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Center for Scholastic Inquiry (CSI) offers electronic presentation portfolios as a courtesy to the attendees of our conferences. Materials are the sole intellectual property of the presenters and are displayed only with their permission. All questions about content should be directed to the presenters. Pages

Table of Contents

4-27

Exploring the Relationship Between Digital Media Choices and Teaching Experience in Online Courses – Dr. Diane Hamilton

28-36

Learning Styles of Students Enrolled in Colleges of Business, Education, and Engineering at a Northwest University – Dr. Jerome Fischer

37-51

Web-based Instructional Design as an Alternative Strategy in Enhancing English Learning Motivation – Dr. Liang-Chen Lin and Dr. Valentin Ekiaka Nzai

52-93

An Error Analysis in the Written Production of Thai Students in an International College – Wuttipol Khirin

94-107

Practice What You Teach: Pre-service Educators’ Writing Apprehension – Dr. Brooke A. Burks

108-143

Problems Which Face Primary School Principals in the UAE – Dr. Ahmad Al-mashhadany

144-160

Plugging the Holes: Issues That Impact a Successful After School Tutorial Program – Dr. Jamal Cooks

161-166

Children’s Cognitive Enhancement Program: A Pilot Study – Dr. Kenneth Kohutek

167-190

Who Says We Are Not on the Same Page? Leading Special Education Programs Collaboratively: The Good News and the Bad News – Dr. Ted Price


191-212

Stepping to the “B” Side: Academic Experiences of African American Doctoral Students – Dr. Jamal Cooks

213-258

Building Bridges For English Learners in Colorado – Dr. Debora Scheffel and Dr. Dianne Lefly

259-283

Culturally Responsive Transition Practices: Beyond the Post Secondary Education Opportunity Gap for Students from Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CLD) Backgrounds – Dr. York Williams

284-306

What is the Impact of Students’ Ability to Choose Across and Within Course Modality (OL or FTF) on Course Completions? – Dr. James DeCosta

307-314

Holding on to Novice Teachers: What Teacher Preparation Programs Can Do to Prevent Novice Teacher Attrition – Dr. Joan Berry

315-357

The Production of Final /s/ in English Words by Thai Speakers with Different English-Language Experiences – Wuttipol Khirin


Demand – 6.7 million take online course  Platforms – Blackboard, eCollege, Moodle, OLS, Loud Cloud, Angel  Media Choices – Websites, Blogs, Video Links, News Sites, Social Network Sites  Survey – Linkedin Group 


Online Sector Fastest Growing in Education – 6.7 Million Students (SloanC.org)  Acceptance and Retention Issues 


Expertise – Job Requirements – Many are Advanced Beginners or at Least Competent  Challenges – Quality, Access, Appropriate Content 


Blogs  Facebook  Twitter  News  Youtube 


Linkedin – Groups and Reason for Choice  PollDaddy – Easy of Access and Delivery 


Demographics – 110 Online Professors  Choices – News Sites, Blogs, Youtube, Social Sites (Facebook, Twitter), None  Frequencies 


Gender Frequency

male Valid

Female Total

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

51

46.4

46.4

46.4

59

53.6

53.6

100.0

110

100.0

100.0


Age Frequency

26-35 36-45 Valid

46-55 >55 Total

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

7

6.4

6.4

6.4

22

20.0

20.0

26.4

31

28.2

28.2

54.5

50

45.5

45.5

100.0

110

100.0

100.0


Experience Frequen cy

< 3 years 3-8 years Valid > 8 years Total

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

11

10.0

10.0

10.0

58

52.7

52.7

62.7

41

37.3

37.3

100.0

110

100.0

100.0


Media Frequen cy

News (official) Blogs Youtube

Valid

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

59

53.6

53.6

53.6

5

4.5

4.5

58.2

21

19.1

19.1

77.3

2

1.8

1.8

79.1

16

14.5

14.5

93.6

7

6.4

6.4

100.0

110

100.0

100.0

Facebook (Social Media) Not Listed None Total


Media

News (official)

News (unofficial)

Blogs

Youtube

Facebook (Social Media)

Not Listed

None

Count

Count

Count

Count

Count

Count

Count

4

0

0

3

0

2

2

31

0

3

11

2

6

5

24

0

2

7

0

8

0

< 3 years

Experience

3 - 8 years

> 8 years


35

30

25

20 <3 years 3-8 years 15

>8 years

10

5

0 News Sites

Blogs, etc.

Youtube

Facebook

Not Listed

None


1.2

1

0.8

<3 years 0.6

3-8 years >8 years

0.4

0.2

0 News Sites

Blogs, etc.

Youtube

Facebook

Not Listed

None


Media

18-25 26-35 Age

36-45 46-55 >55

News (official)

News (unofficial)

Blogs

Youtube

Facebook (Social Media)

Not Listed

None

Count

Count

Count

Count

Count

Count

Count

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

3

0

0

2

0

1

1

9

0

1

6

0

4

2

17

0

3

7

1

3

0

30

0

1

6

1

8

4


35

30

25

20

26-35 36-45 46-55

15

>55 10

5

0 News Sites

Blogs, etc.

Youtube

Facebook

Not Listed

None


Media News (official)

Count

Blogs News (unofficial)

Count

Count

Youtube

Facebook (Social Media)

Not Listed

None

Count

Count

Count

Count

26

0

2

10

1

9

3

33

0

3

11

1

7

4

male Gender Female


35

30

25

20 male female

15

10

5

0 <3 years

3-8 years

>8 years


0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

male

0.4

female 0.3

0.2

0.1

0 <3 years

3-8 years

>8 years


Appropriateness  Selection  Further Research 


Growth  Effective Use  Further Research 


Ali, N., Hodson-Carlton, K., Ryan, M., Flowers, J., & Rose, M.A. (2005) Online education: Needs assessment for faculty development. Continuing Education of Nursing, 36(1), 32-38. Aviles, M. & Eastman, J., (2012). Utilizing technology effectively to improve Millennials’ educational performance. Journal of International Education in Business 5(2). 96-113. Brown, J. (2012). Online learning: A comparison of web-based and land-based courses. Quarterly Review of Distance Education 13(1). 39-42. Cao, Y., & Hong, P., (2011). Antecedents and consequences of social media utilization in college teaching: A proposed model with mixed-methods investigation. On the Horizon Emerald Group Publishing 19(4). 297-306. DOI: 10.1108/107481211111179420. Chen, B., & Bryer, T., (2012). Investigating instructional strategies for using social medial in formal and informal learning. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning. 87-104. Dey, E., Burn, H., & Gerdes, D., (2009). Bringing the classroom to the Web: Effects of using new technologies to capture and deliver lectures. Higher Education (50), 377-393. DOI: 10.1007/s11162-09-9124-0. Friedman H. & Friedman, W., (2011). Crisis in education: Online learning as a solution. Creative Education, 2(3). 156-163. Gerlich, R.N., Browning, L, & Westermann, L. (2010). The social media affinity scale: Implications for education. Contemporary Issues in Education Research 3(11). 35. Halic, O., Lee, D., Paulus, T., & Spence, M. (2010). To blog or not to blog: Student perceptions of blog effectiveness for learning in a college-level course. Internet and Higher Education 13, 206-213. Hyman, P. (2012). In the year of disruptive innovation. Communications of the ACM, 55(12), 20-22. DOI: 10.1145/2380656.2380664. Kaplan, A, & Haenlein, M., (2012). Social media: Back to the roots and back to the future. Journal of Systems and Information Technology, 14(2), 101-104. Lampe, C., Wohn, D.V., Vitak, J., Ellison, N., and Wash, R., (2011). Student use of Facebook for organizing collaborative classroom activities. Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (6). 329-347. DOI: 10.1007/s11512-044-9115-y. LeNoue, M., Hall, T. & Eighmy, M. (2010). Adult Education and the Social Media Revolution. Adult Learning, 4-12. Loving, M. & Ochoa, M., (2010). Facebook as a classroom management solution. New Library World Emerald Group Publishing Limited 112(3/4). 121-130. DOI: 10.110870307480111111170223. Martinez, T. & Martinez, A. (2007). Online education goes mainstream. The Hispanic Outlook in Higher Education, 24-27. Mayadas, A. F., Bourne, J. & Bacsich, P. (2009). Online education today. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 13(2), 49-56. McCabe, D. & Meuter, M., (2011). A student view of technology in the classroom: Does it enhance the seven principles of good practice in undergraduate education? Journal of Marketing Education, 33(2). 149-159. Milman, N. (2010). Online education and the wild wild web. Distance Learning, 7(4). 95-97. Morris, J., Reese, J., Beck, R., & Mattis, C. (2010). Facebook usage as a predictor of retention at a private 4-year institution. Journal of College Student Retention 11(3). 311-322. Pearson, A., (2010). Real problems, virtual solutions: Engaging students online. Teaching Sociology 38(3). 207. Peck, J. (2012). Keepingit social: Engaging students online and in class. Canadian Center of Science and Education, 8(14), 81. PuShih, D., Lambert, A., & Guidry, K., (2010). Engaging online learners: The impact of Web-based learning technology on college student engagement. Computers & Education 54. 1222-1232. Revere, L., & Kovach, J., (2011). Online technologies for engaged learning: A meaningful synthesis for educators. The Quarterly Review of Distance Education 12(2), 113-124. Rinaldo, S., Tapp, S., & Laverie, D., (2011). Learning by Tweeting: Using Twitter as a pedagogical tool. Journal of Marketing Education 33(2). 193. Santos, A., (2011). Blogs as a learning space: Creating text of talks. Contemporary Issues in Educational Research 4(6), 15. Seok, S., Kinsell, C., DaCosta, B., & Tung, C., (2010). Comparison of instructors’ and students’ perceptions of the effectiveness of online courses. The Quarterly Review of Distance Education 11(1). 25-36. Skiba, D. (2012). Disruption in higher education: Massively open online courses (MOOCs). Nursing Education Perspectives 33(6). 416-417. Sloanconsortium.org, (2013). Changing courses: Ten years of tracking online education in the U.S. Retrieved from http://sloanconsortium.org/publications/survey/changing_course_2012. Suarez-Brown, T., Grice, H., Turner, T. & Hankins, J. (2012). The challenges of delivering quality online and distance education courses. The Review of Business Research, 12(5), 94-104. Teclehaimanot, B. & Hickman, T., (2011). Student-Teacher interaction on Facebook: What students find appropriate, TechTreds 55(5). 19. Tucker, J. & Courts, B. (2010). Utilizing the Internet to facilitate classroom learning. Journal of College Teaching and Learning, 7(7). 37. Vijay, A. & Chachra, V., (2012). Virtual ICU and e-learning tools: Scope in critical care medicine in India. Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine 16(3). 148-150. Wankel, C., (2009). Management education using social media. Organizational Management Journal 6(4), 251-262.


Meshari A. Alhajri Kuwait Public Authority of Applied Education and Training, College of Basic Education, Adailiyah, Kuwait Jerome Fischer, PhD, LPC, CRC Department of Rehabilitation University of Texas â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Pan American






In the last forty years, educators have noticed that students have different learning styles. They suggested that the learning process would be enhanced when teachers became aware of the different types of learning styles. Many studies have been done in this field by researchers who believe that knowing a studentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s learning style is a valid predictor of an individualâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s preferred learning behavior (Bostrom, Olfman, & Sein, 1993).






Learning style is defined as â&#x20AC;&#x153;composite of characteristic cognitive, affective, and psychological factors that serve as relatively stable indicators of how a learner perceives, interacts with, and responds to the learning environmentâ&#x20AC;? (Griggs, 1991, p.7). The relationship between learning styles and program major was widely investigated by several researchers. The main goal was to identify the predominant learning styles of students in each college and to deliver instruction to students most effectively.




The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a predominant learning style among students at the University of Idaho, as measured by the Gregorc Style Delineator. The secondary purpose was to determine if there was a significant difference between gender and the four areas of learning styles.




The focus population consisted of a sample of senior students from the Colleges of Business, Education, and Engineering at a Northwest University. The total number of students was 66; of these, 20 students (30%) were from the College of Business, 29 (44%) were in the College of Education, and 17 students (26%) were from the College of Engineering.










In 1982, A. F. Gregorc designed a self-report tool used to measure cognitive learning styles, both thinking and learning processes. Gregorc believes that the mind has channels through which it receives and expresses data most efficiently and effectively. Gregorc identified four channels. Two channels relate to perceptual abilities (ways of interpreting incoming data) and are divided into “abstract” and “concrete”. Abstractness is related to understanding through reasoning, and deals with subjective concepts and feelings. Concreteness relates to understanding via observation through the physical senses. The other two channels relate to ordering abilities (the ways information is organized and arranged) which is divided into “sequential” and “random”. The sequential channel has a linear order, while the random channel is nonlinear, multidimensional ordering. By combining perceptual and ordering continuums, we get four distinct learning style patterns: concrete sequential; abstract sequential; abstract random; and concrete random.








The mean scores of students in the College of Business are: concrete sequential (28.4), concrete random (24.4), abstract sequential (24.1), and abstract random (23.1). The mean scores of students in the College of Education are: concrete random (26.6), abstract random (26.1), concrete sequential (24), and abstract sequential (22.6). The mean scores for students in the College of Engineering are: concrete sequential (27.4), abstract random (27.3), abstract sequential (24.5), and concrete random (20.7).




The secondary purpose of the study was to determine if there was a significant difference between males and females in the four learning styles. The results revealed no significant differences.




Correlating teaching style with learning style would greatly enhance educational out comes in general, and the lecturing processes specifically.


Web-based Instructional Design as an Alternative Strategy in Enhancing English Learning Motivation Liang-Chen Lin Dr. Valentin Ekiaka Nzai Texas A&M University-Kingsville

April 2013 International Academic Research Conference The Center for Scholastic Inquiry Scottsdale, Arizona April 17-19, 2013


Purpose of Presentation Title • • • • • •

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Title

Research Base

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Experimental Cyberlearning Workstations Frame Digital game-based curriculum

Laptop + Internet


Experimental Cyberlearning Workstations Frame Digital game-based curriculum

Ipad


Experimental Cyberlearning Workstations Frame Digital game-based curriculum

Smart buddy learning device


Teaching Vocabulary  online game


Team Work through playing online game


RM Easiteach Next Generation Software English Lesson

Title Web-based • Lorem ipsum dolor Lesson Plan • Adipiscing elit Vivamus • Lorem ipsum dolor • Adipiscing elit Vivamus • Consectetuer adipiscing elit •http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ivy9T_adX7Y onsectetuer adipiscing elit http://www.easiteach.com/eng/trial/


Busy Beavers http://busybeavers.com/ Title

Web-based • Lesson Plan • • • • •

Using online resources to teach letters and vocabulary Lorem ipsum dolor  song Adipiscing elit Vivamus  chant Lorem ipsum dolor Adipiscing elit Vivamus Consectetuer adipiscing elit onsectetuer adipiscing elit


Meaningful learning via online resources Starfall.com

http://www.starfall.com/ Title Letters, vocabulary, and sounds

PBS kids

Web-based curriculum

http://pbskids.org/games/reading.html Games: words, vocabulary, understanding

• Lorem ipsum dolor • Funbrain Adipiscing elit Vivamus http://www.funbrain.com/ story creation • Reading, Lorem ipsum dolor Brainpop • http://www.brainpop.com/ Adipiscing elit Vivamus Reading and games • SpellingCity.Com Consectetuer adipiscing elit • http://www.spellingcity.com/ onsectetuer adipiscing elit Game-based learning: vocabulary, spelling, and writing


Meaningful learning via online resources edHelper.com Title http://edhelper.com/vocabulary_board_game.htm Vocabulary board game

Web-based curriculum

game.com • playKids Lorem ipsum dolor http://www.playkidsgames.com/vocabularyGames.htm games elit Vivamus • Vocabulary Adipiscing • Flashcard Lorem ipsum dolor Machine http://www.flashcardmachine.com/ • Flashcards Adipiscing elit Vivamus with words and pictures • Consectetuer adipiscing elit • onsectetuer adipiscing elit


Vocabulary.Co.IL http://www.vocabulary.co.il/ Softschool.com http://www.softschools.com/language_arts/vocabulary/ Game Zone http://www.english-online.org.uk/games/gamezone2.htm KidsSpell.com http://www.kidsspell.com/custom_spelling_lists.php Oxford University Press: Read your way to better English http://www.oup-bookworms.com/teachers-only.cfm Kabongo https://www.kabongo.com/ Teachers helping teachers http://www.pacificnet.net/~mandel/index.html Teaching Today http://www.glencoe.com/sec/teachingtoday/weeklytips.phtml/ 6 Discovery Education http://www.discoveryeducation.com/teachers/free-lessonplans/ Holidays http://www.holidays.net/

Title

Web-based curriculum

• • • • • •

Lorem ipsum dolor Adipiscing elit Vivamus Lorem ipsum dolor Adipiscing elit Vivamus Consectetuer adipiscing elit onsectetuer adipiscing elit


~Thank you for your attention~

Title • • • • • •

Lorem ipsum dolor Lin: AdipiscingLiang-Chen elit Vivamus liang-chen.lin@students.tamuk.edu Lorem ipsum dolor Adipiscing elit Vivamus Consectetuer adipiscing elit onsectetuer adipiscing elit


BURAPHA UNIVERSITY INTERNATIONAL COLLEGE

1


â&#x20AC;˘ An error analysis in the written production of Thai students in an international college


• Wuttipol Khirin

• Burapha University International College (BUUIC)


â&#x20AC;˘ The use of a structure from the mother tongue is mostly transferred unconsciously by learners of a second language.

â&#x20AC;˘ different errors made by students in an international college in written compositions


Research Questions • To investigate selected categories of grammatical errors produced by L2 learners in the Thai students in written production • To study the frequency of the errors • To explain why some errors are common due to negative transfer or interference.


BUUIC The errors on are restricted to grammatical errors and the method chosen is basically a traditional error analysis

BUUIC, Thailand


THEORETICAL BACKGROUND Contrastive Analysis (CA) B.F. Skinner â&#x20AC;&#x153;learning is based on stimulus and response. The behaviorist theory initially dealt with L1 acquisition, as the language is learnt by imitation and repetition of behavior. Later on, the behaviourist theory was applied to L2 acquisition as well.â&#x20AC;? predict the errors that learners make by identifying the linguistic differences between their L1 and target language. errors occurred primarily as a result of interference when the learner transferred native language "habits" into the L2.

BUUIC, Thailand


ERROR ANALYSIS Corder's (1967) â&#x20AC;&#x153;attention should be paid to the importance of studying the errors made by L2 learners, because not all of them derived from the L1.â&#x20AC;?

BUUIC, Thailand


In EA, Corder recommends the following steps (from Ellis 2002:48): 1. Collection of a sample of learner language 2. Identification of errors 3. Description of errors 4. Explanation of errors 5. Evaluation of errors

BUUIC, Thailand


TRANSFER Odlin (1997) "transfer is the influence resulting from similarities and differences between the target language and any other language that has been previously acquired" BUUIC, Thailand


TRANSFER Gass and Selinker "...the psychological process whereby prior learning is carried over into a new learning situation" (2001:66)."

Positive transfer is the use of the first language in a second language context when the resulting second language form is correct. Thus, similarities between languages facilitate learning.

BUUIC, Thailand


Technology Usage of M-learning a

b

ฉันไปโรงเรี ยนทุกวัน (I go to school every day.)

I go to school every day.

BUUIC, Thailand


SVO order (subject-verb-object)

BUUIC, Thailand


Negative transfer a. à¸&#x2030;ัà¸&#x2122;à¹&#x201E;à¸&#x203A;à¹&#x201A;รà¸&#x2021;à¹&#x20AC;รี ยà¸&#x2122;à¹&#x20AC;มือวาà¸&#x2122;à¸&#x2122;ี  (I go to school yesterday.) b. I went to school yesterday.

BUUIC, Thailand


Negative transfer is when errors are due to the divergences between L1 and L2 and where the English of the L2 learner carries the signature of his/her mother tongue.

BUUIC, Thailand


INTERLANGUAGE (SELINKER, 1972)

The interlanguage is as a system not only composed of elements form L1 and L2, but elements not having their origin in either L1 or L2.


METHOD AND MATERIAL

quantitative method

focusing on the collection and analysis of empirical data The essays, written by international college students, were read manually several times, and the errors were marked.


• Plural of nouns • Adjectives/adverbs • Verbs: Concord errors • Prepositions


Burapha University International College

The categories were chosen, as mentioned above, because they were common areas of errors among Thai students from last semester, and also likely to contain clear examples of negative transfer.


MATERIAL The material used in the study is a corpus of 58 essays written by Thai students at an international college The essays, 29 written by females and 29 by males, were randomly selected from four classes.


Students not having Thai as their first language were excluded

A focus on negative transfer or interference.


RESULTS A total of 542 errors were found in the written compositions, which gives an average of 7.3 errors per essay. The lowest number of errors in the essays was one and the highest number was 16. Errors involving concord and prepositions are overwhelmingly in the majority.


RESULTS


Plural of nouns

related to many differences between English and Thai concerning countability and number which can cause problems.

distinctions between countable-uncountable and singular-plural

mistakes are: *informations, *a work, *many money, *a scissor and *the police is.


* Topics can be about things that have happened in their life. * I think it is important that peoples long for something because it make the life funnier to live.


ADJECTIVES/ADVERBS Thai adverbs of manner often have the same form as adjectives

BUUIC, Thailand


*Brandon speaks to me quite polite. look, sound, taste, smell and feel, which take adverbs in Thai but not English

Department of Tourism and Hotel Management

BUUIC, Thailand


â&#x20AC;˘ I feel horribly. â&#x20AC;˘ Adjectives are used either as an attribute, a bad day, or as a predicative, The weather is awful.

Department of Tourism and Hotel Management

BUUIC, Thailand


Using an adjective instead of an adverb was more frequent, namely 73%, compared to the opposite situation, i.e. replacing an adjective with an adverb.


Replacing an adverb with an adjective.

• But many children don't take the school serious.

• Thai speakers use a similar form as both adverb and adjective.

• This error may be caused by transfer.


Three, turned up in the essays replacing well with good. * ....you must have a good paid job...


VERBS: CONCORD ERRORS In Thai there is no inflection for person or number regarding verbs.

*All this choices depends on how you are like a person.


PREPOSITIONS *The tomatoes were eaten of the people.

Quite many the Thai prepositions have corresponding forms in English, for example till (จนกระทัง) corresponds with to in many phrases, but not always.

When the forms are equivalent, positive transfer is the result.

Negative transfer is common when a literal translation leads to an error.


The total number of prepositional errors in the written compositions was 158, making up 29 % of the total number of errors found.


The preposition may not be identical in English and Thai, as it is in the example listen to and ฟั ง. Another type of errors, namely when L1 has zero preposition and L2 a preposition (*พึง / depend on).


The largest number of these errors in an essay was fourteen, while ten essays had no preposition errors at all.


The most frequent preposition errors on 26 (22%) in 22 (18%) for 18 (15%) to 12 (10%) at 12 (10%) of 12 (10%) others 18 (15%) Total 120 (100%)


A great majority of the errors in the written compositions are related to concord (34%) and prepositions (29%).


PEDAGOGICAL ASPECTS The role of grammar in English language teaching But what is the most appropriate way to deal with the students' errors? Are feedback and correction good? If that is the case, what types of errors should be corrected?


the teacher's own language awareness acquainting grammatical competence. CA and EA


THANK YOU

Department of Tourism and Hotel Management

BUUIC, Thailand


QUESTIONS?


Practice What You Teach: PrePre-service Educatorsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Writing Apprehension Brooke A. Burks, Ph.D. Auburn University at Montgomery Marie Kraska, Ph.D. Auburn University


Overview  Purpose of the Study  Research Questions  Participants  Methods  Data Collection  Data Analysis  Conclusions & Implications  Questions?


Purpose of the Study “I can’t write,” Sally says. “But, you have to,” John replies. “Aren’t you going to be a teacher?”  Teachers teach writing.  Some may be apprehensive about their own writing.  Heightened standards due to Common Core  The most apprehensive teachers assign the least amount of

writing (Claypool, 1980).


Research Questions  To what extent are pre-service elementary

education teachers apprehensive about their writing ability?  To what extent will pre-service elementary

education teachersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; apprehensions lessen after taking a writing course targeted for educators?


Participants  14 pre-service elementary teachers (79% Caucasian; 21%

African American)  Enrolled in Professional Writing for Educators course  13 females; 1 male (all juniors and seniors)  Course was required for all elementary education majors as part of the universityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Writing Across the Curriculum program.


Procedures  Daly-Miller Writing Apprehension Test (Daly & Miller, 1975)  26-item Likert-type survey (pre- and post-test)  Level 1 – least apprehensive (Scores 97-130)  Level 2 – moderately apprehensive (Scores 60-96)  Level 3 – (Scores at the lower extremity of Level 2)  Level 4 – severely apprehensive (Scores 26-59)


Writing Apprehension Levels Level 1

Level 2

140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Apprehension

Level 3

Level 4


Procedures Contâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;d  Participants encouraged to    

write daily in their journals share their work with classmates participate in in-class writing workshops co-author with writing partner

 Types of writing included       

letters to parents letters to community members memos to colleagues Newsletters informal reports grant proposals resumes


Data Analysis  One-sample t-test to determine extent of writing

apprehension  observed mean score (85.57, N =14) is 7.57 points higher than

the test value (78). This difference was not significantly different at the .05 level. However, it is noteworthy to report that this difference was significant at the .10 level (t(13) = 1.79, p = .09)  Paired-samples t-test to determine if apprehensions lessened.  statistically significant difference between pre-and post-test

scores (t(13) = 2.30, p = .04). The mean score and standard deviation for the pre-and post-test scores were (85.57, 15.85) and (93.36, 12.97) respectively.


Data Analysis Error Bar chart shows higher posttest scores and a narrower confidence interval.


9 8 7 6 5

Pre-test Post-test

4 3 2 1 0 Level 1 (least)

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4 (most)


Participant Journals  Participants wrote about their increasing levels of writing

confidence.  Student A: “I feel that I am more prepared to teach writing

because I have had a review over the course of this semester.”  Student B: First journal entry discussed the dislike she had for writing because of an experience in 5th grade. In her last entry, however, she wrote, “…I feel like I am able to write letters and memos. Before I wasn’t sure on how to do either…I am more prepared.”


Conclusions & Implications  Requiring a writing course specifically for educators is

imperative. Students who are apprehensive about writing may not enroll in the course otherwise.  Encouraging apprehensive writers to share their work with others, participate in writing workshops, and journal about their writing help to alleviate writing apprehension.  Focusing on writing while teachers are in the pre-service stage is necessary. Allowing teachers to enter the profession bereft of appropriate skills and apprehensive about the skills they do possess is neglect on the part of the teacher educator and schools of education.


QUESTIONS?


PROBLEMS WHICH FACE PRIMARY SCHOOL PRINCIPALS IN THE UAE




The presentation will include the followings: 1- Introduction 2- The problem 3- Aims of the study 4- The study questions 5- Methods of the study 6- Results 7- Some recommendations


Introduction 



Primary schools are considered the first cradle of the future generation of our children, both male and female throughout their learning process. Interest and care of these children is indispensible for the development and progress of the society. Therefore, nationsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; success and advancement is usually measured by what they build and offer for their children so as to make them the strong foundation since their early years of education where Their personalities are formed and they are in a position that enables them of shouldering their responsibilities




 

In the future. To achieve the goal for which these schools are established, care shall be given to the other party in the teaching- learning process, namely, the administrative staff on the top of whom is the school principal. It is out of this concern that it is decided to carry out A Study to uncover and discover the problems and obstacles which face the educational supervisor and the permanent resident at school who always looks for its progress and leads the procession so as to provide a healthy environment to accommodate and take care of our dear children.


The Study Problem 

The study problem is represented by the abundant problems the school faces through its administrators and teachers. The study also looks after the reasons why many administrators and teachers overlook their duties to in respect of the problems they face which hinder their activities and stand as obstacles to achieve their goals.However,such a phenomenon leads to the fact that many of them resign, particularly the female administrators and teachers.






More than 15 female principals and teachers resigned during a short period of time( Gulf Newspaper 2002).Some officials in the field of education believe that a large number of schools suffer from the lack of teachers and technical personnel, and thus the Education Zone tries to compensate the shortage by appointing teachers on the base of daily wages, this is not mention that the Zone has a lot of financial burdens( Bin Raked 2003 ). This fact made it necessary to carry out the current study so as to recognize and underline the problems that stand in the way of principals to achieve their plans and the goals they are ambitious to obtain.


Aims of the study The study aims at: 1. Preparing an instrument- scale- to recognize the problems which primary Public Schools principals face in the UAE as perceived by principals while they are in their schools. 2. Determining the problems of priority which face member of the sample and the variations of gender,age,years of experience and qualification.




3.

4.

5.

Analyzing the principalsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; expectations about the problems they see through their dealing with their community or through their jobs. Reviewing previous studies to recognize their conformity with the problems expected by primary school principals. Providing solutions and proposals that may help in solving the problems faced by members of the sample.


The study questions 1.

2.

Are there any indicative differences between the responses of the male and female principals to the questionnaire items related to the problems they face as per gender? Are there any indicative differences between the male and female principals to the questionnaire items as per locations and workplaces ( city or countryside)?


3.

4.

Are there any indicative differences between the male and female principals to the questionnaire items related to the years of experiences? Are there any indicative between the male and female principals to the questionnaire items related to their qualifications


Method of the study 

The researchers used the descriptive analytical method because it is appropriate for this study. The researchers were provided with detailed information about this study so the researchers could extract the problems faced by the sample members of the two sexes. The date was collected and proper statistical methods were followed so as to reach and discuss conclusions and to provide the proper procedural recommendations which help in overcoming the obstacles that primary school principals in the UAE face.










Open questionnaire was the main tool of collecting data. The questionnaire includes the following questions: 1- Define the most important problems that face you as principal, 2- Arrange these problems according to their importance and why you consider them problems. The problems were classified under the following titles:


      

1- Regular problems 2- Administrative and financial problems 3-Educational problems 4-Social problems 5- Environmental problems 6- Behavioral problems Data was tabulated and analyzed statistically.


Results After the analysis, it was found that the first problem which was dealt with and tackled by all members of the sample was the administrative and financial problems. Principals considered this problem is the most dangerous among other problems.Statistics show that all administrators face administrative and financial problems whether they are in the city or in the countryside.


Administrative and Financial Problems


Followed Administrative & Financial


Followed Adm. & Financial prob.


Educational problems


Social Problem


Followed Recommendations


PLUGGING THE HOLES: ISSUES THAT IMPACT A SUCCESSFUL AFTER SCHOOL TUTORIAL PROGRAM JAMAL COOKS, PH.D. SAN FRANCISCO STATE UNIVERSITY ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR CHAREMON COOKS, M.P.H ACADEMICS FOR SUCCESS EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR


BACKGROUND   

Back on Track II U of M Academics For Success(AFS)


PROBLEM 



Some students from impoverished communities encounter many social ills such as drugs, gangs, and drinking. Many urban classrooms are overcrowded, have untrained or unqualified teachers, and lack the resources to provide students with academic support outside of school.


SOLUTION 



Academic support at the end of the school day is vital for urban public schools because they struggle to learn content area material, such as math, science, English, and social studies. Urban secondary schools need assistance to establish academic support through afterschool tutorial programs.


RELEVANT LITERATURE 





Bondy and Davis (2000) found that students responded favorably when tutors showed a genuine â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;careâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; for them in addition to them being students. The face-to-face social interaction helps in improving the learning process (Vygotsky, 1978). Hock et al (2001) pointed out that students can increase their test scores through tutoring.


RELEVANT LITERATURE 



For example, some research shows that studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; grades improve when they participate in a well-structured, organized program featuring small group collaboration on similar subjects. Some studies have examined the importance of relationship building within academic after school tutoring programs (Beyth-Marom, et.al., 2001; Bondy and Davis, 2000; Caserta-Henry, 1996)


ACADEMICS FOR SUCCESS 

Family owned for 10 years.



Tutoring, SAT prep, small group tutoring, athletic study table, and college workshops.



A diverse, full staff in the office and tutors


STRENGTHS 

Academic success with statistics



Well structured program



Great program due to the staff


SURVEY RESULTS     

62% of the students would recommend AFS to a friend or classmate. 60% rate the program as an “excellent” or “good.” 85% of the students increased their coursework by one letter grade. 75% of participants agree or strongly agree that AFS helps them connect to an adult. 58% increased their grade by two grades.


SURVEY RESULTS    

84% agree or strongly agree that AFS keeps them out of trouble. 88% agree or strongly agree that AFS helps them want to come to school. 91% agree or strongly agree that AFS improves grades. 99% of its participants rate staff and the program as “good” or “better.”


STUDENTS 

Moreover, students said that AFS staff were easy to talk to, and that the program “is a great way to get help in tutoring and strengthening [knowledge] in complex subject matter,” and “the tutor was able to explain the subject in an easy manner so that it was easy to catch on to.”


PARENTS 

“This program is fantastic! Since being in this program, my son has stayed out of trouble; this is a great learning environment. This is my son’s first year and already I see him becoming more organized and more task- orientated. I’d be devastated if this program endedKI am a single parent, I can’t do it all [myself].”


TUTORS 

“I just finished college. I grew up in a bad neighborhood without a lot of support. I want to give back to the community. I am not sure what I want to be yet, maybe a teacher. I’m not here just for the paycheck, I want to give back. I like AFS because we are role models for education.”


ADMINISTRATOR 

“AFS is a benefit here. The academic support is necessary. This is the first year the school is SES because we didn’t do well on the test. AFS is filling the need with additional support, of course they are only affecting afterschool.”


WEAKNESSES 

Consistent schedules



Increasing motivation



Lack of resources for the program


IMPLICATIONS 





From a teaching standpoint, afterschool tutorial programs are needed at all secondary schools. Afterschool tutorial programs must be anchored in a culturally responsive approach As for policy, funds must be allocated on a national level to provide straight academic support.


THANK YOU JAMAL COOKS 360 GRAND AVE, 73 OAKLAND, CA 94610 510-708-0344 JCOOKS@SFSU.EDU


5/20/2013

CHILDRENâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S COGNITIVE ENHANCEMENT PROGRAM: A PILOT STUDY

1

CENTER FOR SCHOLASTIC INQUIRY INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH CONFERENCE SCOTTSDALE, ARIZONA 4/18/13

PRESENTERS

2 1

Kenneth Kohutek, Ph.D.

Visiting Assistant Professor Of Psychology University of Tampa Tampa, FL

2

 Ann Marie Kohutek, Ed.S.

Assistant Principal Clearwater Central Catholic High School Clearwater, FL 3

GOALS OF PRESENTATION 1. Provide an overview/introduction to concepts to be addressed 2. Provide preliminary findings of the assessment of a program designed to address the enhancement of cognitive skills in children. 3. Present plans for future studies.

4 5

THINKING IS BETTER!!

1


5/20/2013

6

LAYERS OF OBSERVATIONS

7

IN A PERFECT WORLD

8

DIFFERENT TERMS MAY BE DESCRIBING SIMILAR AREAS OF STUDY 1

2

 *Neuroeducation *Learning and the Brain *Executive Function Training *Cognitive Enhancement COGNITIVE SKILLS Human mental processes and their role in thinking, feeling and behaving, including: memory, acquisition of knowledge and expertise, problem-solving, decision making and reasoning. Kellogg, R.T. (2012) Fundamentals of Cognitive Psychology 2nd ed. Los Angeles: Sage 

9

10 1

2

PIONEERS OF CURRENT RESEARCH LEV VYGOTSKY (11/17/1896--6/11/1934 REUVEN FEUERSTEIN (8/21/1921-)

11 12

WHY ARE THESE IMPORTANT? Clark, C.A. C., Pritchard, V.E. & Woodward, L.J. (2010). Preschool executive functioning abilities predict early mathematical achievement. Developmental Psychology, 46, 1176-1191. Singer-Harris, N., Forbes, P., Weiler, M.D., Bellinger, D., & Waber, D. P. (2001). Children with adequate academic achievement scores referred for evaluation of school difficulties: Information processing deficits. Developmental Neuropsychology, 20, 593-603. 

13

COGNITIVE ENHANCEMENT IS THE RAGE !! BRAIN STEROIDS (Steroids for Geeks) Examples of cognitive enhancers: Smart pills; caffeine; Red Bull; 5 Hour Energy Programs: Luminosity; Brain Balance; Arrowsmith Schools Strategies: Mnemonic strategies COSMETIC PSYCHIATRY Enhancement vs. Rehabilitation

2


5/20/2013

14

NEUROPLASTICITY Keller, T. A. & Just M. A. (2009). Altering cortical connectivity: Remediation-induced changes in the white matter of poor readers. Neuron. 64, 624-631. DOI 10.1016/j.neuron.2009.10.018

15

A FRAMEWORK FOR ENHANCING COGNITIVE SKILLS IN ACADEMIC SKILLS THREE MAJOR COGNITIVE CONTRIBUTORS TO SKILLS IN PRIMARY GRADES I. Memory II. Planning III. Scanning

16

STRATEGIES FOR DEVELOPING INTERNAL CONTROL Increase awareness Modeling appropriate use of executive functions Teach specific executive functions as skills routines  McCloskey, Perkins, &Van Divner, 2009

17

MODEL OF PROGRAM

18

GOAL OF PILOT STUDY Determine if the Children’s Cognitive Enhancement Program can positively impact specific cognitive skills with students enrolled in the lower grades.

19

CHILDREN’S COGNITIVE ENHANCEMENT PROGRAM Consists of two manuals each with two volumes Manual 1 consists of Primary (Vol. 1)and Elementary Levels (Vol. 2) Manual 2 entitled “The Yellow Book” consists of Primary (Vol. 1) & Elementary Levels (Vol. 2).

20

21 1 2

3 4

PRIMARY AND ELEMENTARY LEVELS PRIMARY LEVELS 1. Children’s Cognitive Enhancement Program: Primary Levels Revised Edition 2.Children’s Cognitive Enhancement Program Yellow Book: Primary Levels Revised Edition ELEMENTARY LEVELS 1.Children’s Cognitive Enhancement Program: Elementary Levels Revised Edition 2. Children’s Cognitive Enhancement Program Yellow Book: Elementary Levels Revised Edition

3


5/20/2013

22

ON-GOING/RECENTLY COMPLETED STUDIES I. Assessing teacher intervention II. Assessing efficacy in small group setting (students with learning difficulties Grade 5) III. Assessing efficacy in small group setting (students with learning difficulties Grade 6) IV. Assessing efficacy on K-2 

23

I. ASSESSING TEACHER INTERVENTION Primary Investigators: Carla BeeBe, B.A. & Kenneth Kohutek, Ph.D. 24

DESCRIPTION OF SAMPLE

25

I

II. ASSESSING “USER FRIENDLY” IN SMALL GROUP SETTING WITH LEARNING DIFFICULTIES (GRADE 5)

 Kenneth Kohutek & Michael TsIaklides Fall, 2012 26

III. ASSESSING “USER FRIENDLY” AND IMPACT ON STUDENT’S WITH LEARNING DIFFICULTIES (GRADE 6)   Kenneth Kohutek, Michael Tsiaklides, & Lauren Easler Spring, 2013 Dependent measure was the Alloway Working Memory Assessment (AWMA)  27

BADDELEY’S WORKING MEMORY MODEL

28 29

IV. ASSESSING IMPACT ON K-2

4


5/20/2013

Primary Investigator: Kenneth Kohutek Program was individually administered to 30 students in grades K-2.  30

DEPENDENT MEASURES Woodcock-Johnson III: Test of Cognitive Abilities Spatial Relations (Test #3)—Visualization, Spatial relations (Visual-Spatial Thinking – Gv & Fluid Reasoning --Gf) Concept Formation (Test #5)– induction (Fluid Reasoning—Gf) Planning (Test #19) – Spatial scanning, general sequential reasoning (Fluid Reasoning –Gf & Visual-Spatial Thinking --Gv)

31

GRADE/GENDER BREAKDOWN

32

SUMMARY OF COLLECTED DATA (K)

33

SUMMARY OF COLLECTED DATA (1ST )

34

SUMMARY OF COLLECTED DATA (2ND)

35

SAMPLE SIZE OF 15 Spatial Reasoning (#3) t = -3.026, p< .05 Concept Formation ( #5) t = -5.551, p< .05 Planning (#19) t = -2.126, p< .05

36

CONCEPT FORMATION Subtest of WJ-III Cognitive Skills Factors into the Fluid Reasoning (Gf) “…mental operations that an individual may use when faced with a relatively novel task that cannot be performed automatically”. (McGrew, p. 28)

37

CONCEPT FORMATION (CON’T) “…includes forming and recognizing concepts, indentifing relations, perceiving relationships among patterns, drawing inferences, comprehending implications, problem solving, extrapolating, and reorganization or transforming information.” (McGrew, p.28)

38

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS UP TO NOW User friendly Inexpensive Shows promise of impacting performance on assessments designed to measure cognitive abilities.

39

FACTORS YET TO INVESTIGATE Are pre-post measures an anomaly? Long-term impact Ecological validity

5


5/20/2013

 Are there some students who might benefit more from this type of training than others? 40

V. FUTURE PROJECTS I, PLANNED (Fall, 2013): A. Kenneth Kohutek at Skills Lab B.Laura Petter, Kenneth Kohutek,

Todd Jeter

41

SKILLS LAB PROJECT

42

GOALS OF PRESENTATION 1. Provide an overview of concepts contributing to academic/social/vocational success. 2. Consider operational definitions 3. Provide preliminary findings of the assessment of a program designed to address the enhancement of cognitive skills.

43

TAKE AWAY Write down three ideas you can take away from this presentation which may assist in your daily responsibilities.

44

QUESTIONS????

kkohutek@ut.edu

6


Who Says We Are Not on the Same Page? Leading Special Education Programs Collaboratively: the Good News and the Bad News

Ted Price, Ph.D. and Deborah L. Wells, Ph.D. Virginia Tech




"Center for Scholastic Inquiry International Research Conferenceâ&#x20AC;?


For the contemporary school administrator, including the superintendent, special education is not an isolated program. Rather special education programs and students are part of an integrated system of academic and social supports designed to help students with disabilities succeed. Leading collaboratively is difficult, especially when those in shared leadership roles perceive the tasks, and the available resources differently. Leading collaboratively is about leadership that works together to share resources. The good news is that special education students can be served well when everyone is on the same page. The bad news is, sometimes leaders are not on the same page.


Abstract This study featured survey research designed to compare the magnitude of concern between Virginia public school division superintendents and directors of special education regarding timely issues in special education.


Introduction The United States public school system enrolled 49.5 million students in public schools in the fall of 2010 (U.S. Department of Education, 2012). The U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP), (2010) reported that 6,552,766 students were served under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA) in the fall of 2010.


Background â&#x20AC;&#x153;The concept of collaborative leadership provides a useful perspective in exploring the balance of leadership responsibilities for special education across principals, assistant principals, and teachers within schools, and administrators and supervisors across school districtsâ&#x20AC;? (Crockett, 2007, p. 140). Leading collaboratively is about leadership that works together to share resources to provide a useful perspective in exploring the balance of leadership responsibilities.


Purpose of Study The purpose of this exploratory, descriptive study was to determine if the perceptions of concern of superintendents and special education directors were similar or different for issues related to special education programming and did they rate the concerns with the same level of intensity.


Method This study featured survey research designed to compare the magnitude of concern between Virginia public school division superintendents and directors of special education regarding timely issues in special education.


Method Questions addressed current issues in special education identified in policy briefs from the Center on Educational Policy (2006) and Project Forum (2009) along with literature examining the intersection of educational leadership, special education, IDEIA, and NCLB


Participants The survey was delivered online to 262 participants, 132 Virginia superintendents and 130 Virginia directors of special education.


Participants The overall response rate for the survey was 37.8% (n=99). The response rate for the superintendents was 22% (n=29) while the response rate for the directors of special education was 53% (n=70).


Procedures The survey asked participants to rate their magnitude of concern regarding special education and the implementation of alternate assessment, AYP, school accreditation, graduation rates, dropout rates, employment of highly qualified special educators, special education teacher turnover, response to intervention, professional development, discipline, the provision of LRE, special educator work load, and the over identification of minorities.


Procedures Participants were to indicate why the issue was an area of concern, choosing from the following: lack of resources, professional development needed, time is needed, technical support needed, or educational policy issues. Participants were also asked to choose the factor that would most likely increase collaboration from this list: articulation of clear expectations, professional development, overt focus on needs, use of student data, and cultivate buy-in of stakeholders.


Results 

Our analyses included the calculation of chi-square, reflecting the amount of discrepancy between the observed frequencies and the expected frequencies. In this study, a significant finding would indicate that the variable tested is associated with the position held by the administrator, either superintendent or director of special education.


Chi Square Results for Magnitude of Concern Special education issue

Chi-square value

df

p

Alternate assessment

6.27*

2

.04

AYP and SWD

3.22

2

.20

.60

2

.74

Graduation rates and SWD

8.05*

3

.05

Dropout rates for SWD

3.23

3

.36

Highly qualified educators

2.35

2

.31

Teacher turnover

6.40*

2

.04

Use of RTI

1.49

3

.69

Professional development

3.11

2

.21

Discipline of SWD

1.31

2

.52

Provision of LRE

1.48

2

.48

Work load special educator

6.56

3

.09

10.49*

3

.02

School accreditation

Over identification minorities


Chi Square Results for Factors Influencing Concern Chi-square value

df

Alternate assessment

15.50*

4

.004*

AYP and SWD

6.50

5

.26

School accreditation

4.61

4

.33

Graduation rates and SWD

1.50

5

.91

Dropout rates for SWD

4.96

5

.42

Highly qualified educators

7.05

5

.22

Teacher turnover

8.06

5

.15

Use of RTI

3.46

5

.63

Professional development

14.26*

5

.01*

Discipline of SWD

7.35

5

.20

Provision of LRE

3.24

4

.52

Work load special educator

2.57

5

.77

Over identification minorities

17.38*

5

.004*

Special education issue

p


Factors Likely to Increase the Effectiveness of Collaboration Factor

Superintendent

Director

No answer

3%

0%

Articulation of clear expectations

10%

1%

Professional development needed

35%

26%

Overt focus on needs

28%

30%

Use of student data

10%

23%

Cultivate buy-in of all stakeholders

14%

20%


Discussion We found the anticipated discrepancy not as significant as expected. The two groups were actually closer together than we thought they would be, with the two parties close together in most areas surveyed. When looking at magnitude of concern, the two parties differed in alternate assessment, graduation rates, teacher turnover, and the over identification of minority students as SWD.


Discussion These findings support the notion that collaborative leadership, even if participation is based on meeting the mandates of differing laws, is necessary when working to provide FAPE for all students during an era of reform initiatives such as NCLB and long standing regulations for SWD as mandated by IDEIA (Boscardin, 2007).


Limitations The analyses in this study were exploratory so caution should be exercised when drawing conclusions. The major limitation of this study was the sample size. The overall number was low and the number of superintendents responding was low.


Implications for Practice The research in this study shows how superintendents and directors of special education sometimes view the same issue with differing levels of concern. This difference in perception could influence how decisions are made, resources delegated, and how populations of students are served. Collaboration could bring administrators closer together, strengthening an understanding of current issues, allowing them to see the concern or lack of concern held by others, and make informed decisions based on the perceptions held by the whole.


Implications for Practice The Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) recently released new standards for advanced roles in special education (CEC, n.d.). These standards provide a benchmark for special education professionals as they strive to practice at a high level of skill. Included in these standards is collaboration. These standards state that collaboration can promote the understanding of both internal and external stakeholders, resolve conflicts, build consensus to provide services for students, and help leaders understand the interactions of language, diversity, and culture on decision-making.


Implications for Practice These findings support Project Forum (2009) that resulted in superintendent recommendations for school districts wishing to address the need for collaboration between general and special education. The recommendations included the following: articulate clear and consistent goals and expectations; provide extensive and ongoing professional development for all staff that supports the goals and expectations and fosters dialogue; focus on meeting the needs of all students, regardless of label; maintain a system that can manage student-level data; use student-level data to analyze student needs, make instructional decisions and convince others of the value of collaboration; cultivate buy-in from all constituents; and maintain focus at the district level.


Future Research Research should continue to dig deeper into the differing perspectives of administrators when considering special education issues. A national survey could supply much needed information regarding these perceptions and their impact on educational decisionmaking.


STEPPING TO THE “B” SIDE: ACADEMIC EXPERIENCES OF AFRICAN AMERICAN DOCTORAL STUDENTS JAMAL COOKS, PH.D. SECONDARY EDUCATION SAN FRANCISCO STATE UNIVERSITY jamalc@sfsu.edu


OUTLINE Problem Relevant Literature Methods Case Studies Implications


RESEARCH QUESTION 

What programmatic issues impact the academic success of African American students in an Ed.D. program?


PROBLEM 



The experiences of African American doctoral students are missing from the academic literature (Maher, Ford, and Thompson, 2004; Nettles & Millet, 2005) particularly for African Americans (Milner, 2004). Half of the doctoral students complete their doctoral programs (Golde, 2000; Lovitts 2001, 2004) and the number for African American doctoral students is much lower.


RELEVANT LITERATURE 



In 2005, only 5% of the doctorates were earned by African American students compared to 55% for their white counter parts (National Center for Education Statistics, 2005). Although the number has slightly increased, the experiences of African American doctoral students is left out of the conversation as programs redesign to meet the needs of students (Tinto, 1993).


CHALLENGES IN PROGRAMS 







Socialization process (Anthony & Taylor, 2004; Nettles and Millit, 2006). Feelings of isolation based on the intersection of race and gender (Ellis, 2000; Johnson-Bailey, 2004, Zamani, 2004), Racial composition of classes (Bonner & Evans, 2004), Lack of diversity of faculty by race and gender (Ferrer de Valero, 2001; Magner, 1999; Golde, 2000;Gould & Pyke, 1998; Johnson-Bailey, 2004).


METHODS     

Four case studies (2 prek/2 college) African American First three cohorts Focus group Follow up interviews


PARTICIPANT #1    

Isolated by faculty More faculty of color Cohort model not effective Racial microaggressions


ISOLATION 

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Honestly, I had a bit of a lower self esteem after all those years as a black person in the educational system that even in this program I internalized the cumulative messages of unworthiness and manifested them in the program. Other White students didn't seem to be going through that. After each weekend session I would need to debrief with a friend and try to understand if I was doing something wrong or try to get confirmation that I wasn't stupid or whatever.â&#x20AC;?


MORE FACULTY OF COLOR 

â&#x20AC;&#x153;I don't think they questioned their sense of belonging to that circle of academia as much. They seemed to feel entitled to the best treatment and support possible while I felt careful about asking faculty of color for too much support, knowing they all support a lot of other students and may struggle with burn out. These considerations didn't seem to impact the White students.â&#x20AC;?


PARTICIPANT #2  

 

More African American faculty Negative perceptions of African American students by faculty Lack of mentorship Uncomfortable learning environment


PERCEPTIONS OF AFRICAN AMERICAN STUDENTS 

“Coming in the door the odds are stacked against me just because I’m Black. Most educational literature says how Black students, on all levels, are behind or performing poorly. I just think in the back of the minds of some of the professors there is the thought of “I know they(Black students) are not going to get it.”


UNCOMFORTABLE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT 

“Coming in the door the odds are stacked against me just because I’m Black. Most educational literature says how Black students, on all levels, are behind or performing poorly. I just think in the back of the minds of some of the professors, there is the thought of ‘I know they(Black students) are not going to get it.”


PARTICIPANT #3   



Isolation due to race class and gender Faculty did not discuss race The program was a contradiction to the mission Looking to African American students for support, but not the entire cohort.


ISOLATION 

“Meaning that they didn’t seem comfortable with that particular identity and the ways in which I expressed myself. This is not uncommon in academia at all, but in a transformational leadership program in CA it felt out of place.”


FACULTY DID NOT DISCUSS RACE 

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Dealing with surface level discussions on race and solutions to educational inequities. Honestly, it impacted my level of investment in the program and hampered my desire to contribute openly and honestly on a consistent basis.â&#x20AC;?


LACK OF SUPPORT 

“The hard part for me is that when I see the numbers of Black kids failing and the data on the achievement gap, I see me/It sucks sometimes because when I go into my authentic voice I feel like only half of the room understands what I am trying to say. It’s not a language barrier, but a feeling barrier. It’s hard to explain, but the point is that if it weren’t for half of the cohort (the African American students), I would’ve quit a long time ago. And I considered it every semester.”


PARTICIPANT #4   

More African American faculty No cohort support Lack of connectedness to the program


MORE AFRICAN AMERICAN FACULTY 

â&#x20AC;&#x153;The lack of faculty of color had some impact. In my experience, faculty members can relate to the struggle of students of color in a white privilege institution and society. A feeling of connectedness, support and motivation is needed to overcome the highs and lows of such an intense programâ&#x20AC;?


FINDINGS 

More African American faculty (mentorship, connectedness, support).



   

Although knowledgeable, the faculty lack a teaching background. Isolated by faculty . Faculty must reflect the mission. Faculty must honor all voices. The program standards of â&#x20AC;&#x153;closing the achievement gap, equity, access, and social justice for diverse learnersâ&#x20AC;? should be reflected in the program.


Implications 





The faculty needs to reflect the needs, interests, and perspectives of all students. Faculty members in the doctoral program need to participate in a series of workshops/trainings to learn how to deal with issues of race, class and gender in their classes. The program must take ownership about who is admitted into the program, how they are supported, and â&#x20AC;&#x153;livingâ&#x20AC;? the mission.


THANK YOU JAMAL COOKS, Ph.D. 360 GRAND AVE,73 OAKLAND, CA 94610 510-708-0344 WWW.JAMALCOOKS.COM JAMALC@SFSU.EDU


Building Bridges For English Learners in Colorado Center for Scholastic Inquiry Academic Research Conference Scottsdale, Arizona April 18, 2013 Dianne Lefly, PhD Colorado Department of Education Debora Scheffel, PhD Colorado State Board of Education University of the Rockies


Recent Studies About English Learners  Approximately 4.5 million English learners are enrolled in the nationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s public schools, and over 40 percent of teachers have English learners in their classrooms. Academically, these students face huge challenges ( We s t E D, 2 0 1 3 ) .

 Research has shown that English learners are a heterogeneous group that can include different home languages, 1 st generation immigrants, 2 nd and 3 rd generation students, students of both economic advantage and disadvantage and students with disabilities ( L i b i a a n d B a rd a c k , 2 0 1 0 ) .

 Additionally, there are differing views about the educational and instructional supports English learners require. Some researchers support bilingual education and other support total English immersion ( K i m a n d H e r m a n , 2 0 1 2 ) .


The Current Study  Recent studies of English learners in Arizona and Utah have focused on achievement trends by subgroup (including all English learners as a subgroup), by English learner performance compared to non-English learner performance at specific grades (GR 10 and GR 11), and by English learner performance compared to non-English learner performance by school type (e.g., elementary, middle and high; Title I vs. non-Title I) ( C ra n e , H u a n g & B a r ra t , 2 0 1 1 a , 2 0 1 1 b ) .

 This study different from the others as it is focused on examining the characteristics and performance of subgroups within the Colorado population of English learners.

 The study includes both cross-sectional and longitudinal outcomes for English learners in Colorado across the K-12 spectrum.


Objectives of the Presentation  Provide insight on the impact of the recent influx of English learners on Colorado School Districts

 Provide insight into what we have learned about acquiring English proficiency in Colorado

 Describe the relationship between the English language assessment and the Colorado state assessments

 Describe the academic performance of English learners on Colorado state assessments


 Both by citizen preference and state law, Colorado is a "local control" state.



This means that many pre-kindergarten through 12th grade public education decisions -- on issues such as curriculum, personnel, school calendars, graduation requirements, and classroom policy -- are made by the stateâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s 178 school district administrations and their school boards.

 The State Board of Education (SBE) and the Colorado Department of Education (CDE) are in place to provide guidance and direction for the local districts on statewide educational issues, and to act as a link to many Federal and State programs and services.

A Little Background About Education in Colorado


Increase of English Learners 2006 to 2012

 Between 2006 and 2012, 34,124 new English learners entered Colorado school districts. The is a 35% increase over 2006.

 At the same time non-English learners increased in Colorado by about 10%

 English learners increased from 11.9% (2006) of the total number of K-12 student to 14.3% (2012).


Source: Colorado End of Year Data Collection 2011


Source: Colorado End of Year Data Collection 2011


Source: Colorado End of Year Data Collection 2011


Impact Summary  The impact on Districts was felt throughout the state.  Smaller districts with fewer resources were impacted. In a district of 100 students, the addition of 15 students (15%) would have quite an impact. Additional resources would be needed to serve these students.

 A district of 50,000 adding 3,000 students (6%) would also have an impact. Services for these students would need to be expanded.


Developing English Language Proficiency


English Learners: English Proficiency Assessments in Colorado  In 2007, Colorado introduced the first English language proficiency test for Coloradoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ELLs.

 The purpose of the Colorado English Language Assessment (CELA) was to provide a measure of English proficiency within Coloradoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s population of English learners * .

 CELA was only given to non-English proficient (NEP) or limited English proficient (LEP)students from 2007-2012.  The CELA was discontinued at the end of 2012 and was replaced by a new English proficiency assessment ** for 2013 and beyond.

 CDE holds 6 years of CELA data that can provide information on the progress toward English proficiency made by English learners in Colorado from 2007-2012. *Based

on Las Links from CTB/McGraw-Hill

**Assessing

Learners

Comprehension and Communication State-to-state for English Language


Languages Spoken by Colorado ELLs  217 languages identified on Home Language Questionnaire  84.9% of ELLs are Spanish speakers  Largest Other Languages  Vietnamese (1.7%)  Arabic (1.3%)  Greater than .5% and less and 1%      

Russian Chinese Somali Nepali Korean Amharic

Source: Colorado English Language Assessment 2012


How Many NEPS, LEPS & FEPS? Language Proficiency End Of Year 2011

Frequency

Not ELL

ELL Total

Percentage

712,583

82.5

NEP

36,400

4.2

150,801

LEP

67,693

7.8

17.5%

FEP

46,708

5.4

Total

863,384

100.0

Including former ELLs who are now proficient, there are about 150,000 ELLs are in Colorado Source: Colorado End of Year Data Collection 2011


Numbers Tested on CELA 2007-2012 All Tested and Spanish Test Takers 110,000

86,550

84,959

99,600 81,826

95,036 77,185

70,000

89,334 74,279

85,085 74,201

80,000

85,289

90,000

101,944

100,000

60,000

50,000

40,000

30,000

20,000

10,000

0 2007

2008

2009 All CELA Tested

2010 Spanish Tested

2011

2012


Distribution of English Learners by Grade Who Took CELA 2012


Matched Students Over Time 2009 CELA Results

2012 CELA Results


Matched Students Over Time: CELA 12 Results for ELLs in CELA 4 in 2009


English Proficiencyby byGrade Grade English Proficiency

Source: Colorado End of Year Data Collection 2011


English Proficiency by Time in the US 60%

55% 51.4% 50%

45% 39.8% 40% 36.5% 34.1%

35%

35.0%

34.9% 30% 29.0% 27.9%

25%

26.6% 25.4%

25.0% 20% 14.9% 15%

10%

16.2%

15.6% 12.5%

8.7% 10.2% 5.5%

5%

3.1%

5.6% 4.2%

7.6% 6.4% 1.0%1.6%

7.1% 5.8% 1.7%1.8%5.0%

0% Less Than 1 Yr

CELA Proficiency 1 (8,872)

1 - 2 Yrs

CELA Proficiency 2 (14,118)

Colorado English Language Assessment 2012

3 - 4 Yrs

5-7 yrs

CELA Proficiency 3 (24,949)

8-9

CELA Proficiency 4 (41,047)

10+

CELA Proficiency 5 (9,450)


Summary  The majority of English learners in Colorado are in grade Kindergarten through 4 th grade.  Moving young students to English proficiency would maximize their opportunities for content mastery early in their education.  A large number of English learners appear to languish in the proficiency category just below the cut point indicating English proficiency.  The data reveal that English proficiency occurs with the most frequency between three and seven years after students enter the Colorado educational system.


ELL Performance on the Colorado State Assessment 2008-2012


2008 ELL Kindergarten Students Who Took 2011 Grade 3 State Reading Assessment


Comparing ELL to Non-ELL Percent Proficient and Advanced Reading 2008-2012 100 90 80 73.9

73.3

73.9

74.9

73.4

70 60 50 40

38.9

37.8

43.5

41.6

40.9

30 20 10 0 ELL (71,883)

NON-ELL (390,551)

ELL (75,509)

NON-ELL (394,254)

ELL (79,254)

NON-ELL (397,111)

ELL (83,399)

NON-ELL (399,551)

ELL (86,583)

NON-ELL (403,404)

Reading

Reading

Reading

Reading

Reading

Reading

Reading

Reading

Reading

Reading

2008

2008

2009

2009

2010

2010

2011

2011

2012

2012


Percent Proficient or Advanced Math 2008-2012 100

90

80

70

60

59.9

59.7

58.9

58.5

57.2

50

40 32.0

36.9

35.2

34.0

36.9

30

20

10

0 ELL (73,556)

NON-ELL (390,668)

ELL (77,041)

NON-ELL (394,322)

ELL (80,540)

NON-ELL (397,260)

ELL (84,732)

NON-ELL (399,580

ELL (87,879)

NON-ELL (403,407)

Math

Math

Math

Math

Math

Math

Math

Math

Math

Math

2008

2008

2009

2009

2010

2010

2011

2011

2012

2012


 How does the Colorado English Language Assessment relate to the State Reading Assessment?  Are there students who are proficient on the state assessment who are not proficient on the ELA assessment ?  All Colorado 11 th grade students are tested on the ACT for Colorado.  How do English learners perform on the ACT?  Does English proficiency have an impact?


The Colorado Growth Model M e d i an G r o w th P e r c e ntiles

 The growth model tells us how a student â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s progress compares to other students with a similar CSAP score history  Students with both low and high test scores can get high student growth percentiles.  Unique: Academic growth based on students with a similar CSAP history

 Typical growth is equal to 50 th percentile (the medianâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;the middle score)

 Higher growth (>65 percentile) is required for students to achieve at higher levels!

 A separate growth model for the CELAPro assessment was developed in 2010.  CELA growth was developed in order to describe student progress in attaining English proficiency.


English Learners Reading Achievement and Growth 2004-2012 100 90 80 70 60 60

60

61

60.0 54

50 40 30

47

59

57

56

49

35.5

35.5

ELL (58,073) 2004

51

53

51

49 38.3

39.4

54

52

52

41.4

41.9

51 43.5

33.6

35.1

ELL (58,269)

ELL (53,437)

ELL (69,551)

ELL (71,837)

ELL (74,577)

ELL (79,165)

ELL (83,375)

ELL (86,644)

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

20 10 0

%PA

MGP

AGP


ELL and Non-ELL Comparison by EMH TCAP Reading 2012 100 90 80 70 60 56

60 50 50

51

51

40 30 20

% PA

53 50

50

76.6

74.4

72.6

25

25

45.6

49

42.3

41.7

13

10 0 ELL (37,530)

NON-ELL (164,054)

ELL (30,907)

NON-ELL (140,847)

ELL (18,146)

NON-ELL (98,502)

Elem

Elem

Middle

Middle

High

High

Reading

Reading

Reading

Reading

Reading

Reading

2012

2012

2012

2012

2012

2012

MGP AGP


ELL and Non-ELL Comparison by EMH TCAP Math 2012 100.0

99

90.0 84 80.0

80 73.8

70.0 65

62

60.0 58.7 51

50.0

51

48.9

50

50

50

50

45

MGP

40.0 38.6 30.0

%PA

33.8

20.0 16.6

10.0 0.0 ELL (38,810)

NON-ELL (164,052)

ELL (30,916)

NON-ELL (140,852)

ELL (18,153)

NON-ELL (98,502)

Elem

Elem

Middle

Middle

High

High

Math

Math

Math

Math

Math

Math

2012

2012

2012

2012

2012

2012

AGP


English Proficiency and CSAP Reading 2011 2011 by NEP, LEP & FEP 100

99

96

94 90 84

85.4

80 75 70

70.6 61

60 50

51

50 45

40

54

56 60.0

54

55

43

38 36.6

30

38

38

MS (9,814)

HS (5,867)

31

20 18.0 10

12.6 6.5

5.6

2.6

ES (353)

MS (120)

HS (41)

0 ES (8,282)

NEP

MS (2,325)

HS (753)

ES (7,097)

LEP %Prof/Adv 11

Median GP 11

FEP Adequate GP 11


English Proficiency and CSAP Reading 20122012 by NEP, LEP & FEP 99

100 90

93

92 84

87.2

80

72

70

70.8

59

65.0

60 50

55 51

40 30

37

40

54

48

51

53

33

43 38.9

29

26

20 18.4 14.8

10 7.5

5.3

Elem (380)

Middle (109)

2.6

0 High (38)

Elem (9,351)

NEP

Middle (2,700)

High (753)

LEP % PA 2012

MGP12

Elem (955)

Middle (10,065) FEP

AGP12

High (6,687)


English Learners in College Colorado High School Graduating Classes 2009 and 2010


English Learners in College  Two graduating classes: 2,459 English Learners  Nearly 64% did not need remediation HS Graduation Years

Needed Remediation

% Needed Remediation

No Remediation

% No Remediation

Total ELL

% FEP

2009

419

39.3%

648

60.7%

1067

68.7%

2010

477

34.3%

915

65.7%

1392

74.1%

Total

896

36.4%

1563

63.6%

2459

 About 70% were FEP and most were FEP by 6 th grade.


Remediation Status for English Learners by Race/Ethnicity

Reading Remediation 2009 ELL By Race/Ethnicity 07

Remediation Count

Native American Asian Black Hispanic White Total

ELL 07 ELL 07 ELL 07 ELL 07 ELL 07

No Remediation

Row N %

Count

Total

Row N %

Count

x 67 37 271 26

x 27.0% 53.6% 45.3% 22.2%

x 181 32 327 91

x 73.0% 46.4% 54.7% 77.8%

7 248 69 598 117

401

38.6%

631

60.7%

1039

Reading Remediation 2010 ELL By Race/Ethnicity 08

Remediation Count

No Remediation

Row N %

Count

Total

Row N %

Count

Native American

ELL 08

x

x

x

x

1

Asian

ELL 08

61

19.5%

252

80.5%

313

Black

ELL 08

40

50.6%

39

49.4%

79

Hispanic

ELL 08

348

40.0%

522

60.0%

870

White

ELL 08

27

20.9%

102

79.1%

129

477

34.3%

915

65.7%

1392

Total

Hispanic=57.6% of 2009 Hispanic=62.5% of 2010


Summary


ELL Achievement Summary  The achievement gap with Non-ELLs in Reading & Math is large  Overall, data provides evidence that English Learners have made progress over the last six years.  43.5% of ELs were proficient in reading on the 2012 TCAP: a significant improvement over 2008 results: 37.8%  36.9% of ELs were proficient in math on the 2012 TCAP: a significant improvement over 2008 results: 32.0%

 3-7 Years to reach English Proficiency  64% of English Proficient (FEP) students who entered college in 2009 and 2010 did not need remediation


References Crane, E.W., Huang, M., and Barrat, V.X. (2011a). Comparing achievement trends in reading and math across Arizona public school student subgroups (REL Technical Brief, REL 2012â&#x20AC;&#x201C;019). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Educational Laboratory West. Retrieved from http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/edlabs Crane, E.W., Barrat, V.X., and Huang, M. (2011b). The relationship between English proficiency and content knowledge for English language learner students in grades 10 and 11 in Utah. (Issues & Answers Report, REL 2011â&#x20AC;&#x201C;No. 110). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Educational Laboratory West. Retrieved from http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/edlabs

Gil, Libia and Bardack, Sarah (2010) Evidence: English language learners in the United States--a reference guide. English Language Learner Center: American Institutes for Research. 1000 Thomas Jefferson Street NW, Washington, DC 20007. Retrieved from http://www.air.org/files/ELL_Assumptions_and_Evidence.pdf

Kim, J. & Herman, J.L. (2012). Understanding patterns and precursors of ELL success subsequent to reclassification. (CRESST Report 818). Los Angeles, CA: University of California, National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST). Retrieved from http://www.cse.ucla.edu/products/reports/R818.pdf WestED (2013). Services by area of work: English Learners. Retrieved April 10, 2013 from http://www.wested.org/cs/we/view/area/18


Questions or Comments?


Culturally Responsive Transition Practices: Beyond the Post Secondary Education Opportunity Gap for Students from Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CLD) Backgrounds

York Williams, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Special Education West Chester University The Center for Scholastic Inquiry (CSI) Educational Conference Scottsdale, AZ Friday April 19, 2013


Introduction Research has focused on the overrepresentation of workingclass African American, Latino/Latina, and Native American students in special education over the past twenty years (Johnson, 1991; Losen & Orfield, 2002) including issues surrounding referral and identification of these students under the Individual Disabilities Education Act (IDEA, 2004) • • • •

School Dropout School Failure The Achievement and Access Gap Juvenile Deliquentcy

Poor College Attendance Low College Completion Early Parenthood Finances and more


Research Problem & Context The issues of misidentification, under achievement and poor school outcomes for CLD students are not a problems because something is inherently wrong with special education; however, placement in special education is linked to a number of negative issues including poor graduation rates, high dropout rates, and limited access to postsecondary education opportunities (Chamberlain, 2005).


Research Problem & Context The overrepresentation of low income and working-class CLD students with disabilities in special education is interwoven with underrepresentation in college attendance, graduation and low retention (Gandara & Maxwell-Jolly, 1999; Tierney & Hagedorn, 2002). Research data suggests that a learning disability in combination with other characteristics (e.g., race and class) has a more significant impact on educational attainment than any one of the aforementioned characteristics alone (Coutinho, Oswald, & Best, 2002).


IDEA & Transitions Under IDEA, special education teachers are required to provide access to a variety of post high school opportunities and resources to assist students who have a disability with options. The transition planning should begin as early as aged fourteen in most states, and under IDEA by aged sixteen (IDEA, 2004). Some examples include: Interest InventoriesTea

Making Action Plans (MAPS)

Self-Regulated Learning (SRL)

Vocational Assessments

Social Stories

Internships/ Externships

Person Centered Planning (PCP)

Wonder Land

Teacher & Family Interviews


Positionality The researcher is an African American Male, Father, former middle school teacher, Assistant professor, and otherâ&#x20AC;ŚMultiple layered roles exist. I am part of the data I seek to ask questions and find answers to. The student narratives are from African American, Latino and Asian American students who live, work and attend schools in high-needs urban communities. Uniquely, their paths traversed where my own once directed me, some twenty years ago.


Methodology Data were collected through observation, semi-structured interviews and document analysis. The researcher will present data from the semistructured interviews using narrative inquiry. Narrative inquiry allowed the researcher to interact directly with the participants and explore individual meaning making and interpretations (Creswell, 2007; Kvale & Brinkman, 2009). A metanalysis on student learning suggests that are reasonable accurate estimating their own abilities, needs, wants and expressing their concerns (Bowman, 2010).


Qualitative Inquiry Data collection with a focus on culture is strengthened through an openended process using techniques to explore underlying epistemologies and allows for multiple and diverse responses across a range of experiences (Brayboy & Maughan, 2009; Guido, Chavez & Lincoln, 2010). Each interview lasted approximately 45 minutes and was followed up with a semi-structured interview protocol, either by phone or at the HS.

(Parents and Teachers were also interviewed, but these data and findings are not the subject of this presentation).


Study Participants Students attended a large city traditional high school. Participants were recruited with consent through University special education majors using a snowball sample technique for a Transitions Field Seminar Assignment during the 2010-1011 school year. Over 25 students were selected for this one-year study, and four of the participants are reported here in this portion of the study. Each student was diagnosed with a moderate learning disability.


Participants Student

Interest

Year

From

Jean (SLD, ADHD)

Music

Junior

West Philadelphia, Overbrook

Jiukal (SLD, ADHD)

Football

Junior

West Philadelphia, Overbrook

Tajik (EBD)

College/Education

Senior

South Philadelphia

Shawnn (SLD, SLI)

Unknown

Senior

West Philadelphia


Conceptual Constructs Six underlying constructs on learning and Transitions emerged from the narratives of the students. The researcher will discuss three primary themes that seem to cut across the parents and teachers narratives and interviews, and seemed to confirm the findings through triangulation, peer checks and Interviews memos. Imagination v. Encouragement

Testing as Inclusive Detour

Thick Trust and Special â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Detrimental Reliance Education â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Omission

My World or Your Reality: Mirror Post Secondary Failure

The researcher will focus on the themes in Blue.


Data Analysis Three Steps: (1) Emergent Thematic Analysis was conducted patterns of student responses and their learning processes were identified. (2) Patterns were compared and contrasted to normative Transitioned HS students experiences.

(3) The analysis of studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; experiences led to a reduction of data into six constructs around learning and student transition practices.


Tajik & Shawnn Pseudonyms are used to protect the identity of the students. I focus on two of the four students here, and comb through their themes and critiques, and provide findings that may be used to enhance secondary education Transition Practices for students from CLD Backgrounds, particularly AA&LMâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s.


Narrative Inquiry Question A1 In what ways do you envision that transition opportunities through your schoolâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s [SPED] program is helping you to obtain your future goals?


Imagination v. Encouragement Tajik

Shawnn

I mean, I don’t really see Ms. Swanson, you know, she here and there. I know we got a lot of other cats going to the vo tech, and then some work half day, but you know, I wanna go to college, Ya Mean, and its like, well, what I need to do. I took the PSATS last year, and you know, I’m on my grind, and everything. [But helps you to be on top of things that the school does, like in your IEP?] Nothing really, I just go to class, work and play ball.

I don’t know. I think the classes are mostly book driven, and taught by subs who don’t really seem to want to, you know Doc, show you how to get the grades they want and get into a trade school. You know, I got a kid, and all, and I have to make $. I can read and write and need something after June to keep me moving. [what does your SPED teacher do to help you focus on your future?] We took a survey, and I aint seen nothing else, since last year.

November 2, 2010


Narrative Inquiry Question B2 Can you identify what types of transition assessments or discussions of which you are aware that support your participation in other classes and programs inside and outside of the school?


Testing as Inclusive Detour Tajik

Shawnn

W e do the little benchmarks and keystone practice tests, they going to be requiring for my little brother next year. We don’t have to pass them. And we got the PSSA’s and we have to do good on them, or we can go to summer school they keep threatening. [Can you think of anything else?] Naw, nothing Doc, I mean we don’t have a lot, but I’m trying to to make my SAT’s again and get into WCU or Cheyney or something, in the Fall. Nothing new, but the test prep classes for 11th grade, and since we seniors, they stopped caring.

We don’t get anything but the PSSA’s and the quarterly’s and that’s it. Our teacher stopped giving us surveys and tests in 9th grade, because she said we don’t need em, we not going to college, I’m tryin to work Doc, we gotta eat, and its hard out here. [what about your interest in trade school, and or a vocational program in the summer?] Mr. Katz said ain’t no money, but I know they send almost everybody in C Hall on college trips and tours; we never go nowhere, unless its to an IEP meeting or something, and that’s to get me to sign a waiver or something. What are they supposed to be doing with us?

February 12, 2011


Narrative Inquiry Question C1 Name some of your strengths and what evidence can you show me about you, and who you are, and what you want to be?


My World or Your Reality: Mirror Tajik I like to write, and Flow, and Free verse, and I’m good. I mean, I work hard, and don’t play around, and I’m on my way outta here in two months, going to get paper.

Shawn I mean, I ball, work, take care of my young son, and moms and go to school. [what else?] I mean, I make all right grades, and I take care of mine.

Jiukal I’m fresh, mean, I know what I wanna do, like my brother Teneal, job, gear, in community, and that’s me. You know, taking my SAT’s next year, and we’ll see. I want to get help with this math, and writing so I can be set, and after community, maybe TU.

Jean Not sure, at all, I mean, what I am supposed to be thinking about, you know, like I am good, I’m here, and you know, [giggles] I mean, Ummm, tell me something, Oh, that report, I like the video essays, we can do in Ms. Umm, Takner class. I am good at that, you know.

February 21, 2011


Discussion An analysis of these three responses, are scattered at best. There are no linkages to assessments, formative or substantive discussions, and or evidence that the seniors are prepared to graduate and be independent, nor can one say with confidence that the juniors are prepared to take on their last year of school with the tools to take them into independence.


Recommendations A diverse set of practices needs to be used with low income and at-risk and working-class African American, Latino/Latina, and Native American students with disabilities to increase their social and cultural capital and support their prospective post high school motivations, such as college, career school and professional studies.


Closing The Gap The post high school to college transition access gap can be addressed through: (1) culturally responsive mentoring, (2) building social and cultural capital for CLD students and, (3) strengthening family and school collaboration


Recommendations 1. Engage in site-based, school, and teacher leadership critical reflection that explores oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s own attitudes and perceptions concerning cultural and linguistic diversity, and the influence of these attitudes and perceptions on students with special needs and others who come from (CLD) backgrounds across all school programs. 2. Acquire accurate information about (CLD) groups and their families (e.g., histories, cultural styles, values. customs and traditions, child rearing practices, etc.) and group identity development and how this impacts adolescent students with disabilities and their outcomes using culturally responsive transition practices to plan for beyond post-secondary education.


Recommendations 3. Participate in formal and ongoing multicultural professional development in order to maximize an understanding of (CLD) students and develop skills that can address the academic, cognitive, social, psychological, and cultural needs of (CLD) students. 4. Participate in professional development that allows a special focus on the complex issues that serve as obstacles for specific high needs diverse groups, such as African American and Latino/Hispanic malesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; experiences across achievement and opportunity gaps in special education.


Questions


What is the impact of studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; ability to choose across and within course modality (OL or FTF) on course completions?

by James DeCosta, PhD


The Problem

â&#x20AC;˘ Research has shown that Online courses experience higher dropout rates than traditional face to face instruction. â&#x20AC;˘ The most common problem has been attributable to technological incompetence


The Research Question â&#x20AC;˘ What is the impact of studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; ability to choose across and within course modality (OL or FTF) on course completions?


Assumptions, Limitations, and Delimitations Students who have more experience with online instruction do better than students who have not had such experience (Osborn, 2001; Roblyer, 1999; Wade, 1999).  GPA has consistently been shown to be the single best predictor of future academic success (Bell, 2006; Dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Agostino & Powers, 2009; Osborn, 2001; Scott, et al., 2009; Sulaiman & Mohezar, 2006).  Computer ownership and use have been shown to be predictors of GPA and college success (George, et al., 2008; Goodfellow & Wade, 2007).  Students select OL delivery methods primarily due to convenience rather than quality (Pozurick, et al., 2000). 


Assumptions, Limitations, and Delimitations - Continued 





Online students are older and are more likely to have families and be employed than their traditional counterparts (Becker & Haugen, 2004; Bryant, et al., 2005; Folkers, 2005; Schell, 2001) Self-determined activities are intrinsically motivating (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990; Deci & Ryan, 1985; Roberts, 1992) FTF students persist more often than their Online counterparts


The Study Population 435 undergraduate students  Females 80% - Males 20%  Average Age 29  Private Post-Secondary WASC Accredited Institution  36% Hispanics, 17% African American, 35% Caucasian, and 12% Asian and Pacific Islanders 


The Study Population - Continued          

22% of the student population commuting more than 20 miles from campus 17% commuting between 10 and 19 miles from campus 61% commuting less than 10 miles 55% employed fulltime 20% employed part-time 25% unemployed 37% of the students have no dependents at home 63% have one or more dependents at home 13% receives no student aid of any kind 87% receive student aid in the forms of loans or grants


The Courses Eight courses were offered in both OL and FTF modalities â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 16 total courses  The same Professor taught both the OL and FTF sections  The educators used the same assessments, and teaching materials  Twenty other courses were purposely selected offered in either the OL (seven courses) or FTF (13 courses) 


Research Design The Independent Variable Comparative design of independent groups  Group A â&#x20AC;&#x201C; All students who had a choice of modality made up the treatment group  Group B â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Students with no choice made up the baseline group 


The Dependent Variable Course Completion  Students who for any reason left the course before it was over, received a failing grade or dropped the course at any time where assigned the Course Uncompleted Group. This group was coded 1.  Receiving a grade of A, B, C, or D would place the student in the Course Completed group and was coded 2. 


Analysis The analysis was across and within modalities  A binary logistic regression was carried out using the enter method with SPSS, due to the categorical nature of the DV course completions. 


Results â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Across Both Modalities 



The data set from the student population of 435 records included the dependent variable course completions and the independent (predictor) variable student choice Course completions was the dependent variable defined as a categorical dichotomy; either determined as not completed (drop, withdrawal, a grade of F or incomplete) or completed (final grade of A, B, C, or D)


Results â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Across Modalities Continued 





The IVs course choice and GPA had significant relationships to course completions. For the course choice variable the B and p values were B = -.826 and p = .004 respectfully. The analysis indicated that course choice of modality decreases the chance of completing courses. For the GPA variable the B and p values were B = .125 and p = .026 respectfully. The analysis also indicated that higher GPAs increase course completions


Results â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Across Modalities Continued Regression Coefficients for Course Completions for GPA, OL Courses, Choice B

p

GPA

.125

.026*

OL Courses

-.056

.896

Choice

-.826

.004**

Modality

-.062

.828

PS: * Correlation significant <.05. ** Correlation significant <.01


Results â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Within FTF Modality The data set from the student population of 235 records included the dependent variable course completions and the independent (predictor) variable  Course completions was the dependent variable defined as a categorical dichotomy; either determined as not completed (drop, withdrawal, a grade of F or incomplete) or completed (final grade of A, B, C, or D) 


Results Within FTF Modality Continued A total of 235 cases were analyzed. The IV course choice had a significant relationship to course completions  For the course choice variable the B and p values were B = -1.274 and p = .002 respectfully. The analysis indicated that course choice of modality decreases the chance of completing courses 


Results Within FTF Modality Continued Regression Coefficients for DV=Completions in the FTF modality B GPA Choice of Modality

p .092

.230

-1.274

.002**

OL Courses

.682

OL Courses(1)

.099

.838

OL Courses(2)

.769

.269

OL Courses(3)

-.013

.987

PS: * Correlation significant <.05. ** Correlation significant <.01


Results Within OL Modality The data set from the student population of 200 records included the dependent variable course completions and the independent (predictor) variable  Course completions was the dependent variable defined as a categorical dichotomy; either determined as not completed (drop, withdrawal, a grade of F or incomplete) or completed (final grade of A, B, C, or D) 


Results Within OL Modality Continued A total of 200 cases were analyzed. The IV GPA had a significant relationship to course completions  For the GPA variable the B and p values were B = .204 and p = .021. The analysis indicated that as student GPA rises the chance of completing courses also rises 


Results Within OL Modality Continued Regression Coefficients for Course Completions for GPA, Choice, OL Courses, - OL B

p

GPA

.204

.021*

Choice

-.305

.475

OL Courses 1

-.496

.319

OL Courses 2

-.896

.123

OL Courses 3

-.820

.163

PS: * Correlation significant <.05. ** Correlation significant <.01


Discussion Student Choice was shown to be a significant factor in predicting subsequent persistence across modalities such that students selecting the FTF modality were more likely not to complete the course  Student GPA was found to be significantly related to completing courses in the OL modality  Student Choice of modality was not significant in the OL modality. 


Discussion - Continued The results also upheld previous findings that GPA was the single best predictor of subsequent student performance with student age contributing predictive ability across and within both modalities.  The FTF and OL student choice of modality was not a significant factor in relation to student achievement. This was contrary to the expectation that student choice would increase student motivation to achieve as would be the result predicted through the lens of selfdetermination theory (SDT) and cognitive evaluation theory (CET) a sub theory of SDT and has been primarily applied to athletics. 


Discussion - Continued 

These findings were in contrast to the previous research findings for the OL modality in which researchers have found significantly higher rates of dropouts for OL students (Pierrakeas, Xenos, Panagiotakopoulos, & Vergidis, 2004; Xenos, 2004, Diaz, 2000). â&#x2014;Ś The results of this study support previous suppositions that the previously reports of increased course dropouts and stops for students taking online courses may be due to demographic variables associated with older, working adults who are more likely to have life events that would interfere with educational goals (Diaz, 2002).


Holding on to Novice Teachers What Teacher Preparation Programs Can Do to Prevent Novice Teacher Attrition Presented for the

Center for Scholastic Inquiry Annual Conference April 17-19, 2013 Dr. Joan Berry University of Mary Hardin-Baylor jberry@umhb.edu


50% of new teachers leave within five years.

Schools spend needed funds on recruitment and training. The national teacher shortage is exacerbated. Schools are unable to staff all classrooms with highly qualified teachers.

Student achievement is negatively impacted.


Traditional approaches to the problem aren’t working.

Mentoring Induction programs University-school partnerships ONE SIZE DOES NOT FIT ALL!

“When you say treat the students like family, do you mean like blood kin or like in-laws?”


What is SENSEMAKING? Sensemaking is a way of looking at how individuals think about, react to, and change because of cues in a new environment. It involves three stages: • Anticipatory socialization • Encounter • Adaptation


Methodology Data collection and Sources


Findings


Practical vs. Idealistic Thinking Connection with an Insider Adaptability and Empowerment


Implications

Teacher educators

• How do we help pre-service teachers develop “practical knowledge” about teaching rather than idealistic and transmissive views? • How do we facilitate the “insider” and “newcomer” relationship (and how do they know a good “insider” when they see one)? • How do we prepare entry-level teachers to “adapt” to the surprises/frustrations they encounter? • How do we help entry-level teachers overcome (not just accept) circumstances that are out of their control? Mentors/ Veteran teachers

Administrators


BURAPHA UNIVERSITY INTERNATIONAL COLLEGE

1


The Production of Final /s/ in English Words by Thai Speakers with Different English-Language Experiences


• Wuttipol Khirin • Burapha University International College (BUUIC)


• Sylvia holds a Master's Degree from a university across town.

• Thai speakers have difficulty in producing final /s/ • it will be pronounced as sounds occurring in Thai phonology


OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

• To analyze the pronunciation of the final /s/ of English words by Thai speakers of different English-language experiences. • To analyze the language transfer of English words in Thai speakers. • To analyze the correlation between English-experience and the final /s/ production characteristics • To prove the hypotheses of language transfer theory.


BUUIC HYPOTHESES The pronunciation of the final /s/ in English reflects the language transfer from Thai to English.

The pronunciation of the final /s/ reflects that the students who have low English-language experience will indicate and expose language transfer from Thai to English more than students who have high Englishlanguage experience. BUUIC, Thailand


THE PHONEME /S/ Tongue position of s with tip of tongue raised


Labiodental

Bilabial

Plosive

Approxi mant

[p] บ,ป,พ,ฟ,ภ

Velar

[n] ญ,ณ ,น,ร,ล,ฬ

[m] ม

Nasal

PostPalatal alveolar

Alveolar

Glottal

[ŋ] ง

[t] จ,ช ,ซ,ฌ,ฎ,ฏ,ฐ, ฑ,ฒ, ด,ต ,ถ,ท,ธ,ศ,ษ, ส

[ʔ]*

[k] ก,ข,ค,ฆ

[j] ย

[w] ว


CONCEPT OF LANGUAGE TRANSFER

Selinker (1991) “the borrowed language form from the mother tongue for application to the language the learner tries to acquire”

BUUIC, Thailand


INTERLANGUAGE Lado (1975)

â&#x20AC;&#x153;interlanguage influences learners when they apply it as they learn foreign language when the language learners study foreign language, they tend to apply the system of their mother tongue to the language they are acquiringâ&#x20AC;?


French uvular /r/ English /r/


RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Production Test Development

Test item development Production test development

BUUIC, Thailand


TEST ITEM DEVELOPMENT course cross defense intelligence sites various suits presence unless speaks agents asserts

asks retorts piece solicits inflicts righteous violence documents represents

BUUIC, Thailand

works across attachments its depicts focus happiness shots helps


Example of the test item â&#x20AC;&#x153;courseâ&#x20AC;? Impossible, of course, to know, but I find myself disquieted along with others0


TEST ITEMS AS APPEARED IN A PASSAGE Had a man directed Zero Dark Thirty, the film’s exacting scenes of coercion would be so controversial. Impossible, of course, to know, but I find myself disquieted along with others who’ve pointed out that even Oliver Stone’s inquiries into the Kennedy assassination and other political debacles weren’t targeted with quite this level of cross, chastising congressional venom.


Bigelow’s defense of her film almost mirrors the gendered polarities faced by Zero Dark Thirty’s heroine, Maya, the CIA operative who tenaciously follows an intelligence lead to Bin Laden’s hiding place in a compound outside of Abbottabad, Pakistan. Maya is often the only woman on the scene, whether in the “black sites” where the CIA tortures its detainees or in the headquarters in Washington where various men in suits ignore her presence unless she speaks up.


SAMPLING PROCEDURE The English-language experience questionnaire

Part 2: there are 15 questions (no. 11 – 25)

Part 1: there are 10 questions (no. 1 – 10)

respondents’ informal Englishlanguage experience in terms of listening and speaking skills

the respondents’ formal English-language experience.

BUUIC, Thailand


Part 3: there are 25 questions (no. 26 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 50)

respondentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; informal English-language experience in terms of reading and writing skills


English-language Experience Questionnaire 1. I studied English before kindergarten. 2. I studied English at kindergarten level. 3. I have taken some extra-curriculum English courses before attending primary school. 4. I always attend English classes on regular basis. 5. When in an English class, I am always attentive. BUUIC, Thailand


11. My English instructors speak English while teaching. 12. I have had at least one native speaker as one of my classmates. 13. I have taken some extra-curriculum English courses or programs in Thailand. 14. I have taken some extra-curriculum English courses or programs overseas. 15. I feel confident about pronouncing English sounds correctly in my class.


30. I often watch English programs on TV.

31. I often listen to English programs on radio. 32. I use English to communicate as a part of my daily life. 33. I speak English with English native speakers every day.

34. I communicate with my pen pal(s) in English.


PRAAT Phonetic Software

BUUIC, Thailand


1. An English-language experience questionnaire 2. Production test 3. Sound recording Instrument 4. Phonetic transcription software. (PRAAT)

BUUIC, Thailand


RESULTS

Variants found The voiceless alveolar fricative [s] The voiced alveolar plosive sound [d] The aspirated voiceless alveolar plosive sound [th] The voiceless alveolar plosive sound [t] The voiced alveolar [z]

BUUIC, Thailand


THE VARIATIONS OF [S] s z th t d Total 81 49 552 429 89 1,200 6.90 4.09 46.0235.817.18 100 The target variant [s] of only 4.09%.

No. %


SORTED OUT BY ENGLISH-LANGUAGE EXPERIENCE

s High 54

z

th

t

d

31

272

199

44

600 No.

9.17 5.08 45.30 33.20 7.25 100 % Low 28

18

281

231

42

600 No.

4.50 3.25 46.75 38.41 7.09 100 %


RESULTS (HIGH)

Of 600 productions, only 54 productions are the target variant [s], only of 9.17%. When produced by Thai speakers with high English-language experienceWhen produced by Thai speakers with high English-language experience

There also exists the language transfer of the mother tongue.


The language transfer also influences the productions of the Thai speakers.


SORTED OUT BY ENGLISH-LANGUAGE EXPERIENCE

s High 54

z

th

t

d

31

272

199

44

600 No.

9.17 5.08 45.30 33.20 7.25 100 % Low 28

18

281

231

42

600 No.

4.50 3.25 46.75 38.41 7.09 100 %


Burapha University International College

High English-language experience have less L1 transfer effect than the participants with low Englishlanguage experience.


SORTED OUT BY ENGLISH-LANGUAGE EXPERIENCE

s High 54

z

th

t

d

31

272

199

44

600 No.

9.17 5.08 45.30 33.20 7.25 100 % Low 28

18

281

231

42

600 No.

4.50 3.25 46.75 38.41 7.09 100 %


Burapha University International College

RESULTS (LOW) Of 600 productions, only 28 productions are the target variant [s], only of 4.50%.


Burapha University International College

Low English-language experience, there also exists the language transfer of the mother tongue and the language transfer also influences the productions of the Thai speakers.


CONCLUSION The correlation between English-language experience and the final /s/ production characteristics


THE HYPOTHESES OF LANGUAGE TRANSFER THEORY

There is also more L1 transfer effect in the speakers with low English-language experience than those of high Englishlanguage experience. The participants with low English-language experience will have more L1 transfer effect than those with high English-language experience. The pronunciation of the variants will be closer to the Thai pronunciation.


REFERENCES English Abercrombie, D. (1967). Elements of general phonetics. Great Britain: Edinburgh University Press. Boonruang Chunsuvimol & Nantana Ronakiat. (2000). Stylistic variation of (f) and (v) in the English of Thai students. Bangkok: Thammasat University, Faculty of Liberal Arts, Department of Linguistics. M. E. Clarey & Dixson R.J. (1963). Pronunciation exercises in English. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc. Davies A., Criper C. and Howatt A.P.R.(ed.). (1984). Interlanguage. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.


Flege, J., & Hillenbrand, J. (1987). Limits on phonetic accuracy in foreign language speech production. In G. Ioup & S.H. Weinberger (Eds.), Interlanguage phonology: The acquisition of a second language sound system. Cambridge: Newbury House. Foongfuang Kruatrachue. (1960). Thai and English: A comparative study of phonology for pedagogical application. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington, Department of Linguistics. Gimson, A.C. (1962). An introduction to the pronunciation of English. London: Edward Arnold. Jones D. (1958). The pronunciation of English. Cambridge: Cambridge University


Kasper G. and Blum-Kulka S.(ed.). (1993). Interlanguage pragmatics. New York : Oxford University Press. Kumar R. (1999)Research methodology. Malaysia: SAGE Publications. Oâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Connor, J.P. (1967). Better English pronunciation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Odlin, T. (1989). Language transfer: cross-linguistic influence in language learning. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. Lado, R. (1957). Linguistics across culture. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.


Selinker, L. (1991). Rediscovering interlanguage (applied linguistics and language study). New Jersey: Addison Wesley Publishing Company Selinker L. and Gass S. (ed.). (1992). Language transfer in language learning. Amsterdam : John Benjamins.


Thai กาญจนา นาคสกุล. (2541). ระบบเสียงภาษาไทย. พิมพ์ ครั ง" ที# 4, กรุ งเทพมหานคร: โรงพิมพ์ จุฬาลงกรณ์ มหาวิทยาลัย กัลยา วานิชย์ บัญชา. (2551). การใช้ SPSS for Windows ในการวิเคาระห์ ข้อมูล. พิมพ์ ครั ง" ที#11, กรุ งเทพมหานคร: บริ ษัทธรรมสาร จํากัด บวร ฉายถวิล. (2537). การแปรของการออกเสียงหน่ วยเสียง /l/ ในตําแหน่ งท้ ายคําภาษาอังกฤษ: การศึกษาปเรี ยบเทียบนิสิตปี ที# 1 คณะอักษรศาสตร์ จุฬาลงกรณ์ มหาวิทยาลัยที#มีประสบการณ์ ภาษาอังกฤษต่ างกัน. สารนิพนธ์ ปริ ญญามหาบัณฑิต สาขาวิชาภาษาศาสตร์ , จุฬาลงกรณ์ มหาวิทยาลัย, คณะอักษรศาสตร์ ปรั ศนียา จารุ สันต์ . (2540). การรั บรู้ การออกเสียงหนักเบาในคําภาษาอังกฤษของนักศึกษาชัน" ปี ที# 1 มห���วิทยาลัยรั งสิต. วิทยานิพนธ์ ปริ ญญามหาบัณฑิต สาขาภาษาศาสตร์ , จุฬาลงกรณ์ มหาวิทยาลัย, คณะอักษรศาสตร์ พิณทิพย์ ทวยเจริ ญ. (2525). สัทศาสตร์ และสรวิทยาเบือ" งต้ น. กรุ งเทพมหานคร: ไทยวัฒนาพานิช


เพ็ญสินี กิจค้ า. (2547). การออกสียงและการรั บรู้ สระเดี#ยวภาษาอังกฤษของผู้พูดภาษาไทยที#มี ประสบการณ์ ภาษาอังกฤษต่ างกัน. วิทยานิพนธ์ ปริญญามหาบัณฑิต สาขาภาษาศาสตร์ , จุฬาลงกรณ์ มหาวิทยาลัย, คณะอักษรศาสตร์ ทิพย์ วรรณ จรรยาสุภาพ. (2525). การวิเคราะห์ การออกเสียงภาษาอังกฤษของนักศึกษาวิชาเอก ภาษาอังกฤษระดับประกาศนียบัตรวิชาการศึกษาชัน" สูง. วิทยานิพนธ์ ปริ ญญามหาบัณฑิต, จุฬาลงกรณ์ มหาวิทยาลัย, คณะครุ ศาสตร์ , ภาควิชามัธยมศึกษา. นันทนา รณเกียรติ. (2545). ตําราเสียง ระบบเสียงและสําเนียงภาษาอังกฤษ. กรุ งเทพฯ: สํานักพิมพ์ มหาวิทยาลัยธรรมศาสตร์ . ราชบัณฑิตยสถาน (2546). ศัพท์ ภาษาศาสตร์ ฉบับราชบัณฑิตยสถาน. กรุ งเทพมหานคร: ราชบัณฑิตยสถาน


THANK YOU

Department of Tourism and Hotel Management

BUUIC, Thailand


QUESTIONS?


Education B Portfolio--Scottsdale 2013