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Adults with Behavioral Health Needs under Correctional Supervision

of release from jail or prison. This supervision might entail more attentiveness to risk-reduction interventions (such as greater use of motivational interviewing, ensuring greater access to CBT) and closer monitoring. These strategies may be applied when having more frequent check-ins, curfew checks, and monitoring than lower-risk individuals based on RNR principles.* Community supervision agency leaders will need to provide additional training on effective supervision and case management and may need to find incentives, evaluation measures, Because of budget cuts, some and other mechanisms to encourage officers to individuals are staying in jail for avoid revocations for technical violations related up to two years in some states. In other states, jail stays can be to behavioral health problems and to work with a few hours or days. With such professionals from those systems to increase variation, it is important to look successful completion of supervision. At the same at length of stay and not simply time, there must be an acknowledgment that the setting—jail or prison—to officers who are focused intensely on higher-risk determine how resources might individuals may be more susceptible to burn-out be used. It is also important to and job dissatisfaction—higher-risk individuals, by consider that jails often have classification, are typically more difficult to work fewer resources to draw on.” with and have complex problems that can contribute —Robert May, Associate Director, to their likelihood of committing future crimes. Association of State Correctional Administrators

Individuals in these groups have significant behavioral health needs that also must be addressed. This can be achieved through the application of evidence-based strategies to reduce substance use, improve functioning, and promote recovery. With the exception of reducing the possession of illegal substances, these interventions alone do not necessarily have a direct effect on recidivism. Nonetheless, they are necessary to improve the responsiveness of these individuals to other recidivism-reduction practices. A large population of group 8 individuals (the highest criminogenic risk and behavioral health need group) suggests the need for significant integrated treatment options—from residential to outpatient programs. System administrators will need to ensure staff is oriented to and trained on RNR principles to formulate effective case plans. Some probation and parole agencies have developed specialized caseloads to help ensure that individuals with particular needs, such as behavioral health problems, can be given the attention they need by a

*For higher-risk groups, frequent reporting requirements with regular field visits are warranted. Surveillance programs, including electronic monitoring bracelets and global positioning system receivers, may be used. Swift responses to technical violations with graduated sanctions are employed. Incentives to comply with conditions of release are tailored to the probationer/parolee. For an example of how supervision can be linked to such activities as engaging the individual in the prosocial change process and in treatment programs that focus on building skills, see Faye S. Taxman, Christina Yancey, and Jeanne E. Bilanin, Proactive Community Supervision in Maryland: Changing Offender Outcomes, February 2006, available at pdfs/PCS_Evaluation_Feb06.pdf.

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