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1GB // LIBRARY AND BUILDING PRECEDENT // Fundamental Architectural Principles 2: Organizational Systems // SCI-Arc Spring 2011 // Instructor: Volkan Alkanoglu

// 1GB // LIBRARY AND BUILDING PRECEDENT // Fundamental Architectural Principles 2: Organizational Systems // SCI-Arc Spring 2011 // Instructor: Volkan Alkanoglu


1GB // LIBRARY AND BUILDING PRECEDENTS Fundamental Architectural Principles 2: Organizational Systems SCI-Arc // Spring 2011 Instructor: Volkan Alkanoglu


CONTENT // LIBRARIES // Steven Holl, AMERIKA-GEDENKBIBLIOTHEK, Berlin, Germany, Competition, 1988

Nicholas Barger

Rem Koolhas/OMA, Tres Grande Bibliotheque, Paris, France, Competition, 1989

Xian Chi

Schweger Architekten, ZKM, Karlsruhe, Germany, 2000

H Clark

OMA, Public Library, Seattle, Washington, 2004

Jack Gaumer

Foster + Partners, Free University Library, Berlin, Germany, 2005

Rania Hoteit

David Chipperfield, Des Moines Public Library in Des Moines, Iowa, 2006

Laura Kwak

PUBLIC BUILDINGS // Eero Saarinen, TWA Terminal, New York, NY, 1962

Anthony Lho

Future Systems, Lord’s Cricket Ground Media Centre, London, UK, 1999

Francisco Martinez

Sir Peter Cook & Colin Fournier, Kunsthaus, Graz, Austria, 2003

Rafael Ruiz

Will Alsop, The Sharp Centre for Design, Toronto, Canada, 2004

Karen Shueh

OMA, Casa Da Musica, Porto, Portugal, 2005

Peter Wade

Zaha Hadid, Phaeno Science Center, Wolfsburg, Germany, 2005

Jonathan Schurre


PROJECT NAME // ARCHITECT // LOCATION // DATE //

Amerika-Gedenkbibliothek Competition Steven Holl Berlin, Germany 1988

STUDENT //

Nicholas Barger

Project Describtion The Amerika-Gedenkbibliothek, or American Memorial Library, is one of the largest public libraries in Berlin, Germany. Originally a gift from the Americans after the Berlin Blockade, the 1954 library was intended to become Berlin’s central library. While this concept was ultimately lost, an effort to make additions to the library gave way to this design by Steven Holl during a competition opened up to a variety of American architects in the 1980’s. Steven Holl first took advantage of the site’s prime location, developing an axial relationship with a proposed elevated element/observation point, and a bridge that leads directly to the Mehringplatz, a major plaza in Berlin located just to the north of the library. Holl also decided to draw a connection to the Holy Cross Church to the east, and in turn create a clear public park which would also be reflected to the west. Through these moves, as well as additions that wrap the original library, Holl’s design framed several new plazas and open green spaces, all of which would ultimately draw crowds from the north. The design itself works to mimic the open stack system that exists within libraries by organizing the program in a massive loop that surrounds the original library. This browsing circuit creates a path that loops the entire structure, and allows the visitor to see the entire collection by walking the path. Inside of primary programmatic elements, the library stacks were to be developed as furniture, creating different characteristics to the space which is an otherwise open floor plan. These stacks are additionally meant to create a more memorable experience through their variety of arrangements. As one would travel through the largest portion of the proposed addition, there are 7 primary departments that would be passed through. A series of stairs and ramps meandering from left to right allow a visitor to ascend/descend the spaces. From the top, the guest would start in a smaller, more confined space, but eventually end in the largest of rooms on the bottom level. In the reverse direction, as one ascends upward, the individual would travel into a sort of forced perspectival space at the top. All of these volumes, as well as the other major elements of the design, were planed around a ratio of 1:1.618 based on the height of the original library. While this design won the competition, it was never realized, and the library still stands today as it did in 1988 when Holl’s design was selected as the winner.


Axial Context Conditions

Figure Ground and Defining of Open Space

Fundamental Architectural Principles 2: Organizational Systems / Instructor: Volkan Alkanoglu


1:1.618 Geometric Organizing Principle

Volumetric Program

Horizontal Volumes

Vertical Volumes


Orthoganal Organization in Relation to the Axis

Circulation

Fundamental Architectural Principles 2: Organizational Systems / Instructor: Volkan Alkanoglu


PROJECT NAME // ARCHITECT // LOCATION // DATE //

National Library of France OMA / Rem Koolhaas Paris, France 1989

STUDENT //

Xian Chi

Project Describtion A competition to build a new national library, Très Grande Bibliothèque, was launched in France in 1989. OMA received an honorable mention for this project. The program asked for the creation of various smaller libraries contained in one building envelope; including libraries for moving images, recent acquisitions, reference, catalogues and scientific research. The colossal amount of information to be stored within these spaces (books, films, digital databases) became the driver for the overall concept design. The library is vertualized as a solid block of information, a dense repository for the past, from which voids are carved to produce public spaces – absence floating in memory. These separate elements include: the Pebbles: The Sound and Moving Image Library, the Cross: The Recent Acquisitions Library, the Spiral: The Reference Library, the Shell: The Catalogue Room, the Loop: The Research Library, and Top. The Pebbles are designated spaces for film, tv, music-auditoria & booths-embedded in the podium. The Cross includes two voids that intersect: the reading room is horizontal, the audio and TV spaces form a continuous auditorium that slopes down toward the river. There is an amphitheatre at their intersection. The walls are aligned with transparent viewing booths. The Reference Library is a continuous spiral that connects, in three turns, five floors of partially open storage, carrels, study booths. Each intersection allows for thematic or spatial differentiation. On the exterior appearing like a pebble, the Shell connects the spiral to the loop and provides a panoramic view of Paris, itself catalogue. The Loop is a scientific interior where floor becomes wall, becomes ceiling, becomes wall…Mobius-strip that performs a loop-the-loop in the catacombs of the building. The top part of the building block has a restaurant, a gymnasium, a garden, a swimming pool. All the rest of the floors of the building include various accommodations for storage. Against the entire north face of the building is space for offices, where all the administrative offices, personal services and all kinds of other institutions are accommodated, where necessary in direct connection to the stacks or the major rooms.


Primary Elements


Initial Forms

Deformation

Morphology Analysis

Voids

Solid


rue de Tolbiac

the Suburbs

Paris

the Seine

Structural and Circulation Systems

Site Analysis

Fundamental Architectural Principles 2: Organizational Systems / Instructor: Volkan Alkanoglu


PROJECT NAME // ARCHITECT // LOCATION // DATE //

ZKM Center for Art and Media Technology Schweger + Partner Architects Karlsruhe, Germany 1997

STUDENT //

H Clark

Project Describtion The ZKM provides visitors with a unique experience. It serves as an “architecture of memory” for in its design it both retains the old while creating the new. The ‘old’ in this situation is a retired artillery factory that through the years had been reacquired by the State Academy of Design. The ‘new’ is Schweger’s attempt to preserve the memory of the site while allowing it to have a present/future voice. Today, that voice is three-fold: ZKM, State Academy, and Municipal Gallery. The internal axes of the building correspond with the public transportation axes of Karlsruhe’s city grid. In terms of public paths through the building and the manner in which it parallels the urban context, it was important to institute a glazed roof system where certain areas could open up to make the complex more transparent and communicative. The music studio, or “Blue Cube” is positioned in front of the historic building, to demonstrate new uses and intentions for the urban space as a whole. This composition also allows the internal openness of the building to be largely unobstructed, and the atriums to be kept free. The interior hall is a reinforced concrete structure, its skeleton well preserved. Serving as a shell, the hall is made up of ten spatial units. The space reserved for ZKM is comprised of four atriums; the Academy, three. The remaining atriums are used for a Municipal Gallery and temporary exhibitions. The resulting building provides expansive spaces for interdisciplinary work with the public. It serves as a place for encounters and communicative experiments. The open north/ south route is a 312-meter long circulation axis which links the surrounding stories with steps and walkways, a manifestation of the intended work between artists, technicians and scientists


Primary Elements

Circulation Systems

Morphology

Fundamental Architectural Principles 2: Organizational Systems / Instructor: Volkan Alkanoglu


Ordering Principles

Scalar and Proportional Systems


Formal and Spatial Organization

Context Conditions

Fundamental Architectural Principles 2: Organizational Systems / Instructor: Volkan Alkanoglu


PROJECT NAME // ARCHITECT // LOCATION // DATE //

Seattle Central Library OMA / Rem Koolhaas Seattle, USA 2004

STUDENT //

Jack Gaumer

Project Describtion The Seattle Central Library is a building, which in itself, is a diagram. While the idea of a building being a diagram was not new at the time of the library’s design, the organizational ideas shown by the digram within the building which have been an integral part of OMA’s success, had yet to be shown so clearly and built. The organizational concept used in and shown by the Seattle Central Library is a volumetric one, showing how strategic placement and positioning of solid/heavy program elements creates open/airy spaces for which to fit in less personal programs. After the creation of these open less personal spaces by the positioning of the heavy programmatic elements, the whole package is shrink-wrapped in a planar manner to generate a facade which leaves the boundaries of the public space fuzzy and indeterminate. The particular positioning of the heavy organizational elements used in the Seattle Central Library along with this indeterminate boundary, makes the building’s public spaces all that much more public, with the actual form of the building reaching out to the world for the public spaces and pulling inwards for the solidified private spaces. In doing so, unlike most of the buildings in downtown Seattle surrounding the library, there is space. This volumetric space surrounding the library works harmoniously with, but as the inverse of, the inside public spaces reaching out, so that the outside public and the world, reaches into the building. This makes the Seattle Central Library not only a fantastic library, which as a discrete portion of the overall building is revolutionary diagrammatic in its own right, but truly a remarkable and revolutionary public entity. One issue with diagramming a building which is a diagram, and was designed as a diagram, is that the collection of possible diagrams is likely almost exhausted and closed. The drawings here are attempting to show the organizational and public points about this building as described above, in old and new ways. Both organization and publicity of the Seattle Central Library can be, and is here, shown as opposing sets of positive spaces and the negative voids created by them.


reading exhibition reference meeting administration stacks office staff parking

Programmatic Organizational Section 1

reading services stacks meeting administration exhibition office kids parking

Programmatic Organizational Section 2

Fundamental Architectural Principles 2: Organizational Systems / Instructor: Volkan Alkanoglu


Casual Reading / Entry Reference / Collection / Services Exhibition / Reading Administration Book Stacks Book Stacks Book Stacks Book Stacks Meeting / Conference Offices Staff / Kids Parking

Program into Spatial and Formal Organization


01

08 07 06 05

02

04 03 02 01

03

04

05

08 07 06

06 05 04 03

07

02 01

08 Site Void Serial Plans

Site Void

Fundamental Architectural Principles 2: Organizational Systems / Instructor: Volkan Alkanoglu


Solid Point Facade Attraction


Fundamental Architectural Principles 2: Organizational Systems / Instructor: Volkan Alkanoglu


PROJECT NAME // ARCHITECT // LOCATION // DATE //

Free University Library Foster+Partners Berlin, Germany 2005

STUDENT //

Rania Hoteit

Project Describtion The Free University Library is a building designed by Fosters and Partners as a 68,000 square-foot insert within the existing dense Free University campus fabric. The library became the most prominent element in the renovation of the university campus through its curving building envelope that is oval in plan and blimplike in its long elevation. The site was formed by combining 6 seperate courtyards. The strategy allowed the integration of the new building and the consolidation of the scattered departmental librairies throughout the campus. The library’s aerodynamic shaped enclosure creates a unique cranial form that earned the nickname “ The Berlin Brain”. Architecturally, the library is a combination of a light transparent envelope and a massed concrete structure; a juxtaposition that informs both the building’s formal character and ecological programme. The four-storey central core is defined by a series of undulating curved floor plates creating a formal dynamism and spacious double-height mezzanine spaces which houses the maximum amount of floor area within the minimum building envelope. The library remains in scale with the surrounding buildings allowing landscaped courtyards on both sides of the library. The building enclosure consists of three parts: The external shell is alternately clad in opaque aluminium and transparent glazed panles that correspond to the solar path and help regulating the internal temperature. The supporting steel frame is formed of radial geometries and is painted in yellow, making the structure legible emphasising the cavity between the outer and inner skins. A transculscent glass fiber inner membrane acts as a diffuser to spread and distribute natural light, glowing with ambient light throughout the day and creating reflections and patterns over its surface. There are openings that allow for views to the sky above creating an impression of being surrounded by light and air. The double skin of the enclosure acts as a themal buffer and air duct through the opening and closing of diferent panels. The building is further heated and cooled by piped water inside the structure in addition to its passive thermal store as a response to the varying climate of Berlin: The external skin closes like a cocoon in the winter and fresh air is drawn through an undercroft, warmed as it passes by a thermal core. Natural ventillation is used for 60% of the yearn and lit 100% with natural light during the day which means that the energy consumption is 35% less than a comparable building. The book stacks are located at the center of each floor, with reading desks arranged around the perimeter. The serpentine profile of the floors increases capacity for reading desks and created an edge patern in which each floor swells or receded with respect to the one above or below it, generating a sequence of generous, light-filled double-height spaces in which to work.


entrance

enclosed spaces

enclosed spaces

open space

circulation desks

reading/ computer counters

book stacks

book stacks

open space book stacks Programmatic Distribution level 0

Programmatic Distribution level 3

enclosed spaces

enclosed spaces

book stacks open space reading/ computer counters

circulation desks

book stacks

Programmatic Distribution level 4

Programmatic Distribution level 1

enclosed spaces

open space

book stacks

book stacks

open space

Programmatic Distribution level 2 Programmatic Distribution

Fundamental Architectural Principles 2: Organizational Systems / Instructor: Volkan Alkanoglu


A

level 0

level 3

A

level 1

level 2 Circulation

level 4

Section AA


Morphology

Geometric Primary Setbacks

Context Conditions

Fundamental Architectural Principles 2: Organizational Systems / Instructor: Volkan Alkanoglu Fundamental Architectural Principles 2: Organizational Systems / Instructor: Volkan Alkanoglu


PROJECT NAME // ARCHITECT // LOCATION // DATE //

Des Moines Public Library David Chipperfield Iowa, USA 2006

STUDENT //

Laura Kwak

Project Description As a redevelopment project, the Des Moines Public Library designed by David Chipperfield incorporates various elements of its surrounding nature and history in the bordering downtown district of Des Moines, Iowa. The form and structure of the new library illustrates an organic shape that offers continuous views of the surrounding park as well as views toward the downtown area. The program and circulation of the library is highly influenced by a grid system detailed by structural columns, as well as the geometry of the building itself. The library’s book stacks are freestanding and flow through a common north to south orientation with easy east and west access throughout the building. An important relationship to the stacks and windows is the effect of allowing the viewer to experience a blurred distinction between the exterior and interior conditions of the surrounding park space. The unique shape of the library is highly influenced by the three distinct territories around its perimetering entrances. The west facade buckles in and around as a reaction to its direct neighbor, the Masonic Lodge/ Centro Restaurant. The south facade is pinched inwards to allow for a major circulation element for drive-through patrons. Lastly, the acute inward angle entrance to the cafe/gallery on the east facade offers a direct connection to the larger park itself. The library in itself plays a key role in the gentrification of the downtown Iowa area. As a public open space element, it highlights the circulation from and through the park. The axises of planar moments suggests views directed towards surrounding sites in its context, perhaps these are key moments the city of Iowa intent to further develop, however at the current time the direction of views provide limited inspiration.


Surrounding Context with Paralleling Planes

Primary Setbacks for Geometry

Fundamental Architectural Principles 2: Organizational Systems / Instructor: Volkan Alkanoglu


Previous Existing Building On Site

Surrounding Public Open Space

Column Grid System Supporting Structure

Primary Core System


Primary Programmatic Distribution for Level 2

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1

entrance lobby foyer open collection gateway gallery cafe foyer meeting rooms bookshop back of house

7

8

2

3 4

5

6

Primary Programmatic Distribution for Level 1 1

4

2 1 1

1 2 3 4

open collection special collection study rooms admin

3

Primary Public Circulation for Level 0

Primary Public Circulation for Level 1

Fundamental Architectural Principles 2: Organizational Systems / Instructor: Volkan Alkanoglu


PROJECT NAME // ARCHITECT // LOCATION // DATE //

TWA Terminal Eero Saarinen New York, NY 1962

STUDENT //

Anthony Lho

Project Describtion Trans World Airlines approached architect Eero Saarinen following the Port of New York Authority’s 1954 decision to upgrade ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� “distinctive and memorable” signature building for TWA; and second, to “express the drama and specialness and excitement of travel.” The TWA Terminal opened in 1962 as the original terminal for Trans World Airlines. Unlike most airports of the period that followed centralized planning, Idlewild developed the now infamous “Terminal City” plan, whereby each of the major American airlines build and operated its own terminal with one combined terminal for all foreign carriers. At the time, the decentralized plan seemed like a major advancement from an organizational standpoint. Furthermore, the plan appealed to competitive airlines anxious to promote strong corporate identities that would capture the immense increase in air travel. On the other hand, the decentralized plan offered Saarinen much freedom. The major advantages of the unit terminal were fast check-in and shorter distances from the entrance to the gates. Saarinen conducted meticulous research to create ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� dismissed the notion that the building was a literal representation of anything and insisted that the design was a pure ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������


Takeoff

Commute

Gate

Programmatic Organization

Check Point Landing

Check-in Commute

Arrival / Departure

Gate

Lobby Seating Check Point Check-in

Commute

Arrival Course

Departure Course

Fundamental Architectural Principles 2: Organizational Systems / Instructor: Volkan Alkanoglu


Structure / Primary Form


Reflection symmetry

Structural Equilibrium

Fundamental Architectural Principles 2: Organizational Systems / Instructor: Volkan Alkanoglu


PROJECT NAME // ARCHITECT // LOCATION // DATE //

Natwest (Lord’s) Media Centre Future Systems London, England 1999

STUDENT //

Francisco Martinez

Project Describtion Recipient of the 1999 Stirling Prize (the highest yearly honor awarded by the Royal Institute of British Architects), the Natwest Media Center at Lord’s Cricket Ground in London, by Future Systems, extend’s the Marylebone Cricket Club’s patronage of innovative architecture. Though, instead of a relatively public structure, like Michael Hopkin’s well-known facing stands, the Media Center is limited to journalists. But where Hopkin’s structures create space by providing shelter, the Media Center acts as an object to be seen by the public, either at the grounds or on television. The interior is secondary (though impressive): the strength of the design lies in its unabashed object fetish; a sensual, alien form landed on the grounds at Lord’s. Future Systems publicized this structure as the world’s fi rst all aluminum semi-monocoque building, utilizing the same technology as boat-, car-, and airplane-manufacturers (actually built in a boatyard). With this construction method the interior is free of columns and provides unobstructed views to the fi eld 15m below. Here form and structure are one and the same, as the skin of the building follows the curves of the structural members. In plan the curve acts as an extension of the cricket grounds, while in section it accommodates the west-faced inclination of the glass (to eliminate glare on the field). Aside from these site-specifi c and practical concerns the form is arbitrary, and the architects took this knowledge and created a unique, yet simple, design. The plan is simple with service (elevator, stairs, and washrooms) and a small cafe to the east, and stepped rows of tables for journalists to the west, separated by a corridor. A good balance is achieved between the inside and outside; the large glass wall attracting attention away from the interiors towards the fi eld below.


Aluminum Frame Aluminum Shell Concrete Towers

Structure

50 ft

Form

Fundamental Architectural Principles 2: Organizational Systems / Instructor: Volkan Alkanoglu


Center

Edge

Perimeter

Context Conditions

Bar/Restaurant Boxes Elevators Kitchen Photography Restrooms Stairs Writers Area Enclodes Spaces Ordering Principles


Pavillion

Views

Circulation Systems

Fundamental Architectural Principles 2: Organizational Systems / Instructor: Volkan Alkanoglu


PROJECT NAME // ARCHITECT // LOCATION // DATE //

Kunsthaus aka. “The Friendly Alien” Spacelab / Sir Peter Cook & Colin Fournier Graz, Austria 2003

STUDENT //

Rafael Ruiz

Project Description A “Friendly Alien” has landed on earth in Graz, Austria. It has landed in a city loaded with history, and a propensity for the new and the experimental. It is well loved among the people of Graz, sits along the river Mur welcoming all who pass by with flashing lights and a big blue smile. The Kunsthaus is a contemporary Art Museum focusing on art in the past four decades. It was developed as a cultural and exhibitional space to house international contemporary and modern art. It consciously stands out from the red tiles roofs of the Austrian baroque skyline. The Kunsthaus houses no permanent collection but rather a vessel in which the cultures of the world may pass through to be recognized by the people who wish to see it. The “Friendly Alien” was conceived by Spacelab: a collaboration between Sir Peter Cook of Archigram and Colin Fournier of the Bartlett School of Architecture in London. It was the result of an international competition for a new Kunsthaus (literally Art House) for the city of Graz. Its concept arose from a single phrase; “into the unknown”. It served as a major driving factor in the development of the Kunsthaus. The importance of building integration, and contextual presence was vital to the success of the project, as well as for the city of Graz. The importance of the Kunsthaus in architecture is that no other building of its kind has been built before. It stands as an unusual solution to the convention of a white cube for art exhibition. It also pioneers the stylistic idiom of “blob” architecture, as well as an unobstructed gallery space, all-in-one skin, and media performative facade (called BIX). BIX serves as a low resolution screen to display videos, and to display announcements for the Kunsthaus.


// site context & building development 1.

1827 land plan

Site situated on the western bank of the river Mur in the baroque “Murvorstadt”. Stands as a landmark directly opposite the old town of Graz.

2.

// euclidean vs. free-form This particular project embodies a fusion of euclidean and free-form (blob) geometry. It is important to understand how Spacelab fused these geometries, that allowed the building to fit within its context. The development of the building shape was instrumental in generating a successful project that both allowed to fulfil programmatic needs, cultural needs, and to win the favour of the people of Graz. The initial form of the building was generated from the existing site. The “Iron House” building was not to be touched during the design of the Kunsthaus, however other buildings were in effect, able to be demolished. What was left was a site that was shaped like steps, each widening the further one went north. Hence the shape of the Kunsthaus took shape, filling in like a balloon (free-form), responding to the euclidean geometry of the old Graz. This enabled the Kunsthaus to sinuate with old and new; in both geometry and philosophy for Graz.

1847 land plan

A flood tore down the main bridge and was therefore rebuilt, triggering a process of urban restructuring. The “Iron House” (in dark blue) was built giving the new area an architectural center piece.

3.

2003 site plan - building envelope

The “Iron House” remained through historical preservation in Graz, serving as the basis for the new Kunsthaus to emerge.

4.

+

building shape iteration

The shape of the Kunsthaus in plan is directly influenced by the existing conditions and site shape. Here shown, the initial phase of the building shape.

5.

final building shape

Optimization of building shape regarding the need to stand out in its own right, and to serve its purpose as the Kunsthaus. It reflects the city’s reputation for experimental design, engages the street life, and existing buildings.

Fundamental Architectural Principles 2: Organizational Systems / Instructor: Volkan Alkanoglu


// elevational development The development of the building was also designed in relation to the existing heights of the surrounding buildings. The building was not to stand out above all the existing baroque buildings, but to be slightly noticed in the Graz skyline. After realizing the basic shape of the building, it was the put into context through elevation and section. The building is then optimized to respond to elevational conditions within the site. The new structure added to the “Iron House” is a raised volume leaving the ground plane unobstructed, transparent and openly accessible to the public. It houses the exhibition halls, and program directly associated for curation of work.

Delineation of building envelope within site

optimization of building shape

Lifting of building to meet programmatic and architectural need

Lifting of building provides public access, open space, and visual transparency.

Program and exhibition spaces of Kunsthaus are contained within.

The “Iron House” contains administrative program.

Program not concerning the Kunsthaus directly is contained within. Parking located below the “Friendly Alien”


// Skin, Pin & Needle The importance of the SKIN PIN and NEEDLE are the primary elements the describe the “Friendly Alien”. They act in unison to relate each element to each other, and give balance to free-form, and euclidean geometry. Needle: The elevated platform used to view the city, and provide an alternate program, as well as an extended exhibition space for the Kunsthaus. Pin: The primary circulation used for the exhibition halls. The intention was to board the transcalator located at the ground floor, and ascend into the unknown of the “Friendly Alien”. Skin: The skin envelopes the exhibition halls, provides environmental control and enclosure. It also serves as the building’s structure, mechanical and electrical housing, cladding, and a media element. This in turn leaves the exhibition area unobstructed and open to allow maximum area for curation and creativity

Skylights The “Iron House”

Skin

Needle

Elevator Core

PIN Transcalators

Upper Exhibition Hall

PIN Transcalators

Lower Exhibition Hall

C-A-I Administration The “Iron House”

Public Entertainment C-A-I Circulation & Media Exhibits Support / Service Core

Public Reading Area & Seating Cafe / Support

Fundamental Architectural Principles 2: Organizational Systems / Instructor: Volkan Alkanoglu


PROJECT NAME // ARCHITECT // LOCATION // DATE //

Sharp Centre for Design Alsop Architects / Will Alsop Toronto, Canada 2004

STUDENT //

Karen Shueh

Project Description The Sharp Centre for Design, designed by Alsop Architects in companionship with Toronto-based Robbie Young + Wright Architects Inc., is an addition to the Toronto’s Ontario School of Art and Design. Its aim was a revitalized image of Canda’s largest and oldest art university. The $42.5 million project was completed in September of 2004 and has become a prominent component of both the university and Toronto’s cityscape. Often referred to as the “table top”, the building is a 30 meters wide by 80 meters long horizontal box supported by twelve 85feet tall steel legs, clad in multiple bright colors. The pixelated black and white facade conceals the windows and floor plates, rendering the buidling as an object d’art, befitting for an art univesity building. The pixelation continues to the underbelly of the horizontal box, further suggesting the facade as a three-dimensional entity. In additional to the steel legs, the horizontal box is supported by an elevator core, and a slanted staircase that is attached to a pre-existing university building. In this instance, circulation is an essential component of the building’s structure as well. The elevated aspect of the project has two major benefits. Firstly, from a local community perspective, the elevated building spatially opens up Butterfield Park (located directly below) to the neighboring Grange Park, a widely-used public park. The open plan facilitates interaction between students and local residents, while also blurring the campus’ boundaries into the community streetscape. The students at OCAD may also use Butterfield Park as an outdoor installation space, with the prestige of having it viewed by a general public. Secondly, the elevated building provides an unobstructed view of Grange Park and a scenic view of the CN Tower on the South. Other than scenic and aesthetic purposes, the overlooking view on Grange Park is also a strategy to decrease the crime rate that frequents at nighttime. The Sharpe Centre for Design has received numerous awards, including the Royal Institute of British Architects Worldwide Award; the award of excellence in the “Building in Context” category at the 2005 Toronto Architecture and Urban Design Award; and recognized as the most outstanding technical project in the 2005 Canadian Consulting Engineering Awards.


Facade Effect - Objet d’Art

Fundamental Architectural Principles 2: Organizational Systems / Instructor: Volkan Alkanoglu


Circulation Systems

Context Conditions - Pedestrian Circulation with Neighboring Park

Circulation Systems as Structure


Structure - Steel Legs

“Table Top” Concept

Context Conditions - Viewpoints to Grange Park and CN Tower

Fundamental Architectural Principles 2: Organizational Systems / Instructor: Volkan Alkanoglu


PROJECT NAME // ARCHITECT // LOCATION // DATE //

Casa De Musica OMA / Rem Koolhaas & Ellen van Loon Portugal, Porto 2005

STUDENT //

Peter Wade

Project Description OMA’s Casa de Musica stands stands on a new public square in the historic Rotunda da Boavista in Portugal. The concert hall is very descriptive by its faceted form, made of white concrete. nside, the elevated 1,300-seat (shoe box-shaped) Grand Auditorium has corrugated glass facades at either end that open the hall to the city and offer Porto itself as a dramatic backdrop for performances. Casa da Musica reveals its contents without being didactic; at the same time, it casts the city in a new light. Locating the Casa da Musica was key in the development of OMA’s thinking. “...We chose not to build the new concert hall in the ring of old buildings defining the Rotunda but to create a solitary building standing on a travertine-paved plateau in front of the Rotunda’s park, neighboring a working class area. With this concept, issues of symbolism, visibility, and access were resolved in one gesture.” -Koolhaas In addition to its Grand Auditorium, made up of a simple “shoe box shaped” mass, the majority of the rest of the building is hollowed out from the solid form of the building. Howeevr, the Casa da Musica also contains a smaller, more flexible performance spaces with no fixed seating, ten rehearsal rooms, recording studios, an educational area, a restaurant, terrace, bars, a VIP room, administration areas, and an underground car park for 600 vehicles. A unique curtain-like glass walls stand at either end of the Grand Auditorium. The walls of the structure themselves are constructed wth of plywood. There is purposely no large central foyer; instead, a continuous public route connects the spaces around the Grand Auditorium by means of stairs, platforms and escalators. “The building becomes an architectural adventure. ” -OMA


1st Floor

Main Program Overlay 2nd-5th Floor

Foyer

4th-5th Floor Dressing Rooms

6th Floor

Smaller Auditorium

The building form of Casa De musica was originally generated from an earlier residential design that Rem Koolhaas created for a client. The house was never built however Koolhaas decided to reintroduce the design with a concert hall program.

Main Auditorium

Restaurant Areas

Architects have come to understand that auditorium spaces work the best acoustically when they occupy a box-like space. Through his unique form of the Casa DeMusica, Koolhaas was able to reinvent the influence an auditorium has on an overall building form.

Cyber Music Snack Bar Terrance

Primary Elements

There are two concert hall spaces within the building. The main auditorium space is in the center of the building and extends form floor one through five. The second smaller concert hall is located on the west side of the building

Small Auditorium

Large Auditorium

Due to the complicated nature of designing for acoustics, OMA initially determined that the programmatic spaces designated for auditorium space should remain “show box-like� forms in order to allow for the important design decisions be made for acoustics without affecting the rest of the building programatic elements.

Scalar and Proportional Systems

Fundamental Architectural Principles 2: Organizational Systems / Instructor: Volkan Alkanoglu


Formal and Spatial Definition

Entry East

Circulation Systems

South

Small Concert Hall

Restaurant

Patio

Cyber Music Lobby

Classrooms

Large Concert Hall

Public

Classrooms

Cyber Music

Patio

Large Concert Hall Lobby

VIP

Entry

Small Concert Hall

Restaurant

The diagram abouve illustrates the main appitures form the building as well as the context that the building is located in. The size od the concert hall comands space around it while providing not only interior views but also comanding exterior views from a the surrounding community.


Small Concert Hall VIP Restaurant

Patio Main Concert Education

Parking

Lobby

Entry Cyber Music The diagram abouve shows the spatial connection of all the main programtic elemts of the building. Specific spaces can only be accsesed from defined program areas.

Formal and Spatial Organization

West

Morphology

The volume of the spaces represents their magnitude in relation to eachother. Larger volume items in the diagram note the not only the difference in spatial size but also the the importance of the space to a visiter of the Casa De Musica .

East

North

South

The diagram above illustrates the subtractive system of the buildings overall subtractive form. The Surface articulation is shown through a serial process.

Fundamental Architectural Principles 2: Organizational Systems / Instructor: Volkan Alkanoglu


PROJECT NAME // ARCHITECT // LOCATION // DATE //

Phaeno Science Center Zaha Hadid, Architects Wolfsburg, Germany 2005

STUDENT //

Jonathan Schnure

Project Describtion The Phaeno Science Center is a Zaha Hadid designed building. Intended to compliment the newly developed Autostadt (directly axial across the canal) as well as the Kunst (Art) Museum located in town. Primarily used as a children’s education center and public event space, the building offers patrons unique experiences throughout the building, grounds below, and is highlighted by an infinite choice in circulation path. The structure itself is reinforced concrete both in appearance as well as architectural texture. The buildings oblong diamond shape is lifted off the ground plane via the use of distorted columns, large enough to enclose building program. The main interior concourse is directly accessed via stairs, escalator, and elevator as a well as separate group entrance. All vertical circulation is contained within the oversized structural (feet) columns as with most building services. The roof is supported by an elaborate cantilevered truss system that connects to the large concrete columns that are generated at the ground plane. Elevating the program with highly rigid and axially determined walls is in complete contrast with the morphed and meandering pathways of the exhibition space and Public Square below. The overall shape is defined by the site lines to the Autostadt, VW Factory, Rail line, and confines of the access roads. The main space is defined in plane only with no vertical walls outside of the oversized and oblique slanted columns. The columns in themselves house restaurants, laboratories, administration, as well as building services. So over sized that they appear not to obstruct, but rather disappear as part of the overall experience. This further emphasizes the architect’s lack of vertical definition on the exhibition floor. The concourse plane defines space by sloping up and down or by void. This allows for unimpeded sight lines from just about anywhere. The gentle slope in the center of the building is additionally a subconscious and gentle way finding system to navigate the nearly 250 exhibits. Quite effective in its ability to define areas of major circulation, wide and spacious aisles blend with the exhibits to conceal any formality of path. Added to numerous alternative pathways, the design program allows for exploration for young patrons. The open ground level is of considerable note. Lifted and open, a new “public square” and gathering space is created. As with the concourse level, there are dips and undulation hills to define space. More imposing and apparent than above, the oversized feet of the building create fairly defines apertures to the surrounding attractions. The lifted body of the building and subsequent void below, is quite unique in its effect and presence.


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bistro exhibition coffee courtyard restaurant vertical circulation shop auditorium loading/laboratory

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up

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ground plane concourse upper mezzanine lower mezzanine

low

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Primary Elements

Morphology

Fundamental Architectural Principles 2: Organizational Systems / Instructor: Volkan Alkanoglu


service

exihibition | event transitory

Formal and Spatial Organization

vertical circulation

area of shade

Scalar and Proportional Systems

Circulation Systems


Formal and Spatial Definition

Context Conditions

Fundamental Architectural Principles 2: Organizational Systems / Instructor: Volkan Alkanoglu


A precedent case study book compiled by the class of 1GB 2011 for Volkan Alkanoglu at The Southern California Institute of Architecture, Los Angeles. Prepared to aid in the design of a Library for Graphic Novels in Manhattan, New York. February 2011 Instructor & Creative Director: Volkan Alkanoglu 1GB Class: Nicholas Barger - Xian Chi - H Clark - Jack Gaumer - Rania Hoteit Laura Kwak - Anthony Lho - Francisco Martinez - Rafael Ruiz Karen Shueh - Peter Wade - Jonathan Schnure Editor: Rafael Ruiz Printing & Production: Blurb.com


Graphic Novel library study_crystalhughes