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Glossary of Terms

Responsivity Principle—The principle that stresses the importance of delivering correctional rehabilitative services, both in institutions and the community, using methods and techniques tailored to individual learning styles and motivational levels.148 Revocation—A sanctioning mechanism whereby a violation of the conditions of probation or parole is punishable by re-imprisonment. Risk Principle—A principle that states individuals with higher criminogenic risk (greater likelihood of future criminal activity) should be prioritized for treatment and receive more intense supervision than those with lower criminogenic risk. Targeting interventions to those with higher criminogenic needs reduces recidivism.149 Screening—A process to determine the possibility that a client has a mental illness, substance abuse disorder, or both. The purpose of screening is not to diagnose a disorder but to establish the need for an in-depth behavioral health assessment.150 Serious Mental Illness (SMI)—Adults with a serious mental illness (SMI) are defined by SAMHSA as persons age 18 and over, who currently or at any time during the past year have had a diagnosable mental, behavioral, or emotional disorder of sufficient duration to meet diagnostic criteria specified within the DSM-IV-TR, resulting in functional impairment that substantially interferes with or limits one or more major life activities.151

Substance Use Disorders: Substance Abuse—The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services define substance abuse as “a maladaptive pattern of substance use manifested by recurrent and significant adverse consequences related to the repeated use of substances.”152 Individuals who abuse substances may experience harmful consequences such as repeatedly failing to fulfill roles for which they are responsible, using substances in situations that are physically hazardous, and experiencing legal difficulties as well as social and interpersonal problems.153 Substance Dependence—The American Psychiatric Association defines substance dependence as “a cluster of cognitive, behavioral, and physiological symptoms indicating that the individual continues use of the substance despite significant substance-related problems.”154 This maladaptive pattern of substance use includes all the features of abuse, along with some additional features: increased tolerance for the drug, resulting in the need for ever-greater amounts of the substance to achieve the intended effect; an obsession with securing the drug and with its use; and persistence in using the drug in the face of serious physical or psychological problems.155


Profile for CSG Justice Center