women as housekeepers From both men’s and women’s perspectives, the wife have to take over all the housework in the family, “from A to Z”. Women have to take over more work than men, with “no-name jobs” in the family from washing, cooking, cleaning, to children care-taking. Those are 1
As the full old Vietnamese folk-verse goes: “Like an egret wading at the river side / Hauling rice accompanying her husband she sobs / I am returning home to take care of mother and children / So you may rest assured trekking the Cao Bang rugged terrain.”
women’s work. Housework is “no-name work”, but it requires good care, time costing, so the wives need to arrange things smartly, work quickly and be resourceful to do good job. Men can help ‘a little bit’, they ‘help a little bit when they see women are so struggling”, or ‘take time to help they can’. If letting the husband to do housework, the wife will not feel comfortable. Women maintain their thinking that they are ‘born to do housework’, ‘that’s a farmer life’ or their ‘conscience’ will not allow them to ignore this duty. Men take over less housework than women. However, they bear more heavy works such as goods transportation, delivery, carrying and loading, husking, machinery work. The husband only does the housework when the wife is sick; or sometimes he would do if he feel happy to, husband only does “big jobs” (heavy carry, or jobs related to machines). A normal day The wife
- 4:30: get up
- 5:30: get up
- 4:30 – 5:30: take care of children, feed animals (4:30 – 5:00: do exercise for the elders)
- 5:30-6:00: watering garden
- By 7:00: go to the market to buy food and/or sell home eggs, vegetable, fruit - 7:00-11:00: do business, production
- 6:00-7:00: breakfast, coffee or tea - 7:00–11:00: do business, production - 11:30–13:30: help preparation, lunch, nap
- 13:30–17: do business, production
- 11:00–13:30: do housework and nap
- 17:00-20:00: dinning, movies, go to bed
- 13:30–17:30: do business, production - 17:30–18:00: dinner preparation - 18:00-21:00: cleaning, children and husband
- After 21:00: television or directly go to bed until the next early morning
In Cham households, women is the householder, still the role of men affects relatively strongly the family life and society. “Men are responsible for fighting/working, women for giving birth”. “Men collect firewoods and carry straws; women make the soil, cook food and taking care of family”. In the past years, there were cases in which the husband felt “no power, so took no responsibility” and with awareness and education still at low levels, they usually drunk and made quarrels in the family. In deed, in families that the wife goes to work and the husband stays at home doing no jobs, the couple are not happy since the man feels “complex” and “their pride hurt”. As a result, the more power their wife had, the more miserable she was. In terms of teaching children, it is common in both Kinh and Cham families that the husband who often has a better education takes over the education for the kids. Fathers with a strong, consistent and emotionally stable personality can make children more respectful and awesome to their teachings. Mothers are more gentle and flexible, so they are better at encouraging and admonishing their children.
The husbands admit that “yes, women are more miserable than men”. The women agree that “your (husband) work is also much, and you have to work outside, under the hot sun”. When the wife is feeding the pigs, if the rice is boiled, but the husband is resting, she would still let him rest, not asking for help, not complaining or blaming. Women have to undertake much more work, but ‘lighter’ than their men. Women should take care of housework, men do hard work already, so it is open that husbands can help anything with housework. Women love their husbands and try to manage well all housework so that their men have more time to relax. (Interview, female, 17.6.2016) The nature of women is hardworking and painstaking. They are “workaholic” who want to work hard for earning more money for their families. (Interview, male, 16.6.2016) In the first phase of a newly married couple, the cooking work is automatically a women’s duty. Young husbands are bossy and they are dependent on women on housework. In some families, if the mother-in-law is living with the couple, she rarely allows her son to do the housework. The wives have to struggle more when there is no help from their husbands. They sleep less, even when they’re pregnant. In several cases, the mothers remembered how much they cried when they had to leave their new-born babies home to go to work very soon. It becomes clear that women accept their role as a housekeeper and homemaker as a women’s function, natural bent, and way of living. “Wife and husband has their own work, we both struggle with work all day”. This kind of allocation is “equal”, “we used to that”, “the husband know how to share already”, “cannot be changed anymore”. Women tends to contend that the quarrels, “different ideas” can happen between the husband and wife, and it is inevitable, it is like “even bowls in the basket collide each other”, it requires the wife to be smart and gently in manner of speaking when asking the husband to do housework. In several women’s group discussions, when asked to think again and again, the women groups reached an agreement that women take over whatever “heavy” jobs in the family, requiring them to sacrifice a lot, and that family work allocation nowadays still features gender role. 3. When men do the housework Our discussions and interviews pointed out two main sources of drivers that change the men’s mentality and practice on doing housework. For the external factors, they include social and economic development of a more modern world, and the wide and continued propaganda on gender equality. When the life is getting better, people are getting their mind open more. A stable household economy is an important foundation for a firm family. For more specific factors, when the husbands can feel the struggle of their wife when doing hard work or find that their wives’ health become worse with frequent illness, they might accept that the housework is also a men’s responsibility. In other cases where the wife and husband gradually get ‘bigger’ in mind and awareness, they no longer think that cooking and housework are only for women, but men are okay to step in.
The wife’s work is the wife’s work when she’s home, but when she cannot finish the work, husband should share. I was hanging myself on the hammock, but when I saw the dirty floor, it made me uncomfortable then I just cleaned it. I help my wife cook the food. It is good that I can cook what I like to eat. Or when the children already grown up, parents adjust themselves to adapt with the new situation, in which they help each other in housework as a good example for their children. Or when the wife and husband do the same job (such as officials), there is no reason that men do not do the housework within such a same timeframe. They share the housework. In more pressure situations where women need to be shared in housework, if the husband does not agree to do the job, she will not do it for him but leave it there. After several times, the husband eventually has to do it. Women take over housework and do business at the same time. One time, I went on a business trip and got home in late noon but still had to cook for the family; while men were staying at home but they did not cook. This happened many times, making me very tired. After that, if I had to go home late, I decided not to cook for the family. Then there came the point of time that they have to go to the kitchen to cook for themselves when the wife is away or goes home late. The main family type of the research interviewees is nuclear family. Since the newly married couple tend to live separately from their parents, the issue of “relationship between the mother-in-law and daughter-in-law” or inter-generation impacts is not well pictured in this analysis. 4. Women as purse-string holders Both interviewed men and women strongly believe that managing the family’s fund is generally the “right of the women”. It is “more secure”. “What do men keep the money for?”. “Children ask money from their mother, not their father”. Women might think that the husbands who keep the money “have mentality problem” and that if the husbands does not give the money willingly, the wives will not need it. Husbands admit that they do have a small “secret fund” to spend on coffee or cigarettes. There are 2 common types of family’s fund keeping: women keep all or through a “shared fund”. In practice, women manage the fund better and save more. In case of the husband’s debt, they pay the debt for their husbands, not forgetting to warn their husbands of spending money effectively. However, women bear the pressure of allocating and adjusting the family fund, frequently very limited. When the husband needs money, the wife has to “manage to get such an amount” without delay. This means that the wife is responsible for most of family expenses and investment that requires them to constantly think of and worry about. This is a constant but invisible pressure on women. In Cham families, women manage all family’s property. “The boss (husbands) does the work but the storekeeper (wives) keeps all the money”. Men admit they are not used to manage money and that it is easy for them to overspend money on drinking or smoking. Women are
better at money management. However, there might be difficulties related to “men’s pride” so that men find a way to set up their own fund. In other cases, men face difficulties in expanding business if their women are not in line with their business vision and investment. 5. Decision making All the members of the discussion groups share a common opinion that important decisions relevant to family and business development are discussed in many forms between wives and husbands. It is this agreement that plays an important role in urging two of them to reach the goal of the discussion, and avoiding unnecessary “quarrels”, “blaming each other”, or “feeling no fun, doing nothing”. Women have strengths in making decisions of business development in many aspects of the agriculture sector such as opening a general store, agriculture general agent; however, they also need the agreement of the husband before starting the work. In cases where no agreement is reached between the husband and wife, there are main 2 trends of decision-making. (1) When one partner is not confident with his/her plan yet, things go in a sentimental way. a. The wife tends to be chatty, applying the “little and often fills the purse” strategy to persuade her husband. b. The husband shows himself to be upset to call for the wife’s rethinking and acceptance. (2) When one partner is fully confident with his/her plan yet, making decision is based on reasoning. a. The wife tends to continue doing her own way, but with some adjustments, counting that she somewhat listens to the husband’s ideas. b. The husband keeps on doing his way, even if his wife is still in doubt. The wife maintains her observation and when necessary can provide support and interventions.
Chapter 3 WOMEN DOING BUSINESS: CONTINUATION AND CHANGE
In this chapter, main characteristics, origins and development processes of women doing business are captured and analysed. The two social norms of women’s roles in households are scrutinised within the business doing context. Moreover, changes towards and by women entrepreneurship are discussed. 1. Women doing business There have been a change of thinking and practice of women entrepreneurship over the past 10 years. Before, women only stayed at home to do housework and did not take part in their husband’s business. The husband was the bread-winner of the family and the pressure they suffered was very big, “the more they work, the more miserable they feel”. Now, women have participated in doing business with their husband. The wife and husband work together, “each person give a hand”. Women share the work and become the “best wingman” for men. Men feels “very happy” with the change. When both women and men work together, excitement is generated for men and it makes them want to work even more. Men are aware that if women do business, they would do it as well as men. -
Before: women mainly take over housework in the family, do not participate into income generation activities
Now: There is an increasing number of women doing business; many of them are very successful. Women participate more into social activities and movements. Ms Yen Tung is very good at doing business. She trades in gas and oil and runs a construction company. Her husband had just passed away (When he was alive, he worked in the construction field. He supports her wife a lot with housework after his work). She has managed all business work and made decisions related to her business. Her business is really well-developed. (Interview, male, 7.7.2016)
Several reasons for the change to take place include: -
Women want to get more income to afford better the family and children; while men work for children's tuition, women can work to buy them some notebook and clothes…
When the pressure of earning money for sustaining the family is totally put on men, it is overwhelmed for them. Therefore, many men have negative acts like drinking
then get drunk, go home to pick quarrels with and beat their wife and children, causing unhappiness. -
Men wish that their wife can meet and get contact more with the outside world to improve their knowledge in order to provide better education to their children and be able to contribute advices to men in developing family life.
1.1. Two main characteristics Women’s businesses as analysed in Chapter 1 include both peasant economy fields and emergent light industries and services for the urban population. Main fields of business are female’s fields of strengths (small business, quick-minded, good calculation, good management of work). Women’s businesses tend to be multiple sectors, for example, farming, husbandry, trading and combined services. This goes in line with the development of the countryside in the transition period. At the same time, this multi-sector business development helps disperse business risks. In which, the husband usually takes over machinery and technology services. 1.2. Three origins: Self-development: These businesses are started from agricultural production with accumulated saving. They are step by step expanded in female’s fields of strengths. This group of businesses aims mainly at household-level economy improvement within one or two generations. Succession and development: These businesses are developed by women who pursued business since being young and with passion. Such business owners can receive support from by their parents or relatives or continue their parents’ business. This group of businesses often has a ‘big’ development strategy, aiming international markets. Dependence: The husband has the talent and good relationship to expand that business while the wife support the husband with selling the goods and customer relations. 1.3. Three important development process After marriage, start-up: This is often the time of hardship. Young husbands are bossy. The family’s finance is unstable. Women have to take various roles of a homemaker and business person. Many of them were shedding tears when retelling their stories during this period. 10-20 years of doing business: Many stories of ups and downs, failure and success of business can be recorded. Yet women try hard to overcome the difficulties to stabilize business and pay the debts. Older: Women now can have time to rest and spend time for themselves. They work in stability and order. More employees are hired. Business can be transferred to their children.
2. The continuation of domestic “functions” 2.1. Housework “Women doing business are women with no free time”. “Women doing business are surely resourceful women”. According to the women’s opinion, when women do business, they have to manage to fulfil a “huge” load of work, including housework and business. 2.2. Financial management Women in business establishments with hired employees directly manage the employees, employees’ salaries and internal affairs. The husbands take over the external affairs and social networking. For bank’s loans that the family borrow for business reasons, it is very pressuring when it comes to the pay time; this pressure is shared between the husband and the wife. If they do not have enough money to pay to the bank, they discuss to agree what to do, where to get the money, who to borrow and who to represent the family to borrow the money to pay for the loan. Men though do not directly control the fund but act like an “accountant” of the family; they still know the expenses and incomes of their family. The pressure of paying the loans makes the wife keep working hard all day. They “feel sad when the sun goes down” because they have “work hard to pay the debts”. Others share that they were “eating while cooking food for pigs, because of being afraid of wasting time if eating without doing anything”. 2.3. Challenges •
The role of women has not been extended in other production and business sectors but still framed in fields of their traditional strengths.
Still not in good conditions to go far away from home due to commitments in general family management (going to other provinces to purchase/deliver goods, participate in trainings or workshops)
Difficulties in markets and marketing.
They do not have strategies in business cooperation and development
In the long term, they may become dependent on the husbands when modernisation and commercialisation reach up a high level
3. Changes 3.1. Women position and voices The benefit is more income is earned, so women feel more comfortable to buy something. This is also true with women’s decision making.
In most of the issues, reasonable decisions would be made if they are discussed between both the husband and wife. When the husband and wife agree with each other, power would be generated. The popular principle is that the agreement of the wife and husband is made in any important decisions related to family and business, “cut your coat according to your cloth”. For works in the family or in the society, both men and women would discuss together to reach a decision on whether the works should be proceeded. If one of them does not agree, the work would not be done. In some cases, that issue/work would be continued to be discussed if both of them, if after a period of time, think that they now have enough conditions to launch it. When disagreements appear, especially in investments proposed by the husband, or longtermed investment of the wife (i.e. purchase of insurance), one has to patiently persuade the other. Many husbands admit that women are “more brave than their husbands”; wives encourage their husbands to do new things; “I entrust my wife to calculate and decide everything, I just do what she says”; “When I obstruct something that my wife proposes but if she react forcefully, I have to “accept and follow”. For business managed by women, they are the persons who make decisions on the products to sell, prices, markets, methods of trading etc.; men share and support their wife what they can. The wife can give in the husband in decisions that do not affect the business. In cases decisions directly relevant to the enterprise’s prestige and development, the wife shall discuss thoroughly and straightfully the issue with her husband. 3.2. Caring There have been changes in awareness and sympathy of both men and women in work allocation. The harder the husband work, the more his wife loves him. Women encourage their husbands when they are back from work, cook good foods for their husbands and do what they can do for their husband. Sometimes, they hang out to the café or to sing karaoke in order to relieve the stress and pressure in work. Women, besides doing business and calculation, they take care of housework. The husbands fell the hardship of their wife so they love their wife more; sometime they encourage them by saying “you are so great”, or some husbands cook for their wife; some of them even cook better than their partner and cook frequently. Both women and men share sympathy with each other in the work that the other take over; they both aware of the other’s hardship so they encourage each other. 3.3. Support from the husband The husbands play a supporting role for the wives in the work that is not of their strengths, including: •
Designing new products that are of customers’ taste, “creating the revolution” in the business sector
Applying machines and new technology into work
Managing major financial books, directly signing big business contracts
Developing the business in a long-termed and strategical way
3.4. Changes created by women’s business •
Women play a very essential part in maintaining traditional trades, including brocade weaving and pottery, beside agricultural production and husbandry.
When forming business establishments and household business, women continue to act as the manager of production, employees, finance, participating directly into the production process and business development.
Women are the focal point of disseminating traditional culture (artists) and introducing local products to a greater market (performances, businessperson) of the traditional trade villages. This is particularly relevant with Cham’s Bau Truc pottery village and My Nghiep weaving village.
The position and role of the women in the family have been changed positively and more equally with men.
Creating job for local labor force, especially female labors.
Creating favorable conditions for poor households to overcome poverty (breeding/seeding, capital, fertilizer, pesticides, materials..) (More than 200-300 households/women are doing business) Cham women in business VALUE THE PRESTIGE, AFFECTION AND GRATITUDE
Live a honest life, not being deceived and not deceiving the others. Good and straight heart will make a good life Respect who we get helps A gentleman keeps his integrity even in poverty
HELP the poor to get a better life
Being a focal point in transforming cultivation methods, and renovating technologies.
Many households with good economy development have known to combine the strengths in their production and businesses and development impacts of projects, including SVN project, to amplify the impacts in the value chain. For instance, Ms. Quynh’s household in the clean rice chain has made a goodcombination of SNV’s clean rice production and SNV’s husk pellet production, which helps to increase income, generate more jobs and improve environmental conditions.
Creating conditions for women to become leaders.
Chapter 4 WOMEN TAKING LEADERSHIP: “CLEAN KITCHEN, CLEAN HOUSE, CLEAN VILLAGE LANE”
This chapter continues to take the discussed social norms forward to the deliberation of business women taking leadership. It also looks into the practice of women’s socialisation and organisation. 1. Women as leaders Good women leaders are supposed to well combine and harmonise family and social affairs. It is not acceptable for them to be successful in society but ignore family responsibilities. Women themselves do not feel comfortable and afraid of being judged when they have to go out early and come back home late frequently. Ideal women leaders Women’s points of view Men’s points of view
Living in harmony with people in society
Earning trust of the people, people listen to them
Hard-working, willing to share knowledge with the others
Taking over family stuff, taking care of husbands and children, putting family work first
Determined, keeping promises and commitment
In terms of qualifications and qualities, women to become a leader need to have a good education background, vision, ability to convince the people and willingness to listen to the people. The Cham men like their wife to be leader:
The pride of theirs, their family and clan The husband is proud and honored; it is a bless; sometime the wife can travel or fly with her. In the past generations, it is unacceptable for men to stand behind his wife.
Within the contemporary society’s development, Cham women apart from fullfilling their roles of a mother, a wife, a financial manager and an educator towards their children also play a crucial role in traditional custom conservation. Cham women have more and more
engaged in diversified social activities and continously self-improve their knowledge to support their husbands and also support their communities. 2. Social changes Our interviews point out that men feel fine to have women leaders in their community. Presently, many high-ranked leaders in Vietnam and the world are women. Also, there have been many cases around such as my sister-in-law who have colleagues who are leaders in the education or medical sectors. Women leaders need a good compromise and support of their husband in housework; or else, they cannot be fully devoted to their work. When the wife is a leader, the husband can support her in doing report, or being her secretary. Women can be chairperson of the people’s committee of commune, district or province, but not village leader. Can be leader in state agencies
Cannot be a village leader
According to guidance of the state on the rate of women leader
Even voted, because of family pressure, there are ‘works in the middle of the night” (mid-night work)
Have a person in vice position to support
Be judged by the public, judged by the intellectuals
Satisfied salary, working in office hours
Educated according to proper process, can not be from ‘nowhere’ to become leader
In business establishments, when women are in charge of managing the employees, they have some strengths such as being close, sharing and caring to the employees; however, they may not exercise an ascendency over the employees like men. Women managing business establishment of many employees share that a woman who is resourceful at housework is not necessarily good at being a leader; they need to have a good mind, accurate decisions, (not biased, unilateral and sentimental), have a good sense of judging people and good relationships. 3. Women in social life and networking The better-off business households are contributing positively into the social work. They can help their neighbors and disadvantaged communities in different forms of selling products without benefits, contributing financially to build up communities; sharing and teaching the other to together develop. The research on the development process of the households doing business reveals that there is a separation of these households with system of mass organizations and community institutions. Initially, when being still poor, women also accessed to micro-credit loans of
the commune and thus maintained better engagement with the women’s associations. The development of these households is the result of constant saving through years in combination with risky calculation and investment when they take risks to get big loans to do business. With the above analysed financial pressure, they “wish to work to earn more” so they step by step stay aloof from the collective and community activities. The development of business households is making up a group that stay separately from community institutions on economic development and women development support, at “a middle level”, not yet catching the level of small and medium sized enterprises (who are entitled to special support mechanisms). Women entrepreneurship networking is poor. There has been the formation and development of small groups, operating within a certain groups of acquaintances, since these people know and get along well with each other so they pool money to set up the revolving fund. Effective grouping of business women needs techincal and financial (microcredit for women, people’s credit fund) support through government’s and NGO’s projects and programs.
Chapter 5 General Introduction
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS: TOWARDS FEMININE BUSINESS AND LEADERSHIP General Introduction 5.1. Conclusions The analysis hold the view that the four Confucian essential characteristics of ‘industriousness, appropriate self-presentation, communication skills, and virtue’ are still relevant in defining a today’s Vietnamese feminine ideal, with a strong emphasise on women’s hard-working and painstaking qualities. It also becomes clear that women accept their roles of a homemaker, including housekeeping and moneykeeping, as women’s functions, natural bent, and ways of living. If letting the husband to do housework, the wife will not feel comfortable. Even a female director of a company manages to cook for her husband and children within her busy schedule. When women do business, they have to manage to fulfil a “huge” load of work, including housework and business. Good women leaders are supposed to harmonise family and social responsibilities. As the purse-string holders, women bear the constant but invisible pressure of allocating and balancing the family fund, frequently very limited. When doing business and loans needed, such pressures become so intense that they “feel sad when the sun goes down” because they have “work hard to pay the debts”. Unlike the common thinking of matriarchy that women have all powers in household and community issues, the Cham matrilineal society with its long co-existence and interactions with the Kinh’s male dominance culture, has distinctive features. Cham women take the responsibility of taking care for the family and clan, which hinders women from going far away from their home and clan. Cham men have wider social and professional mobility. As such Cham men have higher opportunity and accessibility to education and social life. Women are playing an important role in economic development of the transforming peasant economy of the researched regions. Women’s businesses tend to be multiple sectors and within the female’s fields of strengths. For business managed by women, they are the persons who make decisions on the products to sell, prices, markets, methods of trading. Business women continue to act as the manager of production, employees and finance while participating directly into the production process and business development; the husbands take over the external affairs and social networking. Women entrepreneurship provides huge potential to create positive changes, individually and collectively, of women’s voices and participation in social life and leadership.
5.2. General recommendations The findings from this KAP analysis suggest the promotion of integrated feminine business and leadership can challenge the current social norms and enhance women empowerment. That is women cannot do business and leadership like men. Their success in business community and social life cannot and should not trade their inside emotional life and the family with all of its values they are scarifying themselves to build up a happy one. Moreover, interventions to create feminine business and leadership need to comprehensive and integrated of institutional, awareness, economic and social aspects at different levels.
5.3. Specific recommendations Institutional level
Development of policies that give favourable conditions for feminine business and leadership
Promoting the effective operation and influence of feminine business institution, such as the Vietnam Women Entrepreneurs Council (see ILO 2007)
Continuing to implement the awareness raising activities on gender, especially in economic development. Some activities may be designed only for men.
Promote the awareness on doing business for women, some aspects that women can take over such as: calculation, market access, customer hunting.
Integrating cultural and art activities into gender equality propaganda and education
Women if wanting to raise their voice will have to have a good financial status; to have a good financial status, they must have capital to do business, generating income together with their husband for the family.
Providing low-interest loan for the people to develop economy, initiatives in small and medium sized production businesses in agriculture and handicraft. Providing incentive loan program for farmers to develop their business and production.
Providing technical support and capital for the development of agriculture models, start-ups and enterprise development. Providing trainings on knowledge and specialist skills on business, marketing, market research etc. at the locality.
Develop supporting program for the poor to get better. Continuing to provide trainings on new technology transfer in agriculture. Supporting famers in fertilizers, production, planting and husbandry facilities and equipment.
Conducting research to develop a proper value chain, in which the business households can play a pushing role in a number of parts in the whole chain. It is also needed to look into the needs, in combination with expert consultations and local development planning in order for the most appropriate interventions while women are so taking their time to carry out production and business activities as present.
Revive the traditional embroidery trade (which attract many female labors and help them to take advantage of free time when being off from farming work and allow them to work from home). The output for the products is also important. This trade is dying just because it lacks the product outputs.
Finding output market for agricultural products and garments and handicraft products.
Creating forums or clubs for women to meet and do activities in different aspects such as: business knowledge and experience exchange or stress relieving. Can be open at around 19:00-22:00 on Saturdays or Sundays.
Forming groups and networks of interests so that the members can support each other in production and life.
Promoting the role of the Association of small and medium sized enterprises
Enhancing the confidence, self-esteem of women via the establishment of clubs of sharing and exchanging their issues
Providing support for women, including healthcare and spiritual life development
Organizing study tours and exchange trips to successful production and business models in and out of the province.
References ILO. Introduction 2007. Women’s Entreprenourship Development in Vietnam. Vietnam. General Knodel, John, Vu Manh Loi, Rukmalie, and Vu Huy Tuan. 2004. Gender role in the family: Change and stability in Vietnam. PSC Research Report No. 04-559. Population Studies Center, Institute for Social Research,, University of Michigan.
Launiala, Annika. 2009. How much can a KAP survey tell us about people’s knowledge, attitudes an practices? Some observations from medical anthropology research on malaria on pregnancy in Malawi. Anthropology Matters Journal 11(1): 1-13. Phu Van Han. Nd. Mẫu hệ của người Chăm ngày nay (Cham matriarchy today). UNESCO Center for Research and Conservation of the Cham Culture. Source: http://www.chamunesco.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=235: mau-he-cua-nguoi-cham-ngay-nay&catid=45:van-hoa&Itemid=120
Annex KAP Survey framework
General Introduction Theme General
Theme 1: Gender division and the underlying social norms and attitudes that underpin this;
Method FGDs (Using Activity profile)
Contexts in which successful negotiation takes place (coownership of men in household provision) and incentivising men.
In depth interview (two interview with one hour long interview )
Key questions to be asked Women target groups 1. Thinking about their own experiences, how would women describe their current role in providing for the household? 2. What do women feel are their particular strengths in providing for their household? 3. How would women describe the current role of their husbands in providing for the household? 4. What do women feel are the particular strengths of their husbands in providing for their household? 5. Could women describe if and how these roles for women and men in providing for the household have changed over the years? 6. How do women feel about these changing roles? 7. How do women deal with these changes? 8. What, if anything, would women like to see changed? 9. How could such change be brought about, and who would be key figures in that change? 10. To what extent do women feel they can efficiently use their time? 11. How could they make more efficient use of their time? 12. What, if anything, would need to change to make this possible? And who play a key role in this change? 13. Can they provide examples from their lives in which they tried to get support from their husbands in relation to productive work /income generation? 14. How did they go about this? 15. What worked? 16. What didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t work? 17. Did they involve other members of the family (e.g. mother in law or father in law?)
18. In what particular areas do women have particular leverage? Where do women feel they have power at the moment? Male target groups 1. Thinking about their own experiences, how would men describe their role in providing for the household? 2. What do men feel are their particular strengths in providing for their household? 3. How would men describe the role of their wives in providing for the household? 4. What do men feel are the particular strengths of their wives in providing for their household? 5. Could men describe if and how these roles for women and men in providing for the household have changed over the years? 6. How do men feel about these changing roles? 7. How do men deal with these changes? 8. What, if anything, would men like to see changed? 9. How could such change be brought about, and who would be key figures in that change? Theme 2: Women as active participants in their community and as leaders
FGDs (using defining a good/not good woman and man)
In depth interview (two interview with one hour long interview )
Women target groups 1. Could participants give an example of someone they think is a good leader? a. Why do they think this person is a good leader? Which qualities? b. How do they think they score on those qualities? c. What could they do to improve those qualities? d. How would they go about this? What/Who would they need? 2. Are participants currently involved in any community groups? a. Could they explain what these groups are and what role the participant has in it? b. Was it easy for them to join the group (did they need any support from husband or MIL (mother in law) to be able to join? Also thinking about time away from household)? c. What do they think are the benefits of being in this group? What do they enjoy about it? d. Do they (think they can) lead such a group? Why (not)? 3. Do participants think they could join other groups in their community, for instance a mixed male/female group or local government
organisation? a. Why (not)? What would they need to be able to join such a group? b. Do they think they could be a head or deputy of such a group? Why (not)? c. What would need to happen for them to become a head or deputy of such a group? Male target groups 1. Could participants give an example of who they think is a good leader? a. Why do they think this person is a good leader? Which qualities? 2. Do they think women can have these qualities as well? a. Can they give examples of women they know that have these qualities? E.g. their wife? 3. How would participants feel about a woman leading their community? a. Would they support their wife if she wanted to become a community leader? Why (not)?
Shared understanding on current attitude and practices on gender relations and economic business Common understanding on prevailing social norms and perception on womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s leadership and control over business Foreseen the project focus and priority
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