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RECOMMENDATION FOR UPGRADING UITS PRINTING

Prepared by: Christian Rooney Brandon Lauster Jessica Bastin May 03, 2010

Presented to: C. Marc Wagner Services Development Specialist UITS, STC


Table of Contents

Executive Summary………………………………………………………………………3 Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………..4 Background………………………………………………………………………………..5 Problem Detail……………………………………………………….…………….5 Method & Scope/Criteria………………………………………………………………..7 Solution One………………………………………………………………………………..8 Solution Two ………………………………………………………………………………...9 Solution Three……………………………………………………………………………..10 Conclusion………………….……………………………………………………………..11 Recommendation……………………………………………………………………….12 Appendix A………………………………………………………………………………..13 Appendix B………………………………………………………………………………...14 Appendix C………………………………………………………………………………..16 Works Cited………………………………………………………………………………...17

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Executive Summary Currently, UITS STCs suffer from a correctable inefficiency between print quota and actual paper usage. For a 650-page undergraduate printing quota: 85% print under quota for free 15% print over 45% of paper Average paper usage per semester: 391 pages 30,000,000 pages printed per year Costs: $150,000: paper cost per year to UITS $67,500 reimbursed by students $82,500 covered out of pocket by UITS UITS STCs would benefit from increased revenues, decreased paper usage, better investment opportunities in other IT techs by partnering with T.I.S. to lower print quota and incentivize students to minimize printing by offering T.I.S. Rewards points on a scheduled basis. UITS would enjoy lower paper costs because of the decline in paper usage by the students. These extra funds could be reinvested back into UITS technologies, increasing prestige in the national industry. Students would enjoy reduced overprinting fees because of reduced paper usage, IT benefits on behalf of UITS and rewards sponsored by T.I.S. Bookstore. T.I.S. would enjoy the benefits of IU printing services and greater student patronage. Yearly savings from a mere 1% reduction in paper usage: 300,000 pages $1500 Initial costs quickly offset by revenue gains in the thousands of dollars. Implementation would likely take close to a year, to be started in Fall 2011. First steps: Contact Amanda Burke, T.I.S. manager Work with UITS programmers to develop software linking STCs to T.I.S. Rewards 3


Introduction Earlier this year, we proposed for UITS's permission to research and recommend possible upgrades to the application of the Printing Allotment currently in use at UITS Student Technology Centers. We originally noticed that the current printing allotment misrepresents the actual paper usage of IU students, at extra cost to the University, to the students and to the environment. We found that with a large enough increase in awareness of STC services, students can substantially reduce this paper usage. Given that UITS is considered a leader in university technology centers, we as current students have an interest in increasing efficiency and improving implementation of the system in order to increase UITS's standings, increase IU's sustainability, and minimize University and student costs. These changes can be made with minimal expenses and virtually no loss of revenue to the University.

After receiving permission from UITS to pursue our research of the problem and its possible solutions, we surveyed a number of IU students on their current paper usage and awareness of UITS STC services. With this we defined the exact parameters of the current inefficiency, which we will explore in detail in the next section. We then emailed an STC employee who worked on the development of the Student Technology Centers and gathered information on paper usage and costs at IU, as well as logistical details on the current implementation of STC printing. We also researched the environmental impact of IU's paper usage. With this information we compiled data that we think will illuminate the possibility to improve UITS' printing system. We will follow the presentation of this data with three possible solutions which, if implemented, will increase printing efficiency at IU, increase awareness of STC features among students and decrease expenditures for UITS and the University. We will then recommend the best plan of action.

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Background Until 1999, UITS provided all printing services for free to all students and faculty. UITS had implemented neither the print release stations nor the print quota. In 1999, UITS found that the printing costs, which they were covering entirely in order to provide the service free to the University, began to financially limit the other IT services UITS could provide; in other words, UITS began to be able to afford only printing supplies and printers. UITS staff then ran a campus-wide survey to gather average printing usage by both students and faculty. This survey allowed faculty and students to make print quota recommendations based on their current printing habits. This survey led to the establishment of a 500-page printing quota. The 650-page limit was implemented later in order to raise the percentage of students printing under quota to 85%, and therefore free printing (that is, printing paid for by the student technology fee) could be utilized by the vast majority of students. For the 15% of students who print over their allotment, the over-quota printing costs $0.04 per page, which represents the true cost of printing for UITS (Wagner).

Student Printing 10%

11%

Underprint Overprint 79%

At its current level of 30,000,000 pages per year, UITS incurs costs of about $150,000 per year (see Appendix B). UITS orders paper by the box, each of which contains ten reams of 5000 sheets each. Each box costs $25. For students who print at low volumes (under quota) each semester, UITS provides free printing. The 15% of students who print at high volume (over-quota), however, pay only $67,500 to UITS in over-quota fees. Therefore, UITS pays $82,500 out of pocket each year to supply IU's paper supply (Wagner). Problem in Greater Detail After researching the current implementation of UITS' printing allotment, interviewing UITS staff and surveying IU undergraduates, we found that the main problem affecting the STCs was the inefficiency of paper usage. UITS allots undergraduate students 650 pages per semester (UITS). According to Marc 5


Wagner, a UITS employee, UITS determined this allotment in 1999 by surveying a selection of faculty and students, who ultimately recommended a 500-page limit. UITS needed to find a way to curb the growing costs of printing, since many University resources were being moved online and the costs began to limit the implementation of other IT services. Over 85% of students print under the allotment at its current 650 page limit, and the 15% of students who overprint account for about 45% of printing (Wagner). On average, undergraduates print 391 pages per semester, almost 300 pages below the allotment. Across IU's Bloomington campus, students print over 30,000,000 pages per year. Up to 45% of this amount (13.5 million pages) is printed by 15% of students (Wagner). We believe that leaving the printing allotment much higher than the average undergraduate needs creates little incentive for the 15% of high volume printers to reduce their paper usage. By implementing the current printing allotment, UITS intended to decrease overall printing and therefore reduce printing costs. However, the current system allows high IU Student Rollover Use volume printers to continue consuming massive portions of the overall volume of paper and leaves much cost to UITS. Also, 16% the environmental impact of high volume Rollover printing leaves a definite mark on the No Rollover 84% environment. The amount of paper IU consumes each year, at 8.5 inches by 11 inches per page, covers the square acreage of Dunn Woods 46 times over. UITS offers a highly practical rollover option, which allows students to "roll over" up to 300 pages per semester. This option is only available from fall to spring semesters and spring to summer semesters. It is not available over academic years, which prevents upperclassmen from printing recklessly and making the quota system pointless as a way to reduce overall printing. From the results of our survey, we determined that only 25% of students surveyed knew about this option. Even fewer students, 13%, actually used the service (Wagner).

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Method & Scope/Criteria To begin, we explored the UITS Knowledge Base website to learn more about the options and services UITS supplies to students and faculty. Although the website provided information about the STC printing allotments, it excluded important numbers like the cost of paper to students and behind-the-scene methods used by UITS to supply the amount of paper used here the University. After chatting online with an ITHelpLive consultant, he redirected us to the STC in the library.

We meant to speak to someone personally for answers, but the supervisor on duty could only advise emailing an STC Printing Services Representative. The STC team, as we learned, handles the management of the printing system in the Student Technology Centers, and Service Development Specialist C. Marc Wagner answered all of our questions and provided us with the statistics that we needed via email. Surveymonkey.com and Facebook.com became very resourceful tools in our research when we needed to collect answers from a large selection of IU students. Our survey measured students’ awareness of available printing options like the printing rollover between semesters and duplex printing (see Appendix A). Other questions asked their educational level (because the print quota supplies different amounts for undergraduate and graduate students), their knowledge of cost to print extra pages after exceeding the standard quota and their knowledge of their own print usage. We cited as an example compensation schedules from T.I.S. Bookstore’s Rewards Application. We also considered the student technology services of schools like Arizona State University and IUPUI. With this information we created visuals to illustrate alternative solutions (see Appendix C). We took inspiration from our own knowledge of organizational efficiency involving payment plans, transferring methods, and reward ideas.

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Solution One In this solution, UITS and T.I.S. Bookstores partner up to reduce costs for both organizations and students while simultaneously increasing incentive for students to reduce paper usage. We propose that UITS implement a rewards program for students. For students who print specific percentages underneath their print quota, they receive certain economic rewards. To cover costs for these rewards, the T.I.S. Bookstore in Bloomington would sponsor these rewards. In return, T.I.S. would be allowed to utilize surplus printing once each year to print coupons, flyers, employee applications, and various other documents in demand at the store, courtesy of UITS (Burke interview). This would benefit all three parties: UITS would enjoy lower paper costs because of the decline in paper usage by the students. These extra funds could be reinvested back into UITS technologies, increasing prestige in the national industry. Students would enjoy reduced overprinting fees because of reduced paper usage, IT benefits on behalf of UITS and rewards sponsored by T.I.S. Bookstore. T.I.S. would enjoy the benefits of IU printing services and greater student patronage. This plan, therefore, would be mutually beneficial to all parties; these benefits could potentially offset the costs of implementation. If the partnership incentivized IU students to reduce printing by even 1% a year, 300,000 pages would be saved $1500 would be saved In addition, the costs of T.I.S. printing on UITS budget would be greatly offset by the cost reduction in paper expenditure (Wagner). T.I.S. could introduce student rewards as follows: 75 T.I.S. rewards card for printing less than 50% of quota 125 T.I.S. rewards card points for printing less than 35% of quota 200 T.I.S. rewards card points for printing less than 30% of quota 300 T.I.S. rewards card points for printing less than 25% of quota By rewarding students with T.I.S. rewards points, student patronage at businesses partnered with T.I.S. may also noticeably increase (T.I.S. website). This solution would likely take close to a year to organize, but the benefits would pay off. 8


Solution Two To increase students' awareness of their paper usage, UITS could reprogram print release stations to show the remaining amount in each student's print quota. As UITS reviews upgrade requests and, if they make sense, implements them over the summer, this application could be installed by this upcoming fall. The implementation of this solution would require only that the current print quota software be placed on the home screen of the print release stations. This new system will reduce students' paper usage by means of awareness. Students would realize the amount of paper they have needlessly been wasting, and likely begin to reduce their usage. Since UITS would, over time, need less paper after implementation, IU and UITS reduce both their costs and their environmental impact. On top of the direct benefit, students would also become more financially aware of their resource usage. Minor training may be required to update UITS STC employees on troubleshooting the new software. Since two network operations (the print quota check and the print release) will be operating simultaneously, initial bugs will likely need to be identified and worked out before the software runs perfectly. In addition, UITS could also implement a text message or email alert system which messages students who desire to know when they have reached a certain printing balance. Students would specify at what level they would want to be notified. For example, these options could include: Never, when they reach a specific balance or after the use of a specific sum. Students at any time during the semester could “unsubscribe” from these notifications if they feel that they are unnecessary (Fig. 1). Implementation of this solution, because of its low cost and low summer traffic in the STCs, could be in place by the fall. Unsubscribing to STC Print Allotment Alert: 1. Log on to STC lab computer

Fig 1

2. Click on Start Menu 3. Click on “Check Your Print Quota” 4. Choose “Notification” tab 5. Click “Unsubscribe to email notification”

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Solution Three A pay-for-printing system similar to Arizona State University’s current service could be applied. If a student needed to release a print job, he or she would slide their campus access card (also known as their identification card, or student id), and charge the cost of printing ($0.04 at IU) per black-and-white page to their student account. Money would be added to the campus access account by logging onto a website specifically designed for depositing with a debit or credit card. The student would be prompted to submit their IU username, desired amount of deposit and security information. Students could also add funds to their campus access cards in the same manner as ASU and IUPUI. Similar to depositing money into an automated teller machine, students would use a transfer machine on campus to deposit a certain amount of cash to put print credits on their card. Directions would be simple: 1.

Swipe Campus Access Card.

2.

Choose deposit option from 3 choices Cash Debit Credit

3.

Enter desired amount.

4. If cash, insert into depository slot. If credit, hit enter. If debit, punch in PIN number and hit enter. 5.

Choose Yes or No to print receipt.

The implementation of this solution would likely be roadblocked by the students themselves. ASU, although it is known for its sustainability, charges students exorbitantly high prices per page ($0.10) in order to maintain this status. However, its success in reducing printing costs and paper usage at the university is intended not to necessarily spearhead campus sustainability, but to "gain back" previous printing expenditures (ASU) The successful implementation of this solution would likely take much longer than the timeframe of the other solutions; we estimate that in order for this to not shock the Bloomington student community, the aspects of this solution must be introduced piecemeal over several academic years. 10


Conclusion After reading all of the solutions, we have decided that the first solution, the T.I.S. Rewards partnership, best meets our criteria for UITS implementation. It has, most importantly, the potential to vastly reduce paper usage and decrease costs for both the University and the students, but it may also have some other, unexpected benefits as well. Because of the community partnerships of T.I.S., increasing student participation in the Rewards system would also increase investment in the Bloomington community. Indiana University would have found a way to "give back" to the community while simultaneously reducing environmental impact and decreasing overall costs. The second solution dealing with increasing service awareness does not reach far enough for it to be worth the trouble of implementation. The software update, the setting up of over 3500 workstations and the employee troubleshoot training forces UITS to spend much more time, if not money, than it gets back in savings. Also, the decrease in paper usage relies too heavily on student charitability and beliefs, both of which are unreliable. Although the system will increase UITS’s revenue by a small factor, the time lost on other, potentially more valuable services and solutions makes us believe that this solution would not work. Although the pay-for-printing solution currently in use at Arizona State University is effective, we do not believe it could work at Indiana University. Firstly, ASU's plan has an entirely different goal than ours. It was designed to make ASU a profit to compensate for years of wasteful printing costs. Although it accomplishes its stated goal- ASU leads the field in sustainable printing practices- It is an extreme solution meant to bring the technology services at ASU out of deficit spending. UITS does not have the same problem, and we do not necessarily intend to make profits for UITS and Indiana University, only to reduce costs in order to improve the current system. Also, such an abrupt shift in policy would likely be protested by the greater student body, leading to its quick repeal and demise. The Rewards solution will make students more likely to save paper based on the time-honored tradition of incentives. The costs of the implementation of this solution would likely be offset by the increased revenues, since the rewards offered by T.I.S.'s partners are not actually worth much money, and these rewards would only be given out two or three times a year.

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Recommendation As you know, we found our first solution to be most likely to succeed. Therefore, we suggest: contact with Amanda Burke, T.I.S. Bloomington Manager Discuss specific costs of T.I.S. printing needs Discuss a budget range to work with in order to provide rewards for students Work with UITS programmers to develop software linking STC printing to T.I.S. Rewards Compare benefits for each UITS, students, and T.I.S. Bookstore Brainstorm alternative ideas for possible rewards system Advertise the development of the new printing solution Observe the results of the new system Is paper usage being reduced? Are students responding to the new printing solution? Is UITS minimizing their costs?

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Appendix A Survey Data

Current Major/Minor: _________________

___ Undergraduate Student ___ Graduate Student

At the end of the semester, did your print allotment balance result in: ___under printing ___overprinting ___do not remember

When given the option, do you choose duplex-printing (double sided-printing)? ___never

___sometimes

___mostly

___always

Are you aware that if you do not use your entire printing allotment, STC and UITS offer a rollover plan? ___yes

___no

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Appendix B Emails from Marc Wagner and STC Change Management: First, let me clarify some points … 1. Rollover is available twice per year. Fall-to-Spring and Spring-to-Summer and it limited to up to 300 pages of unused allotment. Rollover is not available from one academic year to another. a. Of the 29,677 undergraduates who printing in the STCs in the fall, 3,855 requested a rollover (13%). The average number of pages rolled over was 231. 17% of our undergraduates had no allotment left to rollover. Leaving 70% who did not exercise that option. This does not account for students who never print in the STCs. b. Similarly, of the 6,072 graduate students who printed in the fall, 1,973 requested a rollover (32%). The average number of pages rolled over was 266. 16% of our graduate students had no allotment left to roll over. Leaving 52% who did not exercise their option to rollover any unused allotment. c. Collectively, 5,828 students requested a rollover for fall out of a total of 35,749 (16%). The average rollover was 242 pages. d. Since so few students actually exceed their allotment, if we permitted rollover of unprinted pages from year to year, there would be no incentive at all of upperclassmen to conserve their printing. 2. Yes. a. The most effective action we have taken so far is to introduce print release stations in the highest volume Student Technology Centers. This has had a dramatic effect and on the amount of waste paper left in the STCs. We will be introducing print release stations in most of the rest of the STCs by fall 2010. b. We have encourage the selective use of duplex since 2000. All UITS-owned printers are duplex-capable. c. We are now assessing demand for duplex and exploring strategies for providing it to those who want it without leading to reprints by those who do not want (or cannot use) duplex because of the format of the material to be printed. d. We haven’t made duplex the default on campus because, while it saves paper, if even 10% of those students reprint their documents because they didn’t want (or couldn’t use) duplex, the cost savings vanish. (This is because the cost of paper only represents about 12% of the cost of printing.) We are also trying to assess the impact of prolonged use of duplex on overall printer performance and reliability. 3. Since the late 1990’s the UITS has been providing on-line services which dramatically reduce the need to students to print at all. As the tools have matured, increasing numbers of faculty have turned to these tools to reduce student dependence upon printing – but students continue to print anyway. Some of the strategies available to students to avoid printing include: a. Electronic submission of assignments. b. Documents stored on eReserves. Syllabi. Course readings. c. Adobe tools (free to IU students via IUware) permit students to mark-up reading materials stored on their personal computers instead of using printed copies. ·

We order paper throughout the semester.

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· We buy tens of boxes at a time but I cannot give you an average, I have cc:ed a colleague who may be able to give you specific numbers. (One box = ten reams = 5,000 sheets.) · We pay about $25 per box. · Transportation costs are covered by the University’s contract with the vendor. · Students print over 30,000,000 pages per year. · The average student prints about 350 pages per semester. · About 85% of our students print below their allotment. · The remaining 15% print over 40% of the total pages printed during any given semester. · Paper represents about 12.5% of the cost of printing a simplex page.

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Appendix C Visuals:

Student Printing 11%

Underprint

10%

Overprint 79%

Don't Remember

IU Students 16% Rollover No Rollover 84%

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Works Cited "About STC Printing Allotments at IUB - Knowledge Base." Home - Knowledge Base. Indiana University, 21 Apr. 2010. Web. 03 May 2010. <http://kb.iu.edu/data/aouh.html>.

ASU Printing FAQs / ASU Help Center. 18 Dec. 2009. Web. 02 May 2010. <http://help.asu.edu/node/557#14>. "Questions Concerning Printing Output." Message to Marc C. Wagner. 05 Apr. 2010. E-mail. STC Change Management. "Questions on Upgrades for Project." 2 May 2010. E-mail.

"T.I.S. College Bookstore - Rewards Card Program." T.I.S. Group - College Bookstores, Music, Sportswear, Publishing and Printing, and Wholesale Books. Web. 03 May 2010. <http://www.tisbook.com/rewards/points.cfm?s=2>.

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Project Proposal for W231: Professional Writing