Page 47

[41] European Commission (EC) , Commission Directive 2010/21/EC of 12th March 2010 - Amending Annex I to Council Directive 91/414/EEC as regards the specific provisions relating to clothianidin, thiamethoxam, fipronil and imidacloprid, Brussels: Official Journal of the European Union, 2010. [42] European Commission (EC), Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 540/2011 of 25th May 2011 implementing Regulation (EC) No 1107/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards the list of approved active substances, Brussels: Official Journal of the European Union, 2011. [43] T. Blacquiere, G. Smagghe, C. A. M. van Gestel and V. Mommaerts, “Neonicotinoids in bees: a review on concentrations, side effects and risk assessment,” Ecotoxicology, vol. 21, pp. 973-992, 2012. [44] J. E. Cresswell, N. Desneux and D. van Engelsdorp, “Dietry traces of neonicotinoid pesticides as a cause of population declines in honey bees: an evaluation by Hill’s epidemiological criteria,” Pest Management Science, vol. 68, pp. 819-827, 2012. [45] J. E. Cresswell, “A meta-analysis of experiments testing the effects of a neonicotinoid insecticide (imidacloprid) on honey bees,” Ecotoxicology, no. DOI 10.1007/s10646010-0566-0, 2010. [46] M. Henry, M. Beguin, F. Requier, O. Rolling, J.-F. Odoux, P. Aupinel, J. Aptel, S. Tchamitchian and A. Decourtye, “A common pesticide decreases foraging success and survival in honey bees,” Science, vol. 336, pp. 348-350, 2012. [47] V. Mommaerts, S. Reynders, J. Boulet, L. Besard, G. Sterk and G. Smagghe, “Risk assessment for side-effects of neonicotinoids against bumblebees with and without impairing foraging behaviour,” Ecotoxicology, vol. 19, pp. 207-215, 2010. [48] J. S. Pettis, D. van Engelsdorp, J. Johnson and G. Dively, “Pesticide exposure in honey bees results in increased levels of the gut pathogen Nosema,” Naturwissenschaften, vol. 99, pp. 153-158, 2012. [49] R. Schmuck, “Effects of a Chronic Dietary Exposure of the Honey bee Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) to Imidacloprid,” Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, vol. 47, pp. 471-478, 2004. [50] European Environment Agency (EEA), “Land Use SOAR 2010 - Thematic Assessment 2010,” EEA, 2010. [51] A. L. Hargreaves and L. D. e. a. Harder, “Consumptive emasculation: The ecological and evolutionary consequences of pollen theft.,” Biol., vol. 84, pp. 259-276, 2009. [52] A. Gathmann and T. Tscharnke, “Bienen, Wespen und ihre Gegenspieler in der Agrarlandschaft: Habitatbewertung und Populationsentwicklung,” Verhandlungen der Gesellschaft für Ökologie, vol. 29, pp. 213-218, 1999. [53] J. E. Maloof and D. Inouye, “Are nectar robbers cheaters of mutualists?,” Ecology, vol. 81, pp. 2651-2661, 2000. [54] European Environment Agency (EEA), Biogeographic Regions, Europe 2001, 2001. [55] European Commission, “COM(2011) 244 final - Our life insurance, our natural capital: an EU biodiversity strategy to 2020,” European Commission, Brussels, 2011.

[56] Council of The European Communities, Council Directive on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora. OJ L 206, 22/07/1999 P. 0007-0050, 1992. [57] European Commission (EC), Communication from The Commission to The European Parliament, The Council, The European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions - Green Infrastructure (GI) — Enhancing Europe’s Natural Capital {SWD(2013) 155 final}, Brussels: European Commission (EC), 2013. [58] Corporate Europe Observatory (CEO), Is the future of bees in the hands of the pesticide lobby?, CEO, 11.2010. [59] V. Kindemba, The impact of neonicotinoid insecticide on bumblebees, honey bees and other non-target invertibrates, Buglife, the Invertibrate Conservation Trust, 2009. [60] Top scientist warns against ‘hype’ as EU sets out bee rescue plan (Press Article), EUObserver, 2010. [61] J. Ghazoul, “Business as usual? Questioning the global pollination crisis,” Trends in Ecology and Evolution, vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 367-373, 2005. [62] The Telegraph, One third of Europe’s butterflies in decline, according to Red List, 2010. [63] Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, “Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Biodiversity Synthesis,” World Resources Institute, Washington DC, 2005. [64] S. Beckedorf and E. Pilgermann, “Auf ein Wort Kollege!,” Bauernzeitung, vol. 28, pp. 20-21, 2010. [65] C. Hahn, “Von Bienen und Bauern,” ADIZ, vol. 9, pp. 26-28, 2010. [66] J. Hodgson and W. e. a. Kunin, “Comparing organic farming and land sparing: optimizing yield and butterfly populations at landscape level,” Ecology Letters, vol. 13, p. 1358–1367, 2010. [67] M. Rundoff and H. Smith, “The effect of organic farming on butterfly diversity depends on landscape context,” Journal of Applied Ecology, vol. 43, pp. 1121-1127, 2006. [68] Bayerische Landesanstalt fur Weinbau und Gartenbau Nektarproduktion einiger Pflanzen, 2011. [69] J. Luig and K. e. a. Peterson, “Human impacts on pollinators and pollination services - ALARM Socioeconomic Working Paper,” 2005. [70] AFFSA, “Weakening, collapse and mortality of bee colonies,” AFFSA, 2008. [71] G. Elke and W. e. a. v.d. Ohe, “The German bee monitoring project: a long term study to understand periodically hign winter losses of honey bee colonies,” Apidologie Sciences, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 332-352, 2010. [72] www.ebcd.org/pdf/presentation/304-Laddomada.pdf

Profile for ECPA

Pollinators & Agriculture  

Agricultural productivity and pollinator protection - Around 70% of the world’s most produced crop species rely to some extent on insect pol...

Pollinators & Agriculture  

Agricultural productivity and pollinator protection - Around 70% of the world’s most produced crop species rely to some extent on insect pol...