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w-two-one-o We are delighted to launch the inaugural issue of W-TWO-ONE-O design magazine, written and produced by first-year students on the BA Graphic Communication programme at Cardiff School of Art & Design. It reflects both theoretical and practical understandings of the major cultural/visual movements of the last century - revealed through studio projects, articles about designers, and through the design of the magazine itself. We hope you enjoy it...


The following pages feature outcomes of a first year undergraduate graphic design exercise. Typefaces and works by influential graphic communicators have been thoughtfully re-presented or reworked to distil character, essences and strengths. Care has been taken to acknowledge origins of materials and It is hoped that the critical spirit and affection with which the work on these pages has been undertaken will be appreciated. However, should anyone wish to have an image removed, or receive an alternative credit line, please contact Dr Kevin Edge (kedge@uwic.ac.uk) in the first instance.

CONTRIBUTORS & credits Evelina Andrews/ Joe Ashton-Loudon/ Jade Baker/ Nadine Ballantyne/ Hannah Bryan/ Laura Crouch/ Jessica Curtis/ Julian Deborre/ Tom Dowdell/ Tamsyn Gill/ Tom Hill/ Kasia Huchrak-Reed/ Keith Jhowry/ Alex Johnson/ Angela Jones/ Liam Lewis/ Julian Luxford/ Alex Morris/ Marc Nield/ Ashleigh Powell/ Harry Rees/ Maria Roberts/ Joe Smith/ Elisshia Trew/ Patrick Ward/ Matthew Weeks/ Christopher Yau/ Kevin Edge/


modernism

the MODERN WORLD &

In the nineteenth century, Karl Marx saw all about him the perils and possibilities of the modern world - a world of urbanisation, industrialisation, bureaucracy, alienation and revolution.

‘All that is solid melts into air’ he wrote. Certainty had been replaced by change.

aicher/ bayer/ el lissitzky/ maholy-nagy/ muller-brockmann/ rodchenko/ tschichold/ van doesburg/ zwart/

This was the beginning of an exciting, experimental time for everyone, and of course it had a tremendous impact on artists, architects, musicians and designers well into the middle of the twentieth century. In the early decades, Modernists embraced the rationality and dynamism of the age; others reacted against it. Many Modernists established dogmatic, strategic approaches. In art we had Cubism and abstraction; in graphics we saw the avant-garde work of El Lissitzky and the new typography of Jan Tschichold; in architecture and design, the work of Le Corbusier and the Bauhaus, and in music a new compositional language was forged with the serialism of Arnold SchĂśenberg.


j osef

m ü l ler-

an overview of the swiss graphic designer

brockmann by joe smith

With a direct influence from the Bauhaus, the pioneering design school of the time, Josef MüllerBrockmann incorporated clear communication into his design work, although in some later work the expressive experimentation creates a post modern atmosphere. Born in1914 in Rapperswil Switzerland, he also, because a world-renowned designer, passed on his knowledge of the, ‘significance of design elements’, to others through teaching within the School of Arts and Crafts in Zurich and through publications about problemsolving for graphic design, the use of grid systems, and historical publications on posters and visual communication. Taking a look at a back catalogue of design work from Müller-Brockmann we get the a sense of simplicity, clarity and precise assertiveness. Even with his more experimental work, we can see that each and every component of the layout has been radically placed, enforcing the idea of ‘function over form’ and responding to the needs of visual physiology.

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From his earlier designs to his later, there has been a clear adaptation of the aesthetics to fit the time or the purpose, 1. Helmhaus Zurich, exhibition poster, 1953

for example the use of white space in figure 1, produced in 1953 where he applies colour and other visual elements in a minimal but direct way. Figure 2, in contrast was produced in 1986, and is more visually rich with its incorporation of photographic elements and experimental shape. Müller-Brockmann’s designs varied throughout his professional life, with the application of a broad range of graphic forms and approaches, photographic, colour use, illustrative, typographic and the overall placement of elements. His goal is always to communicate to the audience. The use of grids and ‘significance of design elements’

are

characteristic

of

Müller-

Brockmann’s designs. The use of legible sans serif typefaces,

3. Olma, Agricultural Fair, St. Gall poster design, 1959

clear hierarchy and well-structured layout, the limited colour palette and the halftone photography, all contributed to a definable modernist aesthetic, presenting the viewer with an unambiguous piece of information design. Behind these uncomplicated forms there is a significant amount of theory applied in order to maximise communication potential. The science behind the grid system 2. invitation in honour of the centenary birthday of Hugo Ball and Hans Arp, 1986

of the page allows the viewer to gain an insight into the information as quickly and as easily as possible. In general Josef Müller-Brockmann’s work was created primarily for immediate communication, whether it is an event, product, a corporate brand or public notification. This priority makes his graphic designs, even now, a relevant and powerful example of applied visual psychology.

Bibliography: The Graphic Designer and His Problems, Muller-Brockmann, J. Niggli/Hastings House,1983;

Pioneer of Swiss Graphic Design, Muller, l. Lars Muller, 199

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ALEKSANDER RODCHENKO THE NEW WORLD, THE NEW MAN, THE NEW ART

by Kasia Huchrak Aleksander Rodchenko was an important member of the Constructivists and a leading modernist in Russia and the west in the early part of the 20th century. He was an inventor of forms and took it upon himself to embrace new technology and advancing society, leading him to re-evaluate his work and leave behind traditional media.

2.

In the 1920s, Constructivists decided their theories and investigations into abstract art had come to a reasoned conclusion. Artists such as Rodchenko decided to use this as a starting point, devoting themselves entirely to the production of useful products and experimenting with new media such as photocollage and photography.

RODCHENKO’S avant-garde approach meant that his work was easily distinguished from other mainstream artists and designers of his time. Within the variety of his approach, certain features reoccur: he worked mainly with uppercase letterforms and photography/collage in a strong and forceful manner, abandoning ‘typical’ rules of modernism. His use of white space is, in addition, entirely different to the normal modernist style, yet there is always balance and structure within his designs. 1.

Image 1 demonstrates Rodchenko’s exquisite artistic talent. The use of colour and line work

together beautifully to construct an abstract, finely-tuned composition. This piece certainly holds your attention long enough to discover and appreciate all of the details within these complex forms. Image 2 is an advertising poster for the state airline Dobrolet, produced in 1923. The text reads: ‘Shame on you, your name is not yet on the list of Dobrolet stockholders. / The whole country follows this list’. The typography Rodchenko has used is primary in this piece, it is powerful and effective, putting emphasis on the intention of the message.

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1. Design for a Kiosk (Proekt kioska), 1919. Black and coloured India ink on paper.

2. Advertising poster for the state airline Dobrolet, 1923. Lithography.

3. Poster for the film Cine-Eye (Kino glaz) by Dziga Vertov, 1924. Lithography.

4. Maquette for ‘War of the Future’ (Voina Budushchego), illustration for the magazine Za Rubezhom (Abroad), 1930.  Cut-and-pasted printed papers on paper.

Image 3 is a poster for the film ‘Cine-Eye’ by Dziga Verlot. Rodchenko’s choice of typography is direct and controlling, making the message the main focus point despite the decorative elements used. These in turn, add emotion and ambiance, which subtly explains to the viewer what the film will be like. Rodchenko tends to portray high levels of expressive quality through his use of typography, accentuated by his use of colour and layout.

4.

Image 4 is a design for the magazine ‘Za Rubezhom’, created by cut-and-paste. Rodchenko often worked closely with photography and collage in his career, and it was his cut-and-paste designs which frequently held more ‘humour’ than other works. This is doubtless a contributing factor to the sustained popular interest in Rodchenko’s designs. His wit holds the viewer for longer and gives them time to truly appreciate his talent.

3.

If Aleksander Rodchenko is a name that you have never heard of, then I strongly suggest that you look into his work. He used such a wide variety of styles by working with new technology and media that his outcomes include something for everyone. Considering that Rodchenko had almost no background in art before he arrived on the scene, he quickly became one of the most recognised and well-respected theorists of art. Rodchenko truly was a pioneer of his time, succeeding not only because of his raw, artistic talent, but also the extent of his originality and sharp sense of wit, which draws attention to the high quality of his intellect that shone throughout his career.

Bibliography: http://www.moma.org/ (accessed 15.01.10) All images taken from: Aleksander Rodchenko, Dabrowski, M. et al, Museum of Modern Art NY, 1998 w-two-one-o// 06


Otl Aicher

b y Keith Jhowry

Otl Aicher was ‘a man who saw design as a vehicle to promote moder nist values’. He was bor n in 1922 in souther n Ger many in the town of Ulm and was a young man during the Second World War. Aicher was one of several citizens of Ulm “who sought to use education as a means to rebuild and reinvigorate post war Ger many.“In 1946 he began studying sculpture at the academy of fine arts in Munich, where the focus of the school was to develop the general intellectual community in Ulm”.

Tennis Olympic schematic

Aicher along with Inge Scholl and Max Bill founded the Ulm school of Design, which lasted for fifteen years. When teaching at the school Aicher worked for a number of small companies and designed many logos. Josef Albers of the Bauhaus greatly influenced Aichers work. During 1956 Aicher designed the Braun pavilion, which was exhibited in the Frankfurt fair. In 1957, the school of design underwent a new development, in which three members of the school (Aicher, Gugelot and Maldonado) took over from max bill as the Director. One of Aichers most famous projects was a corporate identity for the airline Lufthansa; this project lasted between 1962 to 1964. Originally Aicher wanted to change the company’s iconic crane into a simple arrow but the board of directors rightly rejected

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the idea. Aicher chose vivid blue and yellow that was applied to all the elements throughout the Lufthansa airline. Aicher continually played with the juxtaposition of colours on the travel tags and ticket holders, with the only exception, the red and green for first and second class. He also designed an in flight magazine, the logo is still in use today. Another of Aichers famous works is the 1972 Munich Olympics. He designed an alter native to the five Olympic rings logo; which he called a strahlenkranz but the Olympic committee found it not distinctive enough. Aicher produced hundreds of drafts ideas in his preparations for the final designs,aiming to produce work which was original and expressive but universally understood.His posters for the sporting events were presented in a quite abstract,with the use of bright colours and he removal of all identifying marks. During this commission he started his development into pictograms, which showed each of the games in a simple for m. These type of pictograms are widely used today. Otl Aicher considerd himself a moder nist but, to our eyes occasionally works in a postmoder nist way as in the posters mentioned above. His work is usually a mixture of type and image but he also indulges in the schematic outline of objects such as whisks and even lights. Later in his life he confronted using a moder nist approach as seen in figure 3. Aicher was a very prolific graphic designer and arguebly one of the great graphic designers of the twentieth century.

Olympics athletic events posters 1972

Olympic schematic range

Otl Aicher, Markus Rathgeb, Phaidon, 2006 Linotype.com/651/otlaicher.html, Wikipedia.org

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C in omm an the un d m sh ica os orte tion t fo st m rce , sim ust ful pl ap for est pea r m

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IC

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JAN Jan Tschichold was a designer, typographer and trained calligrapher who played an important role in 20th century typography. He joined the modernist movement in 1923, but later turned his back on the approach, condemning it as ‘too authoritarian and inherently fascist.’

by Matthew Weeks


He

sta

rted

His 1924 poster for publisher Philobiblon (fig. 4) is an early example of Tschichold putting emphasis on arrangement, and embracing modernist design. He said ‘the goal of every typographer is communication. Communication must appear in the shortest, simplest and most forceful form.’ He rejected traditional typefaces and opted for sanserif type which bears no resemblance to handwriting, which is personal. Sanserif type can be universally understood, therefore he considered it more useful and suitable to design. The poster contains more white space than it does content, yet the space does not consume the content, nor distract attention away from it; this approach displays typical methods of modernist design.

am

ove by imp ment to s lem tan e d the nting stri ardize firs ct t ty pog rules typogr aph rap and hy ‘how creat y ed to’ boo k.

1. 2. 3. 4.

1.

The eye is led up the red line to read the title, flows down to read the sub heading, rests at the sub text and leads up to the contributors. The hierarchy works extremely well and the text does not interfere with each section. Tschichold established design standards that have stood the test of time, and created layouts that still look innovative today. He started a movement to standardize typography by implementing strict rules and created the first typography ‘How To’. He believed that readability and communication was the key to good design, and his principals are still affecting the way people design today. Without his modernist principals traditional typefaces with poor readability and lackluster layouts might still be in use.

4.

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Jan Tschichold’s work for Penguin Publishers from 1946 shows his firm belief in typographic systems, and helped the group to become an exemplar of book design. He designed a set of composition rules for the company, which ensured the same style was always applied. The template designates positions for the author’s name and the title, with a line between the two. The coherent and disciplined approach Tschichold employs demonstrates spatial awareness and modernist principals, and shows his prowess for functional design.

3.

bibliography: all sites accessed 16/01/10 http://www.linotype.com http://dustyburrito.blogspot.com http://en.wikipedia.org http://designmuseum.org http://jantschichold.com

2. Die Hose 1926 Casanova 1927 Die Konstruktivisten 1937 Philobiblon 1924

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Fig.1 compostition oil on canvas, 1924

Fig.2 photograph, 1931

Fitting into the modernist style of design is designer Theo van Doesburg. Van Doesburg was born on 30th August 1883. His original birth name was Christian Emil Marie Kupper. He was born in Utrecht in the Netherlands and was the son of photographer Wihelm Kupper. After training in singing and acting he decided to become a painter. His early work is seen as very impressionistic and was deeply influenced by Vincent Van Gogh, in style and subject matter. Yet Van Doesberg still considered his work as very modern. He became involved with the De Stijl, becoming an ambassador for the group and promoting the movement across Europe. Doseburg’s approach changed and became extremely modernistic with the strong use of white space as a major element. His design is

the perfect example of form over function. It doesn’t communicate straightforward meaning, but leaves the readers to find their own interpretation. Visually Doesburgs work is striking and the openness to interpretation means that a universal audience can accept them. His work fulfills the rules of modernism. The work was beautiful through its simplicity and used very limited vocabulary. The form almost certainly follows the function. In Doesburgs work you can see the use of white space very effectively. It creates new shapes and points of interest within the piece itself, so parts of it that should just be white space to the onlooker become part of the design

and add to the effectiveness. This is the perfect use of one of the rules of modernism.The significant aspect of the work is in the strength of the design, which achieves an expressionistic quality despite its formal rigidity. In its time this movement was seen as unorthodox now it has a universal quality through the use of shape and image, which is familiar to everyone. In his work you can see the use of de-construction, which means that even a very simple design can be

Fig.3 abstract composition oil on canvas, 1917

taken apart and used in an interesting way. This uses beauty through layering which, in principle, is post-modern, yet the use of white space and simple, clean lines still make it modernist. So even with a designer like Doesburg, there is a time where he does straddle both styles in an effective, clear way, but still being seen as a modernist designer. Doesburg universally helped establish modernism in the mainstream after the First World War. Modernism

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>


Fig.4 composition oil on canvas, 1929

and especially the De Stijl movement grew in relation to the ideas and philosophy and the designs. More recently, design has developed into Postmodernism, as a complete contrast to modernism in terms of rules and the flexibility of those rules. However modernism continues to be practiced, especially in the advertising world, due to the power of its communication.

“Simultaneous Counter-Composition” Fig. 5 composition oil on canvas, 1929 Theo van Doesburg

Bibliography

In conclusion modernism was perfect for its time , creating a universal art form. Van Doesberg used this approach brilliantly and was the ambassador for a modernist movement, which became world renowned and respected.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theo_van_Doesburg, accessed 1/13/10 www.artcyclopedia.com/artists/doesburg_theo_van.html, accessed 1/31/10 www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/.../Theo-van-Doesburg, accessed 1/31/10 www.vandoesburg.com/, accessed 1/31/10 www.guggenheimcollection.org/site/artist_bio_157.html, accessed 1/31/10 Theo Van Doesburg: Painting into Architecture, Theory into Practice, Doig, A. Cambridge University Press 2010 Theo Van Doesburg, Baljeu, J. Yale University Press, 1975. Fig.1 “Counter Composition V,” oil on canvas by Theo Van Doesburg, 1924 Fig.2 “Doesburg Portrait,” photograph by László Moholy-Nagy, 1931 Fig.3 “Card Players,” oil on canvas by Theo Van Doesburg, 1917 Fig.4 “Contra-composition IV,” oil on canvas by Theo Van Doesburg, 1929 Fig.5 “Simultaneous Counter Composition,” oil on canvas by Theo Van Doesburg, 1929

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Otl Aicher

by Thomas Hill

Otl Aicher was a man who saw design as a vehicle to promote modernist values’. He was born in 1922 in southern Germany in the town of Ulm and was a young man during the Second World War. Aicher was one of several citizens of Ulm ‘who sought to use education as a means to rebuild and reinvigorate post war Germany.’In 1946 he began studying sculpture at the Academy of Fine Arts in Munich, where the focus of the school was to develop the general intellectual community in Ulm.

the strahlenkranz designed for the 1972 olympics.

Aicher, along with Inge Scholl and Max Bill founded the Ulm School of Design, which lasted for fifteen years. When teaching at the school Aicher worked for a number of small companies and designed many logos. Josef Albers of the Bauhaus greatly influenced Aicher’s work. During 1956 Aicher designed the Braun Pavilion, which was exhibited in the Frankfurt fair. In 1957, the School of Design underwent a new development, during which three members of the school (Aicher, Gugelot and Maldonado) took over from Max Bill as the Directors. One of Aicher’s most famous projects was a corporate identity for the airline Lufthansa; this project lasted between 1962 to 1964. Originally Aicher wanted to change the company’s iconic crane into a simple arrow but the board of directors rejected the idea. Aicher chose vivid blue and yellow that was applied to all the elements throughout the Lufthansa airline. Aicher continually played with the juxtaposition of colours on the travel tags and ticket holders, with the only exception being the red and green for first and second class. He also designed an in-flight magazine. The logo is still in use today.

ERCO pictogram 1972

Luthansa airline logo 1969

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Another of Aicher’s famous works the 1972 Munich Olympics. He designed an alternative to the was for Olympic rings logo which he called a strahlenkranz but the Olympic committee found it not distinctive enough. Aicher produced hundreds of draft ideas in his preparations for the final designs aiming to produce work which was original and expressive but universally understood. His posters for the sporting events were presented in a quite abstract way,with the use of bright colours. During this commission he started his development into pictograms, which showed each of the games in a simple form. These type of pictograms are widely used today. Otl Aicher considerd himself a modernist but, to our eyes occasionally works in a postmodernist way as in the posters mentioned above. His work is usually a mixture of type and image but he also indulges in the schematic outline of objects such as whisks and lights. Later in his life he often used a modernist approach as seen in figure 3. Aicher was a very prolific graphic designer and arguably one of the great graphic designers of the twentieth century.

the Braun Pavilion

figure 3, German peace movement poster created in the 1980s.

Bibliography: Otl Aicher, Rathgeb, M. Phaidon Press 2006,com/651/ otlaicher.html poster for the 1972 Munich Olympics

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T eK PIET ZWART by Harry Rees

O

Y

P

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The book of ptt 1938

W Z E

t

T tYp GRaHer

Ki P

Trio-reclameboek 1931

O

The Netherlands, along with the Soviet Russia and Germany, were at the forefront of the Avant-Garde and Piet Zwart was at the forefront of Dutch graphic design. Zwart in Dutch means black, and he used this to help create his own personal logo symbolism with the letter ‘P’ next to a black square. The square also symbolizes his style of work; flat and geometrical. Born on 28th May 1885. He had many skills, as an interior designer, furniture designer, photographer and typographer. He started his career as an industrial designer working under Jan Wils and Berlage. His long career lasted into the

late 1960s. He described himself as a ‘typotekt’ saying ‘The more uninterested a letter the more useful it is to the typographer’. A pioneer of modern typography, he did not follow the traditional typographic rules, instead he followed the principles of constructivism and De Stijl within his commercial work. Jan Wils was an original member of the De Stijl group, and it was with him that Zwart first started his graphic work. In 1923 Zwart met El Lissitzky, who presented Zwart with a copy ‘To Be Read Out Loud’.

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He instantly because interested in designing directly with typographic material, showing mastery in this working method. His work was created with e.i. type, ornaments, playful compositions with text running up, down, across and diagonally, rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr frequent some use of primary colours. rrrr Berlage introduced him to the NFK (Nederlandse Kabelfabriek Delft) in 1923. The next ten years Zwart created nearly three hunHot Spots 1926 dred advertisements. It was at NFK that he was able to combine photography and photomontages with type. In 1926 El Lissitzky worked again with Zwart, teaching him the technique of photograms. Once again Zwart utilised this new skill as a further source of images for his work for NFK. This is demonstrated in the NFK catalogues between 1926-27, where the text is placed parallel to the slant axis of the image. This was mmmm natural to him as a natural draughtsman, techniques helped him to build an extensive geometrical vocabulary. In 1928 Zwart was invitied to the Bauhaus to take charge of the graphic department, although he would end up teaching only an intensive short course. Zwart’s career shows what a chameleon he was, able to adapt to most design approaches around at the time. His draughtsman skills, learnt from his time as an architect were something he incorporated into graphic design. He was a constructivist and liked to use geometrical and appropriate type to express the meaning of his work. Two images in particular show El Lissitzky’s influence, Vierkant Plat Rond 1926 advertisements from NKF in 1926 ‘Vierkant Plat Rond’ and ‘Hot Spots’. The piece of work that best demonstrates his Graphic Design A Concise History, Hollis, Richard, approach is his ’Trio-Reclameboek’, a variety of fonts, Thames & Hudson, 1994. with a strong diagonal layoutand use of primary www.iconofgraphics.com/Piet-Zwart/ (accessed colours. 17/01/10). His affect on graphic design in the Netherlands was celebrated in 2001, when the Willem de Kooning en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piet_Zwart (accessed 17/01/10). Acdemy, named its centre for postgraduate study and research the The Piet Zwart Institute.

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Bibliography (All websites accessed 17/01/10) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Josef_Müller-Brockmann

Josef Muller-Brockmann , William, Purcell Kerry, Phaidon Swiss Graphic Design, Hollis, Richard, Laurence King, 2006 , 2005 Graphic Design, a concise history, Hollis, Richard, Thames & Hudson

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An overview of Bayer and his modernist principles

H e r b e r t

by Pat Ward

As a believer in a brighter social future, led by design, Bayer found his way into teaching at the Dessau school after studying for four years at the Bauhaus in Weimar. An example of the work at this stage in his career is on the right. Although originally taught in an Art Nouveau style with specific focus on advertising and posters, he found new interest further into his education from the book ‘Bauhaus-Manifest’ by Walter Gropius. Bayer was to become one of the most famous and progressive designers of the time.

Fagus Stanzmesser, 1923

This was in the age of art movements such as constructivism. He brought modernist imagery in relation to globalisation and conservation values into the design world. Figure 1 is a piece of work from the Bauhaus archive, ‘Bauhaus Dessau’. It is an example of Bayer using simplicity as the main principle of design and layout. The qualities in work such as this were expanded

and developed as new ideas poured into the scene from students and other teachers within the institution. Having said this, the central concept of the Bauhaus was that no applied arts (including fine art) would be considered ‘better’ than any other.

...Industry is the institution that reaches further into our civilization than government and therefore has a greater opportunity and responsibility to influence the quality of life.’

1. Bauhaus Dessau, 1926

Bibliography: http://www.historycooperative.org/cgi-bin/justtop.cgi?act=justtop&url=http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/eh/12.2/anker.html http://www.moma.org/collection/browse_results.php?criteria=O%3AAD%3AE%3A399&page_number=27&template_ id=1&sort_order=1 http://www.moma.org/collection/browse_results.php?criteria=O%3AAD%3AE%3A399&page_number=13&template_ id=1&sort_order=1

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You would expect to see ‘modernist’ pieces of design similar to this, produced at the Bauhaus before he moved to Berlin. It was at this point that he broadened himself into more experimental design, such as tapestry and took a step into the field of advertising. Bayer devoted his life to his career and the belief that it was possible to integrate all the arts, including advertising, architecture and many of the fine arts. Work produced during his time in the Bauhaus was typically full of colour; constructional lines, geometric styles and shapes, and came to be what you would expect from his early experimental work, books he designed covers

Bibliography:

for and in other sources in the media. ‘Signal’3 is an example of the work that he produced at the end of his teaching at the Bauhaus in Dessau. He clearly developed his breadth of skill and insight into the modernist movement since being

3. Front cover of Signal, 1929

a student. Whilst teaching within the institute, he produced a cover for a book promoting the school for students and people with interest in the new rising popularity of its

‘Through good design the new artist/craftsman would create a better world.’

Bayer also produced many typefaces after he was appointed ‘Master of Typography’ at Dessau, as well as layouts and poster designs. His most recognised typefaces were ‘Bayer’ and ‘Universal’, which were letterforms 4. Bayer & Universal, 1925 that helped define what the Bauhaus produced. It was at this time that he made his Universal alphabet using only lower case letters, with the help and influence of Moholy-Nagy. This was intended to be a practical typeface that would be easy to read. Its form was well received, so he used this for many years after its conception. The quality of his work has influenced many designers (especially in America) to follow the modernist movement. Paul Rand has clear connections with Bayer. He took his modernist style further into American graphic design after Bayer had arrived and spent the last years of his life in work. There his contribution towards teaching, envi- ronmental design and industrialisation in America helped shape graphic design into the form we know today.

http://library.rit.edu/gda/designer/herbert-bayer http://www.a-r-t.com/bayer/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herbert_Bayer American Modernism: graphic design 1920-1960, R. Remington, Yale University Press, 2003 http://www.moma.org/collection/browse_results.php?criteria=O%3AAD%3AE%3A399&page_number=54&template_id=1&sort_order=1

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poster design for Kunsthalle Basel (via designhistorylab.com)

orrĂŠ by Julian Deb

: d l o h c i h c jan ts riter esigner and W

phic D a r G , r e h p a r g 4 in Locarna 7 9 Typo 1 t s u g u A ig : died 02 in Leipz

born April 19

T

hroughout his life Tschichold worked as a typographer, author and designer. He was heavily influenced by the Bauhaus and played an important role in 20th-century typography and the modernist movement. Between 1919 and 1921 he studied at the Leipzig Academy of Graphic Arts and Book Production. His most famous works include

the redesign of around 500 paperbacks for the publishers Penguin Books for whom he also developed the standards for typography and layout. Sabon is Tschichold’s most recognised Typeface and his book Die Neue Typographie is still considered a classic. As demonstrated in his book Die Neue Typographie, Tschichold became a major representative of the modernist movement. He favoured almost exclusively sans-serif typefaces and is well known for the use of asymmetry and negative space in his layouts.

left: specimen of the typeface Sabon (via wikimedia.org) right: book cover for Penguin (via guardian.co.uk)

He also believed in setting and following standards, endorsing the use of standard paper sizes in print. His book talks about the effective use of type weights and sizes to clearly communicate within design, and generally in Tschichold’s works form did follow function. He strove to integrate Bauhaus and modernist elegance without sacrificing legibility or communication impact.

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flyer design for Die Neue Typographie (via alejandromondejar.com)

I

t is acknowledged that Jan Tschichold was a brilliant typographer with great attention to detail which was constantly reflected in his works. Between 1926 and 1929 he attempted to create a universal alphabet standardising non-phonetic spellings for the German language. Tschichold is especially known for his poster and print publication layouts. His clear structures and strong use of hierarchy within the information he was trying to communicate works successfully.

Jan Tschichold was one of the most important typographers of his time, a fact he was fully aware of. For his 70th birthday he wrote a tribute to himself in the third person...

He utilizes negative space and wide margins which give his designs a very elegant and timeless look. His work continues to feel fresh and relevant to this day.

Two men stand out as the most powerful influences on 20th-century typography: Stanley Morison, who died in 1967, and Jan Tschichold. Jan Tschichold , 70th birthday tribute to himself

Ruari McLean , Jan Tschichold: A Life in Typography , Princeton Architectural Press , 1997 Jeremy Aynsley , Graphic Design in Germany: 1890-1945 , University of California Press , 2000 Guardian.co.uk , Jan Tschichold: Penguins, Paperbacks and Posters , http://www.guardian.co.uk/culture/gallery/2008/dec/05/design?lightbox=1 Wikipedia.org , Jan Tschichold , http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jan_Tschichold LinoType.com , In Honor of the 100th Birthday of Jan Tschichold , http://www.linotype.com/794/inhonorofthe100thbirthdayofjantschichold.html Richard Hollis , Jan Tschichold: A Titan of Typography , guardian.co.uk , http://www.guardian.co.uk/artanddesign/2008/dec/05/jan-tschichold-typography

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A spotlight on the modernist typographer, painter, print-maker and designer

1 A19, 1927

O

ne of the pioneers of both By Nadine Ballantyne avant-garde and modernist principles was Laszlo MaholyNagy. Maholy-Nagy (1895-1946) was a typographer, sculptor, painter, print maker, industrial designer, graphic designer and also a teacher during the 20s and 30s. He was a leading figure in the Bauhaus, which taught modernist art and design principles and believed in form follows function. The metalwork shop at the Bauhaus which produced some of the most successful art for mass production, such as Wilhelm Wagenfeld’s table lamp, was run by

3 Untitled Construction 1922

2 Bauhaus brochure 1924

Maholy-Nagy. As well as a modernist, he was a Russian Constructivist and believed in functional design for mass production, abstraction, and art as a way of repairing society. Overall the work of Laszlo MaholyNagy has the abstract qualities of Russian Constructivists. There is much use of geometric shapes and lines, and his modernist principles can be seen in the limited colour palette of many of his pieces and also very strongly in his graphic design work. A large proportion of his work consists of photograms; of which he produced hundreds during his life. These are composed of abstract black and white shapes. Maholy-Nagy designed many of the Bauhausbuchen. They explained and documented the design principles of the Bauhaus and they are a prime example of his modernist principles at work.

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Bibliography: (Accessed January 2010) www.guardian.co.uk/artanddesign/2006/mar/18/art.modernism www.moholy-nagy.com/Biography_2.html www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/387685/Laszlo-Moholy-Nagy www.writedesignonline.com/history-culture/bauhaus.htm www.artnet.com/artists/lotdetailpage.aspx? lot_id=8FC4B1AAB9EFA3F346950ABBBA3A2CA5

The purpose of the design is to convey the information as clearly and effectively as possible. The designs use simple geometric shapes to guide the reader around the page and a very minimal palette of white orange and black (see figs 2, 4, 5). The clear path for the eye and use of white space as a positive element of the design are important principles of modernist graphic design. The design for the Bauhaus publishers’ brochure 1924 (fig 2) demonstrates the strong path for the eye. The vertical word Bauhausverlag is the first thing you see as western readers automatically start at the top left. The vertical orange line then draws the eye down to the words Bauhaus Bucher. The horizontal orange line and an arrow shape above it direct you left to the smaller type effectively, leaving you back at the start of the word Bauhausverlag to go through the cycle again ensuring maximum understanding of all the information. These pieces of graphic design also use the modernist principle of legibility over readability, using bold sanserif uppercase lettering. Maholy-Nagy’s photograms, although visually very different from his book-cover designs and paintings,

4 LK IIII oil on canvas 1936

also demonstrate his modernist ideas and the principles of Russian constructivism. Black space is treated in the same manner as white space and becomes part of the composition. In this 1926 photogram (fig 5) the use of strong white circles and diagonal lines closely echoes his dark 1922 constructivist painting. There is also a very similar cross formation within these two images. The photogram appears to have been created using sheet metal with circular holes punched in it. Many of his photograms used modern industrial materials in their creation which is a feature of modernism and constructivism. The strength and impact of Laszlo Maholy-Nagy’s work lies in the limited colour palette and strong clean geometric shapes. His use of diagonals gives a sense of dynamism and energy, but mostly his work is memorable and striking because of its modernist principles of clarity, legibility and positive use of white space. In conclusion Laszlo Maholy-Nagy was an extremely creative and diverse modernist and Russian constructivist. He taught his design principles at one of the worlds most influential and renowned art schools, and helped create the bold striking graphics that we have come to associate with the Bauhaus today.

5 Photogram 1926


By Marc

BAYER

A brief view of his work within the Modernist movement

HERBERT

As a believer in a brighter social future, led by design, Bayer found his way into teaching at the Dessau school after studying for four years at the Bauhaus in Weimar. An example of the work at this stage in his career is on the left. Although originally taught in an Art Nouveau style with specific focus on advertising and posters, he found new interest further into his education from the book ‘Bauhaus-Manifest’ by Walter Gropius. Bayer was to become one of the most famous and progressive designers of the time. This was in the age of art movements such as constructivism. He brought modernist imagery in relation to globalisation and conservation values into the design world.

NIeld

Seen below right is a piece of work from the Bauhaus archive, ‘Cigaretten’1. It is an example of Bayer using simplicity as the main principle of design and layout. The qualities in work such as this were expanded and developed as new ideas poured into the scene from students and other teachers within the institution. Having said this, the central concept of the Bauhaus was that no applied arts (including fine art) would be considered ‘better’ than any other. You would expect to see ‘modernist’ pieces of design similar to this, produced at the Bauhaus before he moved to Berlin. It was at this point that he broadened himself into more experimental design, such as tapestry and took a step into the field of advertising.

Design for a cinema, 1924-5

!

!

Figure 1. Cigaretten, 1924

‘...Industry is the institution that reaches further into our civilization than government and therefore has a greater opportunity and responsibility to influence the quality of life.’

w-two-one-o//27


Universal typeface, 1925

‘ ‘

Through good design the new artist/craftsman would create a better world

!

Bayer also produced many typefaces after he was appointed ‘Master of Typography’ at Dessau, as well as layouts and poster designs. His most recognised typefaces were ‘Bayer’ and ‘Universal’, which were letterforms that helped define what the Bauhaus produced. It was at this time that he made his Universal alphabet using only lower case letters, with the help and influence of Moholy-Nagy. This was intended to be a practical typeface that would be easy to read. Its form was well received, so he used this for many years after its conception.

Bayer devoted his life to his career and the belief that it was possible to integrate all the arts, including advertising, architecture and many of the fine arts. Work produced during his time in the Bauhaus was typically full of colour; constructional lines, geometric styles and shapes, and came to be what you would expect from his early experimental work, books he designed covers for and in other sources in the media. ‘Bird with Egg’ 2 is an example of the work that he produced at the end of his teaching at the Bauhaus in Dessau. He clearly developed his breadth of skill and insight into the modernist movement since being a student. Whilst teaching within the institute, he produced a cover for a book promoting the school for students and people with interest in the new rising popularity of its ‘brand’.

Bibliography

The quality of his work has influenced many designers (especially in America) to follow the modernist movement. Paul Rand has clear connections with Bayer. He took his modernist style further into American graphic design after Bayer had arrived and spent the last years of his life in work. There his contribution towards teaching, environmental design and industrialisation in America helped shape graphic design into the form we know today.

!

Figure 2. Bird with egg, 1928

http://library.rit.edu/gda/designer/herbert-bayer http://www.lentos.at/en/45_1767.asp http://www.moma.org/interactives/exhibitions/2009/bauhaus/Main.html#/Timeline/Artworks http://www.historycooperative.org/cgi-bin/justtop.cgi?act=justtop&url=http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/eh/12.2/anker.html http://www.a-r-t.com/bayer/; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herbert_Bayer (all accessed 17/01/10) American Modernism: graphic design 1920-1960 R. Roger Remington, Lisa Bodenstedt, 2003

w-two-one-o//28


his works and life Evelina Andrews

Ba s title ic Typ pag ogra e, 1 phy 92 5

Jan Tschichold has been an innovative publicist and designer throughout his professional life and is recognised as a hugely Leipzig in Germany. He was a son of the signwriter Franz Tschichold so from his background and training in calligraphy it is no surprise that he naturally progressed into the revolutionary industry of print. He began his career as a calligrapher then freelanced as a designer and lettering of design principles that radically changed his work. He had his own exhibition in Die Neue Typographie. (The NewTypography: a handbook for modern designers). He also published Mitteilungen special edition: Elementare Typographie and designed a universal alphabet based on rational, modernist principles in 1926-1928

New Typography front cover, 1928

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Bibliography Burke Christopher, Active Literature: Jan Tschichold and Typography, 2007 www.google.co.uk http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jan_ Tschichold http:/www.olivertomas.com Pioneers of modern typography Herbert Spencer, 1969 Fig.1: Pioneers of Modern Typography, page 150 Fig. 2: poster for Casonova, 1927

1.

Jan Tschichold was one of the first typographers to develop the simple aesthetic of everyday printing on letterheads, brochures, business cards and cinema posters. He rebelled against the decorative serif traditional typefaces and used stock typefaces, hand drawn text and sans-serif. Tschichold’s layouts favoured asymmetrical arrangements rather than centred layouts. He was known for using photographs rather than drawn illustrations often cut out into circles and silhouettes. He kept to the standard paper sizes and used hand made paper, his work was usually in no more than two colours.

In 1933 Tschichold and his wife were arrested by the Nazis for suspicion of being a Bolshevik. He decided to move to Switzerland as a designer and in 1935 began work on his book Typographische Gestautlung (Asymmetric Typography). He began to re-think his work and abandon his earlier beliefs to produce more traditional typefaces and layouts. In 1947 he designed the Sabon typeface and came to live in England where he was commissioned by Allen Lane to redesign all of the Penguin books. He had created more than 500 titles and collaborated on producing the Penguin house style. In 1945 he returned to Switzerland and published Meisterbuch der Schrift (Treasury of Alphabets and Lettering). Overall, we can see why Jan Tschichold is well known for his radical theories of design and his diverse spectrum of work. The modernist principles he espoused have insured his continuing significance as one of the most outspoken pioneers of the movement.

2.

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Otl Aicher by Jade Baker

O

tl Aicher was ‘a man who saw design as a vehicle to promote modernist values’. He was born in 1922 in southern Germany in the town of Ulm and was a young man during the Second World War. Aicher was one of several citizens of Ulm ‘who sought to use education as a means to rebuild and reinvigorate post war Germany’. In 1946 he began studying sculpture at the Academy of Fine Arts in Munich, where the focus of the school was to develop the general Aicher considerd using intellectual community in Ulm. Aicher,along with Inge Scholl and Max the Kindl as the Bill,founded the Ulm School of Design, which lasted for fifteen emblem for the 1972 years. When teaching at the school Aicher worked for a number of Olympic games small companies and designed many logos. Josef Albers of the Bauhaus greatly influenced Aicher’s work. During 1956 Aicher designed the Braun Pavilion, which was exhibited in the Frankfurt fair. In 1957, the School of Design under went a new development in which three members pictograms of various of the school (Aicher, Gugelot and Maldondo) took over sports for the Olympics from Max Bill as the director.

logo for Lufthansa Airline (fig1)

One of Aichers most famous projects was the corporate identity for the airline Lufthansa (fig 1); this project lasted from 1962 to 1964. Originally Aicher wanted to change the companies iconic crane into a simple arrow but the board of the directors rightly rejected the idea. Aicher chose vivid blue and yellow that was applied to all of the elements throughout Lufthansa Airline. Aicher continually played with the juxtaposition of the travel tags and ticket holders, which were also blue and yellow.The only exception to the yellow and blue was the red and green ticket holder, which represented first and second class. He also designed an in-flight magazine. The logo is still being used today.

part of the Balthaup advertisment (fig 2)

Another of Aicher’s famous designs were for the 1972 Munich Olympics. He designed an alternative to the Olympic rings logo called the Strahlenkranz but the Olympic committee found it to be not distinctive enough. Aicher produced hundreds of designs in his preparation for releasing the final identity. He also designed the uniforms for the games, so that large groups of people could be easily managed. His posters for the sporting events were presented in quite an abstract way, with the use of bright colours. During this commission he started his development of pictograms, which showed each of the games in a simple form. Similar pictograms are widely used today. Otl Aicher considers himself a modernist but occasionally works in a postmodern way, for example in the posters for the 1972 Olympic games. His work is usually a mixture of type and image-based elements but he also includes schematic objects such as whisks (fig 2) and even lights. Later in his life he confronted social issues of his youth using a very modernist approach. Aicher was a very prolific graphic designer, designing logos that will last for years to come. He is one of the great graphic designers of the 20th century and continues to influence design into the new century.

all images taken from: Otl Aicher, M. Rathgeb, Thames & Hudson, 2006 Linotype.com/651/otlaicher.html ; Wikipedia.org accessed:17/01/10

1972 mascot for the Olympic games

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LASZLO MAHOLY-NAGY

by ashleigh powell

One of the followers of modernist principles was Laszlo Maholy-Nagy. Maholy-Nagy (1895-1946) was a typographer, sculptor, painter, print maker, industrial designer, graphic designer and also a teacher during the 20s and 30s. He was a leading figure in the Bauhaus, which taught modernist art and design principles and believed that form follows function. The metalwork shop at the Bauhaus which produced some of the most successful art for mass production, such as Wilhelm Wagenfeld’s table lamp, was run by Maholy-Nagy. As well as being a modernist, he was a Russian constructivist and believed in functional design for mass production, abstraction, and art as a way of repairing society. Overall his work has the abstract qualities of Russian constructivism. There is much use of geometric shapes and lines, and his modernist principles can be seen in the limited colour palette of many of his pieces and also very strongly in his graphic design work. A large proportion of his work consists of photograms. He produced hundreds during his life. These are composed of abstract black and white shapes. Maholy-Nagy designed many of the Bauhausbuchen. They explained and documented the design principles of the Bauhaus and they are a prime example of his modernist principles at work. The purpose of the design is to convey the information as clearly and effectively as possible. The designs use simple geometric shapes to guide the reader around the page and a very minimal palette of white, orange and black (see figs. 2 - 4).

1. untitled construction, 1922

a spotlight on the modernist typographer, painter, printmaker and designer 2. Bauhaus publishers’ brochure, 1924

w-two-one-o//32


websites accessed 01/10: http://www.guardian.co.uk/ artanddesign/2006/mar/18/art.modernism http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ L%C3%A1szl%C3%B3_Moholy-Nagy http://www.moholy-nagy.com/ Biography_2.html http://www.britannica.com/ EBchecked/topic/387685/Laszlo-Moholy-Nagy http://cgi.ebay.ch/BauhausGropius-Moholy-Nagy-Bauhausbuecher-1-1925_W0QQitemZ390092431558QQcmdZViewItemQQptZDesign_ Stil?hash=item5ad35220c6 http://www.writedesignonline.com/ history-culture/bauhaus.htm http://www.artnet.com/artists/lotdetailpage.aspx?lot_id=8FC4B1AAB9EF A3F346950ABBBA3A2CA5

5. photogram, 1926

The clear path for the eye and use of white space as a positive element of the design are important principles of modernist graphic design. The design for the Bauhaus publishers’ brochure (fig. 2) demonstrates the strong path for the eye. The viewer is guided around the page by bold lines and arrows, which eventually lead back to the main heading where the cycle begins again ensuring maximum understanding of all the information. These pieces of graphic design also use the modernist principle of legibility over readability, using bold sanserif uppercase lettering. Maholy-Nagy’s photograms, although visually very different from his book-cover designs and paintings, also demonstrate his modernist ideas and the principles of Russian constructivism. Black space is treated in the same manner as white space and becomes part of the composition. In this photogram (fig. 5) the use of strong, white circles and diagonal lines closely echoes his dark constructivist painting (fig. 1). There is also a very similar cross formation

3. Bauhausbucher front cover, 1925

4. Bauhausbucher opening pages, 1925

6. LK IIII, oil on canvas, 1936

within these two images. The photogram appears to have been created using sheet metal with circular holes punched in it. Many of his photograms used modern industrial materials in their creation which is a feature of modernism and constructivism. The strength and impact of Laszlo Maholy-Nagy’s work lies in the limited colour palette and strong clean geometric shapes. His use of diagonals gives a sense of dynamism and energy, but mostly his work is memorable and striking because of its modernist principles of clarity, legibility and positive use of white space. In conclusion Laszlo Maholy-Nagy was an extremely creative and diverse modernist and Russian constructivist. He taught his design principles at one of the world’s most influential and renowned art schools, and helped create the bold and striking graphics that we have come to associate with the Bauhaus today.

w-two-one-o//33


after MODERNISM

Following the two world wars (1914-18 and 1939-45), human affairs looked very different. A gradual loss of faith in ‘progress’, possibilities and creative certainty occurred. Rationality, science, technology and grand ideological strategies made little sense to many younger artists, musicians and designers in the face of late colonialism, totalitarianism and the horrors of the world wars.

barnbrook/ brody/ carson/ designers’ republic/ greiman/ terry jones/ vaughan oliver/ saville/ why not associates/ weingart/

barnbrook/ brody/ carson/ designers’ republic/ greiman/ terry jones/ vaughan oliver/ Plurality, diversity and scepticism reigned as the saville/ German critical theorist Theodor Adorno asked, why not ‘how can we continue to make poetry after Auschwitz?’ associates/ weingart/ As a consequence, art, music, architecture and design too in many quarters, took on very different, tactical agendas. This is the art and design after modernism surveyed here. Today we cannot comprehend creative practices and key turns in the visual and musical cultures of the latter twentieth and early twenty-first centuries, (e.g. psychedelia, punk, deconstruction; sampling) or hope to produce significant work of our own, if we do not seek to understand culture, art and design after modernism in all its diversity and delight.


(why not associates)

Next directory eight, mail order magazine catalog

In 1987 a group of recently graduated designers set up a graphic design company ‘Why Not Associates’. The work that they produced directly reflected the cultural ambiguity and diversity of the time. An approach that could be likened to an animal that has escaped from the box of orthodox design, and proceeds to run around outside it, flitting from one place to another, exploring what is out there. The Why Nots are a trio, two, Andrew Altmann and David Ellis, studied graphic design at Central Saint Martins in London. The third was Howard Greenhalgh who

also studied graphic design, at the London College of Printing. After graduating the three went on to study a Masters at The Royal College and upon graduation the ‘Why Not Associates’ were formed. From day one the Why Nots have shown a strong proactive attitude to the ideas of post modernity and what they created was hugely original. The Why Nots success may be down to the act of rebellion that they posed to the knowledge of what had gone before. The Why Nots formal education is seen as proof that they knew where they came from, but they could only look forward and to know where they were about to go. And to the theory that ‘You have to know the rules before you break them’ well it was unquestionable that the Why Nots knew these rules, but took a slightly different attitude towards them, after all if you’re going to break the rules why not break them properly?

29 w-two-one-o// 34


Many of Why Not’s æsthetic aims are to prompt the reader into taking a closer look, to create a greater sense of engagement and therefor a heightened level of readability. The ornamental complexity of typography dances with the ambiguous imagery. It is said that Why Nots have always favored the classic English typefaces, ‘especially those of Mr Gill’ this could be down to the pre Apple Mac era of limited availability typefaces to which in the early years they were accustomed. The Why Nots have shown and embraced the possibilities of the photographic image as a graphic form. The systematic distortion and obscurity creating an overall element of visual richness which often makes up for the lack of content.

(1)

It is considered that often the Why Nots create a surreal three dimensional space within design, drawing the viewer in to a sense of greater involvement, almost For many the work of Why Not looking and feeling around the conflicting Associates proved challenging, space that often exists in an entrapment of challenging the onlookers own a two dimensional print. A deconstructed inhibitions, æsthetic that appears repeatedly throughout challenging what the Why Nots archive, it is believed to create greater engagement they thought they within the viewer. The onlooker is posed to make a subconscious knew. Although attempt or play at the completivon of the non existent void. it seems that the The human intellect is hard wired to younger generation, constantly attempt to find meaning the ones that have within all sensual receptors. Often been brought up in a this deconstruction is posed as reverse postmodern society, engineering to play upon the hard have become almost wiring, and sometimes we find greater desensitized to such meaning, but often we may not. However an unorthodox approach. The it may be we have had a greater depth of Why Nots demonstrate that they involvement towards the designed stock. are not afraid to step out of the All these æsthetics promote the design box of safe, orthodox designs. as becoming a servant of the text and With their constant injections underlying purpose. At times the creative of visual richness, like a drug freedom of postmodernity becomes too through a hypodermic needle, into ambiguous, straying too far away from the veins of society. the box of orthodox design and into a by Liam Lewis sea of confusion.

Computer related design, poster (1) Ted Baker shirt specialist, advertisement (2) Hull City corporate identity, festival poster 1992 (3) Typefaces; Gill Sans, Perpetua, Joanna (designed by Eric Gill and favoured by the Why Nots)

(2)

Why Not?, Why Not Associates, Gingko Press, 1997; No More Rules, Rick Poynor, Lawrence King, http://www. whynotassociates.com/; http://www.typotheque.com/articles/ why_not_associates2 (accessed 24.01.10)

(3)

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by Joe Smith When Terry Jones appeared on the scene in the mid 1970s he broke all the rules. His experimental style was seen by some as outlandish, but to others he was a genius and his subject matter and graphic style have had a huge influence on magazine and advertising design.

Jones studied graphics at the West

1.‘Lizzie Tier i-D August 1985 Art issue, photo by Nick Knight

England College of Art in Bristol, where even from this early stage his general attitude towards design was frowned upon from the way he worked to the way he dressed.

,

Terry Jones could be considered an anti-

2. Cover of first issue of i-D japan featuring Kyon Kyon, by Takash Homma’

establishment figure, part of the punk movement, a post-modernist. Despite post-moderni sm originating in the 1980s he was ahead of his time, expressing aesthetics over content and strongly embracing the use of photography in his work, destroying graphics along the way and using type over image. He ignores the traditional rules that those before him stood by. This view is reflected in much of his work with his use of joke backgrounds, tongue-in-cheek graphics and experiments with legibility, and with distorted and non-traditional type. All these are evident in the design for the cover of i-D magazine No. 28, August 1985 where heavy cut-outs, block colour and distorted types are clearly visible. These techniques are not intended to obscure the content from the reader, but to slow the reader down in order for the

design to be better appreciated.

w-two-one-o//38


In 1970 Jones began work at the fashion magazine ‘Vanity Fair’ for a brief period, 4. i-D Japan feature article, photo by after which he became art director at British Takashi Homma Vogue, where he experimented with photographers to achieve impressive but unconventional results, despite doubts from other colleagues and his superiors. He remained at Vogue for five years until he began to invest more of his time into his own publication ‘i-D’, a fashion magazine that previously had been nothing more than a cheaply published fanzine. Here he nurtured new talent in the early stages of their careers. Much of his work appears to be taken from a film reel, with selected images looking as though the subject is in motion or captured unaware. He wished to capture the moment, an instant in time and was not interested in what had passed. He describes his working method and approach to design as chaotic. The approach to photography which he followed was that the imperfect image is most often the perfect one and did not believe in retouching or enhancing photographs as this only falsified them and removed from them the image that was truly there.

grungy 3. First issue of i-D japan featuring

Since its first publication in 1980 i-D magazine has undergone some major changes. To begin with the appearance was and mashed up, in keeping with the punk era and post-modern styles. The appearance then developed to a simple and minimalistic approach from which it moved to a modern and classic design, bringing with it changes of type from Futura to Avenir and Lubalin Graph to Cecilia. The post-modern appearance of Jones’s work is shown through the broad vocabulary and use of quotations throughout his designs made up of complex layers and a playful attitude intended to entertain and express emotion. He is one of the most innovative creative directors of his genertion.

Bibliography: Catching The Moment, JONES, Terry, Booth-Clibborn Editions, 1997, Instant Design, Jones, T, Architecture Design and Technology Press, 1990

w-two-one-o// 39


F U S E

F U

S E S E

S

Neville Brody was born 23rd April 1957 in London and is an English graphic designer, typographer and art director. His most influential work is probably that which is included in The Face magazine, which has changed the way which designers and readers approach the format. Brody has affected every form of design in the visual communications industry. He set up his own company called Research Studios with offices in London, San Francisco, Paris and Berlin. Brody explores and reinterprets visual language for such well-known clients as Adidas, British Airways, fig 2. exhibition Macromedia, Armani, Nike, Sony, the Dutch National Post Oflectures poster fice and the BBC. In his earlier years his design was seen as being too radical but it was soon clear that he was an innovative and original designer. He uses digital photography and frequently distorts his text, which makes his work harder to read, but also makes it more interesting. He makes clever use of layering in his designs giving the work extra ‘pulling power’for the viewer. Although it is less clear than a modernist piece of work, the viewer makes more of an effort to find out what it is about because of its striking look. He is a clear frontrunner in postmodern design.

U

F

fig 1. poster design for Boston College

Designworld

S E

E

The rock star of the

F

by Alex Morris

F U

U

S

E

F neville U R O D Y

w-two-one-o//42


Brody fig 3. ‘High Priority’ typeface poster

Brody is a highly regarded typographer and was one of the founding members of FontWars in London, designing a number of typefaces for them. He was partly responsible for the FUSE project that was a fusion of magazine, graphics and typeface design. More recently Brody has redesigned some British newspapers including The Times. He also designed new fonts for them, including ‘Times Modern’, the first new typeface to be used in the paper since ‘Times New Roman’ was introduced in1932. Times Modern has been applied to headlines and all text above The strengths in his work are very clear. His great the body copy of the paper. Its body text font remains use of original and innovative typefaces to go with unchanged. The Times Modern very bright and bold colours have a strong impact. headline font on the masthead Brody is in a league of his own in keeping the has been redesigned. Other viewer interested. Brody manages to communicate changes include a greater focus his message powerfully with almost a modernist claron fact boxes and sub headings, ity but with the richness of post modernism. theuse of bold pull quotes and arrow-shaped bullet points. He is a great influence on modern design and remains at the cutting edge of the contemporary design world.

fig 4. fuse typeface poster

Bibliography:

POST MODERNISM

The Graphic Language of Neville Brody, John Wozencroft, T&H, 1988.

The Graphic Language of Neville Brody 2, John Wozencroft, T&H, 1994. www.google.com/images. www.wikipedia.org

w-two-one-o//43


‘Language is a virus, money is a nasty disease’ by Hannah Bryan

=

Jonathan

BARNBROOK

Barnbrook is a well known graphic designer who uses graphic design with experiments in typeface design and a social conscience to produce strong typography. He also wrote a book with statements about corporate culture, Paul Fenton on the rules of typography consumerism, war and international offering ‘tongue-in-cheek‘ ways to break politics. Born in Luton in 1966, he studied them as a postmodernist artist. In his at Central St Martin’s and at the Royal Friendly Fire exhibition, arguably his most College of Art. Founding his studio in admired work was the album cover for 1990 and Virus Foundry in 1997, he may David Bowie, ’heathen’ which expressed be best known for his confrontationally an interpretation of the word as somebody named fonts ‘Mason’ (after serial killer ‘irreligious, uncivilized, or unenlightened’. Charles Manson), Exocet, Bastard, Prozac, Nixon and Drone. He is also well known for This was done by turning the type his innovative books, corporate identities, upside down and using a crossed-out CD covers, motion graphics, fonts and line thorough out the lyrics. Although magazines. Although working with both this was expressively effective people commercial and non-commercial projects complained that they couldn’t sing along he combines political sensibilities and with the lyrics because it wasn’t legible. hard-edged irony with originality and intelligence to create phenomenon pieces of art, stating that; ‘the studio believes in the power of graphic design to facilitate social change and promote discussion’. Typography has undergone huge aesthetic and technological changes as access to technology has become universally available. Barnbrook helped promote this evolution by pushing the boundaries producing radical

Thou shalt not apply mor 1.three typefaces in a doc shalt lay hea 2.largeThou and at the top of the no oth 3copy..sizeThouthanshalt8ptemploy to 10pt for that a typeface 4.notRemember legible is not truly a ty . Honor thy kerning, so tha 5between space becomes visually equ characters. Thou shalt lay stress dis 6.upon elements within Thou shalt not use only c 7.when setting vast body Thou shalt always 8.letters and words on a ba

Figure 1. w-two-one-o//44


alt not apply more than faces in a document. shalt lay headlines at the top of the page. alt employ no other type 8pt to 10pt for body r that a typeface that is is not truly a typeface. y kerning, so that white mes visually equalized cters. alt lay stress discreetly ments within text. alt not use only capitals ing vast body copy. shalt always align words on a baseline.

The work in fig.2. was created after 9/11, and was assumed by some to be disrespectful to those who had died. However this was not his intention, he wished to challenge perception about war and civilization. This is just one of a series of images, the use of pastel colouring was to soften the approach rather than producing hard edged propaganda. Barnbrook’s politics act as inspiration in his work. He uses his intellectual ability with language, style and extensive research to create powerful messages. Barnbrook has worked with ‘adbusters’ for several years, a global network of artists, activists, writers, pranksters, students, educators and entrepreneurs who want to advance the new social activist movement of the information age, an ideology which Barnbrook’s shows.

The significance of Barnbrook’s ideology has come through with increasing power, and he is fulfilling his potential in this industry in a profound and unique way. Through his exhibition, Friendly Fire, of 2007, he has become a highly recognized not only in the industry but also beyond. His book, The Barnbrook Bible, has been very successful in promoting his ideas with wit and irreverence.

Figure 3.

Figure 1-Heathen’, David Bowie Album Cover Figure 2-9/11’-2001 Figure 3-Globanalization’-2003

Graphic design for the 21st century, Charlotte & Peter Fiell Taschen 2005 Barnbrook Bible the graphic design of Jonathan Barnbrook, Jonathan Barnbrook, room for living publishing 2007

Type Heresy breaking the Ten Commandments of Typography, Paul Felton forward by

Figure 2.

Jonathan Barnbrook, Merrell Publishers Limited 2006 http://www.dontpaniconline.com/, 16/01/2010 http://www.barnbrook.net , 16/01/2010 http://en.wikipedia.org/. 16/01/2010

w-two-one-o//45


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Record cover for Joy Division 1977

Image 3.

w-two-one-o//47


Brody is considered one of the major pioneers of post modernism. He is particularly well known for his early work at the publications 'The Face' and 'Arena' as well as a range of record covers. The work Brody continues to create for the publication FUSE is highly experimental, using his own fonts, which are often barely legible but entice the audience into trying to find the message.

by Matthew Weeks

Brody only ever aimed for his designs to please himself regardless of anyone else’s opinion

w-two-one-o//48


Brody’s subtle use of depth comes from his movement into the digital technology in the eighties. Although Brody is one of the leading post-modernist designers often his work will defer back to modernist principles, particularly in relation to a 2D use of space. Brody recently worked on a magazine cover for a publication known as ‘Wallpaper*’. Brody again aimed to experiment and break the normal trends and rules. Often magazine mast heads are in bold contrasting colours in order to stand out on a news stand; in this project Brody has done the opposite by using two similar subtle colours together. This would perhaps stand out more than the normal trend as it won’t blend in to the sea of bold contrasting headers.

1.

His own fonts, which can be largely illegible but entice the audience into trying to find the message

Brody is continually pushing boundaries and experimenting; during his college years his creative approach was often condemned by his tutors who suggested he should create more commercial work. Brody only ever aimed for his designs to please himself regardless of anyone else’s opinion. These days Brody has the world’s best selling graphic design book ‘The Graphic Language of Neville Brody’ by Jon Wozencroft. He is an influential figure in an experimental typography publication called FUSE and now works out of London-based design company called Research Studios which are widely renowned for their artistic vision and capability, with a long list of ‘A-list’ clients including Nike and D&AD. Brody’s work is highly distinguishable due to his own unique style.

’ 3.

2.

� �

bibliography: all sites accessed 16/01/10 http://www.linotype.com http://dustyburrito.blogspot.com http://en.wikipedia.org http://designmuseum.org 1. Nike advert 1988 2. Fuse type 3. Fuse type 4. Wallpaper cover 2009 4.

w-two-one-o//49


by nadine ballantyne

The Designers Republic, also notably known as ‘tDR’ are a highly regarded company, producing work for some of the largest companies around, such as Coca Cola, MTV, Nickelodeon and Orange with their unique brand of styling and postmodern structure, a structure that suggests that anything will and can work. The company was founded by Ian Anderson during 1986, an entrepreneur who was looking after local bands before deciding to 1. create his own company to design posters for the bands he managed. From the start he was determined to do 2. something different, although 1. Emigre during the early days a key magazine cover, part of his influence came issue 29, 1994 from Russian Constructivism. 2. one of Ian based himself in Sheffield and since a series of starting has embraced the posters for music world with his colourful, Murray & Vern, 1998 influential and complex ideas, that have each time evoked 3. tDR iconic logo

3.

a positive response. The Designers Republic as a whole are best known for their eccentric style in the music industry, producing album artwork for the big names, musicians such as Pulp, Supergrass, Nine Inch Nails, Aphex Twin and many more. Although their work is easily recognised, there is a broad mix of styles and rich use of media.

w-two-one-o//50


They were creating for the masses, creating work that was sharp and witty with frequent use of subverted and borrowed images that showed they kept up to date with the cultural times. The work is often brightly coloured with vivid shapes and many layers that make the design pop out in that ‘3D’ post-modern manner. They are playful and coca cola m5 project pleasing to look at, often includbottle design, 2006 ing irony or controversial wit. The Designers Republic was just what the industry needed, their designs communicated a sense of freedom that partly influenced what we now see as electronic design. From their beginnings, right up to the present you can see Ian’s early Russian constructivism influences. Wipepout The Designers Republic’s main playstation strength was that they were ahead game design, 1999 of its time, experimental and willing to break rules. In an interview with Creative Review they revealed

bibliography: ary 2010 accessed janu 09/ .uk/cr-blog/20 eativereview.co blic-remembered cr w. w /w :/ tp : ht signers-repu Creative Review january/the-de

that they didn’t actually consider the rules at all. “People used to say ‘you’re at Designer’s Republic because you break the rules’ and we’d say ‘we’re not really, we just don’t know the rules...’.”

After a memorable 23 years they disbanded at the start of 2009, an end to the fascinating experiment and movement that was Designers Republic. There was and is such a high demand for flexible designers and styles, so Anderson’s approach flourished with visual richness, complex layers and memorable typefaces. We can only wonder what Ian will do to push the boundaries next time with a re-launch of the company in preparation.

2009 : Issue 71 v18 Eye Magazine =742 fid 6& ?id=16 m/feature.php co e. in az ag em http://www.ey 2795 /viewnews/?9 tivematch.com ea cr w. w /w :/ : http .html Creative Match ign_news/4583 gner.com/des xi de w. w w t: Projec Coke Cola M5

w-two-one-o//51


Vaughan Oliver, the Durham-born Londoner, is a British designer who specializes in illustration and typography. He was a key figure in the boom of post-modernism during the 1980s after finishing his degree at Newcastle Poly University. Starting his graduate career with a few small design groups who worked with packaging design, he soon discovered his passion for album art. After leaving these groups, he found 4AD, who developed graphic identities for various bands. 4AD is an independent record label created in 1979 and is still working today. Oliver worked with them from 1982-87 and still has an affiliation with them – his more recent work is for a group called v23.

His work spans a wide range of media; advertising

products and posters, record sleeves, labels, post cards and other promotional materials. The content is usually quite ambiguous and surreal using experimental photography with brilliant use of type, layout and other post-modern principles. Vaughan Oliver’s work can be easily distinguished by his individual use of juxtaposition and imagery. He was influenced by surrealist André Breton among

other surrealist painters and photographers.

In his career he worked very closely with

Christopher Biggs, his assistant and designer colleague as well as Nigel Grieson, photographer and friend.

Pixies - Doolittle

Having a large variation of input gave him a larger

limited-edition

visual palette in which to work in terms of both media

booklet, 2009

and expression. Because Oliver produces a lot of promotional work, he needs to include type that communicates to the audience, whether it’s the name of the band, song names, dates or venue.

OlivEr

w-two-one-o//52


Looking at his work, he seems to prefer working with expressive imagery, editing and distorting it in a very personal way. To get that post modernism feel he uses a lot of layers, textures, mixed media and innovation, which is crucial in attracting attention.

He has done a lot of work for various bands, but the

work he produced for the Pixies as well as his famous piece Pixies - Doolittle limited-edition booklet 2009

designed for the album Doolittle, is his best known. He has included all the necessary content that you would expect to find on the cover but has worked the layout in a very post modernist way (see Figure 1). The layering in the design gives it a 3D quality and brings different elements in and out of focus. The aesthetic difference between the monkey and the grid works well, using nature and technology to make the contrast. The grid also draws the eye around the page in such a way that you can read the song names in a chronological order from 1-7. His strengths are in his use of imagery and layout techniques, as well as being an active member in a group working with fantastic photographers and designers. These include Simon Larbalestier, photographer for most of the Pixies album art, Paul

McMenamin and Adrian Philpottt, all of who make up v23. In conclusion, Vaughan Oliver is not one man but the face of a team of talented designers, who create top end graphics to represent the music industry. His talents spread all over the areas of photography; typography and illustration, which make him very able to create aesthetically beautiful pieces of work, both readable and legible. His works are very enticing and beautiful to look at. There is a certain mystery to many of his

figure 1. Doolittle album cover - The Pixies, 1989

successful through the great ĂŚsthetic designs, made quality that he demonstrates consistently throughout his work. The information is always displayed well and feels both intellectual and inspirational. B i bliograp h y :

A Century of Graphic Design, Jeremy Aynsley, Mitchell Beazley, 2001 v23, v23, (unknown), 1990 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vaughan_Oliver; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/4AD (accessed 22/01/10)

w-two-one-o//53


W-TWO-ONE-0 design magazine was conceived, written and designed by first-year students on the BA Graphic Communication course at Cardiff School of Art & Design. Thanks to all contributors for their hard work and commitment.

W-TWO-ONE-0 ISSUE 01

COPYRIGHT Care has been taken to acknowledge origins of materials and It is hoped that the critical spirit and affection with which the work on these pages has been undertaken will be appreciated. However, should anyone wish to have an image removed, or receive an alternative credit line, please contact Dr Kevin Edge (kedge@uwic.ac.uk) in the first instance.

W-TWO-ONE-0 // 18/03/10

W-TWO-ONE-0  

We are delighted to launch the inaugural issue of W-TWO-ONE-O design magazine, written and produced by first-year students on the BA Graphic...

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