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Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1991, 73, 1227-1234. @ Perceptual and Motor Skills 1991 A MARTIAL ARTS EXPLORATION OF ELBOW ANATOMY: IKKYO (AIKIDO'S FIRST TEACHING) GREGORY D. OLSON Department of Health and Human Development Montana State University

and

FRANK C. SEITZ WAMI Medical School Program Montana State University

THOMAS E. STENZEL Big Sky Aikikai, Montana State University Summary.- The Martial Art of Aikido, based on several effective anatomical principles is used to subdue a training partner. One of these methods is Ikkyo (First Teaching). According to Saotome. the original intent of Ikkyo was to "break the elbow joint of an enemy". Nowadays the intent is to secure or pin a training partner to the mat. This investigation focused on examining Ikkyo with the purpose of describing rhe nerves, bones, and muscles involved in receiving this technique. Particular focus was placed on the locations and sources of the reported pain.

The Japanese martial arts, apart from being sophisticated forms of combat, involve complex manipulation of human anatomy and physiology. These martial arts forms have taken many different patterns and shapes reflecting a variety of philosophies, social environments, and cultural contexts. Judo, Karate-do, Kendo, and Aikido are but some of the modern forms with which people of the western world are more familiar. Aikido ("Way of divine harmony") represents one of the modern systems of Japanese combat recently introduced to the western world. Its teachings provide some impressive techniques of anatomical manipulation, which underlie some of the Oriental martial arts "secrets." This investiga- tion examined one of Aikido's basic teachings, Ikkyo (First Teaching), also known as Ude-Osae (Arm Securing/Pinning), and the etiology of pain and the anatomical structures involved when this teaching is applied in its proper pinning/securing form; see Fig. 1. The Ikkyo technique and some of its variations may also be found in other Japanese fighting arts such as Judo ("Way of flexibility"), Jujutsu ("Combative art of flexibility"), and Aiki-jujutsu ("Combative art of divine harmony") as well as other Asian and Western hand-to-hand fighting forms.


Fig. 1. Two authors demonstrating hand and arm positions in Ikkyo

Ikkyo is a cornerstone of Aikido as it represents one of the foundations of the various movement patterns and movement philosophies of the art. Saotome (1986) describes Ikkyo as "the first chapter, and the last" {p. 208). Saotome further states that with Ikkyo comes "the application of principle and its philosophical result" {p. 182). Philosophizing about the technique he states: In each situation the degree and direction of force is different, your position is not always the same, body shape and muscular structure differ from partner to partner, perception and timing change. The application must change accoroingly. Technique is, in one second, the creation of form. It is never the same second, never the same form. But the basic principles are always the same (p. 182).

The Aikido techniques of katame waza {locking technique) and osae waza {securing technique) were "especially refined and exquisite because Master Ueshiba Morihei's [founder of modern Aikido] Aikido developed out of his study of Jujutsu, the old Japanese self-defense arts" (Ueshiba, 1985,p57) Saotome (1989), an Aikido master, states that the original purpose of Ikkyo was "not just to throw uke [receiver of technique] but to crush or break the elbow joint" (p. 52). Some state that this specific teaching is designed as "a method of breaking an opponent's posture and controlling him by movement that centers on the elbow joint" (Shioda, 1977, p. 62). Others underline its importance "because it is the basis for the irimi [entering], atemi [striking], and the arm and leg movements of aiki" (Aikido Techniques, 1990). The applications of the Ikkyo pin are performed with several variations, two of which are (1) a mechanical method in which the elbow joint is secured in the extended position and (2) a nerve stimulation method in which pressure to a nerve on the medial side of the arm is irritated [for a detailed and illustrated description refer to Olson (1988, pp. 52-55)]. These variations and the tissues stimulated in and around the elbow joint are of particular interest. The application of this pin "controls uke by pressure on the elbow joint" (Shioda, 1977, p. 65) In its final stage the pin should be secured by a push "forward to slightly more than 90 degrees from the level of his [uke's] armpit, and he will not be able to move" (Ueshiba, 1985, p. 114). The pinning is completed as follows: When one pins the opponent's right arm, twist his right hand leftward, gripping it from the back of his hand with one's right hand, and twist his elbow outward to one's right with one's left handblade (Ueshiba, 1985, cf. p. 114). Fig. 2 presents a close.up view of the final positioning of tori's (doer of technique) hands on uke's elbow and wrist.


Fig 2. Final pinning technique in Ikkyo

In illustrating Ikkyo, Fig. 2 pictures the anatomical areas where direct pressure of the tori's left hand and forefinger (i.e., the anterior side of the second metacarpal-phalangeal joint) was (1) placed and pressed into the structures of the posterior side of uke's right elbow joint and (2) pressed into the tissues that are located just proximal and medially to the right elbow joint of uke. Although this second variation may not be the "ideal" finishing form of the Ikkyo technique, particular focus was placed on the anatomical locations/sources of pain associated with this variation and uke's reported sensation of intense pain. METHOD Subjects Two Professors of Anatomy and the coauthors served as ukes, experiencing firsthand the sensations surrounding the precise application of Ikkyo. The fifth uke was an adult male cadaver whose derma had been removed to facilitate the study of bones, muscles, nerves, blood vessels, ligaments, and tendons in the forearm. Procedure Gregory Olson, a third degree black belt in Aikido and in Judo, having had 27 years of martial arts training and experience, performed both variaions of the Ikkyo pin on the Anatomy Professors, who experienced the pain directly and observed the tissues involved in the local source of pain associated with the technique. The procedures were then applied to the cadaver, with the anatomists and the authors observing the locations of the tori's hands, knuckles, and fingers while the technique was being applied. A videotape was made of this demonstration to permit further examination and review of the anatomical mechanisms involved. RESULTS In research studying Ikkyo few investigators have written about specific descriptions of its pinning or final form {Ueshiba, 1985) .In this analysis of the location of nerves, tendons, and tissues involved in Ikkyo, two different variations were applied, (1) a mechanical method and (2) a nerve stimulation method. Both variations were applied first to the anatomists and then to the cadaver. The anatomists' subjective experiences were compared with observations of the cadaver as to what tissues were manipulated and stimulated by this technique. Ikkyo Pin: Mechanical Method


In this variation of the Ikkyo pin the uke is held down and pinned by direct pressure on the elbow joint itself. In this first variation three scenarios are considered: (1) The tori could violently strike the extended elbow. (2) " The pin could be applied but the uke's brachialis muscle would not be: stretched enough to take the technique in its final form. (3) The technique could be applied in its "ideal" form. In the first case involving the elbow being struck while in the extended position, the elbow joint could be dislocated or the olecranon of the ulnar bone snapped off since, "when the forearm is pulled in the direction of ex-tension, the tip of the olecranon acts as the fulcrum" (Suzuki, 1963, p. 64) as shown in Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. Olecranon process of the elbow joint

In the second scenario involving the insufficiently stretched brachialis muscle of the uke, the brachialis muscle or its ligaments would probably tear or stretch to compensate for the lack of mobility of the tissue; see Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. Brachialis muscle and the elbow joint


In the third scenario, as the technique is applied in its final "ideal" form, the elbow and, therefore: the arm and body are pinned to the mat by mechanically holding the elbow in the extended position and pinning it to the mat with the weight of the tori's upper torso; see Fig. 2.

Fig. 5. Anatomy of the arm involved with the Ikkyo nerve stimuktiori method

Ikkyo Pin; Nerve Stimulation Method Pain was observed to be associated with pressure applied by tori's hand which was held in the same configuration as when applying Aikido's Yonkyo (Fourth Teaching) technique (Olson & Seitz, 1990). Pressure was applied specifically by the anterior side of the second metacarpal-phalangeal joint. This pressure was applied toward the distal end of the humerus on the medial side of the arm just proximal to the medial epicondyle of the humerus (see Fig. 5). The pressure was applied with a back and forth motion of tori's knuckle. The ulnar nerve, within its connective tissue, crosses over the humerus at this location and is relatively unprotected by intervening muscle, tendons, or ligaments. The nerve "typically has connective tissue to guide it and keep it in place as it runs down around the epicondyle" (Ms. Susan Gibson, M.S., personal communication May, 1991). With each back and forth movement tori's knuckle continually pinches, and rolls and then releases the ulnar nerve. Although slightly distal to this location the same nerve is stimulated when a person hits the "funny bone." DISCUSSION The effectiveness of Ikkyo as a martial art technique may be due to one of two possible mechanisms, (1) the elbow joint pinned to the mat in its fully extended position or (2) the ulnar nerve repeatedly compressed and released causing uke to experience pain and thereby surrender. The focus of this study was twofold: (1) to identify the mechanics of the Ikkyo pin and (2) to identify the basis for pain in the anatomical tissues stimulated by tori when Ikkyo was applied in one of its several variations. It is beyond the scope of this investigation to describe in detail the biomechanics of Ikkyo. Also, no mention is made of the correct manner of executing the technique in its full form or the shaping of one's hand while applying pressure to the elbow. Such issues, although as important as the identification and location of the structures involved in the precise application of Ikkyo, are beyond the present analysis and are convincingly dealt with elsewhere (Olson, 1988, p. 52; Saotome, 1989, p. 45; Shioda, 1977, p. 62; Ueshiba, 1985, p. 57).


Aikido's Ikkyo seems an important technique in the study of the martial arts and may have significant practical application in self-defense classes, in the traditional study of Aikido, and for law enforcement. (1) The technique is the foundation movement pattern £or other techniques within the basic teachings 0£ Aikido. (2) The technique relies less on pain to control uke than on the skillful contiol of the body by the control of the elbow joint. (3) The technique is, in its initial stages, quite simple in application. There are, however, certain limitations in this technique. (1) Uke can be harmed by keeping the arm straight or in an extended position rather than in a flexed position during the initial phases of the technique. (2) Tori in learning how to shape and move the hand properly during the application of the technique requires extended practice and skill. (3) Finding the exact location of the ulnar nerve in the final pinning form must be quite exacting. Even though there are limited numbers of qualified teachers who can correctly teach the subtleties of Ikkyo in its basic form, this still remains a simple and effective method of physical control and restraint, speaking eloquently of the anatomical knowledge, talent, and ingenuity of the pioneering fathers in the martial arts and ways. REFERENCES Ajkido techniques compared. (1990, Fall) [Interview with Seiseki Abe Sensei, Aikikai 8th dan]. Aiki News, p. 29. OLSON, G. D. (1988) Aikido: a beginner's text. Bozeman, MT: Professor Publ. OLSON, G. D., & SEITZ, F. C. (1990) An examination 0£ Ajkido's Fourth Teaching: an anatomical srudy of the tissues of the forearm. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 71, 1059-1066. SAOTOME, M. (1986) Aikido and the harmony of nature. Boulogne, France: Serirep. SAOTOME, M. (1989) The principles of Aikido. Boston, MA: Shambhala. SHlODA, G. (1977) Dynamic Aikido. New York: Kodansha. SUZUKI, K. (1963) [Roentgenographic srudies on .'Kansetsu-Waza."] [Bulletin of the Association for the Scientific Studies on Judo, Kodokan, Report No.2.] Tokyo, Japan: Kodokan. Pp. 59-66. UESHlBA, K. (1985) Aikido. Tokyo: Hozansha.

Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1993, 77, 707-715. @ Perceptual and Motor Skills 1993 THE ANATOMY OF NIKYO (AIKIDO'S SECOND TEACHING) JORDAN W. ECKERT Department of Surgery Baylor College of Medicine

and

TA-KWONG LEE Aikido of Houston Advanced Training Division

Summary.- Nikyo is the second teaching of Aikido (ni-two, kyo-teaching, in Japanese). It is a joint-lock technique that results in extreme pain. It allows one to control an opponent by destroying his will to continue fighting. Nikyo is accomplished by flexing and adducting an opponent's wrist producing an instantaneous sharp pain that causes him to fall to his knees involuntarily to alleviate the pressure. The exact etiology of the pain elicited by this technique has been obscure to many practitioners. The usual explanations have been nerve compression, joint capsular stretch, tendon/muscle strain, or partial ligamentous disruption. Studies of a cadaver's wrist have shown that Nikyo forcibly compresses the pisiform bone against the ulna, two bones that do not normally articulate. The intense pain thereby produced results from stimulation of the periosteal nerves in these bony surfaces.

Aikido may be said to have derived originally from the ancient Samurai art of warfare. It is unique among Japanese martial arts because of its philosophy of "harmony" for all mankind. This philosophy, coupled with its self-defense capabilities, has led to its universal appeal. The Samurai's lifestyle required intensive training in swordsmanship. Unsheathing the sword requires both hands-one to draw the sword while the other applies counter- traction to the scabbard to overcome the sword's tight fit. Were an opponent to secure even one of the Samurai's hands, he would be unable to draw his sword effectively. Over the subsequent hundreds of years ingenious methods have been devised to use the hands in more versatile ways. Nikyo (Second Teaching) is one such method. A demonstration of one form of the technique is shown during a regular


practice session (Fig. 1). A similar technique can be recognized in other forms of martial arts. This study was undertaken to identify the origin of the pain elicited by this maneuver. CLINICAL MATERIALS AND METHODS Anatomy Dissection of the upper extremity of a cadaver was performed. The dissection focused on the ulnar aspect of the wrist where the pain of Nikyo is manifested. This permitted an unimpaired view of the inner workings of the wrist while Nikyo was applied. After assessment of the soft tissues, the bony relations were inspected with the wrist joint in four positions, (a) neutral, (b) J \, maximal adduction (ulnar deviation), (c) maximal palmarflexion, and (d) combined palmarflexion and adduction (Nikyo position).

Fig 1. Nikyo, a demonstration of how Nikyo is performed during a practice session

Radiography Wrist radiographs were made from an instructor with thirty years' experience in Aikido and a student with one year's training Antero-posterior views were taken with the wrist in a neutral position to document any evi- I dence of previous fracture or injury. Fluoroscopy suggested that oblique radiographs would best illustrate rhe relationship of the pisiform bone to the ul- na by offsetting them from the remaining wrist bones Oblique radiographs I were taken while Nikyo was applied to verify the relationship of the pisiform / bone and ulnar styloid in a living subject. This allowed inference regarding the mechanism of pain production Palmar-dorsal semisupine views were taken to assess the pisotriquetral joint (the joint between the pisiform and the triquetrum) and the possibility of pisiform subluxation (partial dislocation). Hand position, angulation, and magnification were standardized for all radiographs of the two subjects. RESULTS In the cadaver when the wrist is held in the neutral position, a gap can be noted between the pisiform bone and the ulnar styloid. Ulnar deviation alone is insufficient to appose rhe two bones When the wrist is maximally flexed, the two bones can be nearly approximated. When the wrist is placed in the Nikyo position {maximal palmarflexion with simultaneous ulnar deviation), the two bones are forcibly compressed.


A

B

FIG. 2. A: Instructor's wrist (antero-posterior view); l0mm gap between the ulnar styloid and the pisiform. Note the diminutive styloid process (U-ulna, It-radius, S-ulnar styloid, P-pisiform, T-triquetrum). B: Studnt's wrist (antero-posterior view); 4-mm gap between the ulnar styloid and the pisiform.

A

B

Fig 3. A: Instructors wrist (oblique view); taken with Nikyo applied. The psisform bone and ulnar styliod are in apposition (S-ulnar styloid, P-pisiform). B: Students wrist (oblique view); taken with Nikyo applied. The pisiform bone and ulnar styloid are in apposition.

A

B

Fig. 4. A: Instructor's wrist (palmar-dorsal semisupine view); degenerative changes of the pisotriquetral joint, likely due to the chronic application of Nikyo (P-pisiform, T-triquetrum) B: Students wrist (palmar-dorsal semisupine view); normal piso-triqutral joint.


Antero-posterior radiographs (Figs. 2A and 2B) show an unexpected elongation of the distance between the pisiform and the ulnar styloid process. This distance was 4 mm in the student's wrist but 10 mm in the instructor's wrist. There was no evidence of previous fracture. The oblique radiographs (Figs. 3A and 3B), taken with Nikyo applied, show the pisiform and ulna in apposition. In the student's wrist, the pisiform articulates with the ulna proximal to the styloid process while in the instructor's wrist, the approximation occurs more distally in the region of the ulnocarpalligamentous complex (17). These oblique radiographs demonstrate the essence of Nikyo. Palmar-dorsal semisupine views (Figs. 4A and 4B) show signs of degenerative changes of the piso-triquetral joint and spurring of the proximal aspect of the pisiform in the instructor's wrist. Pisiform subluxation was not demonstrable by the criteria proposed by Vasilas, Grieco, and Bartone (18). DISCUSSION The human carpus (wrist) is a complex structure composed of eight asymmetric bones bound by ligaments within a fibrous joint capsule. This anatomic complexity enhances the difficulties in understanding wrist mechanics. This study has involved a review of carpal bony and ligamentous anatomy, wrist kinematics, and previous studies on wrist injuries and instabilities (1, 2,7,8,9, 12, 16, 19). A suitable explanation for the pain of Nikyo must account for (a) the location and nature of the pain and (b) the change in character of the pain after years of practice. . The pain of Nikyo is acute (sudden), sharp, severe, and well-localized to the ulnar aspect of the wrist. It resolves immediately upon release of the hold. This description of the pain most closely resembles that of bone pain produced by nerve endings in the periosteum. There is no associated radiation or paresthesia (numbness) to suggest nerve compression. Passively stressing the wrist joint along any other axis does not recreate the same pain, making ligamentous or capsular stretch unlikely causes of the pain. Chronic clicking or wrist weakness are not produced, indicating that the pain does not result from injury, There is no known acute or chronic disability when the technique is applied in a controlled fashion. Overzealous application of Nikyo, however, can result in severe wrist injury. A review of the sensory nerve endings in the various tissues of the wrist further reinforces our hypothesis. Periosteal nerves, rich in sensory nerves, explain why pain from bone injury is so severe. Articular discs or cartilages have no nerves except at their attached margins. Articular nerves in the articular capsule and associated ligaments of synovial joints have numerous pain fibers that respond to twisting and stretching, but the joint pain that arises is poorly localized and may be referred to the overlying skin or muscle (13, 21). Nociceptive mechanoreceptors (pain fibers) of a joint can be stimuated if the joint is stressed excessively but produce pain that is diffuse (3). Based on these descriptions, Nikyo pain must arise from a bony surface. Since pressure is inversely related to the square of the area being compressed, the small area of bony contact intensifies the compression and the pain. After years of continued practice, Nikyo pain will change to a dull, poorly localized discomfort in contrast to the sharp, well-localized pain in the beginner's wrist. We hypothesize that chronic repetitive stressing of the piso-triquetral complex leads to a lengthening of the proximal ligamentous attachments of the pisiform bone (Fig. 5) (15). If this were to occur, the pisiform and ulna would no longer be able to be compressed to the same extent. This would explain a change in the character of the pain. Our observation of an unexpected lengthening of the distance between the pisiform and the ulnar styloid visible in the instructor's wrist radiograph is consistent with this mechanism of Nikyo pain. Alternatively, fibrous tissue from chronic periosteal irritation may preclude direct periosteal compression.


FIG. 5, The anatomic relations of the pisiform. The pisiform lies at the hub of a multitude of tendon, ligament, and muscle origins and insertions, each exerting a force in a different direction. The flat articular surface of the pisiform offers no stability to the pisotriquetral joint (From D. PaIey, R. Y. McMurtry, and B. Cruickshank, 1987. with permission); see (15)

Several described wrist pathologies further reinforce our conclusions. Injuries to the piso-triquetral joint are a rare but significant cause of ulnar.sided wrist pain (5, 6, 10, 11, 15, 18, 20, 22). "Racquet player's pisiform" leads to chondromalacia of the articular surÂŁace of the pisiform bone and is likely a phenomenon based on a similar mechanism (4). The piso-triquetral joint is least stable in combined palmarflexion and ulnar deviation; therefore, pisiform dislocations are splinted with the wrist in dorsiflexion and radial deviation to immobilize the pisiform adequately (5). Nikyo, therefore, places this joint in its least stable orientation. Olson and Seitz, in their recently published article, have subdivided Nikyo into two phases, (a) Nikyo and (b) Nikajo Osae. We agree with their conclusion that the pain from Nikajo Osae is related to stretching of the extensor tendons of the hand (14). However, the Nikyo technique we have analyzed (phase 1) does not result in pain from this same mechanism but from bony compression Conclusion


Nikyo pain is bone pain. The bones involved, the pisiform and the ulnar styloid process, have been identified based on the site of the pain, dissections of a cadaver, and wrist radiographs. Nikyo forcibly compresses these two structures. The intense pain produced is a result of stimulation of the periosteal nerves in these bony surÂŁaces. REFERENCES ARKLESS, R. Cineradiography in normal and abnormal wrists. American Journal of Roentenology, 1966, 96, 837-844. 2. BO'ITKE, C. A., LOUIS, D. S., & BRAUNSTEIN, E. M. Diagnosis and treatment of obscure ulnar-sided wrist pain. Orthopedics, 1989, 12, 1075-1079. 3. BURGESS, P. R., & CLARK, F. J. Characteristics of knee joint receptors in the cat. Journal of Physiology, 1969, 204, 317335. . 4. HELAL, B. Racquet player's pisiform. The Hand, 1978, 10, 87-90. 5. IMMERMANN, W. Dislocation of the pisiform. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery [American], 1948, 30A, 489-492. 6. KROPP, B. N. A note on the piso-triquetral joint. Anatomical Record, 1945, 92, 91-92. 7. LINSCHEID, R. L., DOBYNS; J. H., BEABOUT, J. W., & BRYAN, R. S. Traumatic instability of the wrist. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery [American], 19i2, 54A, 1612. 8. MACCONAIL.L, M. A. The mechanical anatomy of the carpus and its bearings on some surgical problems. Journal of Anatomy, 1941, 75,166-175. 9. MAYFIELD, J. K. Wrist ligamentous anatomy and pathogenesis of carpal instability. Orthopedic Clinics of North America, 1984,15,209-217. 10. MCCARRON, R. F., & COLEMAN, W. Dislocation of the pisiform treated by primary resection. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 1989, 241, 231-233. 11. MlNAMI, M., YAMAZAKI, J., & ISHII, S. Isolated dislocation of the pisiform: a case report and review of the literature. Journal of Hand Surgery, 1984, 9A, 125-127. 12. MOONEY, J. F., & POEHLING, G. G. Disruption of the ulnolunate ligament as a cause of chronic ulnar wrist pain. Journal of Hand Surgery, 1991, 16A, 34i-349. 13. MOORE, K. L. Overview. In J. N. Gardner (Ed.), Clinically oriented anatomy. (2nd ed.) Baltimore, MD: WIlliams & Wilkins, 1985. Pp. 30-37. 14. OLSON, G. D., & SElTZ, F. C. An anatomical analysis of Aikido's Second Teaching: an investigation of Nikyo. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1993,77, 123-131. 15. PALEY, D., MCMURTRY, R. Y., & CRUlCKSHANK, B. Pathologic conditions of the pisiform and pisotriquetral joint. Journal of Hand Surgery, 1987, 12A, 110-119. 16. TALElSNIK, J. The ligaments of the wrist. Journal of Hand Surgery, 1976, 1, 110-118. 17. TALEISNIK, J. Ligaments of the carpus. In J. P. Razamon & G. R. Fisk (Eds.), The wrist. (lst ed.) Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 1988. Pp. 17-26. 18. VASILAS, A., GRIECO, V., &.BARTONE, N. F. Roentgen .aspects of injuries of the pisiform bone and pisotriquetral Joint. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery [American], 1960, 42A, 1317-1328. 19. WEBER, E. R. Concepts governing the ro~tional shift of the intercalated segment of the carpus. Orthopedic Clinics of North America, 1984, 15, 193-207. 20. WESTON, W. J., & KELSEY, C. K. Functional anatomy of the pisi-cuneiform joint. British Journal of Radiology, 1973, 46, 692-694. 21. ZANCOLLI, E. A. The painful hand: problems and solutions. In C. B. Wynn Parry (Ed.), Management of pain in the hand and wrist. {lst ed.) Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 1991. Pp. 114-138. 22. ZIMMERMAN, N. B., & MASS, D. P. A pisiform fracture. Orthopedics, 1987, 10, 817-820.

Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1993, 77, 123.131. @ Perceptual and Motor Skills 1993 AN ANATOMICAL ANALYSIS OF AIKIDO'S SECOND TEACHING: AN INVESTIGATION OF NIKYO GREGORY D. OLSON Department of Health and Human Development Montana State University

and

FRANK C. SEITZ WAMI Medical School Program Montana State University


Summary.- One of the strongest subduing techniques of the Martial Art Aikido is classified as Nikyo {Second-teaching}. This investigation focused on examining this teaching with the intention of describing the anatomical tissues involved in the etiology of pain experienced with the application of this procedure. Particular focus was placed on the examination of a cadaver's arm musculature affected when this maneuver was applied precisely.

Aikido ("Way of divine harmony") is a Japanese martial way that has, like the other Japanese budo (martial ways), been considered as a vehicle ". ..for selÂŁ-improvement, self-discipline, and the enhancement of health, rather than simply as a means of winning fights" (Wolf, 1992, p. 101). The technical syllabus ofthis art is ". ..established on the principles and techniques of evasion, securing, and throwing" (Olson & Seitz, 1990, p. 1059) and is defensive in its basic nature. These points not withstanding the physical anatomy affected by this technique is an interesting study in itself. Projection of a training partner's body through the air and onto the mat with grace and ease makes Aikido a joy to witness for the observer as well as for the performer of the art. Another interesting aspect of the arts of Aikido involves the manipulation of the various joints of the body, particularly the joints of the arms, as a method of control and of securing a training partner on the mat. Of particular interest in this study was Aikido's second teaching, known to practitioners of Aikido by different labels such as, Nikyo (Second-teach- ing), Nikajo-Osae (Second-Control/Securing), Kote Mawashi (Wrist In-turn) or in other Japanese martial arts such as Judo ("Way of flexibility") with its Kote-hineri ("Hand"-twisting) as shown in Kata of Kodokan Judo Revised (Kotani, Osawa, & Hirose, 1968). The particular technique being studied can also be found in Karate-do (see Oyama, 1965, pp. 257-264) and Chinese Chin-Na (see Lin, 1981, p. 126-155). Although this particular technique can be found in other martial arts and ways of the Orient, the Nikyo technique has been particularly cultivated and refined as one of Aikido's core tech-niques and is of particular interest to the researchers; see Fig. 1

Fig 1 Demonstration of hand and arm positioning for the first phase of the Nikyo teaching.

Saotome (1989) describes the Nikyo technique as a type of combination-variation technique (renraku-henka waza) from Aikido's Ikkyo (First-teaching). 4 Saotome states that. Nage [doer of the technique], when executing nikyo, should always begin by sincerly trying for ikkyo. Uke [receiver of the technique] in turn resists the ikkyo and his resistance creates an occasion for Nage to perform nikyo (p 68)

Saotome further states that the focus of the technique should be on control of Uke's whole body, not just the wrist or elbow. ..note that Nage keep control of Uke's body through hi, hold on Uk'., dhow; th, rotation of Uk'., urn 'OM"" th, urn ~th hJ. mould" and "nt" If Nag' I",t oontrol of Uk" h, wocid not be .hk to ttamfonn hJ. ikkyo in., mkyo (p 68)


In his text Traditional Aikido-sword*stick*body arts, Saito (1974) de-scribes the maneuver as ", , , a technique to impart impulses to the joints of your partner's wrists, elbows, and shoulders" (p. 50). Shioda (1977) de-scribes this teaching as one to inflict pain by describing the technique as one ". , , directed at the elbow and the wrist and can be used to inflict much pain if applied skillfully" (p. 74). Westbrook and Ratti (1975) characterize the Nikyo technique for its self-defense as: ...one of the most powerful techniques in the aikido repertoire-one which, when correctly executed, can bring even the strongest man to his knees. ...[It] can be applied t.o neutralize almost any type of attack swiftly and efficiently (p. 174).

The anatomy of the N ikyo technique consists of the tissues involved when the technique's first and second phases are applied. Pain during the first phase of the maneuver is created when Uke's hand is secured to Nage's chest and the arm is maneuvered into a characteristic "s" shape as shown in Fig. 1. "Twist forcefully and control him" (Ueshiba, 1991, p. 44) with counter-rotational forces applied to the hand and forearm with Uke's hand being torqued in one direction (clockwise) and the forearm in the opposite direc- tion (counterclockwise). While these torques are being executed, Uke's arm and body are drawn towards Nage. See Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. Close-up view of the arm and hand positioning of Nage while counter-rotational torques are being applied to the Uke's hand torqued clockwise and his arm which is being torqued counterclockwise

In the second phase of the maneuver, which may be referred to as the Nikyo Omote Osae Waza {Secondteaching Forward Securing Technique} Uke is pinned to the mat by pressure to the elbow joint while pain is produced by hyperflexion of the wrist. See Fig. 3. Note that of the two definitive classical methods to complete this particular technique, only one of the methods was examined in this research.

Fig 3. Demonstration of the hand and arm positioning for one of two possible second phases of the Nikyo technique.


The focus of this study was to locate and describe the mechanism of the effectiveness of Aikido's Nikyo technique in order to undertand the basis for effectiveness. The analysis was not meant to be an examination of the nerve processes or to demonstrate the technique with all of its complexities or in its full form. Demonstrations and explanations of technique can be found elsewhere (Obata, 1987, pp 96-98, 126-130; Saotome, 1989, pp. 68, 90-91, 174-175; Stevens, 1985, pp 156-159; Tohei, 1968, pp 76-77, 98-99; Ueshiba, 1985, pp 60-63, 122-125; Villadorato, 1974, pp 111-119; Westbrook & Ratti, 1975, pp. 174-179). METHOD Subjects Serving as Ukes, anatomists Dr Dwight Phillips and Ms Susan Gibson, MS experienced the application of this particular technique The other subject was a flayed adult male cadaver in excellent condition, with sinew, ligaments, nerves, muscles, and bones exposed for research. Procedure Reporting the sensations srrounding the application of the Nikyo technique, the anatomy professors felt directly the pain and sensations of the technique as it was being applied to them by one of the authors, a third dgree black belt of AIkido and of Judo with more than 27 years of martial arts training and teaching. A discussion among the authors and the anatomy professors followed each application of the technique to clarify the probable cause of sensations of pain. The technique was then applied to the cadaver which was examined to identify and clarify which musculature or bodily tissues were involved when the maneuver was executed. RESULTS In the literature reviewed by the authors only a cursory description of the anatomy or physiology of this technique is mentioned. Westbrook and Ratti (1975) wrote that "[Nikyo] requires more than a passing familiarity with the intricate anatomical structure of a man's arm and the pattern of nervous centers imbedded there" (p. 176). Shioda (1977) observed that "[Nikajo] stretches and softens the sinews. .:' and ". ..stimulates the nerve endings" (p. 74).


FIG. 4. Muscles and tendons of the hand and forearm affected by the Nikyo technique ..

The anatomical analysis of the Nikyo technique was studied in two stages, firstly on two professors of anatomy and secondly on the cadaver. The cadaver, with sinew, ligaments, nerves, muscles, and bones exposed for ex-amination, provided an exceptional opportunity for that observation to ascertain which tissues were affected by the application of the maneuver. When the arm of the cadaver was placed in the characteristic "s" shape of Phase One (see Fig. 2), and the horizontal pin of Phase Two (see Fig. 3), the following tissues were involved: (1) extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon and muscle, (2) extensor carpi radialis longus tendon and muscle, (3) extensor pollicis brevis tendon and muscle, (4) extensor pollicis longus tendon and muscle, (5) extensor indicis tendon and muscle, and the (6) lateral and distal styloid process of the radial bone. See Fig. 4. It was established that the distal and lateral ends of the radius, the styloid process, is placed in a position in which it "acts as a pulley" (Dr. Dwight Phillips, personal communication, May, 1991). This pulley effectively tightens and stretches the extensor carpi radialis longus and the extensor carpi radialis brevis tendons and muscles as well as the extensor indicis tendon and muscle. See Fig. 5.


Fig. 5. Extensor tendons and muscles 0ÂŁ the wrist (continued on next page)

In addition, when the wrist is flexed in the "s" shape (see Fig. 1), the extensor carpi tendons become taut and "act as a further pulley" (Dr. Dwight Phillips, personal communication, May, 1991) stretching the exten-sor pollicis brevis muscle and tendon and the extensor pollicis longus tendon and muscle. Also established was that by forcefully flexing the cadaver's first meta- carpal-phalangeal joint, the thumb joint, the author was "tightening the ex-tensor pollicis brevis and the extensor pollicis longus, and both of those actions" [flexion of the wrist and flexion of the first metacarpal-phalangeal joint] coupled with "the rotation of the forearm [were] putting tension on the tendon of the extensor indices" (Dr. Dwight Phillips, personal communication, May, 1991).

Fg. 5. (Cont'd) Extensor tendons and muscles of the wrist

Furthermore, when the technique is performed as pictured in Fig. 2, it should be noted that flexion of Uke's index finger on the chest of Nage creates a further stretch of the extensor indicis muscle and tendon. See Fig. 5. One may note that skillful application of the technique puts every particular segment of Uke's arm, even


the index finger, into a position which maximally stretches the tissues involved with minimum effort exerted by Nage. DISCUSSION Nikyo's impressive effectiveness seems to come from a combination of several factors that stretch to the limits certain tendons and muscles in the hand and forearm of Uke; these factors are (1) the precise configuration of Uke's arm during the application phases of the technique and (2) the precise counterrotational torques applied to Uke's arm. These procedures produce a stretch in the following tissues: (1) extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon and muscle, (2) extensor carpi radialis longus tendon and muscle, (3) extensor pollicis brevis tendon and muscle, (4) extensor pollicis longus tendon and muscle, (5) extensor indicis tendon and muscle. The Nikyo technique has two phases that were examined, Phase One consisted of Uke's arm placed in the characteristic "s" shape of the technique, and Phase Two the horizontal finishing pin of the technique. The skillful application of the two different phases of the technique stretched the same tendons and muscles with the consideration that Phase One (see Fig. 2) of the technique was more effective than Phase Two (see Fig. 3). This effectiveness was based on the "s" configuration of Uke's limb which more efficiently stretched the tissues involved. Intriguingly, different locations of pain are sometimes reported when the technique is applied to various individuals (Seitz & Olson, 1992). The authors surmise that the various locations of pain are reported when the technique is applied because Uke's perceptions vary as to what section of a particular muscle or attached tendon are stretched. In other words, one Uke might report the sensations of pain in the hand while another may report pain in the upper forearm. It is surmised that in all cases the same particular muscles and tendons are being stretched, but in each case the pain is felt most intensely along different sections of the particular muscle or tendon by various Ukes. Nikyo is one of the most efficient and powerful techniques of the Aikido repertoire. In the authors' opinions, variations of this technique could be of great value to law enforcement personnel as well as to classes of selfdefense. That not withstanding, when the technique is done in its classical and most efficient form, the authors believe it is too subtle and complex a movement to be learned and performed by unpracticed law enforcement officers or in an abbreviated course of self-defense. In the authors' opinions the beauty of the technique can only be appreciated by those willing to give long and arduous study to it under a qualified Shihan [master]. REFERENCES KOTANI, S., OSAWA, Y., & HIROSE, Y. (1968) Kata of Kodokan judo revised. Kobe, Japan: Koyano Bussan Kaisha. LIN, W. (1981) Chin-Na: the grappling art of self-defense. Burbank, CA: Ohara Publ. OBATA, T. (1987) Samurai aikijujutsu. Thousand Oaks, CA: Dragon Books. OLSON, G. D., & SEITZ, F. C. (1990) An examination of Aikido's Fourth Teaching: an anatom- ical study of the tissues of the forearm. Perceptual and,Motor Skills, 71, 1059-1066. OYAMA, M. (1965) This is karate. San Francisco, CA: Japan Publ. SAITO, M. (1974) Traditional Aikido-sword; Stick body arts. Vol. 3. Tokyo: Minato. SAOTOME, M. (1989) The principles of Aikido. Boston, MA: Shambhala. SEITZ, F. C., & OLSON, G. D. (1992, May) The paradox of pain in sports injury. Paper pre-sented to the Montana Psychological Association, Bozeman, MT. SEITZ, F. C., OLSON, G. D., & STENZEL, T. E. (1991) A martial arts exploration of elbow anatomy: Ikkyo (Aikido's First Teaching). Perceptual and Motor Skills, 73, 1227-1234. SHlODA, G. {1977) Dynamic Aikido. New York: Kodansha. STEVENS, J. (1985) Aikido: the way of harmony. Boulder, CO: Shambhala. TOHEl, K. (1968) This is Aikido. San Francisco, CA: Japan Publ.


UESHIBA, K. (1985) Aikido. Tokyo: Hozansha. UESHIBA, M. (1991) Budo, teachings of the Founder of Aikido. Tokyo: Kodansha. VILLADORATA, M. N. Dl. (1974) Aikido beyond aggression. Toronto: Ampersand. WESTBROOK, A., & RATTI, 0. (1975) Aikido and the dynamic sphere. Tokyo: Tuttle. WOLF, R. E. II. (1992) A book of five rings (Gorin no Sho) {Review of A book of five rings (Gorin no sho)]. Journal of Asian Martial Arts, 1, 101.

Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1994, 79, 1583 - 1586

Š Perceptual and Motor Skills 1994

WHAT'S CAUSING THE PAIN?: A RE-EXAMINATION OF THE AIKIDO NIKYO TECHNIQUE GREGORY D. OLSON

and

FRANK C. SEITZ

Department of Health and WAMI Medical School Program Human Development Montana State University Montana State University Summary.- Recently there have been several investigations into the etiologyof the pain produced on the application of Aikido's Nikyo (Second-teaching). This paper analyses several conclusions as to the discrepancies found in the results of these studies.

As the interest in the Eastern martial arts and ways increases in populatiry, it is obvious that these arts will come under more scrutiny in the West. This seems to be the case with two recent anatomical studies involving a particular Aikido technique. There studies were conducted by Eckert and Lee (1) and by Olson and Seitz(2). In both studies an anatomical analysis of the Aikido technique, Nikyo (Second-teaching) was performed. Although it appears that the particular Nikyo technique of both studies was executed similarly, a discrreppancy emerged in the findings which occurred during the first phase of the technique. See Olson and Seitz (2, p.125). In the study completed by Olson and Seitz, the researchers used a cadaver to observe directly the tissues manipulated during the first and secnd phase of Nikyo. In addition to the cadaver, the authors also used two assisting anatomists as subjects. These anatomists had not been trained or exposed to Oriental martial arts in any way. They discussed the location of pain with the researchers when the technique was applied on them. In the study by Eckert and Lee, the authors used themselves as subjects and reported the location of pain from their own perceptions. Althoughh the technique has many subtleties during its application, for purposes of this paper, it is assumed that the researchers placed the hand of the receiver in the correct anatomical poistion for the technqiues's application and that the application was the same for both studies. During the application of Nikyo, Eckert and Lee took x-rays to examine the manipulations and locations of the bones of the wrist. It is the contention of this paper that both studies' findings are correct. The differing results, however, may be attributed to the particular anatomy and length of training of the subjects. In the study by Olson and Seitz, one of the live subjects was a stout, somewhat inflexible indivisual whose soft tissues (muscles and tendons) prevented extreme hyperflexion and minimized rotation of the wrist. In addition, neither subject had previously had theextensor tendons of the hand and forearm stretched or manipulated with this particular technique. In Eckert and Lee's study, the live subjects were both trained Aikidoists. It is important to realise that both subjects cold have had the musculature that was stretched to accomodate the continued application of the technique. It would seem, then, that pain might be produced by different mechanisms depending on the flexibility of the anatomy of the uke (receiver). In the Olson and Seitz study pain may be caused from the effectes of stretched tendons, while in the Eckert and Lee study pain may have been caused by the compression of the periosteal nerves of the pisirom bone and the ulnar styloid process.


REFERENCES 1. ECKERT, J.T. & LEE, T.K. The anatomy of Nikyo (AIkido's Second-teaching). Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1993, 77, 707-715 2. OLSON, G.D. & SEITZ, E.C. An anatomical anaysis of Aikido's Second Teaching: an investigation of Nikyo. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1993, 77, 123-131.

Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1990, 71, 1059-1066. @ Perceptual and Motor Skills 1990 AN EXAMINATION OF AIKIDO'S FOURTH TEACHING: AN ANATOMICAL STUDYOF THE TISSUES OF THE FOREARM. GREGORY D. OLSON Department of Health and Human Development Montana State University

and

FRANK C. SEITZ WAMI Medical School Program Montana State University

Summary.- One of the basic teachings of Aikido is known as Yonkyo (Fourth Teaching) or Tekubi-Osae (Wrist Securing). According to some Aikido master teachers, Yonkyo is designed to attack the opponent's weak points. This investigation focused on examining this teaching with the purpose of describing the anatomical tissues involved in the etiology of pain when this teaching is applied precisely. Particular focus was placed on the anatomical locations/sources of pain associated with the application of this teaching.

The ways of the martial artist are often viewed, through Western eyes, as mysterious. The movements and techniques can astonish the observer, making it easy to forget that what one is watching, at its most fundamental level, is a sequence of physical and psychological events. This investigation will focus on examining one such teaching and its variations, Yonkyo ( Fourth Teaching} also known as Tekubi-Osae (Wrist Securing) found in Aikido and other martial arts and ways, with the purpose of describing the anatomical tissues involved in Yonkyo, including the etiology of pain when this teaching is applied precisely. See Fig. 1. Aikido is a Japanese martial way established on the principles and techniques of evasion, securing, and throwing. It is defensive in nature as well as noncompetitive. The beginnings of Aikido go back to the very foundation of the Japanese martial arts (Olson, 1988). The very first mention of the words ai (joining, blending} and ki (life force, dynamic energy} in the martial arts, can be found in relation to Aiki-jujutsu (fighting techniques using blending techniques for combative purposes} which had its origins, according to one authority, with the Minamoto family in the years around 850-880 A.D. (Shioda, 1977}.


Fig. 1. The authors demonstrating hand and arm positioning in the Fourth Teaching of Aikido

One of the basic teachings of Aikido is known in Japanese as Yonkyo (Fourth Teaching} or Tekubi-Osae (Wrist Securing). The teaching may have evolved as a method used by the bushi (Japanese warrior} to take away an enemy's sword or to defend himself while "securing the enemy on the field of honor." This teaching has been described as the technique "which causes the most pain of all the techniques of Aikido" if properly applied (Ueshiba, 1985, p. 66). According to some Aikido master teachers, Yonkyo is designed to "induce sufficient pain to prevent him [from] fighting" (Shioda, 1977, p. 100), while others say that the pain is only a result of a correctly applied securing technique "which attacks the opponent's weak points in order to control him" (Ueshiba, 1985, p. 66), Saotome (1989), an Aikido master teacher (shihan), believes that the teaching "is dependent on the control of uke's [receiver of technique] whole body, not on the infliction of pain" (p. 75). Whether it attacks the opponent's weak points or is a result of a securing technique, this basic teaching, when applied by advanced students of the art, can result in great pain. The purpose of this paper is to identify those parts ~ of the anatomy of the wrist that render this teaching so painful. The application of Yonkyo can be performed on several locations of the wrist. These locations are dependent on the application of the omote {forward) variation of the teaching or the ura {backward) variation of the teaching. Both applications are exceedingly painful. The application of pressure to the anterior side and distal end of the forearm of the uke is done with "the lower knuckle of the index finger" (Tohei, 1968, p. 82), or "the root of the forefinger" (Ueshiba, 1985, p. 66) which also may be described as the anterior side of the third proximal knuckle from the end of the forefinger. In examining Yonkyo, the researchers observed what occurred when sudden direct pressure of the investigator's knuckle was applied to uke's wrist and forearm. Particular focus was placed on the anatomical locations/sources of pain associated with the application of this teaching. Specific observation focused on the anatomical parts that are involved in uke's reported sensation of intense pain. Shioda {1977) has noted that "concentrated pressure on these [anatomical] points can render an opponent helpless" (p. 100). METHOD


Subjects A 48-yr.-old Professor of Anatomy served as uke, experiencing firsrhand the sensations surrounding the precise application of Yonkyo by a third degree black belt in Aikido. The second uke was an adult male cadaver whose derma had been removed to facilitate the study of bones, muscles, nerves, blood vessels, ligaments and tendons in the forearm. Procedure The principal investigator, a third degree black belt in Aikido and in Judo, having had 25 yr. of martial arts training, performed both versions of Yonkyo, forward and backward, on the anatomy professor. The techniques were then applied to the cadaver, with the anatomist observing the locations of the investigator's hands, knuckles, and fingers while the techniques were being demonstrated. RESULTS Several authors have speculated on the causes of the pain associated with the Yonkyo teaching. Westbrook and Ratti (1975) maintain that it in-volves the application of sudden, sharp pressure upon the nerve centers of the forearm. They observe that "the inner edge of your hand [goes] across the tendons, pressing deeply into the complex of nerves located two or three inches above the wrist" (p. 198). Ueshiba (1985), while describing the forward variation of the teaching done from the tori's (doer of the technique) left-hand side, states that "the root of your left forefinger will be on his right pulse" (p. 66). He further notes that the back variation uses "the root of your left forefinger on the bone (thumb side) of his right wrist" (p. 66). In the present analysis of the location of nerves, tendons, and tissues, different pressures were applied to the distal end of the forearm of the anatomist who was the uke (receiver) of the teaching. The teaching was consequently applied to the cadaver. A comparison was then made between the professor's reported experience and compression on the cadaver to observe what tissues were stimulated by the pressure of the investigator's knuckle in the area of uke's wrist and the cadaver's. It was judged that pain was caused by several different mechanisms, depending on the application of either the forward or backward versions of Yonkyo. These locations are illustrated in Figs. 2, 3, and 4.

Fig. 2. Nerves and tissues stimulated in the Fourth Teaching-Backward Variation (Yonkyo Ura) as well as the Fourth Teaching-Forward Variation (Yonkyo Omote), Second Method.


Yonkyo Ura (Fourth Teaching-Back Variation) Pain resulting ÂŁrom pressure to the distal end of the radial bone in the area of the radial pulse was identified at a location where the bone is completely unprotected by intervening muscle, tendons, or ligaments. Pressure is applied against the periosteum, the tissue covering the radial bone itselÂŁ. The superficial radial nerve with its lateral branch is located over the radial bone at this location (see Fig. 2). The backward application of Yonkyo compresses directly the superficial radial nerve and the periosteum of the radius, with no muscle intervention. The periosteum is sensitive to vibration and pressure, particularly in reference to nerve endings in the coverings of bones (Dr. Dwight Phillips, personal communication, February 1989). The results suggest that the pain associated with the backward variation of Yonkyo involves the compression of the superficial radial nerve, perhaps its lateral branch, and compression of the periosteum. Ueshiba (1985) states that one must "grip with the root of your right index finger against his ulna bone ..." (p. 132), which may, quite possibly, be the radial bone if the present research workers' observations are correct.

Fig. 3. Median Nerve stimulated in the Fourth Teaching-Forward Variation (Yonkyo Omote, First and Second Method

Yonkyo Omote (Fourth Teaching-Forward Variation) In this application of Yonkyo there are two distinct variations of applying pressure and different tissues are involved in each method. First method.- In the first method, direct pressure is exerted against the medial nerve and, to some extent, against all of the tendons across the im-mediate area. All of these tendons have exquisitely sensitive nerve endings (see Fig. 3).


Fig.4. Nerves and tendons stimulated in the Fourth Teaching-Forwatd Variation (Yonkyo Omote), Second Method

Second method- In the second method of application, the knuckle moves back and forth across the forearm approximately one-and-a-half inches (1.5 in.) proximal to the wrist joint, while the uke's hand is secured in the extended position. This extension creates a certain tension in the tissues of the area that the tori (doer of technique) can, with the proper sensitive pressure, produce pain in the subject. This extension exposes the median nerve, making it more accessible to pressure and stimulation; see Fig. 3. The back and forth motion of the knuckle on the uke produces pain and discomfort with the sudden compression and release of the nerves and tendons in the area. It is interesting to note that the tissues toward the radial side of the wrist are more stimulated by this technique than those found in the ulnar side of the wrist. With this particular variation of the teaching the greater stimulation can be attributed to the placement of the tori's hands on the uke's forearm as well as to the tori's body alignment. In the second method of the forward variations of Yonkyo, a rather exensive group of nerves and tendons are stimulated, including the superficial branch of the radial nerve (see Fig. 2), the flexor carpi radialis tendon (see Figs. 3 and 4), the median nerve (see Fig. 3), the palmaris longus tendon, and the flexor digitorum superficialis tendons (see Figs. 3 and 4). Although the effective application of the for\vard versions of Yonkyo involve the above-mentioned nerves, the teaching does not appear to include the ulnar nerve; see Fig. 3. The technique is concentrated toward the thumb or radial side of the subject's wrist. DISCUSSION In studying Yonkyo (Fourth Teaching) of the martial art, Aikido, these investigators observed that the backward variation is effective because pressure is applied to the periosteum of the radius and the superficial branch of the radial nerve. The frontward variation of Yonkyo can be applied by two methods. The first method involves direct pressure against the median nerve along with ancillary pressure against those tendons in close proximity. The second method applies pressure to an area proximal to the wrist with a sideways back and forth motion of tori's knuckle. The stimulation to this area applies pressure to the superficial branch of the radial nerve, the flexor carpi radialis tendon, the median nerve, the palmaris longus tendon, and the flexor digitorum superficialis tendons. The focus of this study was to identify the anatomical tissues stimulated by tori as a basis for the pain reported by uke when Yonkyo was applied in its various forms. No mention is made of the correct manner of shaping one's hand while applying pressure when doing Yonkyo. Also, it is beyond the scope of this investigation to describe in detail the biomechanics of Yonkyo. Such issues, although as important as the results of the identification and location of the tissues involved in the proper application of Yonkyo, are


beyond the scope of the present analysis and are effectively dealt with elsewhere (cf. Saito, 1974, p. 61; Saotome, 1989, p. 75). Yonkyo seems to be an important technique in the study of the martial art, Aikido. However, in the authors' opinions it would appear to have only marginal application in many practical circumstances, such as in law enforcement or in a limited class of self-defense for several reasons: (1) the correct location of one's hands on a subject's wrist is difficult to learn and under- stand. quickly. (2) The locations of the proper pressure points are a challenge to find quickly for an inexperienced person. (3) Learning how to use and shape one's hands in properly executing Yonkyo quickly and effectively comes only with extended training. (4) The brevity of most self-defense training courses precludes the amount of supervised training and practice necessary to learn the practical applications of Yonkyo in combat situations. (5) Given the variability of pain tolerance across potential subjects, subjects with higher pain thresholds cannot be controlled by the use of pain alone. Subjects can only be subdued by Yonkyo when the entire technique is properly executed. Given the abovenoted limitations, however, it still remains clear that the use of Yonkyo is a testimony to the genius and creativity of the founding fathers and technicians in martial arts and ways. REFERENCES OLSON, G. (1988) Aikido: a beginner's text. Bozeman, MT: Professor Publ. SAITO, M. (1974) Traditional Aikido-sword * stick * body arts. Vol. 3. Tokyo: Minato. SAOTOME, M. (1989) The principles af Aikido. Boston, MA: Shambhala. SHIODA, G. (1977) Dynamic Aikido. New York: Kodansha. TOHEI, K. (1968) This is Aikido. San Francisco, CA: Japan Publ. UESHIBA, K. (1985) Aikido. Tokyo: Hozansha. WESTBROOK, A., & RATI1, 0. (1975) Aikido and the dynamic sphere. Tokyo: Tuttle.


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