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32. Ditton, Mental Health and Treatment. 33. Adapted from Abram and Teplin, “Co-Occurring Disorders,” 1036–1045. 34. Ditton, Mental Health and Treatment. 35. Ditton, Mental Health and Treatment. 36. Ibid. 37. Skeem, Jennifer L., Eliza Nicholson, and Christine Kregg, “Understanding Barriers to Re-entry for Parolees with Mental Disorder,” in D.G. Kroner (Chair), Mentally Disordered Offenders: A Special Population Requiring Special Attention, symposium conducted at the meeting of the American Psychology-Law Society, Jacksonville, FL, March, 2008; Baillargeon, Jacques, Brie A. Williams, Jeff Mellow, Amy J. Harzake, Steven K. Hoge, Gwen Baillargeon, and Robert B. Greifinger, “Parole Revocation Among Prison Inmates with Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders,” Psychiatric Services 60, no. 11 (November 2009): 1516–1521. 38. Trestman, Robert L., “Correctional Managed Health Care (CMHC) Annual Report July 2010–June 2011,” Annual Reports—Patient Care, Paper 6 (Farmington, CT: University of Connecticut School of Medicine and Dentistry, July 1, 2011). Available at 39. Jenne, Ken, and Donald F. Eslinger, “Without Reform, Problems Mount,” (April 21, 2003). Available at 40. Michigan Office of the Auditor General, Audit Report: Performance Audit of Pharmaceutical Costs Department of Corrections (Lansing, MI: Michigan Office of the Auditor General, March 2011). Available at 41. Fellner, Jamie, “A Corrections Quandary: Mental Illness and Prison Rules,” Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review 41 (2006): 391–412. 42. Iowa Department of Corrections, “Seriousness/Acuity of Mentally Ill Offenders in Prison,” Data Download, Issue 15 (July 2009). 43. Office of National Drug Control Policy, The Economic Costs of Drug Abuse in the United States, 1992–1998 (Washington, D.C.: Executive Office of the President, Office of National Drug Control Policy, December 2004). 44. Belenko, Steven, Nicholas Patapis, and Michael T. French, Economic Benefits of Drug Treatment: A Critical Review of the Evidence for Policy Makers (Philadelphia, PA: Treatment Research Institute, University of Pennsylvania, February 2005). 45. Aos, Steve, Stephanie Lee, Elizabeth Drake, Annie Pennucci, Tali Klima, Marna Miller, Laurie Anderson, Jim Mayfield, and Mason Burley, Return on Investment: Evidence-Based Options to Improve Statewide Outcomes (Olympia, WA: Washington State Institute for Public Policy, July 1, 2011); Drake, Elizabeth, Steve Aos, and Marna Miller, “Evidence-Based Public Policy Options to Reduce Crime and Criminal Justice Costs: Implications in Washington State,” Victims and Offenders 4 (2009): 170–196. 46. Gerstein, Dean R., Robert A. Johnson, Henrick J. Harwood, Douglas Fontain, Natalie Suter, and Kathryn M. Malloy, Evaluating Recovery Services: The California Drug and Alcohol Treatment Assessment (CALDATA) (Sacramento, CA: California Department of Alcohol and Drug Programs, 1994). A study found that, on average, substance abuse treatment is associated with a monetary benefit to society of $11,487, representing a greater than 7:1 ratio of benefits to costs. These benefits were primarily because of reduced costs of crime and increased employment earnings. See Ettner, Susan L., David Huang, Elizabeth Evans, Danielle Rose Ash, Mary Hardy, Mickel Jourabchi, and Yih-Ing Hser, “Benefit–Cost in the California Treatment Outcome Project: Does Substance Abuse Treatment “Pay for Itself”?” Health Services Research 41, no. 1 (2006): 192–213. 47. Warren, Nancy, Lorrie Byrum, Kristy Spiczka, Bill Chown, and Carol Furr, Analysis of Oklahoma Drug Courts: Fiscal Years 2002–2003 (Oklahoma City, OK: Oklahoma Criminal Justice Resource Center, January 2004). 48. diZerega, Margaret. Engaging Offenders’ Families in Reentry: Coaching Packet (New York, NY: Vera Institute of Justice, 2010).


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