Page 1

CD & POSTER INCLUDED

production of drawings based on the latest research for the ESV Study Bible. It is a joy to

CURRID

BARRETT

“I had the privilege of being involved in the

“A remarkably beautiful and rich resource for historical, geographical, and archaeological background material that will deepen our

C R O S S WAY

see these drawings plus the original ESV Study

understanding of each section of the Bible and

Bible maps woven together with numerous new

increase our appreciation of the Bible’s amazing

C ROS SWAY

maps, brilliantly evocative photographs, and useful indexes to make up the new Crossway ESV Bible Atlas. This volume will become an indispensable companion for Bible students, fulfilling every expectation you might have of such a tool. Particularly innovative is the use of terrain imagery to facilitate the reader’s

Archaeological consultant

Research Professor of Theology and Biblical Studies Phoenix Seminary

professor, I used many good atlases. However,

that of Abraham from Hebron over the cities

Leen Ritmeyer

Wayne Grudem

“During the forty-four years I served as a college

understanding of such biblical viewpoints as

of the plain or Moses from Mt. Nebo.”

historical accuracy.”

“The Crossway ESV Bible Atlas offers students of the Bible a comprehensive collection of highly accurate, aesthetically appealing

I have never seen one comparable to this in the breadth of material, the depth of coverage, and

resources that present geographical and historical information in a way

the outstanding quality of its impressive and

that is easy to use and that will not overwhelm the reader with technical

abundant maps and photos of Bible lands.”

detail at unnecessary places. Incorporating and expanding upon the

John McRay

maps and other resources originally developed for the ESV Study Bible,

Professor Emeritus of New Testament and Archaeology

the Crossway ESV Bible Atlas utilizes maps, narrative description,

Wheaton College Graduate School

photographs, comprehensive indexes, and 3D recreations of biblical JOHN D. CURRID is the Carl McMurray

objects and sites to help the reader gain a clearer understanding of the

Professor of Old Testament at Reformed

world of the Bible and the meaning of Scripture. . . . We pray that this

Theological Seminary in Charlotte, North

resource helps readers expand their understanding of the world of the

“A wonderfully illustrated tool to aid the

Carolina, and the author of several books and

Bible and thereby helps them grow in their understanding of God’s Word.”

layperson, student of Scripture, or pastor who

Old Testament commentaries. A PhD graduate

wants to dig deeper and gain new insights and

From the Preface

appreciation of the Bible’s setting, context, and

in Syro-Palestinian archaeology (University of Chicago), he has extensive field experience from projects throughout Israel and Tunisia.

BIBLE REFERENCE / ATLAS

message. The text is easy to follow, the pictures are brilliant, and the maps are incredibly useful as the reader moves through the related narratives. I

DAVID P. BARRETT, cartographer for the Crossway ESV Bible Atlas, is a Bible reference editor and the developer of Bible Mapper Software.

ESVBibleAtlas_Jacket.indd 1

highly recommend this marvelous resource.” James K. Hoffmeier Professor of Old Testament and Near Eastern Archaeology Trinity Evangelical Divinity School

2/24/10 1:09 PM


JOHN D. CURRID D A V I D P. B A R R E T T

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Crossway ESV Bible Atlas Copyright © 2010 by Crossway Text copyright © 2010 by John D. Currid Published by Crossway a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers 1300 Crescent Street Wheaton, Illinois 60187 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopy, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of the publisher, except as provided for by USA copyright law. Maps by David P. Barrett (www.biblemapper.com) Illustrations produced by Maltings Partnership (Derby, England) under the direction of Leen Ritmeyer. Terrain imagery generated from digital elevation data provided by CIAT (A. Jarvis, H. I. Reuter, A. Nelson, E. Guevara, 2006, Hole-filled seamless SRTM data V3, International Centre for Tropical Agriculture [CIAT], available from http://srtm.csi.cgiar.org). Maps of average monthly temperature and average monthly rainfall for the Near East generated from data provided by UNEP/DEWA/GRID-Europe (http://www.grid.unep.ch/data). Cover and interior design: Jimi Allen Productions First printing 2010 Printed in Singapore Unless otherwise noted, Scripture quotations are from the ESV® Bible (The Holy Bible, English Standard Version®), copyright © 2001 by Crossway, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers. Used by permission. All rights reserved. Scripture references marked RSV are from The Revised Standard Version. Copyright © 1946, 1952, 1971, 1973 by the Division of Christian Education of the National Council of the Churches of Christ in the U.S.A. ISBN-13: 978-1-4335-0192-0 ISBN-10: 1-4335-0192-9 ePub ISBN: 978-1-4335-1914-7 PDf ISBN: 978-1-4335-1912-3 Mobipocket ISBN: 978-1-4335-1913-0 Currid, John D., 1951 Crossway ESV Bible atlas / John D. Currid and David P. Barrett. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and indexes. ISBN 978-1-4335-0192-0 (hc) 1. Bible–Geography–Maps.  2. Bible–History of Biblical events–Maps.  I. Barrett, David P.  II. Title. G2230.C8 2010 220.9’10223–dc22 2009036660 IMG 17 16 15 14 10 9 8 7 6 5

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13

4

12 3

11 2

10 1

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Photograph Acknowledgments Photographs, used by permission, have been provided by the following: Todd Bolen/BiblePlaces.com: 0-2, 0-3, 0-6, 0-8, 0-11, 0-13, 1-1, 1-3, 1-4, 2-2, 2-3, 2-4, 3-1, 3-2, 3-3, 3-4, 4-1, 4-3, 4-4, 5-1, 5-2, 5-4, 5-5, 5-6, 5-7, 6-1, 6-2, 6-4, 7-1, 7-4, 10-1, 10-2, 12-1, 12-2, 12-4, 12-5, 12-6, 12-9, 12-13, 1216, 12-17, 12-19 (photos 2-4, 3-1, 5-4, 12-9 courtesy of the Rockefeller Museum) (photos 0-11, 12-6 courtesy of the Istanbul Museum) John D. Currid: 0-4, 0-7, 0-9, 0-10, 0-12, 0-14, 0-15, 12-3, 12-7, 12-8, 12-10, 12-18 Michael Luddeni: back cover (inscription), 0-1, 2-1, 7-2, 8-1, 9-1 The British Museum: 6-3, 7-3, 7-5, 8-2 (ŠThe Trustees of the British Museum. All rights reserved.) iStockphoto: cover (pyramid), 1-2, 12-12, 12-14, 12-15 David Bivin/LifeintheHolyLand.com: 0-5, 4-2 The Barry J. Beitzel Photographic Collection: 11-1 Michael Luddeni/Oral Collins: 3-3 Michael Luddeni/Nelson Glueck School of Biblical Archaeology, Jerusalem: 5-3 William L. Krewson/BiblePlaces.com: 12-11 Getty Images: cover (aqueducts)

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“Stand by the roads, and look, and ask for the ancient paths, where the good way is; and walk in it, and find rest for your souls.” Jeremiah 6:16

The land in which the Israelites Mesopotamia (Gen. 11:31). Assyria was the power settled is important in its location because it sits at the crossroads of the ancient Near East. It serves as the land bridge between Asia and Africa, and in ancient times it lay between the two great civilizations of the Near East, Egypt and Mesopotamia. Human settlement developed early in the river valleys of those two regions, and the shift from food gathering economies to agricultural economies can be viewed in the archaeological record of the Neolithic period. In time, trade began between the peoples of the Nile River basin and those of the Tigris and Euphrates River valleys. International highways evolved, connecting the two areas. Two major international highways connected Egypt and Mesopotamia; one of these went directly through the land of the Israelites, and the other lay just east of the Jordan River, skirting the impassable eastern desert. Mesopotamia, the land between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, was home to the great nations of Babylonia and Assyria in Old Testament times. The patriarch Abraham was a native of

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that destroyed the northern kingdom of Israel in 722 B.C. (2 Kings 17:6). Babylonia did the same to the southern kingdom of Judah in 586  B.C. (2 Kings 25). No kingdom in antiquity reached the heights of human civilization attained by Egypt. In fields such as medicine, architecture, and literature the Egyptians went far beyond the other nations of the ancient Near East. Egypt was a critical land in

0-1. The Tigris River in Mesopotamia.

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18

C R O S S W AY E S V B I B L E AT L A S

0-1. Major Regions of the Ancient Near East

Black Sea Halys River Troy

GREECE Athens

Miletus

Mediterranean Sea Elevation Legend (meters) (feet) 8450+

2500

7050

2000

5600

1500

4220

1000

2820 1410

0

0

-500

100

200

300

400

500

600 Miles

0 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Km 100

200

300

400

500

600 Miles

900  Km 0 200 300 400 500 0-2. 600 The 700Nile 800River. The Greek historian Herodotus called Egypt “the gift of the Nile.”

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-1410

iv

EGYPT

Babylon

Damascus

ELAM

BABY LO N I A

Susa

ARABIAN DESERT Dumah

Memphis

iv

er

ISRAEL

Pe r s i a n Gulf

Tema

Red Sea

e r

500

Tyre

Jerusalem

Nile R

3000+

SYRIA

Ecbatana

Asshur

e

R

CYPRUS

E u p h ra t

Hamath

MEDIA

ASSYRIA

Aleppo s

CRETE

Tigris River Nineveh

Carchemish

Tarsus

Knossos

Tushpa

Kanesh Melidu

ANATOLIA

Sardis Ephesus

Ca s p i a n Sea

ARARAT

Hattusha

Gordion

Thebes

the Old Testament narratives. Joseph was sold and imprisoned in Egypt but then rose to power. The Egyptians enslaved the Hebrews for more than 400 years until they were miraculously delivered by the hand of God. Pharaoh Shishak became a thorn in the side of the divided kingdoms soon after the death of Solomon (1 Kings 14:25). Most contact between these two major regions, whether war or commerce, took place in the land of Palestine. The key to power in the ancient Near East was to control Palestine, and particularly

Dedan

ARABIA

To Sheba

0 0

100 200

200

300 mi 400 km

the road system that traversed it. Down through history, this has continued to be true. When Napoleon attempted to bring the Middle East into his empire in 1799, he was halted at the Palestinian port of Acco (Acre). The failure of German forces to capture the Middle East during World War I was partly due to T. E. Lawrence’s rout of the axis armies within the Palestinian topography.

Natural Geographic Regions of Palestine Before we look at the individual regions of Palestine, we must consider the compactness of the land. The land of Palestine is approximately the size of the state of Vermont. Yet in this comparatively small area there occurs an amazing array of different physical features: Palestine is a land of contrasts in geography, topography, climate, and vegetation. For example, while the Dead Sea is about 1,300 feet (400 m) below sea level,

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19

INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW OF THE BIBLICAL WORLD

2000

5600

1500

4220

1000

2820

500

1410

0

0 Acco

Kishon River

Sea

Mount Carmel Dor

Megiddo

rra

ne

RON

an

Beth-shean

SHA

te

di

BASHAN Ashtaroth

Mount Tabor a r m u k Y Riv VALLEY er OF JEZREEL

Samaria Mount Ebal Mount Gerizim Shechem

Me

er

Hazor

Sea of Galilee

GA

-1410

par Riv

Dan

J o rd a n R i v e r

-500

ar Ph

Le o n t Tyre es River

Ramoth-gilead

J a bb ok R iver

ISRAEL

Joppa

GI LE AD

7050

EE

2500

0-2. Natural Geographic Regions of Palestine

SYRIA

Mount Hermon

8450+

LIL

3000+

Abana River Damascus

Sidon

Elevation Legend (meters) (feet)

AMMON Beth-horon

Be

LAH EP

HE

JUDAH

SH

PH

Gaza

re k B ro o k

Heshbon

Hebron

Engedi

Mount Nebo?

Dead S ea

A IL

IS

TI

Ashkelon

Jerusalem

WILD E OF J RNES UD EA S

So

Ashdod

Beersheba

Kir-hareseth

Ze r e d

ARA BAH

Brook of Egypt?

WILDERNESS OF ZIN

Arnon River

MOAB

s o r roo k B NEGEB

Kadesh-barnea

Rabbah

Jericho

B ro

ok

Bozrah

EDOM

Petra

ARABIAN DESERT 0 0

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10 20

20

30 40

40 mi 60 km

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20

the city of Jerusalem is about 2,400 feet (730 m) above sea level, though it is a mere 14 miles (23 km) from the Dead Sea. We will explore the individual geographic regions of the land from west to east (see map 0-2, p. 19).

The Mediterranean Coast The coastline of Palestine contains few natural harbors. The Israelites and other inhabitants of the land, for the most part, ignored shipping; they were not known for their maritime exploits. The Phoenicians, whose land was on the coast north of Palestine, became well known for their seafaring. They founded many colonies throughout the Mediterranean, including Carthage on the northern shores of Africa. King Solomon established some trade by sea, but this was from Elath on the shore of the Red Sea and not from the Mediterranean Sea (1 Kings 9:26). Jehoshaphat, king of Judah, attempted to build a fleet at Eziongeber in order to establish trade with Tarshish, but “the ships were wrecked and were not able to go to Tarshish” (2 Chron. 20:37). The Mediterranean coast of Palestine may be divided into three areas. The first is the Sharon Plain, extending from the modern city of Haifa

C R O S S W AY E S V B I B L E AT L A S

in the north to the city of Tel Aviv/Jaffa on the Jarkon River in the south. Its character is determined by three sandstone ridges, called Kurka Ridges, which run from south to north. The area has many small rivers that make much of the land swampy. It lacks natural deepwater ports. Thus, in the Roman period, Herod the Great constructed an artificial harbor along the Sharon Plain; he called it Caesarea after his patron Caesar Augustus (see photo 0-3). The Roman Empire thus opened up the Mediterranean for commerce through shipping, and Caesarea became the main gateway to the west from Palestine. The second coastal area is Philistia, extending from Tel Aviv/Jaffa in the north to the Besor Brook south of Gaza. This area is mainly grassland with no forests. This was the settlement area of the ancient Philistines, which included their pentapolis (five capital cities) of Ashdod, Ashkelon, Ekron, Gath, and Gaza. The third and final region is the Sinai coastlands. This is a semiarid coastland with many sandy dunes and little rain. Throughout history its population has been sparse. Its primary importance for antiquity is that it was the area through which the Great Trunk Route ran; this was a main highway

0-3. The coastal plain near Caesarea.

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INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW OF THE BIBLICAL WORLD

21

for commerce and also for military incursion. Pharaoh Shishak’s invasion of Israel and Judah went along this route.

The Shephelah Within a dozen miles of the Mediterranean coast going eastward is the Shephelah, a transitional area between the plains along the coast and the mountains of the central hill country. It is a region of rolling hills in which appear numerous broad valleys that penetrate from the western plains (see photo 0-4). In antiquity the broad valleys tended to be areas of transit and areas of conflict between the peoples of the hill country and those of the coastal plains. For example, part of the battle between Joshua’s forces and the five kings of the Amorites occurred in the Shephelah; it was there where the sun stood still in the Valley of Aijalon so that the Israelite forces could have the time to defeat the enemy ( Josh. 10:12). Samson struck one thousand Philistines “with the jawbone of a donkey” ( Judg. 15:16) in one of these traversing valleys. David defeated the Philistine giant Goliath in one of these valleys, the Valley of Elah (1 Sam. 17:1–2).

0-4. The Shephelah,  or foothill region, between the hill country of Judah and the coastal plain of Philistia.

The Central Hill Country To the east of the Shephelah are the central highlands (see photo 0-5). This mountainous spine runs from north to south for approximately 90 miles (145 km): it begins at the southern tip of the Valley of Jezreel near Mount Gilboa and continues southward into Samaria and the mountains of Gerizim and Ebal; from there it continues into Judea to the city of Hebron. These hilly areas appear quickly as one travels from the Mediterranean Sea inland; from sea level at the Mediterranean to the city of Jerusalem the land rises 2,400 feet (730 m) in just 35 miles (56 km).

0-5. The hill country of Palestine,  which was the primary area of Israelite settlement after the conquest under Joshua.

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The central highlands played an important role in biblical history. After Abraham entered the land of Canaan he first stopped at Shechem in the northern highlands (Gen. 12:6). Abraham and his nephew Lot were encamped between the towns of Bethel and Ai in the hill country when they decided to separate and divide the land (13:3). After their parting, Abraham moved to the area of Hebron in the southern highlands (v. 18). Abraham took his son Isaac to be sacrificed on Mount Moriah, which is identified with Jerusalem, in the central hill country (Gen. 22:2; cf. 2 Chron. 3:1). David captured the city of Jerusalem, purchased the threshing floor of Ornan the Jebusite there (1 Chron. 21:18– 27), and planned the building of God’s temple on the site. Jerusalem became the capital city of the united kingdom, and of the southern kingdom of Judah after the division. The Son of God, Jesus, was born in the southern hills of Judea. And although he spent much of his life in Galilee, he returned to the hills around Jerusalem to bring to a climax his work and ministry. His crucifixion, death, and resurrection occurred in Jerusalem. He appeared to many of his disciples there. And from the top of the Mount of Olives he ascended in glory to sit at the right hand of the Father. Samaria, capital of the northern kingdom of Israel, was located in the Samarian highlands. Omri founded the city in the mid-ninth century  B.C., and his son Ahab made it infamous when he married the Baal worshiper Jezebel, princess of Tyre (1  Kings 16:29–34). Phoenicia had great influence on the material culture of the northern kingdom, and trade between the two areas was brisk. Its pagan religious influence on Israel was also enormous, and this raised the ire of the prophet Elijah (1 Kings 17–18). According to the books of 1–2 Kings, not one good king ever reigned in Samaria. The city was destroyed by the Assyrian army in 722 B.C.

The Rift Valley To the east of the highlands is a precipitous drop to the Rift Valley, a major and imposing fault that runs north-south from Asia Minor through Africa. Part of that major land fault is the Jordan Valley, which descends from Mount Hermon in the north

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C R O S S W AY E S V B I B L E AT L A S

to the Dead Sea in the south. The Jordan Valley may be divided into four parts: 1. The Upper Jordan. The peak of Mount Hermon is 9,200 feet (3 km) above sea level. Snow usually blankets the top of this mountain. The melting of that snow along with fresh water springs at the foot of Mount Hermon feed water into the Rift Valley and form the headwaters of the upper Jordan River. This river flows south until it empties into the Sea of Galilee near the New Testament town of Bethsaida. Mount Hermon was understood to be the northern point of the Land of Promise in numerous biblical texts (see Josh. 12:1). This region, however, was a frontier zone in Old Testament times and supported only two major cities: Dan and Hazor. Hazor was destroyed in the northern campaign of Joshua ( Josh. 11:10–11). Solomon made Hazor into one of his major store cities (1 Kings 9:15). Jeroboam set up one of his golden calves in the city of Dan (1 Kings 12:28–30). Both of these sites have undergone major archaeological excavation. During the New Testament period, Peter made his famous confession of faith at Caesarea Philippi, which is next to Dan (Matt. 16:13–20). 2. The Sea of Galilee. The Sea of Galilee is actually a lake that is 13 miles (20 km) long and 8 miles (13 km) wide. Its surface is 680 feet (207 m) below sea level, and at one point it reaches a depth of 145 feet (45 km). In the Old Testament it was called the Sea of Chinnereth, and it only appears in border descriptions (e.g., Josh. 12:3; 13:27). The Sea of Galilee does not play a major role in any Old Testament narratives. In the New Testament period the lake was a principal setting for Jesus’ Galilean ministry. Jesus’ teaching, preaching, and healing ministry centered largely on the northern and western shores of the sea and in the towns of Bethsaida (Mark 6:45), Chorazin (Luke 10:13), Capernaum (Matt. 4:13), and Magdala (also called Magadan; 15:39). Several of his disciples were fishermen from these villages ( John 1:44). It was upon the Sea of Galilee that Jesus walked on the water (Mark 6:45– 52). And he calmed a storm while coming across the lake in a boat (Mark 4:35–41). 3. The Lower Jordan. The Jordan River emerges from the southern end of the Sea of Galilee and

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INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW OF THE BIBLICAL WORLD

flows downward to the Dead Sea, a distance of approximately 65 miles (105 km). In that distance the river drops around 600 feet (185 m) in elevation. This descent is probably the reason for the name of the river: in Hebrew the name “Jordan” means “descending/downward.” Where the river nears its end at the Dead Sea its descent is more precipitous, about 40 feet per mile (12 m per 1.5 km), so that the water rushes into the Dead Sea. The surface of the Dead Sea is 1,300 feet (400 m) below sea level. The Jordan River is not a straight line from the Sea of Galilee to the Dead Sea; rather, it meanders in a serpentine course (see photo 0-6). And it is neither wide nor deep. Although the measurements vary from place to place, the river averages a hundred feet (30 m) wide and seven to eight feet (c. 2 m) deep. The lower Jordan River was the eastern boundary of the Land of Promise in Old Testament times. The Israelites entered the Promised Land across the river when God miraculously divided it in much the same way as he had parted the Red Sea

23

( Josh. 3:14–17). The prophet Elijah later separated the river and walked through it, after which he was taken to heaven in a whirlwind (2 Kings 2:6–14). Naaman, the commander of the Syrian army, was healed in the Jordan River (2 Kings 5:13–14). In New Testament times, Jesus was baptized by John in the Jordan River (Mark 1:4–11), and there John prophesied that the Messiah’s time was at hand ( John 1:24–28). 4. The Dead Sea. The surface of the biblical “Salt Sea” (see photo 0-7) lies at the lowest point

0-7. The Dead Sea,  so named because its high salt content renders it uninhabitable by any marine life.

0-6. The Jordan River Valley.  It is part of the larger Rift Valley that extends from the Sea of Galilee in the north into Africa in the south.

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24

on earth at 1,300 feet (400 m) below sea level. Its deepest point is in the northern half of the sea, where it plunges another 1,300 feet (400  m) to its bottom. The sea is 49 miles (80 km) long and 8 miles (13 km) wide. It has no outlet—water leaves only by evaporation. This process can be quite rapid; in the summer the sea can lose as much as an inch (25 mm) in one day. The salt concentration in the Dead Sea is as much as seven times as dense as seawater, making plant and marine life impossible. In ancient times salt and bitumen were gathered there, and only a few settlements were able to survive on the shores of the Dead Sea. The cities of Sodom and Gomorrah were located in the region of the Dead Sea (Gen. 19:23– 26). It was here that Lot’s wife turned into a pillar of salt, becoming just like the salty region that surrounded her. On the western banks of the sea are some canyons with springs in them. The most famous of these is Engedi, where David hid from King Saul, and where he spared the king’s life in a cave (1 Sam. 24:1–7). In the second century B.C. a separatist sect settled along the western shore of the Dead Sea at Qumran. Here they awaited the coming of the Messiah, and they copied numerous texts, many from the Old Testament, which they hid in caves. At Masada, on the western bank of the Dead Sea, the last remnant of Jewish zealots held out for seven years against the powerful Roman Tenth Legion.

Transjordan The final region to be considered as we move from west to east is the land “beyond the Jordan eastward” ( Josh. 13:8; 18:7). The name “Transjordan” derives from the perspective of one who is standing in the Land of Promise and looking over the Jordan River to the land “across” or on the other side. This was an important region in biblical history. During the exodus and subsequent wilderness wanderings the Israelites approached the Promised Land through Transjordan and encamped in the plains of Moab before crossing the Jordan and conquering the land of Canaan. The Israelites had captured some of the land of Transjordan at that time and were introduced to the rich pasturelands of the region. Parts of the land were claimed by the tribes

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C R O S S W AY E S V B I B L E AT L A S

of Reuben, Gad, and the half-tribe of Manasseh for their land allotment and inheritance ( Joshua 13). During the wilderness wanderings through Transjordan the non-Israelite populations repeatedly fought with and harassed God’s people (Numbers 21). The main groups in conflict with the Israelites were the Edomites, Moabites, and Ammonites. All of these peoples were related to the Hebrews: the Edomites descended from Esau, the brother of Jacob/Israel (Gen. 25:30), and the Moabites and Ammonites descended from Lot, the nephew of Abraham (19:37–38). After the conquest and settlement by the Israelite tribes, these peoples continued to oppose them (e.g., Judg. 3:12– 30). Even amid such conflict, however, these pagan peoples were not left without hope. The prophet Amos prophesied that a day would come when there would be a “remnant in Edom” who would be called by the name of the Lord (Amos 9:11–12). Ruth the Moabitess became part of the covenant people, was the great-grandmother of King David, and thus was included in the genealogical line of the Lord Jesus (Ruth 4:13–17; Matt. 1:5). Transjordan may be divided into five regions, which we will consider moving from north to south. 1. Bashan. Throughout antiquity Bashan was generally identified with the region north of the Yarmuk River; it was separated from Galilee by the Upper Jordan River. It was well known in antiquity as an area of rich grazing lands (Ezek. 39:18). Amos compared the gluttonous ladies of Samaria to the “cows of Bashan” (Amos 4:1). The Israelites captured this land when they defeated Og the king of Bashan during the exodus (Num. 21:31–35). The area was allotted to and settled by the halftribe of Manasseh, and the Israelites continued to settle heavily in this area until the destruction of the northern kingdom of Israel in 722 B.C. Because Bashan lay between the Land of Promise to the southwest and the nation of Syria to the northeast it was an area of repeated conflict. For example, the Israelite king Ahab defeated the Syrians in Bashan (1 Kings 20:13–34). 2. Gilead. Gilead is located east of the Jordan River, between the Yarmuk River in the north and the Jabbok River in the south. In antiquity, the region was known for its agricultural production

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INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW OF THE BIBLICAL WORLD

and, specifically, its spices and medicines (Gen. 37:25; Jer. 46:11). Its reputation spawned the saying, “Is there no balm in Gilead?” ( Jer. 8:22). The half-tribe of Manasseh settled here as well as in Bashan. Numerous biblical events occurred here, particularly during the time of the united monarchy. In 1 Samuel 11, Saul rescued the town of Jabesh-Gilead from the encroaching Ammonites. The men of Jabesh-Gilead later rescued the bodies of Saul and Jonathan from the walls of Beth-shean and buried them in their town (1  Sam. 31:11– 13). David eventually retrieved the bodies from Jabesh-Gilead and had them buried in the land of Benjamin (2 Sam. 21:12–14). 3. Ammon. The land of the Ammonites is generally located south of the Jabbok River on the east side of the Jordan River. It is difficult to define precise boundaries because the territory was continually expanding or contracting depending on the military power of the Ammonites. The capital of Ammon was Rabbah (modern Amman, Jordan), located at the spring that fed the Jabbok River. The area of the capital city was easily defended because of its deep valleys and easy access to water sources. The Ammonites opposed Israel’s penetration into Transjordan during the exodus, but the Israelites conquered the land between the Jabbok and the Arnon Rivers that belonged to Sihon (Num. 21:21–30). The northern part of the land between the two rivers was settled by the tribe of Gad and the southern part by the tribe of Reuben. There was much conflict between Israel and Ammon after the conquest and settlement (see, e.g., Judges 11; 1 Samuel 11; 2 Sam. 10:1–5). 4. Moab. The heartland of Moabite territory was south of the Arnon River. This territory receives little rain, and its economy in antiquity was primarily sheepherding. On its journey to the Land of Promise Israel passed through Moab and faced no military opposition from the Moabites; it appears that the Moabites were militarily weak at the time, and any land that they had possessed north of the Arnon had been seized by Sihon (Num. 21:26). However, Balak the king of Moab summoned Balaam the prophet to proclaim a curse against the Israelites in their encampment (Numbers 22–24). The Hebrews fell into the idolatrous ways of the

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25

Moabites prior to their entrance into the Land of Promise (Num. 25:1–9). During the period of the judges, Naomi and her family were able to survive in Moab when the land of Israel suffered famine (Ruth 1). In the ninth century B.C., Mesha king of Moab sent tribute of 100,000 lambs and 100,000 rams to Ahab king of Israel. After Ahab died, however, Mesha rebelled against Israel (2 Kings 3:4–5). This incident was also recorded by the Moabites on the Moabite Stone. 5. Edom. The main area of Edomite settlement was south of the Zered Brook on a high, narrow ridge 75 miles (120 km) long and only a few miles wide. On the east of the ridge is the desert and on its west is the Arabah, the rugged and extremely arid region south of the Dead Sea. The Edomites were principally seminomadic, and they developed a vast network of desert trade. When Israel tried to cross through Edomite territory the Edomites refused to give them safe passage (Num. 20:14– 21). The Edomites also helped the Babylonians when the latter destroyed Jerusalem in 586  B.C.; they captured fleeing Judeans and turned them over to the Babylonians. Obadiah prophesied that the Edomites would be repaid for mistreating the Israelites, and within a hundred years of the prophecy Edom was in ruins. We will now consider the various regions of the land of Palestine, moving from north to south.

Galilee Galilee consists of alternating valleys and ridges running east to west. It may be divided into two regions: 1. Upper/northern Galilee. This area has a rough, mountainous terrain, with the mountains reaching 4,000 feet (1.2 km) or more. Upper Galilee was a frontier zone in ancient times, supporting a sparse population. The region was conquered by Joshua during the northern campaign ( Josh. 11:6–15). It was settled by the tribes of Dan and Naphtali. Few cities of importance were located here in antiquity, except for Dan and Hazor. 2. Lower/southern Galilee. The terrain of this region is less imposing than that of Upper Galilee; hills here reach only 2,000 feet (0.6 km). Numerous valleys run from east to west through the area (see

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26

photo 0-8), allowing easy transit and transport. Southern Galilee contains the largest expanse of fertile valleys in all of Palestine, including the lush Valley of Jezreel. After the initial capture of this area by the Israelite troops during the conquest, the area became one of great struggle and conflict between Israel and the Canaanites. This conflict is celebrated in the Song of Deborah ( Judg. 5:1– 31). A myriad of biblical events occurred in this area during the New Testament period: the angelic announcement of Jesus’ birth was given to Mary in “a city of Galilee named Nazareth” (Luke 1:26), and Jesus first preached in the synagogue of that city (Luke 4:15–21). Jesus’ first recorded miracle occurred at a wedding at Cana “in Galilee” ( John 2:1–11). He raised a widow’s son at Nain (Luke 7:11–17).

The Wilderness of Judea Winter winds bring rain from the Mediterranean Sea to the western slopes of the Judean Mountains of the central hill country. The mountains serve as a block against the rain continuing to the east and,

C R O S S W AY E S V B I B L E AT L A S

thus, there is a sharp drop in rainfall on the eastern slopes of the Judean Mountains. In addition, the ground cover of the eastern slopes is Senonian limestone and does not retain moisture. This area is a wilderness of barren hills (see photo 0-10). Any water available in this wilderness comes from wadis, seasonal streambeds that bring the winter rainwater into the area (see photo 0-9). Especially noteworthy is the Wadi Qelt, which parallels part of the ancient road from Jerusalem to Jericho. Even today desert nomads, called Bedouin, travel through the wilderness of Judea in search of forage and water for their flocks. Two significant events in the early life of Jesus were associated with the wilderness of Judea. The first event was his baptism. The word of God came to John the Baptist “in the wilderness,” and he went “into all the region around the Jordan, proclaiming a baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sins” (Luke 3:2–3). Jesus came to John the Baptist in the wilderness, and there he was baptized as a way of identifying with his people in their need for cleansing from sin. Immediately after his baptism, Jesus

0-8. The region of Galilee,  with its rolling hills and fertile valleys.

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INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW OF THE BIBLICAL WORLD

27

was led by the Holy Spirit “in the wilderness” to be tempted by the Devil for 40 days. There Jesus succeeded in overcoming temptation and thus demonstrated that he was truly and uniquely the Son of God (Luke 4:1–13). Jesus also used the wilderness of Judea in his teaching. The setting for the parable of the Good Samaritan was the notoriously dangerous road from Jerusalem to Jericho that traversed this wilderness. It was an area famous for banditry. In fact, David had fled from Saul into this wilderness with about 400 men “who were in distress, and everyone who was in debt, and everyone who was bitter of soul” (1 Sam. 22:2; 23:14–15).

The Negeb The Negeb (or Negev) is the southernmost natural geographic region of Palestine. In Old Testament times the Negeb encompassed the land south of the Judean highlands to the oasis of Kadeshbarnea, and it included the area east and west of Beersheba. Most of the area is mountainous desert, hostile to human settlement. Vegetation is

sparse and normally found near wadi beds. It is a forbidding landscape. Rainfall is minimal and occurs mostly in the winter. Beersheba, in the northern Negeb, receives about eight inches (20 cm) of rain annually and the southern Negeb may get as little as one inch (2.5 cm) per year. There is an

0-9. A wadi  is a streambed in the desert with a seasonal water flow.

0-10. The wilderness of Judea,  where Jesus was tempted by the Devil.

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C R O S S W AY E S V B I B L E AT L A S

0-3. Average Temperatures in the Near East January Genua

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as

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Sea

Puteoli

pi

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Nora

Troy

Carthage

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Sardis

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Knossos

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Temperature (°C) (°F) 30+ 86+ 20

68

10

50

0 -5

32 23

Carchemish

Rages Ecbatana

Asshur

Susa

Euphrates Babylon River

Tyre Jerusalem

Alexandria

Tigris River Nineveh

ARABIAN DESERT

Memphis

Persepolis

Ur

Pe

Dumah

Nile River

rs

ia

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Gu

Tema 0

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0

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lf

400 mi

200 400 600 km

May Genua Miles 0

200

Rome

100

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400

500

600

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500

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C

Miles

600

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500

Philippi

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Temperature (°C) (°F) 30+ 86+

Miles 0

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as

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Alexandria

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29

INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW OF THE BIBLICAL WORLD

July Genua

C

as

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Sea

Puteoli

pi

Black Sea

Rome Philippi

Nora

Troy

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Tushpa

Sardis

Rhegium

Corinth

Iconium

Ephesus

Tarsus Antioch

Knossos

Medite

Cyrene

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r ra n ea n S e a

Temperature (°C) (°F) 30+ 86+ 20

68

10

50

0 -5

32 23

Carchemish

Rages Ecbatana

Asshur

Susa

Euphrates Babylon River

Tyre Jerusalem

Alexandria

Tigris River Nineveh

ARABIAN DESERT

Memphis

Persepolis

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SAHARA DESERT

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Corinth

Iconium

Ephesus

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r ra n ea n S e a

Temperature (°C) (°F) 30+ 86+ 20

68

10

50

0 -5

32 23

November

Carchemish

Rages Ecbatana

Asshur

Susa

Euphrates Babylon River

Tyre Jerusalem

Alexandria

Tigris River Nineveh

ARABIAN DESERT

Memphis

Persepolis

Ur

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Dumah

Nile River

rs

ia

n

Gu

Tema 0

SAHARA DESERT

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100

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100

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Paphos

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Temperature (°C) (°F) 30+ 86+

Miles 0

an

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300

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Part1-Part2a_06.indd 29

an

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Alexandria

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C R O S S W AY E S V B I B L E AT L A S

0-4. Average Rainfall in the Near East January Genua

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as

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Puteoli

pi

Black Sea

Rome Philippi

Nora

Troy

Carthage

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Sardis

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Knossos

Medite

Cyrene Rainfall (in) (cm) 25+ 10+ 20 8 15 6 10 4 5 2 0 0

Paphos

r ra n ea n S e a

Carchemish

Rages Ecbatana

Asshur

Susa

Euphrates Babylon River

Tyre Jerusalem

Alexandria

Tigris River Nineveh

ARABIAN DESERT

Memphis

Persepolis

Ur

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Dumah

Nile River

rs

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Gu

Tema 0

SAHARA DESERT

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200

lf

400 mi

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March Genua Miles 0

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Rome

100

100

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200

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400

300

500

600

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500

700

800

C

Miles

600

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Black Sea

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600

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an

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300

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pi

100

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as

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Carthage

Corinth

Iconium

Ephesus

Tarsus Antioch

Knossos

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Cyrene Rainfall (in) (cm) 25+ 10+ 20 8 15 6 10 4 5 2 0 0

Paphos

r ra n ea n S e a

Carchemish

Rages Ecbatana

Asshur

Susa

Euphrates Babylon River

Tyre Jerusalem

Alexandria

Tigris River Nineveh

ARABIAN DESERT

Memphis

Persepolis

Ur

Pe

Dumah

Nile River

rs

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n

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Tema 0

SAHARA DESERT

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0

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100

100

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200

200

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400

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Cyrene Rainfall (in) (cm) 25+ 10+ 20 8 15 6 10 4 5 2 0 0

Miles 0

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100

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31

INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW OF THE BIBLICAL WORLD

July Genua

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Puteoli

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Black Sea

Rome Philippi

Nora

Troy

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Tushpa

Sardis

Rhegium

Corinth

Iconium

Ephesus

Tarsus Antioch

Knossos

Medite

Cyrene Rainfall (in) (cm) 25+ 10+ 20 8 15 6 10 4 5 2 0 0

Paphos

r ra n ea n S e a

Carchemish

Rages Ecbatana

Asshur

Susa

Euphrates Babylon River

Tyre Jerusalem

Alexandria

Tigris River Nineveh

ARABIAN DESERT

Memphis

Persepolis

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Tema 0

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Cyrene Rainfall (in) (cm) 25+ 10+ 20 8 15 6 10 4 5 2 0 0

November

Paphos

r ra n ea n S e a

Carchemish

Rages Ecbatana

Asshur

Susa

Euphrates Babylon River

Tyre Jerusalem

Alexandria

Tigris River Nineveh

ARABIAN DESERT

Memphis

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Cyrene Rainfall (in) (cm) 25+ 10+ 20 8 15 6 10 4 5 2 0 0

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C R O S S W AY E S V B I B L E AT L A S

occasional oasis in the Negeb, such as at Kadeshbarnea where the Israelites spent part of their 40 years of wilderness wandering. The patriarchs spent much of their lives in the Negeb. Abraham made a covenant with Abimelech at Beersheba (Gen. 21:32). Isaac lived in the Negeb most of his life (24:62). From the Negeb Moses sent spies to survey the Land of Promise (Num. 12:16–13:3). David fled from Saul into the Negeb and was given sanctuary by the Philistines. Achish, king of Gath, gave David the city of Ziklag

0-5. Average Annual Rainfall in Palestine

Rainfall (in) (cm) 100+ 40+ 80 32 60 24 40 16 20 8 0 0

Sidon

The land of the Bible is truly a land of contrasts, and this is doubly confirmed by a study of its climate and vegetation. Both of these factors demonstrate just how dramatic the contrasts of this region can be.

Damascus

Tyre

EE

Dan

LIL

Hazor

Y

Ramoth-gilead

Shechem

NTR

Me

Ashtaroth

GILEAD

Samaria

SHA

dit

err

RON

Beth-shean

J o rd a n R i v e r

Megiddo

Dor

BASHAN

Sea of Galilee

GA

COU

Joppa

HILL

Ashdod Ashkelon

Hebron

Gaza

Rabbah

Jericho Jerusalem

Engedi

ARABIAN DESERT

D ea d Se a

an S ea

Climate and Vegetation of Palestine

Mount Hermon

Acco

ane

in the Negeb, and from there David campaigned against the Amalekites and other desert groups who lived in the southern Negeb (1 Sam. 27:1– 8). After defeating the prophets of Baal on Mount Carmel the prophet Elijah fled to Beersheba, away from the wrath of Jezebel (1 Kings 19:1–3). From there he went to Horeb, the mountain of God, in the Sinai desert (v. 8).

Beersheba

NEGEB

Kir-hareseth Zoar

0 0

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20 20

40

40 mi 60 km

Climate Climate may be defined as prevailing conditions of temperature, precipitation, and air pressure in a given area (see maps 0-3 and 0-4, pp. 28–31). Palestine is a region of climatic transition consisting of four prominent weather zones. 1. Mediterranean (wet zone). This region includes the coastland and highland areas stretching from Judea to the northern parts of Palestine. Characterized as a subtropical wet zone, it averages about 14 inches (35 cm) of precipitation per year. Because of its relatively high rainfall, it is an area of many forests, with the principal trees being terebinth and evergreen oak. Most regions of Palestine fall into the Mediterranean climatic zone. 2. Irano-Turonian (dry-steppe [plateau]). Included in this zone are the Negeb areas of Palestine, especially around Beersheba. This region has less rainfall than the Mediterranean zone, averaging 6 to 12 inches (15–30 cm) yearly. Lower vegetation forms survive in this area. Historically it has been

2/9/10 4:46 PM


33

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almond

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characterized as a region of nomadism and simple the infrequency of such an event (1 Samuel 12). dry farming. The arid season normally begins with the pen3. Saharo-Sindian (desert). This climatic zone etration of the hot desert winds called hamsin. contains the desert areas of Palestine beginning in These winds dry up the Palestinian landscape. the southern Negeb and moving further southThe winter season in Palestine is much more ward. It is part of a major subtropical arid zone that unpredictable. The greatest amount of precipitaincludes the Arabian and Saharan deserts. Only tion falls during this season. The Bible describes 2 to 6 inches (5 to 15 cm) of precipitation fall in this phenomenon as God’s giving “the rain for your these arid areas per year. Any farming that occurs is land in its season, the early rain and the later rain” wholly dependent on irrigation. (Deut. 11:14). Precipitation may come in the form 4. Sudano-Deccanian (oases). These oasis of hail or snow in the highland elevations (see Ps. spots appear predominantly around the shores of 68:14). The amount of precipitation generally inthe Dead Sea. The areas are small, isolated climatic creases as one moves from south to north. zones that sustain high temperatures and mainClimate, especially precipitation, is perhaps tain sources of abundant sweet water. Jericho and the most important physical factor influencEngedi are prime examples of oases in Palestine. ing human activity in Palestine. Settlement patThe most prominent vegetation is the lotus tree. terns are linked principally to climate and waPalestine’s location within these four zones ter sources. The Negeb, the desert areas, and the results in marked climatic variations over a small Dead Sea—with their lack of precipitation—have region. The distance between Jerusalem and mainly served as temporary settlement regions Jericho is a scant 14 miles (23 km), yet the climatic for seminomadic populations engaged in rudidifferences are tremendous. Jerusalem receives 21 mentary forms of agriculture. The northern cliinches (53 cm) of rain per year and has an average matic belt has a completely different settlement temperature of 64°F (18°C), while Jericho gets only 6 inches (15  cm) Hebrew Calendar and religious festival Seasonal Activities of precipitation and has an average April red label = Hebrew month temperature of 77°F (25°C). It is Ma h: = harvest rch s..... y Ma r rain e little wonder that King Herod the t t a l y, e l r . a b ... ax & ves ... h: fl ing of fig lea Great built a winter palace at Jericho. .. d h: .. bud wh .. ....s ea There he could enjoy balmy weather it o h e u .. l arin ive t & r f g. s b e u lo a n .. Ziv/Iyy a s i tr N during the cold, rainy months of the / s r i . ar so c Abib .. .. year, yet he was never far from his S r iva a n Ad main capital at Jerusalem. Suffering 6th: Weeks/ from paranoia over potential palace Pentecost 14th: Passover 15th-21st: Unleavened Bread intrigue, Herod never wanted to be 16th: First Fruits 14th: Later Passover far from the centers of government. 14th: Purim 1st: Trumpets At Jericho, he could have both bodily 10th: Day of Atonement 15th-21st: Booths comfort and governmental control. 22nd: Solemn Assembly 25th: Dedication Palestine has two well-defined Ch seasons: a dry season in summer and l isl ev . Elu . .. a rainy season in winter (see illustraBul .. /Mar hri chesvan Ethanim/Tis te la tion). Summer is characterized by & s e t da high temperatures, consistent westh: ... s erly breezes, and almost drought con..e h: olive arly No r vem rains . be ditions. Summer storms are a rarity. .... be r tem Sep Samuel’s call for a heavy thunderOctober storm at harvest-time underscores

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character partly because of its milder weather and greater precipitation. Historically, the north contained more permanent settlements and centers of agricultural activity. Throughout its history, this northern area has been more populous than the south. The contrast between the desert and the cultivated land has resulted in much conflict between peoples dwelling in those differing regions. Desert marauders such as the Amalekites and Midianites proved to be a most dangerous opponent of Israel. The people of God, who lived primarily in the hill country and were mostly agriculturalists, seemed always at odds with the frontier people. Saul, for instance, thought it so necessary to secure Israel’s borders from desert invasion that he mounted a major military campaign against the desert tribes (1 Sam. 14:47–48). 0-6. Economy of the Ancient Near East

Climate has largely determined the economy of the land of the Bible. In ancient times, agriculture was the basis of Palestine’s economy (see map 0-7). Areas that received sufficient precipitation had the capacity to sustain natural farming and therefore had a significant agricultural advantage. Biblical Israel was inhabited mainly by a highland people residing in the Judean and Samaritan mountains. Because those regions receive substantial rainfall and have fertile soils, they can sustain considerable agricultural capacity. Both cereals and deciduous fruit grow in this region. These advantages led Israel to develop an economy based principally on agriculture.

Vegetation Climate, topography, and soils are the primary factors in determining vegetation or plant geography.

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INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW OF THE BIBLICAL WORLD

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Climate provides favorable or unfavorable thermal and rainfall conditions, such as necessary water for plant growth; topography supplies a surface configuration suitable to specific plant associations; and soils provide nutrients. Palestine is a land of many floral contrasts. Four districts of plant types or associations may be distinguished in the land of the Bible. These districts correspond to the four climatic zones previously discussed. 1. Mediterranean (wet zone) flora. This zone is the largest of the vegetation districts in Palestine and receives on average 14 inches (35 cm) of precipitation per year. The plants in the Mediterranean zone are distributed over two widely divergent landscapes: the hilly regions and the coastal areas. The hill country was characterized in Bible times as a climatic district of evergreen maquis (underbrush) and forests. In these hills would be found extensive shrub vegetation with scattered fullsized trees such as evergreen oak, terebinth, and Jerusalem pine. Many of the trees have disappeared because of deforestation, but meager remnants of the evergreen maquis are preserved in areas such as Mount Carmel. The valleys and coastal areas of Palestine have shorter plants than the highlands. These areas are typified by a dense carpet of low shrubs and a scattering of carob trees. 2. Irano-Turonian (dry steppe) plant life. Receiving a mere 6 to 12 inches (15 to 30 cm) of rain per year, this district can maintain only a sparse vegetation cover. Characteristic of this plant association are low brush or dwarf bushes. This form of plant life is centered principally in the Beersheba region. 3. Arabian (desert) flora zone. This district comprises the desert regions of Palestine, including the Dead Sea area, the Judean desert, most of the Negeb, and most of the Sinai plateau. It contains desert vegetation in which plant cover is sporadic. Many areas are barren. The greatest concentration of vegetation appears in wadi beds where plants grow because of winter floods. 4. Sudanese (oasis) vegetation. This area includes more than 40 plant types that need both high temperatures and abundant water. The oasis

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spots in Palestine (Engedi, Jericho, etc.) provide just the kind of environment needed for this variety of plant life. As previously mentioned, the lotus tree is the most significant plant of this district. Agriculture was the foundation of most economies of antiquity in Palestine (see maps 0-6 and 0-7, pp. 34, 35). Israel, located principally in the hilly regions of the Mediterranean climatic and floral zone, was an agrarian society. In contrast to people who lived in the Negeb and Sinai, the Hebrews used little irrigation for farming because precipitation was sufficiently high for them to do natural farming. Scripture specifically describes Israel’s blessing in this regard: “But the land that you are going over to possess is a land of hills and valleys, which drinks water by the rain from heaven, a land that the LORD your God cares for” (Deut. 11:11–12). The agricultural products grown by the Israelites in the highlands are also described in the Bible. They included horticultural products as well as cereals. “For the LORD your God is bringing you into a good land, a land of brooks of water, of fountains and springs, flowing out in the valleys and hills, a land of wheat and barley, of vines and fig trees and pomegranates, a land of olive trees and honey” (Deut. 8:7–8). The Israelites worked a significant number of crops. At the Israelite site of Gezer, archaeologists discovered a clay tablet with Hebrew writing that described the basic agricultural year (see photo 0-11). It reads, His two months are olive harvesting, His two months are planting grain, His two months are late planting, His month is hoeing flax, His month is barley harvest, His month is harvest and festivals, His two months are vine tending, His month is summer fruit. Although the substantial rainfall of the Judean and Samaritan mountains was an advantage to Israelite agriculture, the steep terrain was a problem. In their natural state, the severe slopes of most

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INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW OF THE BIBLICAL WORLD

of the mountainous regions make cultivation virtually impossible. Water rushes down the mountainsides, eroding the soil. As a consequence, the soil cover of the highlands is extremely shallow. In addition, a particularly rocky soil characterizes the area. These factors made the highlands a difficult region for agriculture in ancient times. However, the Hebrews established favorable, continuous, and extensive agricultural conditions on the sloping areas by terracing the land. Terracing is a man-made system by which slopes of hills are transformed into a series of flat, horizontal surfaces (see photo 0-12). Terracing has three functions: to prevent erosion, to increase the accumulation of water and soil, and to remove rocks from the soil by using them for terrace walls. In this way, the Israelites could utilize land that previously was of limited agricultural value. Both deciduous fruit crops and cereals thrived on these sloping areas.

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0-11. The Gezer Calendar  is a limestone tablet containing a school text of an agricultural calendar written in Hebrew (10th century B.C.).

0-12.  First used in the Iron Age, terracing is an agricultural technique used to transform continuous slopes into a series of level surfaces. Fruits and grains are grown on terraces.

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Seismic Activity

To create more land for agriculture, the Israelites cleared trees in the highlands. The book of Joshua explains, “Then the people of Joseph spoke to Joshua, saying, ‘Why have you given me but one lot and one portion as an inheritance, although I am a numerous people, since all along the Lord has blessed me?’ And Joshua said to them, ‘If you are a numerous people, go up by yourselves to the forest, and there clear ground for yourselves in the land. . . . the hill country shall be yours, for though it is a forest, you shall clear it’” ( Josh. 17:14, 15, 18). Another important innovation in agriculture was the introduction of the beam press used for manufacturing olive oil. Archaeological discoveries of oil presses at the Israelite sites of Beth-shemesh, Dan, Gezer, and Tel Beit Mirsim demonstrate that such presses were in widespread use no later than the eighth century B.C. Some Israelites inhabited desert zones that required irrigation. Archaeologists have uncovered evidence that Hebrew farmers created terrace dams for cultivation in the desert in order to have greater control over the limited water supply. The Israelites were developing or borrowing diversified agricultural techniques in order to cultivate areas that up until then had been only sparsely settled. 0-8. Seismic Activity in the Near East  (shading on map represents maximum recorded seismic activity)

Throughout antiquity the Rift Valley was an area of faulting movements. This seismic activity (see map 0-8) is corroborated especially in the areas around the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea by numerous hot mineral springs. According to Efraim Orni and Elisha Efrat, these springs “rise through rock crevices from a great depth, and become enriched on their way with dissolved sulfur, magnesia, bromine, iodine, radioactive and other salts”.1 Earthquakes in the Rift Valley in antiquity were rare, however; they were more common in the hills and plateaus on both sides of the valley. Geological study of seismic activity is important in the attempt by modern scholars to understand and reconstruct the past. For example, archaeologists have been searching for the site of Bethsaida, a strategic New Testament fishing village on the Sea of Galilee. A good prospect for site identification is the mound of et-Tell. The problem is that et-Tell today lies 1.25 miles (2 km) away from the Sea of Galilee. How could it be a fishing village if it is so far from the sea? Geologists have solved the problem by discovering that a combination of processes served to remove et-Tell away from the present shore of the

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Sea of Galilee: (1) a recession of the water level away from the site; (2) seismic activity resulting in faulting that lifted the site away from the sea; and (3) the extension of the shoreline near the site as a result of sedimentation from flash flooding of the Jordan and other nearby rivers. It is clear that et-Tell was on the edge of the Sea of Galilee in New Testament times, and it is probably to be identified with the New Testament village of Bethsaida.

Roads and Routes Not until the Roman period was much attention paid to the construction and upkeep of roads and highways in the Near East. During the period of the Republic, Roman authorities began the construction of a vast system of highways that made communication possible between Rome and various parts of the empire, including Palestine (see photo 0-13). For example, the Roman historian Plutarch describes the construction of roads by Gaius Gracchus in the second century B.C.:  is roads were planned so as to run right H across the country in a straight line, part of the surface consisting of dressed stone and part of tamped-down gravel. Depressions were filled up, any watercourses or ravines which crossed the line of the road were levelled or embanked to the same height so that the whole of the work presented a beautiful and symmetrical appearance. (Gaius Gracchus 7) No maps of roadways are known from before the Roman era, so it is difficult to determine the routing of roads in Palestine prior to this time. For pre-Roman periods, we are primarily dependent on extrabiblical literary sources, such as texts from Egypt, to supplement the Bible. However, because of the scarcity of evidence even from these sources, routes for travel in biblical times may be

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generally divided into two basic groups: (1) international highways; and (2) regional/local roads.

International Highways During the pre-Roman periods there were two principal international highways through Palestine (see map 0-10, p. 41). The first, often called the Great Trunk Road, linked Egypt with virtually every part of the Levant (the countries on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea). It ran from Memphis, the very important religious, political, and economic center of Middle Egypt, to PiRameses, a city probably to be identified with Tell ed-Dab‘a, about 17 miles (27 km) southwest of Tanis. From there the route proceeded to Sile (Tell Abu Sefa) in the Delta region of Lower Egypt. The roadway went along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea until it reached Gaza, a town in the coastal plain of Palestine. The Bible refers to this section as the “way of the land of the Philistines” (Ex. 13:17). The Egyptians called it the “way of Horus.” The Great Trunk Road in Palestine traveled to the north along the coast until it reached the Arunah Pass, where it turned slightly to the northeast to the city of Megiddo. From there it divided into three branches: (1) one went directly eastward to Beth-shean; (2) a second continued northward along the coast to Acco and points north; and

0-13. Remains of the Via Egnatia,  a Roman road that ran through Philippi and other cities of ancient Macedonia.

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(3) the final branch proceeded to the Sea of Galilee, north to Hazor and eventually to Damascus. The Great Trunk Road was an important thoroughfare for trade and commerce between Egypt and Mesopotamia, but beyond that this highway was a main artery for military campaigns and conquests throughout the history of the ancient Near East. When Thutmosis III (1479–145  B.C.) invaded Palestine, the route he took was from Sile to Gaza, then to Megiddo. The same route was taken in later military campaigns under Rameses II (190–14 B.C.) and Shoshenk I (945–94). The second principal route is called the King’s Highway. Although not as important as the Great Trunk Road for travel between Egypt and Syria, it was vital because of the many roads to Arabia branching from it. Its southern extension began in the area of Elath/Ezion-geber, at the northern tip 0-9. Main Routes of the Ancient Near East

of the Gulf of Aqaba, and it ran northward along the hill country of Transjordan through ancient Edom and Moab. The route went by the towns of Bozrah, Dibon, Heshbon, and Rabbah (modern Amman, Jordan). From there it proceeded north through ancient Gilead and Bashan, eventually reaching Damascus. The road was used frequently by the Egyptians in the Middle and Late Bronze Ages. Three topographical lists, from the reigns of Thutmosis III, Amenophis III (1391–1353 B.C.), and Rameses II, provide a description of the route. Part of this road was used by the Israelites in their escape from Egypt under Moses (Num. 0:17; 1:).

Regional/Local Roads Regional and local roads, paths, and tracks are very difficult to determine and trace for the pre-Roman period. They no doubt existed, but to provide any

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detail is practically impossible. The Sidon Damascus primary route use of the Hebrew word derek may Mount Hermon secondary route SY R I A at times imply the location of a roadTyre Dan way. For example, in Deuteronomy 3:1 the biblical author explains that afHazor B A S H A N ter the Israelites had destroyed much Acco Sea of Ashtaroth of Sihon’s kingdom, they “turned and Galilee went up the way [derek] to Bashan.” Megiddo Ramoth-gilead In another instance, Jacob relates that Beth-shean he buried Rachel “on the way [derek] The King’s ISRAEL Samaria to Ephrath (that is, Bethlehem)” (Gen. Highway Great Trunk Road Shechem 48:7). The precise routes of these roadJoppa Central ways are unknown. AMMON Ridge Route Beth-horon Rabbah One of the primary local roads in Jericho Jerusalem Ashdod Heshbon Palestine that had heavy traffic in bibliJ U DA H Ashkelon cal times was the Central Ridge Route Hebron Gaza or “spine” that went from Shechem in Engedi the north to Hebron in the south (see Beersheba M OA B map 0-10). When Abraham first entered To Egypt Kir-hareseth NEGEB the land of Canaan he settled for a short time at Shechem (Gen. 1:6). He soon moved to Hebron and points south Way to Shur Bozrah (13:18), probably along this “spine”; it Kadesh-barnea EDOM appears to have been a commonly used 0 20 40 mi route of the patriarchs (35:7). ARABIAN To Elath DESERT From Egyptian literature comes Petra 0 20 40 60 km evidence that helps to define regional routes during the pre-Roman period in Palestine. For instance, when the Israelites left time and efforts in long-forgotten heaps of anEgypt to go into the Sinai desert they seem to have cient refuse: broken pots, shattered buildings, and used a primary road used by Egyptian mining ex- crumbling documents. peditions during the Middle and New Kingdoms (c. 0th–1th centuries B.C.). Some of the mili- The Purpose and Aim of Archaeology tary campaigns of the Egyptian pharaohs, such The aim of archaeology is to discover, record, obas Thutmosis  III, also employed regional roads serve, and preserve the buried remains of antiqthrough Palestine and thus can provide some gen- uity and to use them to help reconstruct ancient eral direction. life. Archaeology is merely one of numerous disciplines which contribute to the understanding of Archaeology and the Bible ancient times and ways. Other fields, such as hisDefinition of Archaeology tory, literature, linguistics, paleography, epigraphy, Archaeology may be defined as the systematic and numismatics are also brought to bear on the study of the material remains of human behavior recovery of antiquity. Archaeology can paint only in the past. It includes written documents and ob- part of the picture; it is not exhaustive in what it jects of everyday life, often preserved in a fragile or provides. For example, the site of Megiddo has ruined condition. In reality, as Stuart Piggot has been heavily excavated since the end of the ninefamously remarked, archaeology is the “science of teenth century and yet only a slice of it has been rubbish”! And, indeed, archaeologists spend their unearthed. What archaeology provides for the

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reconstruction of ancient life at Megiddo is piecemeal and fragmentary. Therefore, one should not expect a complete picture to be presented through archaeology alone. Archaeology in the lands of the Bible has a checkered past. It began in the mid-nineteenth century with Western pioneers who traveled throughout the land of Palestine on horse-back, with compass in hand, attempting to identify and mark ancient sites from the time of the Bible. Actual excavation work did not really begin until the end of that century and, unfortunately, much of the work was no more than mere treasurehunting. The object often was simply to recover as many valuable relics as possible in the shortest time. Early archaeologists would not hesitate to use gun-powder to blast open a pyramid or a burial chamber. Mummy hunters in Egypt literally waded through piles of discarded coffins to reach their prey. A lot has changed since those early days. Today excavation is systematic, scientific, and multi-disciplinary (see photo 0-14).

C R O S S W AY E S V B I B L E AT L A S

Much of archaeology in the land of the Bible focuses on sites that have been occupied for hundreds and even thousands of years. The site of Megiddo, mentioned earlier, has occupational remains dating from the Neolithic period (c. 5000 B.C.) to the Persian period (5th–4th centuries B.C.). Such settlements as Megiddo are called tells. These are artificial mounds in which every stone has been brought to it by design. The first settlers would come to an area and build there, usually for three reasons: defense, a dependable water source, and a reliable food source. When the first settlement was destroyed by any number of causes, succeeding builders normally built a new settlement directly on top of the previous rubble. After each settlement, the mound would grow higher and thus be of greater strategic value. A tell, then, is like a layered cake in which each layer was put down sequentially, the most modern period being the last. The goal of the archaeologist is to disassemble in reverse the layers of the tell, and then reconstruct the history and culture of the people who lived there. In other

0-14.  Excavations at the Philistine site of Ashkelon next to the Mediterranean Sea.

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words, the task of the archaeologist is to dig up the story that is hidden in the mound. Three primary categories of remains are uncovered through excavation: pottery, architecture, and small finds. Of the three, pottery is especially important for archaeology because of its durability and changeability. Pottery is found in every layer of a site because it lasts, and each layer has its own distinctive and typical pottery. By comparing pottery from different sites, archaeologists are able to derive a dating sequence and order for those locations (see photo 0-15).

The Relationship of Archaeology to the Biblical Disciplines No greater dilemma exists in archaeology today than the question of motivation for excavation. What is the purpose of digging in the land of the Bible? What is the relationship of biblical studies to the discipline of archaeology? What is the place of the scientific disciplines in archaeology? Is there a place for “biblical archaeology” today?

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Historically, archaeology has been the work of biblical scholars. Many of the pioneers of the nineteenth century were men trained in and motivated by biblical studies. Edward Robinson (1794–1863), often dubbed “the father of scientific topography and archaeology of Palestine,” was trained primarily in Hebrew and Old Testament studies. The first systematic excavators of Palestine were biblical scholars, such as William F. Albright, Nelson Glueck, and G. E. Wright. In the second half of the twentieth century, however, there was a loud call for a distinct separation between biblical studies and archaeological research. Some held to the opinion, and still do today, that the relationship between the two is largely artificial. They need to be divorced. The argument is that archaeology for too long has been the weak sister of biblical studies, and now it is time for it to stand on its own as a scientific discipline. Archaeology has lived for too long under the shadow of biblical studies. Such disengagement, however, is hazardous. The danger, of course, is that one is “throwing out the baby with

0-15.  Excavated remains of pottery jars at Tell er-Ras.

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44

the bathwater.” It is only natural that the two disciplines work hand in hand because they are a source of knowledge and discovery for each other. On the other side of the issue are those who integrate the two fields in order to prove the Bible. It can be argued, however, that this position is equally hazardous. It is not the purpose of archaeology to prove the Bible. Scripture is God’s Word and, therefore, it is truth and does not need to be proven. The Bible stands well enough on its own merit. To paraphrase C. S. Lewis, to try to prove the truth of the Bible is like trying to defend a lion! Today, one needs to seek a proper balance between archaeology and biblical studies. The true purpose of archaeology is to shed light on the setting of the Scriptures. It helps one to understand the historical and material contexts in which the events of the Bible took place. Thus, archaeology provides a “life setting” (Sitz im Leben) for biblical texts. In that regard, archaeology can be a confirmatory tool. And it is important to see that there is frequent convergence of textual and archaeological evidence. The two go hand in hand. A good example of how archaeology illumines and confirms the Bible is the case of the Egyptian pharaoh Shishak and his invasion of the lands of Israel and Judah at the close of the tenth century B.C. This attack is mentioned in the Old Testament in 1 Kings 14:25–26; the text says, “In the fifth year of King Rehoboam, Shishak king of Egypt came up against Jerusalem. He took away the treasures of the house of the LORD and the treasures of the king’s house. He took away everything.” Extrabiblical sources confirm that this attack did indeed take place, and they provide a wider understanding of it than what is merely recorded in the Bible. At the temple of Amun at Karnak, Shoshenk  I (Shishak) built the Bubastite Portal, and on it appears a relief of Shishak’s invasion of Palestine (see photo 6-4, p. 149). The relief consists of a series of rows containing the names of various places on the campaign route that were either captured or destroyed. One conclusion that may be drawn from the Bubastite Portal is that Shishak’s invasion of Palestine included more than a campaign against

Part1-Part2a_06.indd 44

C R O S S W AY E S V B I B L E AT L A S

Jerusalem; it was leveled against the kingdoms of both Israel and Judah. Another important point is that Jerusalem is not mentioned on the relief. Why not? It is likely that it does not appear because it was not captured. King Rehoboam of Judah eluded Jerusalem’s capture by paying heavy tribute to the Egyptians, as is recorded in 1 Kings 14:25–26. Archaeology provides even further support for and insight into this invasion. One of the places listed as either captured or destroyed by Shishak is the city of Megiddo. At the site of Megiddo, excavators uncovered a stela of Shishak that includes two common titles for Shishak. Stelae like this one were commonly set up by pharaohs to claim a region as a vassal state. (The term “stela” can refer to any stone or wooden slab with a carved inscription.) In addition, there is a destruction layer at Megiddo that can be associated with the campaign of Shishak (it was called Megiddo VA-IVB by the excavators). Further evidence for this association appears at the site of Ta’anach, where a huge destruction layer covered the site. The pottery sealed beneath the destruction is the same as that of Megiddo VA-IVB. Ta’anach was also mentioned as a city subdued by Shishak in the relief of the Bubastite Portal. It is indeed compelling to relate the destruction layers at Ta’anach and Megiddo to the Shishak campaign of the late-tenth century B.C. Archaeology complements both the Hebrew and Egyptian written sources in regard to the historical event of Shishak’s invasion of Israel and Judah. A fuller picture of the event is painted by bringing these separate sources together. And this convergence is not unique: the biblical authors set events like the invasions of Sennacherib and Nebuchadnezzar in their proper chronological framework and setting (2 Kings 18:13; 19:16; 2 Chron. 32:1–22 and 2 Kings 24:1–10; 1 Chron. 6:15). And these events are confirmed and filled out by contemporary ancient Near Eastern texts— the Prism of Sennacherib for the former campaign and the Lachish Letters for the latter (see pp. 165 and 174). Excavation work has also brought to light numerous destruction layers at Judean sites that reflect both of those campaigns. Many critical scholars, both in biblical studies and in archaeology, approach the material evidence

2/9/10 4:49 PM


with a hermeneutic of suspicion. For example, archaeologists uncovered an inscription at Tel Dan that dates to the ninth century B.C., that mentions “the house of David” (see “The Tell Dan Inscription,” p.  130). Some of these scholars, who believe that David never existed, have hurled the accusation that the archaeologists planted the inscription in the area of excavation, and that itMisOa Lforgery. This is an inHUNGARY UKRAINE flammatory and inappropriate response. It is a clear SLOVENIA DOVA deconstruct OM A N I A ancient history and the life C R O A T I A attemptR to setting of antiquity rather than to reconstruct them. Bucharest

Black Sea

GEORGIA

sp

Ankara

ea n S

AZERBAIJAN ARMENIA

Istanbul

ia

I T A LY

RUSSIA

iver

S E R B I A Danube R BULGARIA MACEDONIA

Ca

Tirana

Our aim should be a harmonization in which biblical studies, archaeology, and other disciplines are brought to bear to recover and to understand the way people lived in the times and lands of the Bible. As for the bearing of archaeological study on the historical reliability of the Bible, what has been the result of many decades of archaeological investigation? The answer is simple: archaeology has time and again supported and confirmed the bibliUZBEKISTAN cal record, and many such examples are mentioned K A Z0-11. A KModern H S T APolitical N States of in the narrative of this atlas. the Near East

TURKMENISTAN

Izmir

Athens

Konya

Ti g

Adana

Halab

Mosul

Tehran

IRAN

iv

LEBANON

ean Sea

Damascus

100

0

100

200

300

200

200

400

500

300 mi

400 km

KUWAIT

JORDAN

EGYPT Red Sea

s River

SAUDI ARABIA

er

P

Nile River

Cairo

a te

r

LIBYA

IRAQ

ph

ISRAEL WEST BANK Jerusalem GAZA STRIP

Baghdad Eu

Mediterran

er

SYRIA

CYPRUS

0

Ashgabat

TURKEY

GREECE

ris R

es 0

45

INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW OF THE BIBLICAL WORLD

si

BAHRAIN

an

Gu

lf

Q ATA R

OMAN

600 Miles

m 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Km

Part1-Part2a_06.indd 45

2/9/10 4:50 PM


46

0-12. Modern Political States and Archaeological Sites of Palestine For consistency where applicable, the modern Arabic name is listed first. Abbreviations:Kh.: Khirbet, “ruin”; T.: Tel (Hebrew), Tall (Arabic), “mound”

C R O S S W AY E S V B I B L E AT L A S

LEBANON

area occupied by Israel under protest by Syria (Golan Heights)

T. al-Qadi (Laish/Dan)

United Nations DOF Zone Umm al-‘Amad (Hammon?)

site of major excavation

az-Zib (Aczib)

site of minor excavation

Nahariyya

T. ar-Rahib (Rehob?)

Baniyas (Caesarea Philippi) T. Anafa

T. Qadas (Kedesh) Kh. ‘Avot/Kh. ‘Uba Kh. Marus T. Waqqas (Hazor) Kabri Merun Kefur Neburaya

SYRIA

black label = site with past excavation

Sea of Galilee

red label = site with current excavation ancient route

Umm Qes (Gadara)

a

see inset A

Se

Jordan River T. ar-Ramit

(Ramoth-gilead)

ne

an

T. al-Hisn

M

ed

it

er

ra

Kh. Ya‘mun Sabastiya T. as-Sa‘idiya (Samaria/Sebaste) Garash (Gerasa) (Zaphon) Ra’s al-‘Ain (Aphek/Antipatris) Mount Ebal T. al-Mazar T. Balata Arsuf/Arshuf (Apollonia) T. Der ‘Alla (Succoth?) Qalandiyeh (Shechem) T. Makmish T. Umm Hammad ‘Izbat Sarta (Ebenezer?) T. al-Qasileh (Me-yarkon?) Qarn Sartaba Kh. el-Makhruq Kh. Selun (Shiloh) Yafa (Joppa) T. Safut (Alexandrium) T. Garisha (Gath-rimmon?) Kh. al-Margama ‘Amman (Philadelphia) Kh. al-‘Umeri (Abel-keramim) T. al-Hammam T. Gawa

Hisban (Heshbon/Esbus) see inset B

WEST BANK

Gazza (Gaza)

GAZA STRIP

ar-Ruqesh Der al-Balah T. al-Gamma (Yurza?)

T. Galul

Dead S ea

T. ‘Asqalan (Ashkelon/Ascalon)

Umm al-‘Amad (Bezer?)

Diban (Dibon) Kh. ‘Ara‘ir (Aroer)

as-Sabba (Masada) T. al-Fari‘a (Sharuhen?) Kh. Gazza Bab edh-Dhra (Sodom?) (Kinah) ‘En Boqeq T. Abu Salama Kh. al-Mushash Kh. Adir Kh. Umm Radim (Hormah?) T. al-Milh (Malatha) Kh. ‘Ar‘ara (Aroer? [1 Sam 30]) Kh. Garra (Baalath-beer?) al-Mudayyina (Iye-abarim?/Ai?) ISRAEL Kh. at-Tannur T. as-Saba‘ (Beersheba)

T. ‘Arad (Arad)

T. Nessana Be’er Resisim

‘Ain Husb (Tamar?)

JORDAN

Ramat al-Matrada Kh. an-Nuhas

T. al-Quderat (Kadesh-barnea)

EGYPT

Umm al-Bayyara

Tawilan (Teman?) Wadi Musa (Petra)

Kh. Teman/Kuntillat ‘Agrud

Yotvata

T. Hulefa (Elath)

Red Sea

Part1-Part2a_06.indd 46

0 0

10 20

20

30 40

40 mi 60 km

2/9/10 4:50 PM


47

INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW OF THE BIBLICAL WORLD Nahariyya

Kabri

Merun

Kefur Neburaya 0-12.  Inset A

T. al-Fuhhar (Acco)

Talhum (Capernaum)

Kh. Ra’s az-Zetun

T. Kesan (Acshaph?)

Kh. al-‘Urema (Chinnereth/Gennesaret)

as-Salam (Gamla)

Mazra‘at Kanaf T. Sheikh Hidr

GOLAN HEIGHTS

Sea of Galilee

T. Shiqmona T. Abu Hawam

at-Tall (Bethsaida)

Kh. Karaza (Chorazin)

T. el-Wawiyat/Kh. ar-Ruma)

Qal‘at al-Hisn (Hippos)

T. Soreg

T. Regev Saffuriya (Sepphoris) T. ‘Amr

‘Atlit

ISRAEL

T. Qemun (Jokneam)

T. Nami

Kh. al-Karak (Philoteria)

T. an-Na‘am (Jabneel)

T. al-Qassis (Helkath)

T. Qiri Kh. al-Burg (Dor/Dora)

Jordan River

al-‘Affula (Ophrah? [Jdg 6-9]) T. al-Matusallim (Megiddo)

Ramat ha-Nadiv

T. Kittan

Zir‘in (Jezreel/Esdraelon)

T. Abu Qudes

JORDAN

T. Ti‘innik (Taanach)

T. Mevorak Qesariya (Strato’s Tower/Caesarea) T. al-Asawir T. ad-Durur

T. al-Hisn/Besan (Beth-shean/Scythopolis)

T. ‘Amal

WEST BANK (Palestinian Authority) T. Dutan (Dothan)

Kh. al-Hamam T. Hefer

5

0

5

10

20 mi

Kh. al-Maqatir (Ai?) Kh. at-Tall (Ai?) (Zaphon) Tulul Tall Abu as-Sa‘idiya l-‘Ala’iq (Jericho [NT])

Kh. Raddana

Mesad Hashavyahu

T. Abu Haraz

20Khirbet al-Margama 30 km

10

Betin (Bethel)

Yavne-yam (Minat Rubin)

T. Abu Hayyat

T. al-Hamma

0

0-12.  Inset B

T. an-Nasba (Mizpah) T. as-Sultan (Jericho [OT]) Kh. ad-Dawwara al-Gib (Gibeon) Kh. Shilha Kh. al-‘Aqad T. Mor T. al-Ful (Gibeah) Kh. al-Muqanna‘ (Ekron) Ra’s Aqabat Gabr (Cyprus) T. Batashi (Timnah) T. Ashdod-yam (Ashdod-yam) al-Quds (Jebus/Jerusalem) ‘Ain Shams Kh. Qumran Manahat Isdud (Ashdod/Azotus) Nahal Rephaim (Beth-shemesh) (Secacah?/Qumran) Kh. Salih (Beth-hakkerem) Gilo T. Harassim/Kfar Menachem T. Gazar (Gezer)

WEST BANK

Kh. Abu Tuwen

Gabal Furedis (Herodium)

T. Gudeda (Moresheth-gath?)

T. Zayit/Kh. Zeta

(Palestinian Authority)

Bet Guvrin

T. ‘Erani T. ad-Duwer (Lachish)

T. Sandahanna (Mareshah/Marisa)

Kh. at-Tubeqa (Beth-zur/Bethsura)

T. al-Hasi al-Halil (Hebron) T. an-Nagila T. Bet Mirsim T. ash-Shari‘a (Ziklag) T. Ma‘aravim T. Abu Hurera (Gerar?)

T. al-Gurn (Engedi)

Kh. Rabud (Debir?) as-Samu‘ (Eshtemoa)

T. al-Huwelifa (En-rimmon?)

0 0

Dead Sea

ISRAEL

T. Sippor

Bet Lahm (Bethlehem)

T. Zakariya (Azekah)

T. as-Safi (Gath)

5 5

10 10

20 mi 20

30 km

as-Sabba (Masada) Tall as-Saba‘ (Beersheba)

Part1-Part2a_06.indd 47

Tall ‘Arad (Arad)

2/9/10 4:51 PM


1_Frontmatter-Titles_02.indd 2

2/9/10 5:36 PM


INTRODUCTION TO REGIONAL MAPS This section contains elevation maps of various geographical regions of the biblical world. In contrast to the maps of the Historical Geography section (Part 2), which present biblical and archaeological data synchronically (limited to specific events or time periods of Bible history), these maps present such data diachronically (inclusive of information over the whole of Bible history), much the way a visitor to the region encounters the archaeological evidence today. No distinction is made on these maps regarding the time periods in which each biblical site existed. For 35.25° E ancient routes, however, line style (dashed, dotted, etc.) indicates in what period(s) the road likely ex180 isted (see legend). All maps are presented in Lambert Conformal Conic projection overlaid with a standard geodetic grid (longitude and latitude). For the maps of Palestine and its subregions, markings and labels have also been included for the Palestine

Grid 1923 (which utilizes another projection), since many archaeological and biblical resources use this coordinate system for Palestine. All elevation coloration is derived from data provided by NASA and the U.S. Geological Survey (see copyright page for more information). For the maps of Jerusalem, Todd Bolen (www.BiblePlaces.com) graciously provided an overlay of Charles Wilson’s Ordnance Survey of Jerusalem (1865). Ancient city/site Mountain peak Ascent Mountain pass Palestine Grid 1923 Geodetic (longitude/latitude) grid Route (OT/NT) Route (primarily OT) Route (primarily NT) Ancient canal

Ca

sp ia

n

Black Sea

Se

CENTRAL ITALY

a

ITALY AND NORTH AFRICA

MACEDONIA AND ACHAIA

WESTERN ANATOLIA

CRETE

Medit

erranea

SOUTHERN ANATOLIA , CYPRUS, NORTHERN LEVANT MESOPOTA M I A , LEVANT, M E D I A

n Sea PALESTINE SINAI

Re

EGYPT

Persian Gulf

d

04_Part3.indd 263

200

400

400 600

600 mi

a

0

200

Se

0

800 km

3/16/10 12:47 PM


264

R - 1    ∫    B I B L I C A L W O R L D

45° N 5° E

10° E

Pa d

Genua

Massalia

15° E

20° E

25° E

30° E

35° E

Tergeste

us Ri

ver

Sirmium

Ariminum

I L LY R I A Rome

er River

ck Bla

A

Olbia

I st

IT

40° N

Chersonesos

Salona

CORSIC A

Puteoli

LY

SARDINIA

Tharros

Melsambria Epidamnos/Dyrrhachium Brundisium

Nora

Philippi

Byzantium

Thessalonica

Chalcedon

H

Troy Hippo Regius Carthage

AFRICA

Rhegium

SICILY

Nicopolis

GREECE

ANATOLI

Sardis Corinth

Syracuse

Hadrumetum

S

Athens

Sparta

35° N

Ephesus

Iconium

Miletus Perga Rhodes Knossos

CRETE Me dit erra nean

Leptis Magna

Cyrene

U

C Y P R US

Paphos

Sea

T

30° N

G

Alexandria Zoan/Tanis Memphis

EGYPT Akhetaton

25° N

Ni

Elevation Legend

2500

7050

2000

5600

1500

4220

1000

2820

500

1410

20° N 0

0

Part3_02.indd 264

-1410 15° E

SAHARA

ive

(feet) 8450+

l

eR

(meters) 3000+

-500

SINAI

r Thebes

DESERT

Syene/Elephantine

0 0

100 100

200

200 300

300 mi 400 km 20° E

[Abu Simbel] 25° E

30° E

CUSH

2/9/10 3:11 PM


265 35° E

40° E

Rh

45° E

a

Ri

ve

50° E

55° E

60° E

r

Ox

sos

C

R iv

a

Sea

er 40° N

s

p

Cy r

us

R ive r

OLIA

er

A R A R AT

Hattusha/Pteria ive r sR y l Ha

a Se

Trapezus

n ia

Sinope

iv

ck

us

Araxes

R

PARTHIA

Tushpa Melidu/Melitene

conium

gri

Ti

R iv

s

Carchemish

Tarsus

35° N

Hecatompylos

MEDIA

e Nineveh

Rages/Europus/Arsacia

r

Aleppo/Berea

Ugarit

M

Hamath

PRUS

Dura-Europos

ES E

up

Gebal/Byblos Damascus Tyre

Ecbatana

Asshur

SY R I A

hr at

O

P

es R i

O

ver

T

Babylon

ISRAEL

Eshnunna

A

M

Aspandana Susa

IA

Kerman

Erech Ur

Jebus/Jerusalem

Persepolis

PE RSIA

Gaza

P

/Tanis Dumah

SINA I

Ezion-geber?

A R A B I AN D ESE RT

e

rs ia n

Tema

d Re

Harmozeia

Gu lf

25° N

Dedan

a Se

e

30° N

Yathrib

20° N

H

35° E

Part3_02.indd 265

40° E

45° E

50° E

55° E

C R O S S W AY E S V B I B L E AT L A S

Antioch

2/9/10 3:11 PM


Part3_02.indd 300

2/9/10 3:40 PM

1316

To Mamilla Pool

Towers Pool

nd W

Golgotha? (traditional location)

Jesus’ Tomb? (traditional location)

Damascus Gate

Garden Tomb

Seco

31.778° N

1318

250 m

1000 ft

ll (b

egu

A n in

.D. 4

2?)

35.234° E

1722

Bridge

“Wilson’s Arch”

Antonia Fortress

Struthion Pool

Golgotha? (Gordon’s Calvary)

35.232° E

1720

nd W

31.780° N

500 ft

Thi

a rd W

35.230° E

Seco

1320

31.782° N

1322

31.784° N

1324

0

0

Ancient wall

Probable ancient road

Ancient aqueduct

1718

underground passages

Temple

COURT OF THE GENTILES

Solomon’s Portico

COURT OF WOMEN

Shushan Gate Altar

TE MP LE MOU N T

Pool of Israel

Huldah Gates

Tadi Gate

Pools of Bethesda

35.236° E

1724

1324

1326

1728

1316

Tomb of Hezir’s

“Pillar of Absalom”

31.778° N

1318

31.780° N

1320

31.782° N

1322

31.784° N

31.786° N

Gethsemane

Muster Gate?

1726

35.238° E

300 R - 2 1     ∫     J E R U S A L E M I N N E W T E S TA M E N T T I M E S

all

all


35.226° E

1716

To “Solomon’s Pools”

Serpent’s Pool?

Southern Tower

C R O S S W AY E S V B I B L E AT L A S

1714

31.768° N

1306

1308

31.770° N

1310

31.772° N

1312

31.774° N

1314

31.776° N

Essene Gate?

35.228° E

Middle Tower

Hippicus Tower

Mariamne Tower?

First Wall

Palace of Herod the Great (Praetorium?)

1718

Y

First W

35.230° E

VALL EY

35.232° E 1720

OM HINN

Upper Room? (traditional location)

all

Gennath Gate

House of Caiaphas? (traditional location)

T

Phasael Tower? Palace of Herod Antipas?

R U P PE

I

C

To Mamilla Pool

Palace of the High Priest?

“Robinson’s Arch”

Xystus? Council Chamber?

1722

35.234° E

Dung Gate

Siloam Reservoir

Pool of Siloam

LOW ER C IT Y

1316

EY TYROPOEON VALL

1724

En-rogel

Fountain Gate

OPH EL

Steps Ritual Bath House

Royal Stoa Steps

35.236° E

1726

35.238° E

Gihon Spring

Water Gate?

Council House

Huldah Gates (underground passages)

underground passages

COURT OF THE GENTILES

K

ID

RO N

Part3_02.indd 301

V A LLE Y

Bridge 1316

1728

31.768° N 1306

1308

31.770° N

1310

31.772° N

1312

31.774° N

1314

31.776° N

“Tomb of Zechariah”

Tomb of Hezir’s Priestly Family

“Pillar of Absalom”

301

2/9/10 3:40 PM


TIMELINE OF BIBLICAL HISTORY EGYPT

PALESTINE

MESOPOTAMIA 3180

3160

3160

3140

3140

3120 3100 3080 3060 3040

Early Bronze I

3200

EARLY BRONZE AGE

3200 3180

3120 3100 3080 3060 3040

3020

3020

3000

3000

2980

2980

2960

2960

2940

2940

2920

2860

2820 2800 2780

2900 2880 2860 2840 2820 2800 2780 2760

Dynasty 2

2760

2920

Menes

Early Bronze II

2840

Dynasty 1

2880

EARLY DYNASTIC PERIOD

2900

2740 2720

2740 2720 2700

2700

EARLY DYNASTIC PERIOD

2680 2660

2620

Djoser

2600 2580

2520 2500

Dynasty 4

2540

OLD KINGDOM

2560

Snofru

Early Bronze III

Dyn. 3

2640

Cheops

2680 2660

Sumerian Rulers

2580 2560 2540 2520 2500 2480

2420 2400

Dynasty 5

2440

Userkaf

2460

Sahoure

2440 2420 2400

AKKAD / UR III

2380 2360

Teti

2280 2260

Pepy I

Early Bronze IV

Wenis (Unas)

2320

Dynasty 6

2340

2300

2380 2360 2340 2320 2300 2280

Sargon

2260

2240

Merenre

2240

2220

Pepy II

2220

2200

MIDDLE BRONZE AGE

2160 2140

2200 2180

2180

Part4_06.indd 305

2620 2600

2480 2460

2640

Dynasty 7/8 Ibi

Middle Bronze I

2160 2140

2/9/10 5:34 PM


306

EGYPT

Merikare

2060

2000

Senwosret I

1900 1880 1860

Amenemhat III

1840 1820 1800

Dynasty 13

1780 1760 1740 1720

2100 2080 2060 2040

1980 1960

Lipit-Ishtar

1940 1920 1900 1880 1860 1840 1820

Shamshi-Adad I

1800

Hammurabi

1780 1760

Sebekhotpe II

1740 1720

1700

1700

1680

1680

1660

1660

1640

1640

Dynasty 14

1620

SECOND INTERMEDIATE PERIOD

1580

Dynasty 15/16/17

1620 1600

KASSITE

1600

1560

1480 1460 1440

Hatshepsut Thutmosis III Amenophis II Thutmosis IV

1420

1320

Haremhab

1300

Rameses I

1220

1360 1340 1320

1280

Exodus (late date)

Rameses II Merneptah

1260

Tikulti-Ninurta I

1240

Rameses IV

Rameses XI

Dynasty 21

Rameses IX

1200

Dynasty 21

Smendes Amenemnisu Psusennes I Amenemope

Saul

980

Siamun

David

960

Psusennes II

1000

Shalmaneser I

1220

Iron Age II

MIDDLE ASSYRIAN / MIDDLE BABYLONIAN

Rameses III

1080

1020

1380

Judges

1100

1040

1440

1300

Iron Age I

1120

1060

1460

Exodus (early date)

Sethos I

IRON AGE

Dynasty 20

1140

1480

Sethos II

1200

1160

1500

Late Bronze II

Ay

Dynasty 19

1340

1180

1520

1400

Tutankhamen

1360

1240

1540

1420

Akhenaten

1380

1260

1560

Amenophis III

1400

1280

1580

Late Bronze I

Thutmosis I

LATE BRONZE AGE

1520

Dynasty 18

Apopi NEW KINGDOM

1540

1500

Part4_06.indd 306

2120

2000

OLD BABYLONIAN / OLD ASSYRIAN

1920

Amenemhat I

Ur-Nammu

2020

Hebrew Patriarchs

1940

Mentuhotep I Upper and Lower Egypt united under one ruler

Middle Bronze II

1960

Dynasty 12

1980

MIDDLE KINGDOM

2020

Dyn. 11

2040

MESOPOTAMIA AKKAD / UR III

2080

Middle Bronze I

2100

FIRST INTERMEDIATE PERIOD

PALESTINE MIDDLE BRONZE AGE

Dyn. 9/10

2120

C R O S S W AY E S V B I B L E AT L A S

1180 1160 1140 1120

Tiglathpileser I

1100 1080 1060 1040 1020 1000 980 960

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307

TIMELINE OF BIBLICAL HISTORY

EGYPT

860 840 820

780

Egypt ruled by native king Shabaka Shebitku

620

Taharqa

600

Tanutamon

860

Shalmaneser III

Uzziah

Painkhy

Ahaz

Dynasty 24

Hezekiah

Tefnakhte

780

Fall of Israel to Assyria

Bakenranef (Bucchoris)

380

Darius I Xerxes Artaxerxes I

Nehemiah Ezra

520 500 480 460 440

320 300 280 260 240 220

200

200

180

180

Hellenistic II

140 120 100 80

Hasmoneans (Maccabees)

60 40

60

100 120 140

140 120 100 80 60

20

Birth of Jesus Christ

0 20

B.C. A.D.

40

Destruction of Jerusalem Roman II

80

Herodians

40

Roman I

20

ROMAN PERIOD

A.D.

0

160

40

ROMAN PERIOD

B.C.

20

PARTHIAN PERIOD

160

60 80 100

Bar Kokhba Revolt

120 140

160

160

180

180

200 220

Part4_06.indd 307

580

340

HELLENISTIC PERIOD

220

620

380

Alexander the Great Hellenistic I

240

Ptolemy I

HELLENISTIC PERIOD

260

640

360

HELLENISTIC PERIOD

280

660

400

Artaxerxes II

Dynasty 30

340

300

680

420

360

320

Ashurbanipal

700

540

Cyrus

Dynasty 28 Dynasty 29

400

Sennacherib

560

PERSIAN PERIOD

PERSIAN PERIOD

Dynasty 27

420

720

Nebuchadnezzar II

BABYLONIAN PERIOD

440

740

600

Fall of Judah to Babylon

540

460

Tiglathpileser III (Pul)

NEO-BABYLONIAN EMPIRE

Amasis

480

800

760

560

500

840 820

Egypt ruled by Nubian kings

520

920

880

Ahab

Adad-nirari III

Shoshenk VI

580

940

900

Osorkon IV

Dynasty 26

640

LATE PERIOD

660

Jeroboam

ASSYRIAN EMPIRE

720

680

Rehoboam

MIDDLE ASSYRIAN/ MIDDLE BABYLONIAN

Takelot II

740

700

(ISRAEL)

Jehoshaphat

Osorkon III

Dynasty 25

760

(JUDAH)

Osorkon I

Dynasty 23

800

Shoshenk I

MESOPOTAMIA

Solomon Kingdom divides

Iron Age II

880

IRON AGE

900

Dynasty 22

920

THIRD INTERMEDIATE PERIOD

940

PALESTINE

Roman III

200 220

2/9/10 5:34 PM


Part4_06.indd 309

2/9/10 5:34 PM

Berenice

Cypros

Drusilla

Glaphyra

Mariamne

(4) Malthace

(5) Cleopatra of Jerusalem

Salome  Her dance before her great uncle Herod Antipas led to the beheading of John the Baptist, according to the wishes of her mother Herodias. Matt. 14:6–12; Mark 6:22–29

Herodias  Married her uncle Herod Philip I and later a second uncle, Herod Antipas. Matt. 14:3–11; Mark 6:17–28; Luke 3:19

Joseph

Pheroras

Mariamne

Daughter of Nabatean king Aretas IV

Herod Philip II  (mother: Cleopatra of Jerusalem); tetrarch of Iturea and Traconitis, 4 B.C.–A.D. 34. Luke 3:1

Cypros  Nabatean, bore Antipater four sons and a daughter

Herod Antipas (“Herod the Tetrarch”)  (mother: Malthace); married daughter of Nabatean king Aretas IV; divorced her to become second husband of his niece Herodias; tetrarch of Galilee and Perea, 4 B.C.–A.D. 39; had John the Baptist beheaded; Pilate later sent Jesus to him. Matt. 14:1–10; Mark 6:14–28; Luke 3:1, 19–20; 9:7–9; 13:31; 23:6–16

(3) Mariamne II

Antipater the Idumean  Chief adviser to Hyrcanus II (Hasmonean), 63 B.C.; appointed procurator of Judea by Julius Caesar, 47 B.C.

Archelaus (“Herod the Ethnarch”)  (mother: Malthace); second husband of Glaphyra; ethnarch of Judea, Idumea, and Samaria, 4 B.C.–A.D. 6

(2) Mariamne I

Aristobulus 

Felix the Procurator  Procurator of Judea, A.D. 52–60; Paul appeared before him at Caesarea. Acts 24

Aristobulus  (mother: Mariamne I); d. 20 B.C.

Herod Agrippa I of Judea

(1) Doris

Herod Philip I  (mother: Mariamne II); first husband of his niece Herodias; d. c. A.D. 34; did not rule. Matt. 14:3; Mark 6:17; Luke 3:19

Herod I (“Herod the Great”)  King of Judea, Galilee, Iturea, Traconitis, 37–4 B.C. Jesus born during his reign (5 B.C.). Matt. 2:1–22; Luke 1:5

Alexander  (mother: Mariamne I); first husband of Glaphyra

Herod of Chalcis

Herod Agrippa II of Chalcis

Antipater  (mother: Doris)

Phasael  Appointed governor of Jerusalem, 47 B.C.

This simplified version of the Herodian family tree focuses on those most relevant to NT study. Dates indicate period of reign, unless marked otherwise. Solid lines signify descent; dotted lines signify marriage.

THE HERODIAN DYNASTY

Berenice I

Antipater

Salome I

female

male

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