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Adults with Behavioral Health Needs under Correctional Supervision

Modified Therapeutic Community—A residential treatment program that adapts a traditional therapeutic community model for populations with co-occurring substance abuse and mental health disorders. A focus of the program is the emphasis of community among participants and staff within a self-help peer environment. It was developed to respond to the psychiatric symptoms and the functional and cognitive impairments of people with co-occurring disorders. As a result, this program is more flexible, more personal, and less intense than traditional therapeutic communities.139 Motivational Interviewing—A counseling approach to behavior change that addresses ambivalent attitudes and supports change in a way that is consistent with an individual’s own values.140 Needs Principle—A principle that states an individual’s criminogenic needs should be targeted for intervention in order to reduce recidivism or prevent future criminal conduct.141 Personality Disorder—A type of mental health disorder characterized by a pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of the culture of the individual who exhibits it, and that results often in significant problems with interpersonal relationships.142 Recidivism—The repetition of criminal or delinquent behavior, most often measured as a new arrest, conviction, or return to prison and/or jail for the commission of a new crime or for the violation of conditions of supervision.143 Recovery—Recovery is a process of change whereby individuals work to improve their own health and well-being, live a self-directed life, and strive to achieve their full potential.144 Many treatment approaches today are defined as “recoveryoriented,” meaning that they provide consumers with tools that will enable them to gain a combination of self-esteem and self-reliance, in turn allowing them to become increasingly or fully independent of the mental health system. When people with co-occurring disorders are in recovery, they are abstinent from the substance causing impairment, are able to function despite symptoms of mental illness, and can participate in life activities that are meaningful and fulfilling to them.145 Relapse—The return to active substance use in a person with a diagnosed substance use disorder, or the return of disabling psychiatric symptoms in a person with a diagnosed mental disorder. Relapse is a common event in the course of recovery.146 Residential Treatment—A type of substance abuse or mental health care that is provided at a live-in (non-hospital) facility. Residential treatment can include detoxification and is provided on either a short-term (less than 30 days) or long-term (more than 30 days) basis. Typical services include assessments, counseling, and discharge and transitional services.147

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