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Procedia ProcediaSocial Socialand andBehavioral BehavioralSciences Sciences55(2010) (2010)1226–1231 493–497


Graphical design features responding to tourist mapping need: a case of Bangkok’s maps for foreign tourists Cholthicha Sarikanona * , Nopadon Sahachaisaereeb P






Graduate Program in Industrial Design Technology, Faculty of Industrial Design Education, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Chalongkrung Road, Ladkrabang, Bangkok, 10520, Thailand b Assoc. Prof., Ph.D. program in Multidisciplinary Design Research, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Chalongkrung Road, Ladkrabang, Bangkok, 10520, Thailand P




Received January 10, 2010; revised February 1, 2010; accepted March 4, 2010

Abstract The primary purpose of graphic map design was to determine the factors for each types of map that can meet the demand of the tourists who are different in their destination. The graphic map factors enable us to know the target group and type of map they used that provides the accurate information corresponding to their actual need. Methodologically, the simulation viewing questionnaires were used to examine the opinion and need of the tourists whose interest was different with the type of map they used. In case study, the sample included the foreign tourists in Bangkok territory. This paper examined the graphic map design factors that meet the tourist’s need. The results are expected to be used as useful guidelines for map design that satisfies the tourists in context of Thai social and cultural environment that can be recognized at international level. It’s not only useful to those tourists, but also to general people. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. T


Keywords: graphical design, tourist map, tourist map design.

1. Introduction Tourism map and Urban map are is simply available. They are not only map available for sale or distribution for direct purpose of tourist’s travel, but the map making is also were of the objectives of the users primarily. That is why there are various types of map. The content and detail on the map must tranmit the accurate information so that the users are not confused. The effective map design can attract the users to be interested in the map itself. Good map should consist of attractivenss from interface design to data management (Figure-ground in Map Design: 2009). Bangkok is an urbanized area and tourist attraction, and be integral part of ancient city enriched with long-standing spectacular tradition, custom, and cultures.

* Cholthicha Sarikanon. Tel.: +668-9766-3902; fax: +662-629-9151. E-mail address:

1877-0428 © 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.07.265

Cholthicha Sarikanon and Nopadon Sahachaisaeree / Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 5 (2010) 1226–1231


2. Objective This study explored two main points. Firstly, the differences in type and category of the map can meet the tourism’s need differently. Secondly, the appropriate suggestion and guidelines in map design can meet the tourist’s different needs satisfactorily. Four purposes of the study were included 1) to examine the personal factors that influence the type and goal of tourism, 2) to investigate type and category of map that is meaningful to the different goals of tourism, 3) to examine the tourist’s different needs toward the uses of different types of map, and 4) to suggest the types of map that meets the tourist’s need effectively. 3. Theoritical Background The study was based on the following concepts and theory which contained 5 major syllabus; Firstly, Information Processing Approach which focused concentration, remembrance, environmental envision, perception, learning, sensational synthesis in the way people assimilate and process data. Secondly , Information Design and Direction emphasized the perception process and understanding the meaningful behavior to the informtion design. It also linked the perception and behavior to physical need in order to achieve the target goal. It’s a perception process and enviornmental remind that has influenced the percieved map. Thirdly, basic concept of interpersonal and environmental realtionship, and human behavior process. It hightlighted the perception, learning and remind of the environment and concept. Fourthly, visual perception and Gestalt Theory hightlighted an examination of relationship scheme generated by perception, nature of inforamtion received and basic rule of the perception that makes known that humans are inclined to perceive the perfect elements, and which systemization was associated with perception. Lastly, Basic Element and Principle of Design was aimed to examine the basic elements of physical enviornment of the city with diversification, and design introcution. These five areas were linked to the lituratures(Figure. 1) to establish the framework in practice(Figure. 2). Concept of Information Processing Approach (Kaplan, 1989) - concentration, - cognitive, - environmental envision perception, - learning, - synthesis

Information Design and Way-finding (Passini,1992) - concept o way in ing an way in ing process

Res lts The res lts provi e the acc rate esign o map that meet the to rists’ i erent nee s.

Basic Concept of Interpersonal and environmental relationship (Gifford, 2 2) Environmental perception an recognition environmental, - remin an concept, - environment pre erence in icators is al perception and Gestalt Theory (Moore, itz, 1993) Basic perception an r le o systemization Basic Elements and principle of design approaches (Rapoport, 199 )

Figure 1. Relating literature framework to result of study


Cholthicha Sarikanon and Nopadon Sahachaisaeree / Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 5 (2010) 1226–1231

Patterns of travelling - Culture - Shopping - Luxury - Business - Package tour

Different Patterns of Tourist

Personal Factors - Sex - ge - Experience - Specialty

Issues of reception - ttraction - esponses to stimulation - Interpretation

Types of tourist maps - General map - Simpli y map with etail - Simpli y map without etail - 3D map (lan mark) - vertise map

Design Factors - Marks - Sym ols - Colors - Content - Data - Illustration

Suggestion Graphic Design to the Tourist maps

Figure 2. Conceptual Framework

Independent variables included types of tourism, types of map. Interventing variables included perceptions such as arousal of interestm, stimuli response, interpretation. Control variables included foreign tourists. Dependent variables included design approach.

4. Methodology/Material The major theme of graphic map design and 2D graphics provide the differences in several cases. The use of the maps for different purposes reflected the differences in different types of toursim among the tourists. In this study, it consisted of five different types of maps. Each type of map meets need of the tourists differently due to the difference in informaion on the map. The map studied included general map representing detailed information and coodinate (Figure 3), the simplied map representing the simplified detail (Figure 4), the simplified map without detail (Figure 5), 3D land mark map (Figure 6), and adverstised map (Figure 7).

Cholthicha Sarikanon and Nopadon Sahachaisaeree / Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 5 (2010) 1226–1231

Figure. 3 General map

Figure. 4 Simplify map with detail

Figure. 5 Simplify map without detail

Figure. 6 3D map (land mark)

Figure. 7 Advertise map



Cholthicha Sarikanon and Nopadon Sahachaisaeree / Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 5 (2010) 1226–1231

The samples were a number of foreign tourists. The opinion and the need of the tourists were surveyed to determine the graphic map design that meet the different needs of the tourists. Methodologically, the sample pictures were presented to the participants in order that data obtained was examined for their perception of the map based on the basic psychology of stimuli and response. Five types of maps studied were stimuli while response would be obtained through the questionnaires. The participants were asked to order which types of map they needed mostly in term of tourism, and which types of the map was the best one with desired information (Table 1)

Table 1. Descriptions of Research Questionnaires U

Purpose of Visited







Please give your reason as appropriate

Shopping Taxi Business Sightseeing Bus Meeting friend

5. Conclusions Using Bangkok as a case study, the research will collect data by means of photographic stimuli and perceptive questionnaire. Factors determining the desirable mapping contents and designs will be analyzed basing on data obtained from the survey. The expected results will bring about the new guideline for designing the tourist maps that could provide the most functional and effective information and be appropriate to the Thai social values and cultures.

Cholthicha Sarikanon and Nopadon Sahachaisaeree / Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 5 (2010) 1226–1231


References Arthur, P and Passini, R. (1992). Wayfinding People Design in Architecture. Ontario Canadian Cataloguing. Dempster, F. N, “Memory span: sources of individual and developmental difference”.Psychological Bulletin, 89, 1 (1981) : 63-100. “Figure-ground in Map Design.” [Online]. Available : (December 2009) Gifford, R. 2002. Environmental psychology: Principles and practice. Colville, WA: Optimal books. Herzog.T.R.,& Leverich,O.L. 2003. “Searching for legibility.” Environment and behavior. 35 : 459-477. Kaplan, R. 1973. “Predictors of environmental preference : Designers and clients.” In W. Preiser (Ed), EDRA4: Environmental design research. Vol : 265-274. Kaplan, R &Kaplan, S. 1989. The Experience of nature : A psychological perspective. Newyork : Cambridge university press. Miller, G. A, “The magical number seven, plus or minus two : Some limits on our capacity for processing information”, Psychological Review, 63, (1956) : 81-97. Moore, P. and Fitz, C. 1993. “Gestalt theory and instructional design.” Journal of Technical Writing and Communication. 23(2) : 137-157. Passini, R. (1984). Wayfinding in Architecture. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Rapoport, Amos. 1990. The Meaning of the Built Environment : a nonverbal communication approach. 2nd ed. The university of Arizona Press. Ron Aplet and others. “Wayfinding design guidelines”. Australia. [Online]. Available novation. info/images/pdfs/publications/Industry_publications/ C0002_CRC_Wayfinding_Guidelines.pdf (2009). P



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