MOMENTUM MAGAZINE ARTISTS ON THE RISE The Elements & Principles of Design
Design Thesis…1 About the Editor…2 Principles of Design…3 ² Scale…4 ² Proportion…7 ² Balance…10 ² Rhythm…16 ² Emphasis…21 ² Harmony…24 ² Mass…33
Elements of Design…36 ² Space…37 ² Shape…41 ² Form…46 ² Line…51 ² Texture…56 ² Light…61 ² Color…66
DESIGN THESIS This issue of Momentum is all about the principles and elements of design, and how they are found in art. The principles and elements are essential to any piece of art. They are what make all the aspects of the artwork work together as a whole, and make a piece eye-catching. Even though art can be anything from a clay sculpture to a photograph, the elements can still be utilized in different ways. The focus of the magazine is to expose young up-and-coming artists and art students to all types of artwork. One of the goals of Momentum is to inspire. Another is to open the readerâ€™s eyes to the elements behind art and why certain things work and others donâ€™t.
About the Editor
Jenny Crosson was born in Prinston, New Jersey and moved to Raleigh, North Carolina at age 3, where she grew up. She currently attends East Carolina University and is a sophomore. Jenny is majoring in graphic design, and has loved art even from a young age. Her passion for art and design inspired Momentum. She believes the best way to create art is to learn about the artists that came before us and be inspired by their work. A great deal of the artwork featured in this magazine is done by Jenny herself, and the rest is from both student and professional artists.
PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN
Human scale is based on the physical dimensions, capabilities, and limits of people in relation to their environment. The human body has general proportions commonly known among artists.
Most of the time, the scale of the art is directly related to the message the piece is trying to convey. In this photograph, the scale of the mountain range is enormous compared to the very small scale of the person. This symbolizes the magnificence of nature and how enormous and majestic it is compared to people.
Object in Proportion With Space Proportion has to do with how parts relate to a whole. The objects within a space directly relate to the overall effect it creates. Each part of this whole drawing is proportional to another. The cube is small enough to sit on the stairs, and the piece of cloth lays across the stairs, but doesnâ€™t cover the whole thing. The table looks proportional to the rest of the room because it fits in it nicely with room to put items on it.
Object Not in Proportion With Space When objects are not in proportion with the space they are in, people will not experience comfort like they would if the elements were working together better. Because of the angle of this drawing, the bottom of the girlâ€™s hair and upper body are much bigger than her head and the ceiling tile, meaning they are no tin proportion.
YRTEMMYS LAUSIV Jmc Jmc Visual symmetry creates a mirror image on either side of a point in the center. It makes an artwork seem organized and intentional. If it is not used in the correct way, visual symmetry can appear boring and stagnant. It works best if scale and emphasis are incorporated to make it more interesting. These butterflies use visual symmetry to create the overall look of a unified design on both wings. 11
Structural symmetry refers to the symmetrical balance of a specific structure or object, usually a 3-dinemsional or textural piece. While visual symmetry looks at the overall whole and how all the elements work together, this type of symmetry focuses on individual structures. For example, this latte is an unconventional piece of art. The foam is structured to look like a heart, and the symmetry is used to make the foam generally the same on both sides.
YRTEMMYSA LAUSIV Jmc
Visual asymmetry is when the visual weight of the piece is even on both sides. This means that two sides of a piece are not the same and are not mirror images of each other, but the amount of visual elements is equal on both sides. The two sides of this feather have different designs and shapes, but they come together to look even and proportional to each other.
VISUAL RADIAL SYMMETRY YRTEMMYS LAIDAR LAUSIV This type of symmetry is very unique because instead of both sides of an piece being compared over a center line, the elements are arranged in a circular formation around a center point. That is why it is referred to as â€œradialâ€?, because parts are radiating out from the center. Even though this artwork is on separate canvases, it can be viewed as a whole in which each part is radiating out from the center.
STRUCTURAL RADIAL SYMMETRY
YRTEMMYS LAIDAR lARUTCURTS Structural radial symmetry is similar to visual radial symmetry, but it relates to the physical structure and placement of objects as opposed to just how they look. In this 3dimensional piece, the pages of the book are radiating out from the spine, creating bold forms.
Transitional or Flowing Transitional rhythm (also known as flowing rhythm) is when elements in a piece flow together as a whole. Most of the time is works best if the elements are repeated but all are placed in a linear or organic pattern. The shapes and patterns in this album artwork express a flowing movement, and the art going off the page helps further reinforce that feeling.
Jmc Repetitive rhythm is using a single element repeated throughout a piece. These patterns are made up of repeating elements (lines and circles) and the same two colors are repeated as well (magenta and green). 18
Climactic rhythm is when there is a little bit of an unexpected aspect in an artwork that ties it all together. For example, each panel of these shoes has a different pattern and different colors used. Itâ€™s the rhythm of the repeated patterns across both shoes that ties them together. It is considered climactic because each part is different and unexpected, yet it still leads your eye from panel to panel.
Contrast is the difference between elements of a piece (i.e. color, value). In this case, it is when contrast and rhythm are both present in the artwork. The black and white small patterns are high in contrast, and the patterns create a rhythm around the words.
Focal pointvisual Â
A visual focal point is the part of a piece that draws the eye. In the top drawing, the focal point is on the eye, nose, and mouth. These parts of the face have value in them, which defines the vocal point. The same thing goes for the bone drawing to the left, the focal point is the hip bone because of the added value.
Focal pointstructural Â A structural focal point is the part of a physical object that draws the eye. In this photograph, the objects are the star lanterns in a room, and they are the focal point. Instead of focusing on the pattern on the ceiling, the brightness of the colors and the placement of the objects in the composition draw the eye.
harmo mony 24
unity through line Unity through line is when the piece is pulled together through the lines used in it. This is a line drawing, and the reason the piece flows together and leads your eye around is because of the line.
unity through shape Unity through shape is when one specific shape unifies and entire artwork. In this case, these shapes are squares and triangles. The square is repeated by the painting split into fourths and the triangles on the inside and outside unify the whole piece.
unity through color Color is another element that can unify a piece. Choosing colors that are alike or work well together make a painting work as a whole, such as this one. This painting uses all the same colors repeated throughout, so they go well together.
Unity through repetition is when a shape, object, or color is repeated throughout an entire piece. The shape that is repeated in this piece is circles, which helps bring all the colors and parts of it together. The variety in size of the circles make it more interesting.
unity through repetition Â
variety through color Variety through color is when different colors are used in a piece to add interest. This drawing is one image, but it is creating using many different lines and colors. There are about four or five different colors used in this, which created variety. The colors are still similar enough to where they work well together.
variety through materials
Variety through materials is when different materials are used in a single artwork. In the case of this piece, paint, charcoal, magazine pages, and different types of paper were used to create this unique effect. The objective of the piece is to have variety and not look uniform and static, so this technique helps a lot in achieving that.
variety through furniture
Variety through furniture refers to different pieces of furniture that are all different, working together in one room. Each furnishing in this room is drastically different. The stool is very neutral and has an antique feel to it, while the dresser is bright and modern. The rug also adds variety because it adds a pop of black and white, and the zig-zag pattern is much different and angular than anything else in the room. 31
This can be one of the most interesting types of variety, because it leads to more dynamic pieces. When old and new elements are combined, it creates contrast as well as variety, and instantly makes any artwork more interesting. This photograph was taken with an old film camera, and it has a very vintage look to it, especially with the sepia tones. The modern element is the car the girl is sitting on, because it is not something you would expect to find in an old picture. 32
variety through modern in contrast to old
MASS MASS MASS 33
Actual density is the physical thickness, weight, or compactness of an object. You would most likely be able to identify this in a sculptural piece or any kind of 3D art. This pot can actually be picked up and you can feel itâ€™s heaviness and the thickness of the clay. Even without physically touching it, you know the clay is dense, therefore the pot must be too. You can tell that the octopus has some thickness to it as well, instead of just being 2D it is made out of a separate piece of clay.
OPTICAL DENSITY Optical density is when density is implied, but is not physically there. In this drawing, the pumpkins and stairs are twodimensional, but they look like there is density to them. You can tell the pumpkins are physical objects that have weight and thickness to them, as well as the stairs, even though you cant literally pick them up or touch them.
ELEMENTS OF DESIGN
Positive space is the objects in the foreground of an artwork (the objects that come forward). The positive space usually comes to the front of the piece visually, and has more importance in the artwork than the negative space. The flower demonstrates positive space because it is the subject and foreground of the photograph.
Negative space is the opposite of positive- it is the space in the background of an artwork, the space left around the subject. It could also be the space between two objects or parts of a whole object. In the painting below, your eye is tricked into seeing the negative space in different ways. In reality, the black is the negative space on the left side and the white is the negative space on the right side.
Crowding territoriality is when there is little to no negative space left in an artwork. The piece (or image) is crowded with objects or visual elements that take up the whole thing, and can even overlap. The leaves in this photograph are crowding the image because they are taking up the whole picture, without leaving any space between them.
ABSTRACT Abstract shapes are just completely free forms, and they do not already exist in the natural world. These shapes can be based off another visual source or real object, but loosely resembles it. All the shapes in this drawing are completely abstract, and can not be defined as a certain visual source.
GEOMETRIC Geometric shapes have clear edges defining them, and these edges have to be created by some tool (as opposed to organic shapes found in nature). Examples of these shapes are circles, rectangles, triangles, etc. The two images below were both made using only geometric shapes, indicated by the clear lines.
Jmc Organic shapes are shapes found anywhere in nature. Every shape in this artwork was inspired by something in nature, from leaves to seashells. Most organic shapes are not harsh and angular, but free-formed.
Jmc Dynamic shapes are interesting shapes that have a lot of movement. The flag in this painting is considered a dynamic shape, because it has movement and it is not geometric. The silhouette of the plane could also be considered a dynamic shape but it is not as good of an example because it is a direct representation of an airplane.
GEOMETRIC Forms can be 3-dimensional or give the illusion of being 3-dimensional. Geometric forms correspond with geometric shapes such as rectangles, triangles, etc. Geometric forms are more like prisms. This sculpture is made entirely out of different geometric shapes put together to make a 3-dimensional sculpture.
NATURAL Natural forms are inspired by things found in nature. They usually have free-flowing forms and are organic. This guitar is not the traditional form you would usually see. Instead, it is created using the natural form inspired by leaves as the body of the guitar.
Abstract forms can are not your standard forms, but can be based off of real objects, creating a loose representation of them, In the case of this wood instrument, the forms coming out of the sides represent raindrops or water droplets, and the circular forms with the jagged edges cut out are abstract as well.
NONOBJECTIVE A non-objective form is one that has absolutely no connection to an existing object or idea. These forms are just completely imaginative and unique, such as the sculpture to the left. This is not directly representing any specific thing, and can be interpreted in many different ways by the viewer.
Straight Horizontal Straight horizontal lines are precise lines that go from left to right, or right to left. These lines do not have to be just lines drawn across a page, but anything that creates a line in the artwork that moves the viewerâ€™s eye horizontally across the piece. In this case, the pipe creates a straight horizontal line right across the painting.
Straight vertical lines go from top to bottom, or bottom to top. These lines can lead the eye up and down the piece, and do not have to be drawn lines, they can be made by objects, like in this photograph. The straight vertical lines of the wooden poles create a nice rhythm, especially since the lines repeat.
Curved Flowing Curved flowing lines are free-formed and elegant. They are used to lead the viewerâ€™s eye around the piece easily and comfortably, without the blockage of harsh straight lines. Flowing lines are about not having structure, and this painting is all about a sense of movement that the lines create. h#p://www.karinkuhlmann.de/DigitalWorlds/abstract6/sign/ sign.html Â
Curved Tightly Lines that curve tightly are not as flowing as loosely curved lines, and have more structure to them. Tightly curved lines can add interest to a basic line drawing, and even create texture and value. This line drawing was done entirely using curved lines, and they create value where they are more concentrated and give the drawing more of an abstract feel to it.
surface quality real tactile textured
Tactile textured artworks literally have a texture applied to them that you can feel. This cloth uses the different tactile textures to represent different things, such as grass at the bottom, plots of land in the middle, and sky at the top. The bottom texture is more shaggy and loose, while the top two are smoother and more tightly woven. 57
An implied texture hints that the objects in the piece have a texture, but you just canâ€™t feel it and it is not physically there. For example, this drawing is just pencil on paper with just a common smooth texture, but the value and depth of the drawing show that the gourds have an implied texture of bumps and ridges.
non-reflective Non-reflective textures are matte, and do not reflect any kind of light. This includes most fabrics, and a lot of textures found in nature. This piece is made out of felted material, which is made up of many fibers. It does not have any reflective qualities, and does not have a glare no matter what angle to look at it from.
Reflective textures reflect light off of them. These include anything metallic or shiny, and even glass. This photograph of Venetian glass shows the reflective texture of the glass, as well as the reflective surface of the gold. These textures can look very rich and vibrant due to the light bouncing off and shining through them.
TASK Task lighting is lighting set up for a specific task to be completed. For this still life drawing, lamps were set up around the skeleton to illuminate it enough to be able to draw. The task lighting lit up the subject to give it the highlights and shadows you see in the drawing, and helped the artists drawing it to see what they were doing.
NATURAL Natural lighting comes from sunlight instead of artificial light from light bulbs. Natural light has an entirely different effect than artificial, mostly because it is much brighter and stronger. In this picture, the majority of the lighting in the church is coming from skylights, which are letting natural light from the sun come in and shine downwards, creating beams of light.
Track lighting is the arrangement of multiple lights on a track. The track could be a straight line or any shape. In the world of art, track lighting is used very frequently in studios and workspaces as well as galleries. This type of lighting allows the entire are to be illuminated, and each lightbulb can be moved a different way so everything that needs light can be reached.
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UPLIGHTER Uplighters are lights that are pointes upwards, and light the subject from the bottom up. In this photograph of the Eiffel Tower, it has this glowing effect because of uplighters. There are large spotlights going from the bottom all the way to the very top, and they are all pointing an a general upwards direction.
A monochromatic color scheme consists of using different shades and tints of only one color or hue. This picture is monochromatic because green is the only color used. Even though there is just one color, there can still be a lot of depth and value created just by using many different tints and shades.
DIRECT COMPLIMENTARY Direct complimentary colors are two colors that are directly across from each other on the color wheel. In this photograph, the red of the rose petals is complimentary to the green of the grass. These two colors have enough contrast that they stand out against each other, but also work well together.
SPLIT COMPLIMENTARY Split complimentary color schemes are made up of one color, and then the two colors on either side of itâ€™s compliment on the color wheel. In this painting, the split complimentary color scheme is blue, yellow-orange, and red-orange. These colors work well together because there is variety among them to make it interesting, while still being subtle.
NEUTRAL PALLETTE Neutral color palettes are created by colors that are not on the color wheel, such as black, white, and grey. This artwork is made using grey tones and different values of black and white. Even though there is no color, the piece is dynamic because of the range of values it contains.
Many of the artworks in this magazine where done by Jenny Crosson, the author. All of these are indicated with her initials: Jmc. The rest of the art was done by student artists, and a few were done by professionals. All of the pictures in the magazine were taken by the author except the ones referenced by Google Images.
² Personal art from the author’s home, Greenville, NC pp…cover, 5, 6, 8, 9, 11, 13-15, 18, 19, 20, 22, 25, 27, 28, 34, 35, 39, 43-45, 48, 49, 62 ² Jenkins Fine Arts Building, Greenville, NC pp…22, 26, 29, 30, 42, 50, 52, 55, 57-59, 67, 70 ² East Carolina University campus, Greenville, NC pp…32, 68 ² Tipsy Teapot, Greenville, NC pg…69 ² Raleigh, NC pp…12, 17, 23, 38, 40 ² Swiss Alps pg…6 ² Venice, Italy pp…53, 60, 63 ² Paris, France pg…65 ² Google Images pp…31, 47, 54, 64