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12. Steadman, Henry J., Edward P. Mulvey, John Monahan, Pamela Clark Robbins, Paul S. Appelbaum, Thomas Grisso, Loren H. Roth, and Eric Silver, “Violence by People Discharged from Acute Psychiatric Inpatient Facilities and by Others in the Same Neighborhoods,” Archives of General Psychiatry 55, no. 5 (May 1998): 393–401. 13. National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors and the Council of State Governments Justice Center, Responding to a High-Profile Tragic Incident Involving a Person with a Serious Mental Illness: A Toolkit for State Mental Health Commissioners (Alexandria, VA: National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors, 2010). 14. Elbogen, Eric B., and Sally C. Johnson, “The Intricate Link Between Violence and Mental Disorder: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions,” Archives of General Psychiatry, 66 no. 2 (2009): 152–161. 15. Friedman, Richard A. “Violence and Mental Illness—How Strong is the Link?” New England Journal of Medicine 355, no. 20 (2006): 2064–2066. 16. Junginger, John, Keith Claypoole, Ranilo Laygo, and Annette Crisanti, “Effects of Serious Mental Illness and Substance Abuse on Criminal Offenses,” Psychiatric Services 57, no. 6 (June 2006): 879–882. 17. Skeem, Jennifer L., Sarah Manchack, and Jillian K. Peterson, “Correctional Policy for Offenders with Mental Illness: Creating a New Paradigm for Recidivism Reduction,” Law and Human Behavior 35, no. 2 (2011): 110–126. 18. Feucht and Gfroerer, Mental and Substance Use Disorders. 19. Abram, Karen M., and Linda A. Teplin, “Cooccurring Disorders Among Mentally Ill Jail Detainees,” American Psychologist 46, no. 10 (1991): 1036–1045. 20. Ditton, Mental Health and Treatment. 21. Kessler, Ronald C., Christopher B. Nelson, Katherine A. McGonagle, Mark J. Edlund, Richard G. Frank, and Philip J. Leaf, “The Epidemiology of Co-occurring Addictive and Mental Disorders: Implications for Prevention and Service Utilization,” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 66, no. 1 (1996): 17–31. 22. Ditton, Mental Health and Treatment; see also Metzner, Jeffrey L., “An Introduction to Correctional Psychiatry: Part I,” Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 25, no. 3 (1997): 375–381. (Based on a review of pertinent studies, Metzner estimates that from 8–19 percent of incarcerated offenders in the United States have a psychiatric disorder that results in functional disability, and another 15–20 percent will need some form of psychiatric intervention.) 23. Steadman et al., “Prevalence of Serious Mental Illness,” 761–765. 24. Feucht and Gfroerer, Mental and Substance Use Disorders. 25. Ibid. 26. Mumola and Karberg, Drug Use and Dependence. 27. Karberg and James, Substance Dependence. 28. Feucht and Gfroerer, Mental and Substance Use Disorders. (The 35–40 percent range represents both a probation and parole population. According to Feucht and Gfroerer in this SAMHSA and NIJ report, combined data from 2006–2009 reveal that 35 percent of parolees and 40 percent of probationers had “illicit drug or alcohol dependence or abuse in the past year.”) 29. Compton, Wilson M., Deborah Dawson, Sarah Q. Duffy, and Bridget F. Grant, “The Effect of Inmate Populations on Estimates of DSM-IV Alcohol and Drug Use Disorders in the United States,” The American Journal of Psychiatry 167, no. 4 (April 2010): 473–74. 30. Ibid. 31. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings (Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies, 2009). (Among adults ages 18 or older with SMI, 25.2 percent (2.5 million) were dependent on or abused illicit drugs or alcohol.)

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