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58 Hermann Zapf MANUALE TYPOGRAPHICUM

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with considerations about types, typography and the an of printing selected from past and present, printed in eighteen languages.

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Minus Leading

Minus leading, made possible by the advent of phototypesetting, means that type is set less than solid. This means that the distance from baseline to baseline is less than the point size of the type itself (for example 9/8, 14/12,24/20). (9 POINT ITC SOUVENIR LIGHT SET WITH ONE POINT LEADING)

When setting type —especially text type —with minus leading, the designer should make sure that the design of the typeface allows for the removal of space between the lines of type. If too much space is removed, the ascenders and descenders will touch or overlap. Some typefaces, such as Helvetica and Century Expanded, have large x-heights and therefore very little visual space between the lines. When set with minus leading they tend to appear very crowded. Futura and Garamond, on the other hand, have small x-heights and can stand some minus leading. (9 POINT ITC SOUVENIR LIGHT SET SOLID 9/9)

When setting text type, minus leading is indicated as shown above: type size first, then a slash, then baseline-to-baseline measurement. With display type, however, it is often simpler to specify the desired amount of white space between the lines. This can be stated in points or fractions of an inch, although most typographers prefer to work with points. (9 POINT ITC SOUVENIR LIGHT SET WITH MINUS .h POINT LEADING)

MANUALE TYPOGRAPHICUM BY HERMANN ZAPF Here are 100 typographic pages with quotations from the past and present on types and printing in 18 different languages. English translations and list of authors in the back. Selected and designed by Hermann Zapf, the creator of Optima, Melior, Palatino and many other widely used contemporary typefaces. Stimulating to the eye and the mind. 118 pages. x 12. $75.00. To order circle #131 in U&Ic order coupon on page 63.

Because most type specimen books do not show samples of minus leading, the amount of space that can be removed is largely a matter of guesswork. So it is advisable to have a type sample set before setting the entire job. Warning: when working with minus leading, the designer should be aware that it is almost impossible to strip in new lines of type when making corrections in mechanicals or makeup. This may mean having to reset entire paragraphs in order to make the necessary corrections. (9 POINT ITC SOUVENIR LIGHT SET WITH MINUS 1 POINT LEADING)

Adapted from James Craig's Production for the Graphic Designer

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