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the railway business magazine

Year VI ■ No. 4.12. (78) ■ 2011

Public transport and energy efficiency need EU priority funds Noise pollution, an everyday more serious issue

Railway PRO

Eco-mobility for eco-cities

Mass Transportation

Журнал железнодорожный бизнес

EUR 8 bn projects for carrying out the 2030 underground network plan Interview with Gheorghe Udrişte - General Manager of Metrorex Интервью с Генеральный директор, Метрорекс,Георге Удриште Генеральный директор компании, Георге Удриште, дал нам интервью, в котором рассказал о продолжении начатых проектов и о планах на будущее для развития этого вида транспорта


editor’s note 1

A

recent reunion of VP Siim Kallas with the representatives of the railway sector for defining the strategic lines of European actions in the transport area has had as starting point the natural question on the role played by society in rail transport over the next decades. A question which provokes a whole series of exciting approaches from those who really want the railway system to bring its true contribution to the development of sustainable society. Unfortunately, despite the figures highlighted in various statistics and scientific research studies on the performances of different modes – which place railways in the top of transport technologies to be used in order to reduce the environmental impact and daily stress – at the moment, the railways rank last in the fight for image. The different problems inherited by the current railway undertakings from the old organisations have erased the railways from the list of the public’s choices. The low percent of the railway transport modal share (almost 10% for passenger transport and 18% for freight) proves the real position of this transport mode in contemporary society.

When you also see analyses conducted in behalf of organisations with serious global importance (for example, the World Bank) which criticise the high proportion of railways in some countries, seen as a reminiscence of communist times – to simply motivate a certain path towards restructuring – you realise that the fight of the railway sector for gaining the public’s sympathy is not an easy one. In this context and lacking severe legislation that would force the shift of volumes from road and air transport to railways – legislation that I hope, for the sake of our society, not to be drafted, one cannot dream about a shift or balance of the reports between modes in the predictable future. Although the objectives announced by European, national and local authorities, next to the large economic players support the search for a way to build an environmentally friendly and less congested society, real actions are only headed towards palliatives of the present way of living. It has already passed more than a decade since the European authorities have demanded the balance of the investment budgets for roads and railways. And still, not even at the level

of unionist funds, without detailing national realities, we cannot talk about a better report than that of 1 EUR to railways for 2 EUR to roads. Everybody is now fascinated by the electric engine for automotive vehicles, as measure for reducing pollution, without discussing and financing the expansion of railway electric traction networks; without talking about the other pollution forms generated by the electric automotive vehicles (the tyre - asphalt contact); without talking about the problem of traffic congestion that will not be eliminated and so on. The European draft budget continues to include more measures that can be financed in the road sector than in the railway sector, with the excuse of improving the traffic safety. Why doesn’t anyone say that traffic will be safe once the shift to public transport modes is implemented? Will rail in 20 years’ time be a marginal or major mode of transport? Probably marginal, as long as the real interest is against rail transport.

Will rail in 20 years’ time be a marginal or major mode of transport?

Issue published with the support of Romanian Railway Industry Association & Club Feroviar – The Railway Business Club

Журнал издаётся при поддержке Асоциации Железнодорожной Промышленности и Club Feroviar – ЖД Клуб Деловых Людей

Будет ли железнодорожный транспорт играть решающую роль через 20 лет?

Н

а недавней встрече, организованной вице-президентом Европейской Комиссии Сиимом Калласом с представителями железнодорожного сектора для определения стратегических направлений европейских мероприятий в транспортной сфере, обсуждался естественный вопрос о роли транспорта на рельсах для общества на протяжении следующих десятилетий. Данный вопрос вызывает эмоциональные реакции со стороны тех, кто действительно хочет, чтобы железнодорожная система по-настоящему участвовала в создании устойчивого общества. К сожалению, вопреки элементам, отмеченным в различных источниках статистических данных и научных исследований показателей различных видов транспорта - согласно которым железные дороги находятся во главе транспортных технологий, которые следовало бы использовать для снижения воздействия на окружающую среду и повседневного стресса - на данный момент железные дороги отстают в борьбе за имидж. Различные недостатки, унаследованные нынешними железнодорожными предприятиями у старых организаций, удалили железные дороги из списков предпочтений публики. Низкая доля рынка железнодорожного транспорта (примерно 10% в случае транспорта пассажиров и 18% в случае грузовых перевозок) свидетельствуют о реальном месте, которое занимает

данный вид транспорта в современном обществе. Когда встречаешь оценки от имени организаций глобального значения (например, Всемирный банк), в которых обвиняется высокая доля железных дорог в некоторых странах и говорится о том, что это коммунистическая черта - и это лишь для обоснования определённого способа реструктуризации - понимаешь, что борьба, которую ведёт железнодорожный сектор за получение симпатии общественности, не является лёгкой. На этом фоне, и в условиях отсутствия драконовских законов, которые бы форсировали переход от автодорожного и воздушного транспорта к железнодорожному - и я надеюсь, что на благо открытому обществу, эти законы и не появятся - мы не можем и мечтать о повороте ситуаций и об уравновешивании соотношений в обозримом будущем. Несмотря на то, что задачи, объявленные европейскими, национальными и местными властями наряду с крупнейшими игроками экономики, поддерживают поиск решения для строительства общества, дружелюбно настроенного в отношении окружающей среды и освобождённого от пробок на дорогах, тем не менее, реальные действия направлены лишь на создание условий, характерных для нынешнего образа жизни. Уже прошло более одного десятилетия с тех пор, как европейские власти начали требовать уравновешивания бюджетов инвестиций в автодорожную и

железнодорожную сферу. Несмотря на это, даже на уровне фондов Евросоюза, не говоря уже о национальном уровне, невозможно говорить о реальном улучшении соотношения одного евро в железнодорожной сфере против двух евро в автодорожной сфере. Весь мир теперь очарован использованием электродвигателей для автомобилей в качестве меры по сокращению вредных выбросов, но никто не обсуждает и не финансирует расширение железнодорожных сетей электрической тяги; также не обсуждаются остальные формы загрязнения атмосферы, источником которых является электрический автомобиль (например, контакт резиновых шин с асфальтом) и не обсуждается вопрос, связанный с необходимостью устранения пробок, образующихся на дорогах и т.д. Проект европейского бюджета продолжает включать финансируемые мероприятия скорее автодорожного сектора, нежели железнодорожной сферы, оправдывая это аргументами повышения безопасности движения. Почему же никто не говорит о том, что уровень безопасности будет расти вместе с переходом к использованию систем общественного транспорта? Будет ли железнодорожный транспорт играть решающую роль через 20 лет? Ни в коем случае, и такая ситуация сохранится до тех пор, пока реальный интерес направлен против транспорта на рельсах. December 2011 | www.railwaypro.com


2 cOntent POLICIES & STRATEGIES

ПОЛИТИКА И СТРАТЕГИЯ

Leaders

16 26

EU has started the countdown for emission reduction

В ЕС начался обратный счёт с точки зрения сокращения выбросов

UE’s ambition to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is more and more obvious due to the legislative regulations it initiates and the projects aimed to meet the set targets Амбиция ЕС сократить выбросы газов с парниковым эффектом с каждым днём всё более подчёркивается законодательством, которое принимается на его территории, а также проектами, которые внедряются для достижения поставленных целей.

PRODUCTS & TECHNOLOGIES

photo: SBB

33 Recyclable materials make underground stations energyefficient 34 Dry lubrication of tyres, a modern and eco-friendly solution

Editor’s note the railway business magazine

Railway PRO

ISSN - 1841 - 4672

Publisher: Editura de Transport & Logistică S.R.L. 30, Virgiliu Street, Sector 1 Bucharest, postal code: 010881 Tel.:+4 021 224 43 85; +4 021 224 43 87 Mobile: +40 721 723 724 Fax: +4 021 224 43 86 E-mail: editors@railwaypro.com Web-site: www.railwaypro.com General Manager Mihai Roşeanu mihai.roseanu@railwaypro.com Editors: Elena Ilie elena.ilie@railwaypro.com Pamela Luică pamela.luica@railwaypro.com Teodor Turcu teodor.turcu@railwaypro.com Contributors: Johan van Ieperen Production and photo editor: Petru Mureşan Department of translations: Alina Vuţulicu Paula Badescu Gentil Traduceri SRL Graphic design: Petru Mureşan Layout and DTP: Petru Mureşan petru.muresan@railwaypro.com Photo: Radu Drăgan Marketing Manager: Cristina Trifon cristina.trifon@railwaypro.com Advertising Enquiries: advertise@railwaypro.com www. railwaypro.com/advertise

1 Will rail in 20 years’ time be a marginal or major mode of transport? POLICIES & STRATEGIES

16 Recession has only cut emissions for a while Railways are still the best choice 18 EU has started the countdown for emission reduction 24 Public transport and energyefficiency need EU priority funds 40 Electric transport will work on eliminating vehicles from urban areas 42 Noise pollution, an everyday more serious issue 44 Electrification on the right track in the railway transport market 46 London Olympic Games impose a boost in the accessibility of public transport

38 Diesel propulsion still plays an important role in the European railway network 53 Performing diesel engines increase the quality of railway transports 60 Passengers could plan journeys with just a few clicks MOBILITY

ЛИДЕРЫ

EUR 8 Bln projects for carrying out the 2030 underground network plan

Interview with Gheorghe Udrişte - General Manager of Metrorex Для проектов в объёме 8 миллиардов евро Существуют предпосылки внедрения стратегии 2030 о развитии сети метрополитена

Интервью с директор Метрорекс Георге Удриште

The company’s General Manager, Gheorghe Udrişte, talks in an interview about the development of the projects already launched and future plans for developing this transport mode Генеральный директор компании, Георге Удриште, дал нам интервью, в котором рассказал о продолжении начатых проектов и о планах на будущее для развития этого вида транспорта

ENVIRONMENT

36 Eco-mobility for eco-cities 39 High-speed can change 54 An easier way to attract the market share of air passengers MARKET DEVELOPMENT

transport and reduce emissions

32 Commuter transport, a

41 Eco buildings: railway stations 1 point – airports 0

35 Shopping trip at rail

43 Integrated and successful transport system improves passangers’ choices

developing market stations

ASSET MANAGEMENT

20 Space consumption, an important factor in the development of transport systems 22 Efficient exploitation of

locomotives reduces polluting emissions 23 The design of stations has to meet urban requirements

51 Ambitious projects on railway transport modernisation for Russian Railways ENVIRONMENT 56 Recast of the First Railway Package ensures the independence 17 Rail stations can also be and impartiality of national “green” regulatory bodies

55 30% reduction of polluting emissions, a target still difficult to reach METROPOLITAN

45 2035 Strategic Concept to place Bucharest among the greatest European capitals 50 Rail station, a historic monument of the city ENGINEER

48 IT-TRA NS in sync with customers’ lifestyles

ERRATUM: Due to a most regrettable error, several mistakes have passed through the filter of the Communications Department of PKP PLK SA in the interview published in the Railway PRO “Mass Transportation” Magazine (September 2011, page 27-30) by Zbigniew Szafranski, Chairman of the Board, PKP PLK.In extending our apology to our readers, we kindly ask you to read as follows: Page 27:Instead of “tension” - “voltage” Page 28:Instead of “Transport Net”- “Transport Network” Instead of “Wide-gauge” – ‘Broad-gauge” Instead of “floating”- “adjustable” Instead of “number/2010”- “913/2010” Instead of “Zylina” – “Zilina” Instead of “Lublana”- “Ljubljana” Instead of “Antwerpia”- “-Antwerpen” Instead of “Akwizgran”- “-Aachen” Page 30:Instead of “schedule”- “timetable” Instead of “taking into”- “taken into” Russian title “Приоритет отдаётся экологически чистому транспорту, для перевода пассажирского потока с дорожного на железнодорожный транспорт“ Instead of “Высокая скорость обусловила развитие параметров вагонных тележек”

www.railwaypro.com | December 2011


cOntent 3

44 Рынок железнодорожного 38 Дизельная тяга играет окружающая среда транспорта хорошо справляется важную роль для европейской с точки зрения электрификации железнодорожной сети 17 Вокзалы тоже могут 1 Будет ли быть “зелёными” 46 Олимпийские игры в 53 Современные дизельные железнодорожный Лондоне требуют повышенной двигатели - основные транспорт играть решающую степени доступности к 39 Высокая скорость источники ограничения роль через 20 лет? общественному транспорту может изменить долю рынка вредных выбросов воздушного транспорта и ПОЛИТИКА И СТРАТЕГИЯ определить сокращение 60 Пассажиры могли бы 51 Российские железные выбросов запланировать свои поездки 16 Кризис привёл лишь дороги внедряет смелые лишь с помощью нажатия на к временному эффекту проекты модернизации сокращения выбросов 41 Экологически чистые железнодорожного транспорта несколько кнопок Железная дорога остаётся здания: вокзалы получили 1 РАЗВИТИЕ РЫНКА наилучшей альтернативой 56 Голосование за очко, а аэропорты - 0 очков пересмотр Первого 32 Развивается рынок 18 В ЕС начался Железнодорожного пакета 43 Интегрированная,и перевозок пассажиров обратный счёт с точки обеспечит независимость успешная транспортная маршрутного транспорта зрения сокращения и беспристрастность система даёт больше выбросов национальных регулирующих возможностей пассажирам органов 35 Шоппинг на 24 Пассажиры могли бы железнодорожных станциях 55 Сокращение вредных запланировать свои поездки ПРОИЗВОДСТВО выбросов на 30% всё лишь с помощью нажатия на И ТЕХНОЛОГИИ ещё является трудно несколько кнопок КРУПНЫЕ ГОРОДА достижимой задачей 33 Материалы 40 Электротранспорту повторного использования 45 Стратегическая удастся исключить повышают эффективность концепция 2035 способствует мобильность использование автомобилей энергопотребления на станциях тому, что Бухарест станет в городской среде метро 36 Эко-мобильность для одной из крупнейших эко- городов европейских столиц 42 Звуковое загрязнение 34 Новая система сухого обостряется с каждым днём смазывания графитовыми 50 Вокзал - исторический 54 Более лёгкий способ всё больше карандашами привлечения пассажиров памятник города Редакционная статья

December 2011 | www.railwaypro.com


4

www.railwaypro.com | December 2011


news 5 PKP to receive firm offers for TK Telekom in 2012

Macedonia and Russia sign first railway transport agreement

Poland: Railway state-owned PKP expects to receive firm offers for its communications branch put to sale, TK Telekom, starting with next year, said PKP’s spokesman Lukasz Kurpiewski. Prior to this, bidders will be allowed to conduct due diligence. Preliminary bids were filed by GTS, IT Polpager, Netia, MNI with a financial partner, Hawe and Exatel. Polish railways PKP announced a tender for a 100% stake in TK Telekom.

International: Macedonia and Russia will sign a cooperation agreement in the field of railway transport of passengers and commodities. The agreement simplifies border, customs and other formalities related to transport of passengers and commodities. Competent bodies and organizations are expected to additionally conclude agreements on regulating issues over technologies for arranging the transport. This is the first Macedonia-Russia accord in railway traffic, scheduled to enter into force

Estonia carries more freight on rails International: The volume of freight

carried by Estonian Railways increased in the first ten months of the year by around 5% to 25.2 million tonnes.

The greatest share was that of transit transports which amounted to 19.1 million tonnes of goods. Domestic transports attracted 4.5 million tonnes of freight, while imports and exports 1.6 million tonnes. In October, cargo transport went down by 11.9% to 2.38 million tonnes. By 2013 regional railway transports will be anchored in legislation Czech Rep.: The Czech Minister of Transport will prepare the draft law for regional railway transport financing by mid-2012 so that the law could become effective by 2013, said the Minister of Transport, Pavel Dobes. The subsidies worth CZK 2.6 Billion (EUR 101 Million), granted to regional transport in a memorandum from 2009, are ensured for 2012 despite the fact that the Ministry of Finances has demanded the reduction of these funds. The Ministry of Transport plans to liberalise another two railway lines in 2012 and other three in 2013, added Pavel Dobes. Apart from RegioJet and Ceske drahy, Veolia Transport, Arriva, Abellio CZ and Leo Express of entrepreneur Leos Novotny will probably take part in the tender.

ArcelorMittal to initiate partnership with Temir Zholy Kazakhstan: ArcelorMittal’s Kazakh unit, the biggest steel-maker in the central Asian country, agreed to form a joint

venture with the national railway company, Temir Zholy. The activity of the new company will be the manufacturing of rails and long products. Production will begin at the end of 2013. The new company will be based at ArcelorMittal Temirtau’s facilities. The actual amount of investments has not been revealed, but 50% will be covered by Temir Zholy.

Law amendment for the protection of infrastructure companies AUSTRIA: Austrian Parliament has adopted a law amendment to permit limiting the ownership of infrastructure companies by non-Europeans. A new clause states that stakes of 25% or more require approval by the Ministry of Economics unless the investor is from the European Union, the European Economic Area or Switzerland. The law, which applies to telecommunications companies, utilities, hospitals, fire brigades and disaster control organizations, defence and security companies, railways and universities. The law stipulates that in case of “disturbance of public order and safety”, the takeovers can be delayed or conditioned.

В мире: Македония и Россия подписывают соглашение о сотрудничестве в сфере железнодорожного транспорта грузов и пассажиров. Польша: Государственная железнодорожная компания PKP ждёт твёрдых заказов на филиал телекоммуникаций, выставленный на продажу - TK Telekom - в начале следующего года. В мире: Объем грузов, перевозимых Эстонскими железными дорогами, вырос за первые десять месяцев этого года примерно на 5%, до 25,2 млн. тонн. Чехия: Министерство транспорта Чехии подготовит законопроект финансирования регионального железнодорожного транспорта до середины

30 days after its ratification by the two countries.

Volume of cargo transported by Latvian rail increases International: The volume of cargo transported by rail in Latvia totaled 48.4 million tonnes in January-October 2011, which is 18.5% more than over the same period last year. Domestic transportation volumes shrunk by 12.6% to 978,300 tonnes. On the other hand, international transportation volumes increased by 19.4% to 47.43 million tonnes.

United Arab Emirates to launch the second phase of railway development International: Etihad Rail, the company dealing with the railway development in the United Arab Emirates launches the second phase of the national railway project, said the company’s CEO. The contracts won after the tender held for this phase will be assigned by Q2 or Q3 of 2012. The second stage will connect the Abu Dhabi rail network to Jebel Ali in Dubai as well as links to the borders of Saudi Arabia and Oman. The UAE railway development project amount to USD 11 Billion (EUR 8.2 Billion), but Etihad Rail has not provided details on the costs of phase 2. следующего года. Казахстан: Казахстанский филиал фирмы Арселор Миттал откроет производственную единицу в партнёрстве с государственной железнодорожной команией Темир Жоли. Австрия: Австрийский парламент принял поправку закона, позволяющую ограничить владение компаниями по инфраструктуре не-европейскими инвесторами. В мире: Объем товаров, перевозимых по железной дороге в Латвии повысился до 48,4 млн. тонн за первые десять месяцев этого года. В мире: Etihad Rail запускает второй этап национального железнодорожного проекта. December 2011 | www.railwaypro.com


6 news Hungare merges infrastructure companies

Deutsche Bahn wants the amendment of EU regulations

HUNGARY: The Hungarian Government decided to merge state-owned National Infrastructure Development (NIF) into the National Motorway Management Company (AAK) and will also consolidate a third state-owned road management company, Magyar Közút.The decision was published in the Hungarian Official Journal, “Magyar Kozlony”. NIF, set up in 2007, is responsible for road, motorway and railway developments. AAK, set up in 2000, is currently responsible for operating and maintaining about three-quarters of Hungary’s motorway and highway network and for road toll collection. The remaining public road network is managed by Magyar Közút.

international: Deutsche Bahn AG, Germany’s national rail operator, proposed a change in European law to prevent the company from breaking up its rail network from train operations, Financial Times Deutschland reported, citing Chief Executive Officer Ruediger Grube. Deutsche Bahn believes the proposal to permit integrated train and rail network operations would be supported by the German government because a separation would

SERBIA: The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development suggested that Serbia accept two infrastructure loans even though the country is nearing a self-imposed public debt limit. The EBRD has earmarked EUR 200 Million or Serbia’s state-run rail company Zeleznice Srbija to rebuild tracks and EUR 45 Million for Elektroprivreda Srbije. The credit for Zeleznice Srbije could be granted in tranches, the first being estimated at EUR 35 Million, said the Serbian Infrastructure Manager.

Government sells 25% of Central Suburban Passenger’s shares russia: The Russian government has decided to sell 25% minus 3 shares in the Central Suburban Passenger Company, which is currently owned by Russian Railways (50% minus 2 shares) The sale of 25% minus 3 shares of the authorised capital will take place at a public auction in Moscow. The price of the stake will be based on the report of an independent appraiser, but will not be below the par value of the shares. The Central SPC is Russia’s largest rail suburban passenger company and currently

Венгрия: Венгерское правительство приняло решение насчёт слияния компаний по инфраструктуре. Сербия: Европейский банк реконструкции и развития предложил Сербии принять два кредита на инфраструктуру, даже если приближается срок возврата, который Сербия сама себе назначила. В мире: Немецкая компания Deutsche Bahn AG предложила внести изменения в законодательство ЕС для того, чтобы отменить необходимость отделения направления администрирования инфраструктуры и направления поставок www.railwaypro.com | December 2011

accounts for more than 80% of commuter rail transportation on Moscow Railways and 52% of suburban passenger transport. The Central SPC serves 1.3 million passengers daily. The rolling stock used in suburban commuter services consists of 1,100 pairs of trains, of which 128 are fast suburban trains offering extra comfort. The Central SPC also provides commuter services in 10 parts of the Russian Federation, including Moscow and the Moscow, Kursk, Vladimir, Ryazan, Tula, Kaluga, Smolensk, Bryansk and Oryol regions. Three railway stations to be leased BULGARIA: Bulgaria will seek concessionaires for the railway stations in the cities of Plovdiv, Varna and Bourgas, the country’s Deputy Transport Minister Kamen Kichev said. According to Kichev, the concessions will be a source of fresh funding for state railways BDZ. The move is part of the Ministry’s plan to unite railway stations with bus stations to strengthen their operations. Awarding concessions for the three railway

photo: wikimedia

EBRD wants to credit Zeleznice Srbije for railway development

транспортных услуг. Россия: Российское правительство приняло решение о продаже 25% минут три акции компании по транспорту пассажиров «Центральная пригородная пассажирская компания» (Центральная ППК) В мире: ЧФР Марфа делает пробный пробег линии Ro-Ro по маршруту Аджиджа - Терминал Ферри-Боут ЧФР Марфа и порт Пендик (Стамбул). Болгария: Болгария ищет концессионеров для трёх вокзалов, расположенных в Пловдиве, Варне и Бургасе.

photo: www.bmwi.de

cost 1 billion euros annually, FTD reported, citing an unidentified person at the company.

stations is a plan which will be launched soon. Bulgarian authorities have already appointed the consultants to prepare the plan for concessions. The contracts will envision taking up the management of the railway station itself and the adjacent territories. Ministry of Transport wants to sell railway stations Czech Rep.: The Czech Ministry of Transport plans to sell the buildings which host the railway stations, “Hospodářské Noviny” informs. The plan of the Transport Minister, Pavel Dobeš, is that the municipalities and the regions would gradually buy these buildings, that would thus remain under public management. This measure for separating the railway stations from the state-owned railway company would be aimed to consolidate the Czech Railways The Czech Railways could thus be used to get EUR 400-500 Million which could be used to face the competition on the railway market.

Significant funds for infrastructure Macedonia: The Macedonian Government plans to allocate most of the 2012 budget for capital investments worth EUR 423 Million. The main projects include the reconstruction of part of Corridor X, the modernisation of railway infrastructure and the construction of a railway line to Bulgaria. The draft budget exceeds the 2010 budget by EUR 150 Million and relies on a 4.5% economic Решение включено в план объединения управления вокзалами и автобусными станциями, для объединения операций. Чехия: Министерство транспорта Чехии намеревается выставить вокзалы на продажу. План министра транспорта Павла Добеша направлен на то, чтобы города и регионы постепенно начали закупать эти здания. Македония: Правительство Македонии намеревается выделить большую часть бюджета на 2012 года на капитальные инвестиции в размере 423 миллионов евро.


news 7 growth. The press believes that the draft budget is much too ambitious and the growth would not be realistic, as Europe is still affected by downturn. Progress for Rail Baltica project International: The Baltic States prime ministers attained substantial progress on the issue of the European gauge project Rail Baltica during a meeting held on November. The discussion was also attended by the European Commission Vice-President for Transport Siim Kallas, who confirmed that Rail Baltica will be eligible for the European Union (EU) funding of 85% of the project costs. The Prime Ministers of Latvia, Estonia and Lithuania have agreed to establish a separate company with its headquarters in Riga in order to implement the project. Member states will be eligible for funding for detailed investigation of the rail track compatibility and for rail line construction works. The overall cost of the project is estimated at EUR 3.5 Billion (Estonia – EUR 1.04 Billion, Latvia – EUR 1.22 Billion, Lithuania – EUR 1.27 Billion).

Captrain plans to provide complete railway freight transport services romania: By 2012, Captrain plans to provide complete railway freight transport services in the Romanian railway market. Currently, the company provides shunting services. “Our strategy is to launch complete services in the Romanian railway freight transport market, apart from shunting. We will deliver the services either independently or in partnership with different operators, according to requirements and the technical means we dispose of ”, declared Valentin Ivanov, Production Manager of Captrain Romania. For 2012, the company plans to reach a turnover of EUR 5-6 Million, compared to the EUR 4 Million turnover in 2010. Captrain carries construction materials for Lafarge, the annual average of shipped volumes reaching 1 million tonnes and, according to estimates, the freight volume for 2012 could reach around 2 million tonnes per year.

В мире: В рамках встречи, премьерминистры прибалтийских государств объявили о существенном прогрессе переговоров по проекту Rail Baltica. Румыния: До 2012 года компания Captrain намеревается предоставить полный пакет услуг по железнодорожным грузовым перевозкам на румынском рынке. Россия: Важнейшим пунктом эффективного развития управления товарными вагонами является принятие регламентов о транспорте пустых

RZD reinforces objectives for the movement of cargo wagons russia: The starting point for developing an efficient freight car management model is the adoption of rules for transporting empty wagons which belong to private owners, said Vladimir Yakunin, President of Russian Railways.Russian Railways has actively advocated this position at meetings with the executive branch, which has speeded up the adoption of an appropriate order by Russia’s Ministry of Transport. Major changes have been made to rail transport rules aimed at simplifying the procedures and documentation governing the movement of empty wagons and improving methods for their transportation. RZD has proposed the consolidation of the wagon fleets not only of its subsidiaries, but also of other operators. To implement this measure, it will be necessary to switch to a special procedure for pricing freight shipments in wagons belonging to operators which provides for setting the wagon component in the tariff based on the market value of using such rolling stock. Russia’s Federal Tariff Service has already sent a modified version of a Russian government draft decree to the federal executive bodies for approval. This decree is aimed at establishing temporary procedures for Russian Railways to attract freight using universal open box cars belonging to other owners and a special procedure for pricing the transport of goods in the universal open box cars used by Russian Railways.

CFR Marfă to launch rolling road service between Agigea and Pendik Port (Istanbul)

вагонов, принадлежщих частными операторам. Македония: Голландская консалтинговая компания Grontmij осуществит проект реконструкции основных вокзалов города Скопье. В мире: Европейский банк реконструкции и развития предоставит долгосрочный займ в размере 22,5 миллионов евро на финансирование приобретения новых вагонов, предназначенных для железнодорожных грузовых перевозок.

Dutch company deals with the reconstruction of Skopje railway station macedonia: Dutch consultancy company Grontmij will design a project estimated at EUR 2.6 Million for the reconstruction of Skopje’s main railway station, Macedonia’s transport ministry said.Grontmij will also prepare the tender documents for contractor and supervisor of the station’s overhaul.

EBRD lends EUR 22.5m to boost Russia-Finland freight International: The EBRD has committed to a long-term loan of EUR 22.5 Million to fund an investment in new freight wagons to boost by over 70 per cent the fleet of a CIS-wide freight carrier which has a special focus on cross-border rail traffic between Finland and Russia for the pulp and paper industry. The investment by the St Petersburgregistered Huolintakeskus LLC, which operates in the whole CIS and Baltic region, is being made to support expansion of the operations of this niche operator in the freight rail market. The 8-year EBRD loan will allow the company to buy over 700 new freight wagons. Independent consultants hired by the EBRD estimate that Russia will need to add between 45,000 and 60,000 new freight wagons every year over the next 10 years. Freight operators in Russia froze their fleet expansion plans due to the 2008 financial crisis and replacements are now overdue.

new opportunities for the freight transport between Turkey and Romania, as well as between Europe, Asia and the Near East.

INTERNATIONAL: CFR Marfă will test the introduction of the rolling road service between Agigea - CFR Marfă Ferry-Boat Terminal and Pendik Port (Istanbul), the official launch of the line being scheaduled for the next period. The operator is integrated part in this traffic development project in the Black Sea Area. The decision is part of the operator’s plan to develop combined traffic. The launch of the rolling road service between Constanta and Istanbul opens December 2011 | www.railwaypro.com


8 news Authorities approve rail program for 2011-2013 poland: The Polish Cabinet approved 2011-2013 multi-annual railway infrastructure investment plan for 2011-2013. The plan includes over 100 projects worth PLN 20.44 Billion (EUR 4.6 Billion). The projects assumes construction of new railway infrastructure and modernisation or restoration of existing infrastructure. The most important projects on the list include moderniza-

Latvia wants to carry freight to China through the ports of Kazakhstan INTERNATIONAL: Latvian Railways (LDz) is planning to ship potential cargo from China to Latvian ports through Kazakhstan, LDz President Ugis Magonis announced. “Kazakhstan is a very important cooperation partner for LDz and we are transporting considerable amounts of cargo from this country,” said Magonis.

Turkey ratifies agreement for SouthEuropean railway network INTERNATIONAL: With the goal of creating a high performance railway network to connect countries in Southeast Europe, Turkey ratified an agreement as part of the Southeast European Co-operation Process (SEECP). Turkish officials in Ankara said the highspeed railway network project “sounds more beneficial now than it did years ago”. “Everyone in our region … can benefit from it,” the Turkish Parliament’s Transportation Commission Chairman Idris Gulluce said. The deal, signed by the other countries in May 2006, vows to significantly reduce travel times between countries in the region, improve the quality of passenger and freight transport, and increase the competitiveness of passenger and freight railway transport. The planned network will cover the region with 16 transportation axes, carrying commercial goods at speeds of up to 130 km/h, with plans to increase speeds to 160 km/h and 220 km/h where possible by 2020. Albania, Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Greece, Romania, Serbia, Turkey, Montenegro and Moldova are all included in the planned network.

EIB finances the modernisation of railway infrastructure poland: The European Investment Bank will grant a EUR 120 Million for the rehabilitation and modernisation of a 58-km long section that links Wroclaw to the border of Inferior Silesia voivodship (South-Western Poland). The section is part of the Malmo – Ystad – Szczecin – Poznan – Wroclaw – Chalupki – Ostrava corridor. The project will allow trains to run at speeds www.railwaypro.com | December 2011

tion of a rail connection between Warsaw and Gdansk agglomeration, as well as a connection between Warsaw, Katowice and Krakow. The plan also includes completion of a railway connection to the Okecie airport in Warsaw. The program will be financed with public means, EU funds and PKP PLK railway operator’s own funds. In order to contribute to the EU financing, PKP PLK will have to secure a EUR 910 Million loan from the European Investment Bank.

of up to 160 km/h. The modernisation of this section is the first phase in the modernisation plan of the 164-km line WroclawPoznan. The project will also receive EU funds through the Operational Program for Infrastructure and Environment. TransContainer privatisation put on hold russia: The state’s 50% stake in container

shipping company TransContainer could be divested at the end of the first quarter or the beginning of the second quarter of 2012, a Transportation Ministry source said. The government returned the draft resolution authorizing the sale of the TransContainer stake to the Economic Development Ministry for redrafting. But the Economic Development Ministry commented that it had revised and submitted the draft resolution to the government in October. Originally, the board of directors of stateowned Russian Railways approved auctioning off a 25% stake in TransContainer.

Ukrzaliznytsia reorganises rail traffic after audit UKRAINE: Ukraine State Railways Administration Ukrzaliznytsia is intending to cancel passenger trains that are not in demand. The decision was made after the audit of passenger flow using an automated analysis system. “Due to the analysis, it became clear which trains run empty, what trains are used as local ones, where there is a lack of wagons,” the press service said citing Ukrzaliznytsia Director General Volodymyr Kozak. Such a complete analysis of passenger transportation has been performed for the first time for 20 years. About 23 trains will be cancelled by the end of the year. In addition, the frequency of the running of 13 trains will change.

TCDD no longer hold monopoly starting next year turkey: Turkey will end the state monopoly on railway transport and allow commercial companies to carry passengers and freight next year, “Vatan” newspaper reported, citing a government policy document. Starting with next year, the authorities will allow other companies to provide railway passenger and freight transport services on the Turkish railway network. The government will also reorganize TCDD in 2012.

CFR SA assigned the contract for the ERTMS installation on ChitilaCrivina section romania: CFR SA has assigned the contract for the execution of the ERTMS Level 2 on the railway section Chitila – Crivina to the consortium including Thales – Siemens - Nokia Siemens Networks who made a EUR 38.2 Million offer. The pilot project for the installation of the ERTMS Level 2 has a value of EUR 37 Million (VAT excluded). Chitila-Crivina section is located on Bucharest-Câmpina, part of the panEuropean Corridor IV.

Польша: Кабинет министров Польши утвердил план инвестиций в железнодорожную инфраструктуру на период 2011-2013 гг. План включает более 100 проектов общей стоимостью 20,44 млрд. злотых (4,6 млрд. евро). В мире: Латвийские железные дороги (LDz) намеревается осуществлять грузовые перевозки из Китая в Латвию через порты Казахстана. В мире: Турция ратифицировала соглашение о создании сети высокоскоростного железнодорожного транспорта между восточноевропейскими сранами в рамках Проекта сотрудничества в Юго-Восточной Европе. Польша: Европейский инвестиционный

банк предоставит кредит в размере 120 миллионов евро на реабилитацию и восстановление участка 58 километров линии. Россия: 50% акций оператора ТрансКонтейнер могут быть выставлены на продажу до конца первого квартала 2012 года. Украина: Украинская компания Укрзалізниця отменит поезда, пользующиеся низким спросом. Такое решение было принято по результатам оценки количества пассажиров, проведённой с помощью автоматической системы проведения анализов. Турция: Начиная с 2012 года Турция утратит свою монополию на Турецкие железные дороги.


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10 news Boosting business competitiveness and SMEs 2014 – 2020 international: With a budget of EUR 2.5 Billion over the period 2014-2020, the Programme for the Competitiveness of Enterprises and SMEs, COSME is a funding instrument tabled by the European Commission, which is largely continuing the activities under the current Competitiveness and Innovation programme (CIP). The new programme targets in particular: entrepreneurs, in particular SMEs, which will benefit from easier access to funding for their business, citizens who want to become self-employed and face difficulties in

Serbia launches tender for Belgrade line serbia: The state-owned railway operator JP Zeleznice Srbije said it called a tender for the upgrade of a section of the Belgrade –Nis railway line. The company will use proceeds of the European Investment Bank loan to finance the reconstruction of the Gilje-CuprijaParacin railway section, in central Serbia.

Accelerating the development of “ticketing” and improving passenger mobility in Europe international: On 23 November, at the second CER Information Session on Ticketing in the European Parliament, the Community of European Railway and Infrastructure Companies (CER) presented the rail sector’s ticketing strategy. With this approach, the European railways aim to define common conditions for making information on timetables and fares available to third parties, ahead of the implementation of the related European legislation. By strengthening their collaboration in this field, CER members committed to accelerate the “distribution of rail services”, responding to increasing expectations not only from passengers but also politicians. At the event, CER members presented the rail sector’s ticketing strategy, which was approved by the CEOs of European rail passenger operators at their meeting on 9 November in Frankfurt. The rail sector’s ticketing strategy is based on two main elements the use of a common European timetable database to offer complete European rail timetable information to www.railwaypro.com | December 2011

setting up or developing their own business, as well as Member States’ authorities, which will be better assisted in their efforts to elaborate and implement effective policy reform. European Commission Vice President Antonio Tajani, responsible for enterprises and industry, said: “Easing SMEs access to finance, markets and entrepreneurship policies, is key to overcome the crisis. This programme will help to unlock the growth potential of enterprises focusing on boosting the real industry. We will strengthen competitiveness of businesses and create new jobs, and ultimately reinforce the growth potential of the EU economy.”

AS and EVR Cargo AS. After the split, the state will continue to be the sole shareholder of both companies.

EUR 7 Billion for Galileo and EGNOS programmes third party ticket vendors on a commercial basis. By doing this, the European railways will anticipate the deadline set in the related European legislation (TAP TSI). They will also provide to third parties a comprehensive, unique and updated set of information for the whole European network and the establishment of a technical interface for fare information exchange. Estonia initiates the process for separating state-owned railway company international: The Government gave the minister of economic affairs the mandate to split Estonian Railways into two separate companies. The measure was made to observe the European Commission’s requirements that the management of infrastructure and freight flows would be separated to ensure transparency and independence. The railway company’s assets, with all the ensuing rights and obligations, will be divided by the end of 2012 between two recently established spin-offs: EVR Infra

В мире : С бюджетом в размере 2,5 млрд. евро на период 2014 – 2020 гг., Программа конкурентоспособности предприятий малого и среднего бизнеса, COSME, является инструментом финансирования Европейской комиссии, который в основном продолжает мероприятия, проводимые в рамках нынешней программы конкурентоспособности и инноваций. Сербия : Железные дороги Сербии (Zeleznice Srbije) объявили тендер на модернизацию железнодорожного участка Белград - Нис. Компания возьмёт кредит в Европейском инвестиционном банке на реконструкцию линии Гилье-КуприяПарачин. В мире : 23 ноября в рамках второй Информационной сессии Ассоциации компаний железных дорог и инфраструктуры (CER), организованной при Европарламенте, Ассоциация представила стратегию системы проездных билетов в сфере

INTERNATIONAL: The European Commission proposed, on November 30th, the new framework for the financing and governance of the two European satellite navigation programmes Galileo and EGNOS (GPS signal augmentation) for the period 20142020. The Commission proposes to earmark EUR 7.0 Billion to guarantee the completion of the EU satellite navigation infrastructure and to ensure the exploitation of the systems until 2020, such as the operations of the space and terrestrial infrastructures, the necessary replenishment/replacement activities, certification procedures, and notably the provision of services. The proposal also recalls that the Union remains the owner of the systems. Therefore the management of the programmes’ exploitation should be delegated to the European GNSS Agency while management of the programmes’ deployment should be delegated to the European Space Agency. „Both Galileo and EGNOS are strongly contributing to our industrial competiveness and innovation in key железных дорог. Таким подходом европейские железные дороги нацелены на определение общих условий для обеспечения доступа третьим сторонам к расписанию поездов и тарифам на проезд. В мире : Правительство Эстонии уполномочило Министерство Бизнеса разделить Эстонские железные дороги на две компании. Такая мера была принята для соблюдения требований Европейской комиссии насчёт разделения администрирования железнодорожной инфраструктуры от транспортных услуг. В мире : Согласно последнему отчёту о пересмотре инвестиций Трансъевропейской транспортной сети (TEN-T), средства, выделенные ЕС на проекты инфраструктуры оказались существенными для запуска или внедрения 90% проектов, включенных в Европейский экономический план восстановления (EERP).


news 11 sectors with great economic potential. The increase of our know-how satellite navigation technology and service will significantly support European industry in these difficult times”, Vice President Antonio Tajani, responsible for industry and entrepreneurship said. GCC to spend $79bn on rail projects INTERNATIONAL: The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries are planning to spend Dh290bn ($79bn) between 2011 and 2020 in railway projects, including metros, trams, and stations, according to a new study by Kuwait-based investment bank, Kuwait Financial Centre or Markaz. Among the GCC countries Qatar will be investing $28.7bn, Saudi Arabia $20.2bn, the UAE $11.8bn, Kuwait $10bn, Bahrain $6bn and Oman $2.5bn. The investment includes $30bn on the pan-GCC rail network which will be shared among the member countries, includes one rail line spanning 1,970 km connecting all GCC countries and Qatar with a bridge. The second line will span 1,984km through Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and the UAE, and end in Oman and after the completion of the entire line built to provide an alternative travel link through GCC countries which is currently linked by road or air. About $3.1bn is estimated to be spent on land acquisition for the project, while the cost of purchasing new trains and locomotives is estimated at $1.8bn.

В мире : 30 ноября Европейская комиссия предложила новые рамки финансирования и управления двумя европейскими программами спутниковой навигации Галилео и EGNOS (для усиления сигналов GPSнавигаторов) на период 2014-2020 гг. В мире : Государства-участники Совета сотрудничества стран Персидского залива (GCC) намереваются инвестировать 79 миллиардов долларов в железнодорожные проекты, том числе касающиеся метро, трамвайных проектов и станций в период 2011-2020 гг. Это указывается в исследовании, проведённом инвестиционным банком Kuwait Financial Centre. Грузия: Железнодорожная компания Грузии зарегистрировала общий рост доходов на 20% за первые девять месяцев 2011 года по сравнению с аналогичным периодом прошлого года. В мире: Официальные представители Ирана заявили о том, что Россия и Азербайджан выразили готовность создать партнёрство по внедрению проекта Казвин – Рашт – Астара на севере Ирана

EU funding essential to kick-start investment in growth international: European Union funding for infrastructure projects has proved to be crucial for the launch or implementation of 90% of the projects covered by the European Economic Recovery Plan (EERP), according to a new report. The mid-term review of Trans-European Transport Network (TEN-T) investment into EERP concluded that the funding has been vital for attracting further investment from the private sector and public authorities. This review was carried out to assess the progress of individual EERP funded projects and to measure

Georgian Railways revenues up by 20% georgia: Georgian Railways revenues increased by 20 percent in the first nine months of 2011 compared to the same period last year. Revenue from freight traffic, both dry and bulk cargo, increased by 23 percent, the company said. According to the company, in JanuarySeptember 2011, net income amounted to GEL 144.5 Million (EUR 65.4 Million).

the extent to which the Plan is meeting its objective of contributing to boosting the European economy and speeding up transport construction in Member States. The EU launched EERP in response to the financial crisis of 2008, and as a part of this, €500 million of TEN-T funds were advanced to 2009. Mature projects were selected to allow a prompt start in 2009, and investment continued in 2010. The present mid-term review covered all the 36 construction projects cofinanced (out of 99 eligible project proposals). The selected projects reflect TEN-T’s commitment to environmentally friendly modes, with 18 actions being rail, multi-modal port and inland waterway projects.

Astara (Iran) to Astara (Azerbaijan), the design of construction and other issues. The $400-million North-South transport corridor envisages creation of a single railway from Europe through Russia, Azerbaijan and Iran to India and South-East Asia. Most of the work will be done in Iran, which has no rail link to the border with Azerbaijan. Certain work worth $35-40 million is planned to be conducted in Azerbaijan.. Deutsche Bahn and SNCF, partners for high-speed services international: From March 2012, Deutsche Bahn and SNCF will jointly propose high-speed services between Frankfurt and Marseilles, on the new line Rhine-Rhone. The line will be served by double-decked trains, a single daily connection being planned for the beginning. A second connection will be introduced later. The new line will permit reducing the travel time between the two cities by 90 minutes.

Russia, Azerbaijan ready to partner in Iran’s railway project international: Iranian officials informed that Russia and Azerbaijan have voiced their readiness for partnership in the implementation of the QazvinRasht-Astara railway project in Northern Iran. Director-General of International Affairs at Iranian Railways (RAI) Abbas Nazari said the three countries are due to hold a meeting within the next month to decide on signing a contract with an international consultation company to start preliminary studies. According to Nazari, the railway will be 75 km long and will cost $400 million. Also, Iranian, Russian and Azeri officials in a series of meetings in February discussed prospects of railway construction in the North-South Corridor project. They discussed creating a joint venture for the construction of the railway Qazvin-Rasht-

Georgian Railways to develop railway project without EBRD financing UKRAINE: Georgian Railways will pursue the construction of a new bypass to re-route rail traffic outside the centre of Tbilisi without financing from the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. The company has chosen to restructure the implementation of the project, which is designed to improve the efficiency and safety of rail operations and free more than 70 hectares of land in the Georgian capital for urban renewal projects. The EBRD had agreed last year to provide a EUR 100 Million loan to help fund new track and develop the key eastwest freight corridor, used for the transportation of oil and other products from Azerbaijan and central Asia to Georgia’s Black Sea ports and will now consider supporting other priority projects with the railways. December 2011 | www.railwaypro.com


12 news Development of PPPs in Central Asia and the Caucasus international: The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the Asian Development Bank have agreed to work together on a range of projects to build capacity and promote public-private partnerships across the Caucasus and Central Asia. A Memorandum of Understanding was thus signed which aims to strengthen and deepen cooperation in in 9 countries from this region, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Mongolia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. ”Both our institutions are strongly committed to helping unlock the region’s vast economic potential by supporting market-oriented, private sector development, boosting public-private partnerships and building the road, rail and energy networks necessary to facilitate growth in trade and commerce,” declared Thomas Mirow, EBRD President, at the signing ceremony.

Accelerating rail transport projects is important for TRACECA members international: On November 24, Romanian Minister of Transport and Infrastructure, Anca Boagiu, headed the works of the 9th Intergovernmental Committee Annual Reunion of EuropeCaucasus-Asia Transport Corridor (CIG TRACECA). The event was attended by officials from 13 member states of the Wider Black Sea Area, South Caucasus and Central Asia, two countries with the statute of observers, Lithuania and Turkmenistan, as well as representatives of the European Commission and experts of the technical assistance programmes carried out by EU under the aegis of TRACECA. The event held in Bucharest has also marked the takeover of the annual Presidency of TRACECA by Romania. Previously, the presidency was held by the Republic of Moldova. “We’ve started on this road as a political and technical project and today TRACECA is an economic project, whether we want it or not. The investment forum created in October 2010 with the support of the European Commission is an excellent example of linking the development needs of the member states to the global financial market. I am very content that the second edition will take place in February, during the Romanian Presidency. I suggest we should jointly identify the means of making this forum permanent over the next period. The forum is necessary because the priority projects for each member state are too many and necessary investments too high not to use every opportunity of attracting investors and financing sources. My top priority is connecting TRACECA to the TEN-T”, said Romanian Minister Anca Boagiu. The representatives of the TRACECA Corridor member states talked about some of the most important transport projects www.railwaypro.com | December 2011

included in the national strategies. For Armenia, TRACECA Corridor is important from the point of view of connecting its network to the European network. An important project is the NorthSouth Corridor that would link Armenia to Iran, foreign investors expressing their high interest in this project. The national railway transport operator is interested in building a 40-km long railway line, the actual works being due to begin in 2012. Moreover, a railway line linking Yerevan to its airport will be built. The representative of Azerbaijan, Akif Mustafaev, has underlined the importance of providing EU financing for TRACECA’s development. At the same time, Mustafaev talked about Azerbaijan’s plans of purchasing coaches, locomotives and of improving the railway infrastructure, a project which requires USD 1.5 Billion, 40% of which will come from the World Bank and the rest, from the state budget. Georgia’s representative highlighted the importance of political reforms so that the transport sector would become the driving force of the country’s economic development. The Iranian Shahriar Afandizadeh talked about the plans of his country of building railway connections with Afghanistan and Turkmenistan. An agreement for building a new railway line, measuring 900 km and linking Turkey to the Persian Gulf via Iran, is also in force. The link to Afghanistan

includes the construction, starting with 2012, of a 140-km long railway line, the first 106 km being located in Iran. The representative of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Azat Bekturov, talked about the plans of its government on transport development by 2015, the infrastructure requiring funds of USD 19 Billion. Kazakhstan plans to build 1,500 km of new railways. “By December 2011, we plan to finalise the new railway line that will boost traffic volumes with China by reducing the distance between the two countries by 500 km. We also plan to finalize the railway line to Turkmenistan by December 2011, thus cutting the travel distance by 600 km. By 2020, Kazakhstan aims to finalize the construction of another 1,200 km of railways and the electrification of over 1,000 km of railway lines”, pointed out Bekturov. The delegates of TRACECA countries have emphasized the importance of accelerating transport projects for faster connections in the Eurasian area. “The construction of a corridor can begin with governmental agreements, but finalizes only when the private market considers profitable the traffic through that corridor. And a corridor becomes profitable when the transit of cargo along that specific corridor becomes not only cheap and fast, but also safe. This has to be the absolute priority of TRACECA’s efforts”, underlined Romanian Minister Anca Boagiu.

В мире: Начиная с марта 2012 года, SNCF и Deutsche Bahn будут предлагать совместные услуги высокоскоростного транспорта по маршруту, соединяющему Франкфурт и Марсель, по новой линии РинРон. В мире.: Европейский банк реконструкции и развития (ЕБРР) и Азиатский банк развития (АБР) договорились о сотрудничестве по внедрению ряда проектов и по продвижению государственно-частных партнёрств в Центральной Азии и на Кавказе. В мире: Грузинские железные дороги продолжат строительство новой кольцевой

линии вокруг столицы Тбилиси, но без финансирования ЕБРР. Компания выбрала в пользу реструктуризации внедрения проекта, направленного на повышение эффективности и безопасности железнодорожных операций, оставляя 70 гектаров земли для проектов городского восстановления столицы. В мире: Министр транспорта и инфраструктуры, Анка Боаджиу, 24 ноября возглавила работы Девятой ежегодной встречи Межправительственной комиссии транспортного коридора Европа-КавказАзия (CIG TRACECA). По этому случаю, Румыния приняла председательство в TRACECA, по принципу ротации.


13


14 news Metrorex signed contracts totalling over EUR 100 Million romania: On November 29, 2011, Metrorex signed two contracts for the acquisition of 16 underground trains and control systems for protection and operation to be installed on these trains. The supplier of underground trains, Construcciones y Auxiliar de Ferrocarriles (CAF), signed the contract worth EUR 97 Million, VAT excluded and Bombardier signed the EUR 4.94 Million contract for the delivery of 16 sets of ATP and ATO systems. “The acquisition of the underground trains will make possible the replacement of the existing vehicles. The trains are equipped with passenger information systems and with special spaces for the transport of bicycles. The underground trains will be assembled in Romania. The systems provided by Bombardier

BKV needs subsidies again hungary: BKV, the Hungarian public transport company, needs additional state subsidies of HUF 6 Billion (EUR 19 Million) in December and another HUF 9 Billion (EUR 28.5 Million) in January, declared Mayor Istvan Tarlos. Without these additional emergency subsidies, the company risks “falling apart in weeks”, added Istvan Tarlos. This amount adds to the HUF 5 Billion funds (EUR 15.9 Million) that the company will receive soon.

will make transport safe and comfortable”, declared the Romanian Minister of Transport, Anca Boagiu. The new underground trains have six cars connected by gangways, traction and braking systems controlled by microprocessors, stainless steel body cases, an improved system of support handles for passengers, self-blocking sliding doors and protection system in case people are caught between doors. Gheorghe Udrişte, the Executive Director of Metrorex, said: “Trains might be assembled in Bucharest and we also have the possibility to extend the procurement contract by another 8 vehicles to be put in service on a single line”. The underground transport operator plans to purchase up to 60 underground trains, EIB and the state budget providing funds for 21 trains. Studies for launching the tender will be elaborated for the rest.

Alstom and TMH will build an express tram network in St. Petersburg russia: Alstom and Transmashholding

(TMH), have signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the city of Saint Petersburg which establishes a programme of cooperation for the development of a modern tramway network. Under the terms of this agreement, Alstom and TMH will develop a new model of express tramway, fitted with a low floor throughout, entirely modular and adapted to the climatic conditions of the region to meet the needs of the city of Saint Petersburg. Under the agreement’s framework, Alstom and TMH will also be providing the city with consulting services for questions related to the organisation of urban transport networks, project management and the optimisation of passenger flows.

Innovia APM 300 technology for Munich Airport. Under the agreement signed with Terminal 2 Betriebsgesellschaft MBH & Co, Bombardier will design, build and deliver the rolling stock and operate and maintenance the Innovia APM 300 automated network. The contract is estimated at around EUR 89 Million. The order includes the delivery of 12 Innovia APM 300 vehicles and the automated Bombardier CityFlo 650 train control technology. The automated network will connect the airport’s terminal 2 and its extension. The distance between the two terminus points will be covered in less than 1 minute by the automated trains. The network will be finalized in 2014. The metro extension is part of a GBP 1.4 billion (EUR 1.6 Bln) Metrolink expansion plan that will treble the size of the network with planned extensions to East Didsbury, Ashton under Lyne, Oldham, and Rochdale lines. Siemens to deliver Avenio trams to Hague International: Siemens has been awarded a contract from HTM Materieel B.V. Operator in Hague consisting in the delivery of 40 4-car low floor Avenio trams. The order amounts to over EUR 100 Million. The contract for the 40 vehicles, including driver training, documentation and spare parts, includes an option for another 40 Avenio trams. The vehicles will be manufactured in Vienna and delivered to the customer as from February 2014.

Bombardier wins new contract in Munich International: Bombardier announced the company had won another order for the delivery of the

First automated underground trains in Paris international: The first underground trains in Paris have begun running on Line 1. The line is the oldest and the most crowded on the network in Paris and carries a daily 750,000. By December 2012, Line 1 will also be served by conventional trains, RATP said. For now, 8 automated trains and 37 conventional trains will run on the line. Two new automated trains will be integrated in the network every month. The project is financed by RATP with EUR 600 Million. www.railwaypro.com | December 2011

Румыния: Компания “Метрорекс” подписала два договора на приобретение 16 поездов метро и систем контроля защиты и управления, которыми будут оснащены эти поезда. Общая сумма составляет 100 миллионов евро. Венгрия: BKV нуждается в дополнительных субсидиях от государства в размере 19 миллионов евро в декабре, а в январе - ещё 28,5 миллионов евро. В мире: По магистрали 1 парижского метро были запущены первые поезда с автоматическим управлением. Магистраль 1 является наиболее старой и наиболее загруженной магистрали парижского метрополитена.

В мире: Компания “Сименс” получила контракт со стороны гаагского оператора HTM Materieel B.V. на поставку 40 трамваев Avenio с четырьмя вагонами и низким полом. Россия: Альстом и Трансмашхолдинг (ТМХ) подписали меморандум понимания с властями Ст. Петребурга на составление программы сотрудничества для развития современной трамвайной сети. Сербия: Представители правительства Сербии, правительства Франции и города Белграда подписали декларацию для осуществления проекта белградского метро.


news 15 France and Serbia sign Belgrade Underground agreement serbia: The representatives of the Serbian Government, of the French Government and of Belgrade Municipality signed a declaration of intent for Belgrade Underground project.

Wireless internet in Irkutsk public transport INTERNATIONAL: Irkutsk authorities

(Siberia) have launched an innovative project to install Wi-Fi Internet network in public transport. Equipment, providing free access to Internet, has been installed in two trolleybuses and two trams. The respected routes have been selected because they are widely-used by students. In the future, the authorities plan the extension of the free internet access on all tram and trolley-bus lines. Paris tests “freight tram” international: RATP and the Transport Union of Ile de France will carry out a test from November 14 to December 10 called “TramFret” (Freight Tram) which consists in adding freight transport units to Paris trams. In the testing period, two units will be daily integrated from Monday to Saturday on a

The Serbian Government will grant guarantees to Belgrade Municipality to support the project development, said the Deputy Prime Minister, Bozidar Djelic. In turn, France will grant EUR 3.8 Million for the drafting of the feasibility study and will finance the development of the first phase of the project. The underground will be finalized in 2017.

8-km section. The traffic of these units will permit testing “several opportunities to add freight transport wagons to passenger coaches”. The project is aimed at revealing the tram network from a large part of the freight carried in trucks. “1 Million deliveries take place daily in the Ile-de-France region, 90% of which via road transport”, Paris Municipality informs. RATB, Metrorex and CFR Călători to analyse the possibility of developing intermodal train-bus stations international: With the establishment of the Bucharest Metropolitan Transport Authority and until its operation, Bucharest Surface Transport Operator (RATB), together with Metrorex and CFR Călători representatives, will analyse the establishment of intermodal stations (train-bus) on Bucharest’s ring to ensure the transfer of passengers from railway stations to public transport

stations in Bucharest (either surface or underground). The traffic of buses and trains will be thus synchronized so that vehicles would run every 30 minutes. Also, RATB will extend its transport network to big commercial centres and new residential districts in Bucharest by expanding the already existing lines and setting up new ones. В мире: Bombardier получил новый заказ на поставку технологии Innovia APM 300 для Мюнхенского аэропорта. В мире: Средства общественного транспорта города Иркутск (Сибирь) будут оснащены беспроводной сети Интернет. Румыния: RATP и Транспортный профсоюз региона Иль-де-Франс запустят новый эксперимент в период 14 ноября - 10 декабря под названием „TramFret”. Румыния: Одновременно с созданием Бухарестского Метрополитенного транспортного управления, RATB совместно с представителями Метрорекс и ЧФР Кэлэторь рассматривают обустройство интермодальных станций (поезд-автобус) на кольцевой дороге вокруг столицы.

December 2011 | www.railwaypro.com


16 Policies & Strategies require determined These elements are Whilst someMaritime of the life-cycleshipping GHG reductions are In particular, the number of new alternat futureactions. reductions of NO and PM. discussed further in the next two sections. There X expected to be made in upstream emissions from are regulated by the flaring and venting emissions ofregulations NOXȹŠ—Â?Čą fuelled cars has rapidly increased in the l will also be a need for future of vehicle conventional fuels (e.g. reduced X GHG performance to shift from direct tailpipe at oil production sites), it is currently anticipated Maritime years, possibly influenced by a combinat emissionsInternational to include full life-cycle emissions of Organisation that a significant(IMO) part of thewith reductions will be transport MARPOL energy carriers. The former elements will theachieved through theappear increased use Annex VI, but provisions toof biofuels. economic incentives and improved cost-e contribute substantially beyond the efforts made have led The to little improvement in specific emissions compared to conventional fuels, due to h on improving efficiency. use of hydrogen could The RED (EC, 2009b) also set a target for all Member eventually complete the picture for a substantial Â?ŠÂ?ÂŽÂœČąÂ?Â˜ČąÂ›ÂŽÂŠÂŒÂ‘ČąÂŠČąĹ—Ĺ–ČąĆ–ČąÂœÂ‘ÂŠÂ›ÂŽČąÂ˜Â?ȹ›Ž—Ž Š‹•ŽȹŽ—Ž›Â?¢ȹ over the last decade. prices and cost sensitivity arising from th GHG reduction. in transport by 2020. Current projections show that this will be almost completely fulfilled by recession. In spite[of the total by this, Pamela Luică ] numbe biofuels providing that they meet the subsequent ofconcerning road Inquality terms ofenergy GHGs, the specific CO2 emissions is still really small. sustainability criteria — especially 6.1 Fuel and sources land use change.(Figure Biofuels' share has increased transport have decreased since 1995 6.3). European transport is currently dependant on fuels substantially in the last 10 years, from 0.2 % to The transport sector represents third the overall energy consumption the EEA member states the benefits of n derived from oil for 96 % ofdue total energy 4.3 % of petrol and diesel fuels;fuel however, most EUA in This isaround mainly to an improvement in the factor that has limited consumption (EC, 2011a). The upward trend in Ž–‹Ž›ȹÂ?ŠÂ?ÂŽÂœČąÂŠÂ›ÂŽČąÂ•Â’Â”ÂŽÂ•Â˘ČąÂ?Â˜ČąÂ?Š••ȹÂ?ÂŠÂ›ČąÂœÂ‘Â˜Â›Â?ČąÂ˜Â?ČąÂ?Â‘ÂŽČąĹ˜Ĺ–Ĺ—Ĺ–Čą (European Environment Agency) and is responsible for 1/5 the greenhouse gas emissions and, therefore, of peaked passenger car transport, transport efficiency energy consumption in 2007, with indicative targets discussed for biofuel use (see Box 2.12). technologies is the rate of market penetr for a significant percent of air pollution. However, at the same time, transports is a vital component of the subsequent declinein dueChapter to the economic further 7 crisis in the context of recent these technologies; the average age of m the signs society and off ofinthe and, long-run estimates indicate a constant increase of the transport showing of levelling 2010.economy Analysis Theas majority of biofuels are currently used within EU regulations setting CO2isthe limits foroil-dependent, new in the EEA hascannot increased by ove for the European Commission 2050 roadmap road96% transport sector, passenger although there also vehicles demand and the necessary energy still a issignificant increase of emissions indicates a reduction of 70 % on present levels of oil some limited use for rail and inland shipping. The cars and vans. The specific energy efficiency and from 1995 to 2010 for most be avoided. Transport-generated due to the financial downturn, but this is only a vehicle types consumption in transport will be needed by 2050 in emissions white paper dropped (EC, 2011a) also provides objectives for order to achieve the long-term GHG reduction target decarbonising transport fuels beyond the road and CO2 emissions heavy-duty has alsothe implicationthis is due to greater rates of purchase v temporary effect and of long-run positivetrucks results demand of authorities. (EC, 2011a). rail sectors: 'Low carbon sustainable fuels in aviation improved at a lower rate, but road transport still scrappage, and the number of cars per h consumes significantly more energy per tkm than population has also increased by over 30 Figure 6.1 Transport energy consumption (EEA-30) rail or ship freight transport. The trade-off between 1995. The numbers of buses and trucks h ccording to the annual report problem. to Thea lesser EU objective on — cutting Energyand consumption, TJ millions reduction insome air quality increased degree by 20 % ( In recent years, there has been limited progress pollutants Energy consumption, TJ fuel millions efficiency the European Environment emissions (by 60% by 2050 compared to in reducingof oil dependence. This has been achieved 20 primarily through the use mentioned of biofuels and vehicle already has aparticularly impacted the of population) anddifficult 10 % to(per eur Agency (EEA), which analyses 1990), “will be very meetmillion only technology improvements. Railway electrification has 18 set objectives proposed in European by technical means example, technoalsoof reduced oil dependence, with sector. the the share of Recent rail heavy truck work for the Commission respectively. This (for illustrates that new tec electrical energy consumption increasing to 61 % Commission’s Roadmap on aTransport, the future logical improvement have a rebound 16 recently, from 51 % in 1990. There are important need a long time tocan penetrate fully — an suggests that potential regulation beyond emissions of for several polluting gases effect – the optimisation of energy efficienair quality drivers switching to alternative fuels ge(historicallyEuro this was VI the primary reason for the from 2013) influence for the future, particularly if v (mandatory may further impede 14 nerated by transport dropped in 2009 as a cy will lead to an increase in the number of uptake of Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) and natural gas temporary consequence of thehas economic automotive vehicles)â€? Therefore, optimisin transport). However, recent emphasis moved GHG reduction progress (AEA, 2011). lifetimes increase further. 12

Recession has only cut emissions for a while Railways are still the best choice

A

primarily onto reducing life-cycle crisis. “The emissions levelGHG ofemissions, all transport ing the energy-efficiency for a better use although in many cases the use of low-carbon 10 pollutants dropped 2009 as the demand of vehicles and eliminating useless travels alternative fuels can also in have air quality benefits — particularly for electricity (and potentially also through plunged. However, this reduction is the will be absolutely indispensable and can the use of hydrogen in the longer term). 8 result of the economic downturn. It is nehelp reduce global emissions, optimise Recent amendments to the FQD (EC, 2009c) have set cessary a broader reorientation of the the air quality and reduce noise. Another 6 a requirement for a reduction in the life-cycle GHG Euemissionstransport from road transport supplied to the Figure 6.3fuels specific emissions of CO2 by mode of solution transport ropean system, soEstimated that emissions proposed that will(EEA-30) contribute to EU market. This puts an obligation on fuel suppliers 4 would not increase, not during strong meeting EU objectives is modal shifts to to reduce emissions by 6 % to even 10 % by 2020 (relative to 2010 fossilgrowth fuels). Progress against the Jacqueline FQD target economic periodsâ€?, said other sustainable means of transport and 2 will be evaluated in future TERM reports once annual Although specific emissions from maritime shipping are low, they the have not in the las McGlade, Executive Director EEA. stress fallsdropped on shiftingsignificantly transport demand progress reporting begins in 2012. 0 whilst the activity has substantially increased. amendments toroad MARPOL Consequently, new objectives includfrom and air Annex transportVIto Regulations railway and with 1990 1995 2000The 2005 recent 2006 2007 2008 2009 Road Biogasoline to lead Road diesel ed on EC’s agenda will further a waterway transport. GHG — discussed in this section —gasoline are expected to improvements in the future. Note: EU-27 plus Norway, Switzerland and represent Turkey. framework for2011. the drafting European, naBiodiesel Natural gas LPG Source: Eurostat, The numbers and fleet proportion of alternatively fuelled vehicles (AFVs) has steadily increased in th tional and localtotal policies and for approachRail electricity Rail gas/diesel oil Aviation gasoline ĐšŃ€Đ¸ĐˇĐ¸Ń with привёН ĐťĐ¸ŃˆŃŒ Đşnumbers of electr decade (see Box 2.13), and it isAviation anticipated that the trend will continue, increasing ing transport-related environment aspects. kerosene Ship diesel/gas oil Ship residual fuel oil vehicles. Đ˛Ń€ĐľĐźĐľĐ˝Đ˝ĐžĐźŃƒ Ń?Ń„Ń„ĐľĐşŃ‚Ńƒ The report indicates the fact that there are 70 % reduction of 2009 oil consumption Total oil derived fuels significant opportunities for solving this Source: Eurostat 2011 Ń ĐžĐşŃ€Đ°Ń‰ĐľĐ˝Đ¸Ń? Đ˛Ń‹ĐąŃ€ĐžŃ ĐžĐ˛

CO2 emissions (g/pkm) — passenger CO2 emissions (g/tkm) — freight ЖоНоСнаŃ? дОрОга ĐžŃ Ń‚Đ°Ń‘Ń‚Ń Ń? CO2 emissions (g/pkm) — passenger Đ˝Đ°Đ¸ĐťŃƒŃ‡ŃˆĐľĐš Đ°ĐťŃŒŃ‚ĐľŃ€Đ˝Đ°Ń‚Đ¸Đ˛ĐžĐš 100 51 Laying the foundations for greener transport 180 90

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140

70

120

60

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40

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40

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Rail stations can also be “green” [ by Elena Ilie]

Even though electric rail transport is considered to be a rather sustainable form of public transport, railway stations usually have soaring energy demands and high carbon footprint

T

o make the necessary step into a greener future, UK operator National Rail has decided to install 4,400 solar panels on the roof of the upgraded Blackfriars railway station in London. Work on the GBP 7.3 Million (EUR 8.8 Million) project started in October 2011 as part of the ambitious GBP 5.5 Billion (EUR 6.5 Billion) Thameslink project. The 6,000 m2 of panels are expected to generate enough energy to meet half the electricity needs of the station and reduce annual CO2 emissions by an estimated 511t. Built on the existing Victorian overpass spanning the River Thames, Blackfriars station will become the world’s largest solar bridge, once completed in 2012. Other countries have also shown commitment to develop renewable energy for rail stations. China’s Shanghai Hongqiao railway station, for instance, went on the grid in July 2010 with a 6.7MW solar roof integrated into the building’s awnings. Currently the world’s biggest greenhouse gas emitter, China also plans to open the most energy-efficient public building in China, with the instalment of 7MW solar modules on the roof of Nanjing South railway station. But this is not the only project of the kind in China, the modernisation of Beijing South railway station being another ambitious eco-friendly project. With construction completed in 2008, Beijing South Railway Station makes up one of four key railway stations for China’s new high speed rail network. The building is situated on a 320,000m² site. Natural ventilation is a key feature of this building via the canopy roofs while the skylight provides daylight. Another major feature is the solar panel set up. There are over 3,000 panels generating electricity, as the structure spreads out like a ‘ray’, which covers over 8,000m² along the perimeter. This design serves to reduce CO2 output considerably. Additional sustainable elements include the use of waste heat from urban discharge water along with a district heating and cooling system.

Beijing South Railway Station

Вокзалы тоже могут быть “зелёными” Несмотря на то, что электрифицированный железнодорожный транспорт считается надёжным видом общественного транспорта, обычно железнодорожные станции должны отвечать определённым требованиям в плане энергоэффективности и выбросов диоксида углерода, полученных в результате ежедневной деятельности.


18 Policies & Strategies

EU has started the countdown for emission reduction [ by Pamela Luică ]

UE’s ambition to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is more and more obvious due to the legislative regulations it initiates and the projects aimed to meet the set targets. Therefore, according to EU analyses, emissions need to be reduced by 80-95% until 2050 compared to 1990, while, at world level, a dramatic reduction of emissions is required for the purpose of limiting the climate changes to less than 2°C.

I

n order to accomplish the targets set in June, EC has adopted the new Energy Efficiency Directive, having in view the reduction of energy consumption by 20% until 2020 (in terms of quantity, this means 368 million tonnes). Only one month after the launch of the Directive, EC launched the financial instrument named the European Energy Efficiency Fund (EEE-F), which will grant funds amounting to EUR 265 Million and, additionally, EUR 20 Million as subsidies for project development services. The 6 measures indicated by EC are also based on the implementation of the other policy actions under the initiative within Europe 2020 Strategy for a resource-efficient Europe. As regards the energy saving potential, transports rank second. Until 2030, the target for the transport sector will be the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by almost 20 % compared to 2008. Considering the significant increase of emissions generated by transports during the past decades, this reduction would mean an 8% increase compared to 1990.

Source: europa.eu

of greenhouse gas emissions, in particular proaching emissions generated by sectors, in to meet new requirements arising from the particular the transport sector and will offer package of EU climate and energy laws for support for a better track of the progress with the period 2014-2020. meeting the emissions targets. “By improving transparency, coordination and the quality of data reported, the proposal contributes to keeping better track of our progress towards meeting our emisВ ЕС начался обратный sions targets. This proposal will also help счёт с точки зрения KEY FIGURES monitor and report emissions generated by сокращения выбросов sectors such as train operation, change of train destination and especially the aviation Амбиция ЕС сократить выбросы газов с KEY FIGURES Stricter rules are necessary and maritime transport sectors”, declared парниковым эффектом с каждым днём всё Connie Hedegaard, European Commisболее подчёркивается законодательством, Another project aimed at cutting emis- sioner for Climate Action. котороеto принимается  Reduction ofend theofgreenhouse gasproposal emissions by five 20% compared 1990 на его территории, sions was presented by EC at the The legislative includes main а также проектами, которые внедряются EU final energy consumption November 2011, legislation that intends targets aimed at facilitating the development для достижения поставленных целей. to enhance the Energy monitoring and reporting of EU innovative policies by apindustries are responsible for 35%climate of CO2 emissions. Таким образом, в соответствии с ort and industry consume more than half of the total final energy Transport justby after with 30% of CO2 emissions. анализами, проведёнными в ЕС, до 2050 EU, while a quarter of final energy iscomes consumed households.

7. EU ENERGY TARGETS: 20-20-20 BY 2020

Final energy consumption by

CO2 emissions by sector in 2009

sector (2009) Final energy consumption by sector (2009)

CO2 emissions by sector in 2009

Agriculture 2%

Residential 11%

Services 13%

Other 7%

Industry 24%

Energy Industries 35%

Households 27%

Transport 33%

Transport 30% Indus try and Construction 18%

Source: Eurostat May 2011 Source: Eurostat May 2011

www.railwaypro.com | December 2011

Eurostat May 2011

Market Observatory for Energy

года необходимо обеспечить снижение выбросов на 80-95% по сравнению с уровнем 1990 года, а на мировом уровне жестко требуется сократить выбросы в целях ограничения климатических изменений на менее 2°C. Для достижения целей, поставленных в июне месяце, Европейская комиссия приняла новую Директиву по обеспечению энергоэффективности, предусматривающую снижение энергопотребления на 20% до 2020 года (в количественном выражении, речь идёт о сокращении в размере 368 миллионов тонн).

Market Observatory for Energy 14

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20 ASSET MANAGEMENT

Space consumption, an important factor in the development of transport systems [ by Teodor Turcu ]

The space issue of every means of transport varies according to a series of factors, density being the most important. Moreover, every transport mode has unique performance and space consumption characteristics.

T

he most relevant example is the automotive vehicle. It needs space for mobility (roads), but at the same time, it spends 98% of its existence in a parking space. Consequently, a significant quantity of urban space has to be allocated for hosting cars, especially when they are parked and their economic and social utility is null. The space necessary to a standing car varies from around 10 m2, if the car is parked on one of the traffic lanes of the road, and 25 m 2, in a special parking lot, or even 14 square m in an individual garage, plus an almost equivalent access area. As for the space occupied in traffic by

automotive vehicles, for the traffic of a car in an area with a maximum speed of 30 km/h, , the road has to have 3 m in width and for speeds of 70 km/h, the necessary width of the road is 3.5m. If we consider that, for speeds exceeding 50 km/h, it is necessary to carry out different works for protecting the citizens by the risk generated for high-speed traffic, then we will see that the width of the road reservation is much broader than that necessary for a traffic lane (for example, for the traffic at high speed of a 2 m-wide vehicle, the road reservation can reach 9 m). The traffic of a vehicle on a route at similar speeds does

Modal split of inland passenger transport, 2000 and 2008 (% of total inland passenger-km)

not require such a space consumption. The other dimension which conditions the size of the dynamics space corresponding to traffic refers to the space between the vehicles that follow one another on the respective route. It depends on the speed. We can noticed that in the speed area between 20 and 40 km/h, a vehicle consumes around 1.2 m2 • h/km (minimum value!) and at 130 km/h, the space consumption will reach around 4 m2 • h/km. Many of the transit systems, such as buses and trams, which use public space with vehicles, affect to a certain extent, their efficient traffic. The attempt of easing congestion has led to creating a special traffic lane for buses. Other transport systems, such as conventional railway transport and underground transport, have their own infrastructures and, consequently, their own infrastructure access rights. Space consumers in transport are also

Потребления пространства в сфере транспорта В городской среде, где пространства не хватает, способы обеспечения соответствия требованиям по мобильности (общественный транспорт – метро, трамвай, автобус, такси, индивидуальный транспорт – автомобиль, мотоцикл/скутер, велосипед, ходьба пешком) существенно отличаются с точки зрения потребляемого пространства. Пространство, необходимое для стоянки автомобиля, например, варьирует от около 10 м2, если стоянка расположена вдоль дороги, до 25 м2, на обустроенной стоянке, или 14 м2 в индивидуальном гараже, в котором требуется примерно столько же пространства для обеспечения доступа. Для сравнения, мотоциклу нужно в 10 раз меньше места, чем для автомобиля, а пассажиру, пользующемуся услугами общественного транспорта, так же как и пешеходу, нужно очень мало пространства. www.railwaypro.com | December 2011


Space - time consumption per km covered by car according to traffic speed

On track for tomorrow.

Source: Heran, F, Ravalet 2008

transport terminals and the spaces dedicated to transport services. The quantity of space dedicated to facilities such as ports, airports, transit stations, end stations and distribution centres has increased due to the urban population growth and implicitly to freight traffic. The railway system has a complex structure that, apart from the rolling track, includes many component elements such as the spaces for the general organisation of exploitation and traffic, construction and installation projects, sections for the maintenance of stations, lines and installations, sections for the revision of cars, depots, general and capital overhaul sections for rolling stock. Without these components, the corresponding technical state of the means of transport and thus the safety and continuity of transport services cannot be ensured. Due to an appropriate land coverage, road transport disposes of a total mobility, while the mobility of railway and inland waterway transport is limited. Significant differences occur between the different technical transport systems from the point of view of transport capacity. If we compare road with rail transport, an automotive trailer can carry between 20 and 40 tonnes, compared to one wagon which can carry between 50 and 80 tonnes, according to the number of axles and the axle load. Although the comparison between the unitary capacities of the means of the different systems provides a first important orientation, it should be considered that in some technical transport systems, exploitation is not made in simple units, but in sets of wagons. Here we can also notice the superiority of the railways which can carry 2,000-3,000 tonnes or even more, depending on the infrastructure capacity. The railways can only be overrun by a set of flatboats which can carry up to 10,00020,000 tonnes. As regards passenger transport, if a simple bus for urban and suburban transport has a capacity of 60 – 100 seats, a modular tram can carry up to 300 passengers, while an underground train between 2,000 and 3,000 passengers. In interurban transport, a passenger train with 10 coaches can carry up to 600/1,800 passengers on seats. All the above examples prove a significant space saving for railway transports, compared to other land transport modes. Therefore, railway transport can carry large freight volumes and a high number of passengers while using less space for the traffic of railway vehicles, compared to the same freight volumes and the same number of passengers carried by other transport modes. At the same time, the costs per tonne-km and energy consumption per tonne-km are 5 times higher for road transport compared to railways.

Pablo Castagnola, MadAngels

DB International: Innovative, efficient and sustainable mobility and transport solutions Project development, consulting and engineering for rail-bound systems The railway know-how of the Deutsche Bahn is renowned worldwide. International clients benefit from our experience for their transport projects – from conception through to realisation. More mobility and frictionless transport. Our goal is to provide every client all services from a single source – through to taking over operator responsibility. Our ambitious and fascinating international projects offer interesting career opportunities. To reinforce our teams around the world, we are constantly looking for accomplished experts and motivated young professionals.

www.db-international.de


22 ASSET MANAGEMENT

Supercapacitive energy storage

Efficient exploitation of locomotives „ Supercapacitors are new components that can be used for short-dur reduces polluting emissions energy storage. In diesel-electric railway system supercapacitors can [ by same Teodor Turcu used for recuperation of braking energy (as the role] of the Friction control measure regenerative braking system) or for changing in the diesel engine

Using efficient technologies for improving fuel consumption could be an important alternative for a control. A storage system is added in the locomotive. more energy-efficient railway transport. The fuel consumption optimization systems of the locomotives help saving fuel and protect the environment. „ Some energy expended by the train is lost to wheel-to-rail friction.

Reductions in wheel-to-rail resistance can be made via improved lubrication. Efficient lubrication systems, such as top-of-rail lubricat systems, reduce wheel and rail wear and reduce fuel consumption

W

Supercapacitive energy storage hen it comes for cost-saving, be- research study y -demonstrated that friction control measures r „ An US EU 27 2020 EU 27 - 2050 sides the traction force and the wear and improves curving forces, which should be considered efficiency degree, thererail are also other factors, such as the extent to which the economic CO2 saving on total emissions CO2 saving on total emissions overall cost/benefit analysis engine capacity is used and fuel consumpfrom rail from rail tion, the latter expressing the value of an efficient exploitation. As a result, manufacturers 0.3% 4.5% have designed technologies and instruments Friction control measure that permit operators to identify the profile of emissions for each locomotive, so that the EU 27 - 2020 EU 27 - 2050 engine drivers would be able to work with t IEA- GHG- TransPoRD workshop the lowest energy-consumption possible. J o i nCO2 saving on total emissions CO2 saving on total emissions An engine driver assistance programme 1 7 t h – 1 8 t h J u n e P a r i s 2 0 1 0 from rail from rail records route indicators, such as travel time and fuel consumption, which are mostly 0 7% 0.7% 1 9% 1.9% dependent on external factors such as the interruption or obstruction of lines, curves, Source: TRT Transporti e Territorio declivities, natural phenomena etc. Once are leaves on the rails or other factors which possible conditions, the temperature of the this data is known, indicators can be calcu- reduce the adhesion force. Vossloh has de- engine has to drop under 600 C. For solving lated with high precision. “Using a driver’s veloped a protection equipment called VSP this problem, manufacturers have developed assistance program, such as Vossloh DriverJ o i (Vossloh n t I E ASlip - GProtection), H G - T r a which n s P oprevents R D w o rautomated k s h o p start-stop systems for the diesel Assistance, which informs the engine driver the wheel sliding by permanently monitoring engine, an example being the system cret h t h 18 J and u n controlling e P a r i s the 2 0driving 10 about the traction requirements necessary1 7 their–acceleration ated by Vossloh, VED - Vossloh Eco Drive, for the respective route and provides data on couple to maintain the adhesion force stable. which permits the restart of the engine with the necessity to accelerate or decelerate, al- In case the wheel starts sliding, the traction no risk of wear. This system also stops the enlows saving up to 12% more fuel”, declared force is reduced until the wheel returns to a gine in long idleness periods and starts the Andreas Hopmann, Executive Manager, state of adhering friction. pre-heater to maintain the engine at perfect Vossloh Locomotives GmbH. In many situations, 80% of the life expect- temperature and ready to go. Another source of fuel consumption and ancy of a shunting locomotive is consumed component wear is the wheel slide. Every in expectancy periods when the diesel entime the wheels of a locomotive start slid- gine is started. Engineers motivate this pracOverview of theis submitted selected ing, the whole locomotive to anmeasures tice by explaining that the regular stop of the increased pressure. The potential occurrence engine requires many restarts which wear the Современные дизельные of sliding increases it rains,the snows, if there starter. To restart theeach locomotive in the best Graph belowifshows scope of implementation for selected Scope of by implementation for each selected measure by taking into account measure taking into account the whole demand segment withinthe the rail scenario whole demand segment within the rail scenario Hybrid shunting 1

40 Supercapacitors 14

Red duction p potential (%))

35

Ограничение вредных выбросов газов и твёрдых частиц двигателей, предстоящих монтажу на мобильных машинах, не предназначенных для дорожного движения, составляет предмет ДИРЕКТИВЫ 97/68/CE. Дизельные двигатели оснащены фильтрами для вылавливания частиц, катализатором, а также другими системами снижения содержания вредных веществ, установленными европейскими директивами. Начиная с 31 декабря 2011 года будет осуществлён переход к новому порогу ограничений уровня вредных выбросов дизельных двигателей, предназначенных для железнодорожной тяги.

30 Regenerative braking

25 20

75 Aerodynamic efficiency

15

Energy efficiency

41

10

Innovative bogie

5

11 Low

11 Friction control Medium

Source: TRT Transporti e Territorio

Light weight material High

Feasibility y

Joint IEA- GHG- TransPoRD workshop

www.railwaypro.com | December 2011 th th 17

– 18

Scope (%)

100

June Paris 2010

двигатели - основные источники ограничения вредных выбросов

TRT Trasporti e Territorio


ASSET MANAGEMENT

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The design of stations has to meet urban requirements [ by Pamela Luică ]

Transport modes have specific operating requirements and with these particular characteristics, each means of transport has to consolidate operation and the access to other mobility means and facilities. This is one of the reasons why surface or underground public transport stations have to be structured in conformity with performance and design standards that provide a fundamental framework for setting a platform between all the activities carried out in a station and the actual means of transport so as to minimize conflicts and maximize efficiency. Elements such as parking areas, furniture, operating equipments, shelters and land planning provide comfort, accessibility and improve the passengers’ life quality.

I

ntermodal facilities has to benefit from a design which provides a safe and easy transfer for passengers, necessary information and which encourages efficiency in operation thus simplifying intermodal shift and the takeover of passengers, minimizing congestion and supplying the best services possible at reasonable costs. “To meet citizens’ needs, the challenge consists in delivering simple and userfriendly transport services. We have to overcome the obstacles generated by technical aspects, to supply real-time information, especially in intermodal stations, as their role is important in ensuring the passenger flow. Public transport is an efficient solution serving as sustainable means of transport, consuming little space and less energy. Our purpose is to provide an efficient operating process, which has to be transparent, and this requires a strong industrial process. From the point of view of public transport, the first problem is to understand and to integrate main elements with the citizens’ lifestyle”, declared Patrick Vautier, Marketing Manager, RATP Dev, Paris, France.

A realistic station For a better integration of the functions of a station, of the design of efficient and sustainable spaces, and for increasing eco-design and harmonised integration, RATP has initiated and developed the “Osmose Station” project, using the help of architects. The project approaches the “station of the future” concept that changes the perspective of functionality, mobility and connection between the means of transport and the city, relying solely on originality. The station will become a centre of integrated services in a transport hub that will adapt to the requirements of passengers with the main goal of answering urban needs, of providing all urban services, from transport to trade, delivery points, offices, medical services, automated public services and cultural events. The space covers a district under development, with a surface of 112 ha, half a hectare inside this area being dedicated to the construction of an urban boulevard. This area will be crossed by the existing line 15 and the future line 21 serving the urban centre of Ile-de-France. The intermodal hub

will provide easy connections with other transport modes to permit passengers to continue their journey by bicycle, car or public transport. For making intermodality efficient, the important aspect is that there will be an 18-m distance to line 21 and an 8-m distance to line 15. This structure contributes to optimizing the technical system and to including security, maintenance and exploitation technical options. 10,000 daily passengers are expected to cross the station which will represent a true development hub.

Проектирование станций должно отвечать городским требованиям Виды транспорта имеют специфические операционные требования. Обладая уникальными характеристиками, каждый вид транспорта должен укреплять своё функционирование и доступ к другим видам транспорта и к другим приспособлениям для обеспечения мобильности. В таком контексте, станции наземного или подземного общественного транспорта нуждаются в проектировании, основанном на стандартах качества и дизайна, способных обеспечить фундаментальные рамки для достижения приспособленности к предназначению каждой станции и обеспечения средств для минимизации конфликтов и максимизации эффективности. Такие элементы, как стоянка, мебель, устройства для проведения различных операций, обеспечение крытых помещений и развитие пейзажистики, придают комфорт и доступность и улучшают качество жизни пассажиров. December 2011 | www.railwaypro.com


24 Policies & Strategies

Public transport and energy-efficiency need EU priority funds

[ by Pamela Luică ]

The way in which we will shape the future of transport will decide on the way in which Europe develops a sustainable future. Around 75% of EU’s citizens lives in urban areas which makes sustainable urban mobility the EU’s priority strategic objective. Just as the Green Paper (Towards a new culture for urban mobility) highlights that the cities stimulate Europe’s economy, urban transport provides connectivity and maximises the economic performance of urban areas sharing the benefits of its performances as regards the improvement of the life quality, environment protection, reducing emissions and a clean transport.

S

ignificant infrastructure investments are necessary to answer the increasing demand for urban public transport (due to urbanisation and modal shift from private motorized transport) both for new constructions and the modernisation of the existing ones, especially for tram and underground, the only environmentally friendly means of transport which also ease traffic and increase the socialisation level for each city. In these circumstances, the European Union plays the most important role in ensuring and facilitating urban mobility financings which meet EU’s objectives for 2020. Therefore, considering the financial perspectives by 2020, EU has to grant a major importance to urban transport by allocating funds through future budgets. Financial support will help cities meet transport decarbonisation targets which, in turn, will help reach the expected climate change results, will encourage modal shift in urban area and will increase the quality of life by improving the air quality. The financing of SEGMENT project (EUR 1.77 Million, with 75% EU contribution) carried out in the period 2010-2013 makes possible the promotion of a life style “without private cars”, will help build strategies and methodologies whose goal is to reduce energy consumption, will bring significant changes as regards public transport mindset

Source: Segment www.railwaypro.com | December 2011

Source: Segment

and its benefits to life quality. The project is implemented in 7 partner-cities (HounslowUK, Almada-Portugal, Athens-Greece, Sofia-Bulgaria, Utrecht-Netherlands, GdyniaPoland and Munich-Germany). From 2011 to 2012, important campaigns will be carried out and the impact and results of the project will be evaluated in the first half of 2013. The implementation of the project will maximise the impact of using public transport in most European cities, seeking to iden-

tify potential new “consumers” for changing the mindset about transportation and bringing them together in homogeneous groups (as regards their attitude towards using cars, electrical vehicles, public transport) in order to identify energy-efficiency needs and to increase public transport modal share.

Пассажиры могли бы запланировать свои поездки лишь с помощью нажатия на несколько кнопок Для развития системы железнодорожного транспорта пассажиров на европейском уровне и для устранения ограничений, связанных с бронированием билетов для проезда за границу, Транспортная комиссия утвердила регламент планирования и бронирования проездов по территории ЕС. Таким образом, операторы будут предоставлять информацию о виде поездов, о периоде и месте остановок поездов, о наличии мест по классам, о структуре тарифов и т.д. Регламент предусматривает, что операторы будут предоставлять информацию о действующем расписании и о тарифах, согласованных с партнёрами.


25


26 leaders

This year, Bucharest underground transport company, Metrorex, has managed to launch projects that existed only on paper so far: development of the underground network, construction of the first park&ride in Romania, the acquisition of new underground trains, the implementation of programmes for increasing the quality of services and comfort. The company’s General Manager, Gheorghe Udrişte, talks in an interview about the development of the projects already launched and future plans for developing this transport mode, the challenges imposed by these projects and the role of underground transport as “underground city”. www.railwaypro.com | December 2011


leaders

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EUR 8 Bln projects for carrying out the 2030 underground network plan Interview with Gheorghe Udrişte - General Manager of Metrorex [ by Pamela Luică ]

Railway Pro: The underground network is expected to measure around 140 km by 2030. What is the strategy of Metrorex for meeting this objective? Gheorghe Udrişte: Over the next 30 years, Metrorex seeks to double the length of the underground network in Bucharest, the estimated amount , the moment when the strategy was elaborated, being of EUR 8.5 Billion and there are premises for the strategy to be implemented because the underground has lately proved that the underground is every day more attractive for passengers and has to become the main public transport mode in the Romanian Capital. A great deal of the efforts for the development of public transport in a city such as Bucharest has to be focused in this direction towards easing surface traffic and promoting the underground public transport. As I’ve already said, there are premises for that as the underground benefits from the support of the political class which is necessary for the allocation of funds for the development of the underground infrastructure and for guaranteeing contracted credits. Currently, we dispose of more than EUR 2 Billion for development projects and we also plan to contract a new loan from the European Investment Bank by the end of the year for covering the financial needs of Line 5 project. We will contract over EUR 900 Million for Universitate-Pantelimon line, money allocated both by the government and by EIB, who would grant EUR 465 Million. A very important piece of news is that we have the support of the government, of the Ministry of Transport, as well as the recommendation of the International Monetary Fund and of the World Bank for including Metrorex on the future list of the Sectoral Operational Programme – Transport 2014-2020 in order to benefit from EU financing.

Railway Pro: This year, Metrorex launched several projects on the development of Bucharest underground and for improving the quality of services. What projects will be continued in 2012 based on the financing your company relies on? Gheorghe Udrişte: In real terms, we are talking about projects for which financing has already been ensured. We are talking about projects that will definitely have an impact on increasing the safety and comfort of passengers and which are currently underway: the modernisation of power supply installations in the underground stations (traction and auxiliary services), the installations of the elevators for passengers, the project consisting in the acquisition of new trains that will help us increase the quality of our services. Other projects to be continued in 2012 are those relate to the network development. We have already launched works for Line 5 (Drumul Taberei-Pantelimon), at the end of the year, we will hold the bids for structure and equipping works for the two stations on Line 4, Parc Bazilescu and Lacul Străuleşti, the budget financing, but also the investment grants of Metrorex being due to be directed to these projects. Also, we are working to the elaboration of the feasibility study for Bragadiru-Voluntari line, for which the Urban Planning Committee of Bucharest Municipality has issued an approval in principle. We have signed a deal with a consortium of companies dealing with the elaboration of the feasibility study and we are hoping that it would be finalized in less than 6 months so we could forward it to the authorities for approval. If they give their approval, then we will pass to the identification of the private partnership, to the set up of the company that will deal with the project and to the actual implementation. This will be the first project for the construction of an

Line 5 project is the biggest investment project in Romania in the past 20 years and we have managed to initiate the implementation of the project”

Gheorghe Udrişte

underground line based on a public-private partnership with a company that wants to be part of the project. The private part will need elements that will facilitate the money recovery, as it has to rely on a solid financial plan and it will recover the investments from the ticket fares and from the different retail and advertising activities carried out inside the underground stations. Moreover, we will also study the extension of Line 2 to Pipera by another 2 stations and Line 3, in Păcii area, to the Capital’s western ring where we would like to build 3, maybe even 4 stations. The latter is an important project for public transport and we plan to integrate it in the public transport system of Bucharest and its Metropolitan Area. We will deal with this project until the Metropolitan Area will become effective and we have already initiated works, we are conducting a study that will indicate the costs for reviving the line to be put in service, the stations need to be upgraded and we will have to develop the stop points so that passengers could be linked to taken over by surface transport up to underground terminals. We will definitely succeed in carrying out this project and we hope to get foreign financing. Moreover, for the same purpose of > December 2011 | www.railwaypro.com


28 leaders

> increasing the quality of transport services, we will also approach the modernisation of the charging system for underground access, as the existing one is obsolete and a major part of the system requires maintenance which boosts costs. We would like to upgrade the entire public transport charging system of Bucharest and of its metropolitan area. It is a complex project which demands the modernisation of the system and the path to fare integration for the Romanian Capital’s public transport.

Railway Pro: Until the moment, Line 5 project is the most important project for the citizens and for Metrorex. What are the challenges of such a project? Gheorghe Udrişte: Line 5 project is the biggest investment project in Romania in the past 20 years and we have managed to initiate the implementation of the project which has received the approval for the technical-economic indicators ever since the ‘90s. There have been many attempts, but works are now underway and due in four years and we do not want to stop here. We are currently drafting the preliminary technical project for Eroilor-Piaţa Iancului and Piaţa Iancului-Pantelimon sections and the other preliminary technical projects for equipping the line. The new line project is for us a great challenge and we are hoping to finalize this project in the proposed terms. When the project will be completed, the area will be much more integrated in the urban landscape of Bucharest, there will be underground pedestrian passages and surwww.railwaypro.com | December 2011

face transport will be complementary to the underground transport. Although we have not yet completed the L5 project, we plan to expand the section to Valea Ialomiţei by another station to the middle of Brâncuşi district. Resources do exist and we need constructors to turn their experience into account to carry out these work professionally. Railway Pro: The line to Lacul Străuleşti is another major project. What is the current implementation phase of the project? Why did you choose this area for the construction of the park&ride system? Gheorghe Udrişte: This is a very interesting and useful project, necessary to the integrated development of transport modes and since the government has already approved the extension of Line 4 from Parc Bazilescu to Lacul Străuleşti, we will develop, apart from the underground and the parking, a multimodal terminal from where the citizens can take the underground and where they will have a park&ride with a total capacity of 700 parking spaces. Those who use individual transportation will be able to leave their cars in the parking area and use the underground to reach any city area that the underground reaches. The location

was not selected randomly. The choice was the consequence of the extension of the underground Line 4 whose line ends were in the area Laminorului-Piaţa Progresu, which knows a fast development, as there are demands from the local administration of Mogoşoaia and Buftea to permit the extension to these regions. For now, we will stop in the area of Lacul Străuleşti, which is the right location for such constructions and public transport utilities. Railway Pro: In 2011-2014, Metrorex wants to renew the rolling stock fleet and plans purchasing 37 new underground trains. What are the financing sources for this project, since EIB has granted money for the acquisition of the 16 underground trains? Gheorghe Udrişte: In the latest EIB financing contract, the funds are granted for the execution and put in service of Drumul Taberei-Eroilor line and this loan also includes the money necessary for the acquisition of the underground trains. There are two components: trains for L5 and for the fleet renewal. The 16 trains will replace the obsolete vehicles and this contract includes an extension option for another 8 underground trains. They should be delivered >

Metrorex has recently signed two contracts for the acquisition of the 16 underground trains and of the protection and operation control system to be installed on this trains. The supplier of the underground trains, Construcciones y Auxiliar de Ferrocarriles (CAF) has signed the contract estimated at EUR 97 Million and Bombardier has signed the EUR 4.94 Million contract for the delivery of 16 ATP and ATO systems.


30 leaders > in one year’s time and the put in service will occur gradually starting with the end of 2012 up to 2013. We have a financing source and the new financing contract also stipulates the acquisition of new trains for the entire line Drumul Taberei – Pantelimon, a line served by at least 50 trains daily. Next spring we will prepare the tender documents for the acquisition of the next vehicles and equipments. We want to implement the planned programmes step by step so that we would have everything we need at the end of the L5 project, from equipments to trains and staff training (we are talking about hundreds of employees and we are holding talks with several education institutions that will introduce special classes for underground transport workers).

Railway Pro: What is the role of the underground in changing the lifestyle of citizens by choosing public transport? Gheorghe Udrişte: The role of the underground is extremely important for the citizens, as it is an eco-friendly, fast and safe means of transport. Of course that for choosing to use public transport, as big cities do, the authorities have to make citizens aware of its role and we, as public transport suppliers, have to make everything to persuade citizens to choose public transport by increasing the quality of services and transport reliability. The mindset and behaviour about public transport have to change and this is a task for all mobility decision makers. It is a challenge for all and we have the opportunity to convince people to choose underground transport in particular and public transport in general. We want the public space of the underground to be as varied as possible and for this we have initiated projects with art institutions, theatres etc. which perform at the underground and they have taken the initiative for book launches, events, exhibition of paintings etc. We will also initiate projects with telephony companies to launch new communications services. There are many activities at the underground and we may even say that the underground is a second city. People begin to change their attitude about this means of transport in a good way. Railway Pro: Bucharest Metropolitan Transport Authority will reunite public transport companies. What are the projects in plan to ensure an integrated transport? Gheorghe Udrişte: Bucharest Metropolitan Transport Authority (AMTB) does not mean that public transport companies will merge, but is aimed at regulating the entire public transport service regarding the activities of the state-owned and private operators. It is about reuniting these operators under the same goals of providing an useful and efficient transport, transports should be complementary, not compete www.railwaypro.com | December 2011

each other. The underground will have to be the main transport, while surface transport has to be complementary. For example, surface vehicles have to cover the areas with no access to the underground. AMTB has to determine the two operators to carry out their activity and provide quality services. Also, AMTB will have to become part of the charging system integration project in Bucharest. It is not common that a passenger should use two types of transport with two different charging systems and, especially, with different costs, because there are situations when passengers have to use both the underground and the surface transport. We will definitely come to a single charging system, but we will have to identify the best alternative to discover a fair and efficient method. Currently, we are weighing all possibilities and we will support the Authority who will have to manage and coordinate the investments necessary for the development of an integrated transport. The companies are now facing difficulties in implementing their projects, but all these deficiencies will be eliminated as soon as the Authority will become effective. Railway Pro: The European cities are more and more focused on the development of urban rail transport. How important are the political factor, the business segment and the citizens’ needs for the development of a city? Gheorghe Udrişte: The political factor is one of the most important elements of the public transport. If there is no implication from the political factor, there will be no financing and without financing, projects cannot be implemented. In fact, we could not talk about projects. Everything goes like clockwork when there is political will. That is why the authorities should focus their attention on rail transport, especially since this means of transport is energy-effective, eco-friendly and safe and comfort-

able for the passengers. This is a fact in all European cities who are every day more aware of the importance of rail transport. I believe it is impossible to live without an electric public transport and for this, we have to develop projects. For this to happen, we need urban development plans to be familiar with the authorities’ development programmes, to take into account the respective areas and to implement projects at the right time. The city development does not have to be chaotic, but well-developed and urban projects have to complete each other. The management of the cities has to make urban plans available for operators so that they would know to develop their networks as we have to deliver transport services where needed.

Для проектов в объёме 8 миллиардов евро Существуют предпосылки внедрения стратегии 2030 о развитии сети метрополитена Бухарестской компании по подземному транспорту “Метрорекс” в этом году удалось запустить проекты, которые до этого существовали только на бумаге: развитие подземной сети, строительство первой системы пересадки с автомобиля на автобус, приобретение новых составов для метро, внедрение программ повышения качества услуг и комфорта. Генеральный директор компании, Георге Удриште, дал нам интервью, в котором рассказал о продолжении начатых проектов и о планах на будущее для развития этого вида транспорта, о вызовах, с которыми сталкиваются проекты, и о том, что такое метро как “подземный город”.


7th Edition

9-10 October 2012 Bucharest, Romania

THE WIDER BLACK SEA AREA RAILWAY INVESTMENT SUMMIT The facts and figures generating new railway business opportunities The Wider Black Sea Area (WBSA) railway markets have understood the must of strengthening the East to West transport links and plan huge investments in developing heavy and light rail infrastructure, manufacturing and acquisition of rolling stock for passengers and freight. What are the real figures and facts ? Institutional and private sector investment leaders will provide the answers and underline the key factors driving growth in WBSA railway markets.

Organisers:

Media Partners: the railway business magazine

Railway PRO

For further details please contact us: Tel.: +40(21) 224 43 85 / Fax: +40(21) 224 43 86 / E-mail: contact@railwaysummit.com / www.railwaysummit.com


32 MARKET DEVELOPMENT

Commuter transport, a developing market

[ by Elena Ilie ]

The market of commuter transport is developing across Europe. Due to the development of urban and peri-urban transport systems, the citizens living in areas adjacent to the cities are no 24 – related to the developing longer constrained about their mobility choices. There are many benefits of commuter transport, but for efficiency, this type of transport has to be linked, in railto make stations, to and also fairer for people who employed pricing more acceptable cannot afford the charges or tolls and thus contribute to acceptability. commuter buses or to park&ride systems for improved intermodality. Access management, parking management and road pricing can have a EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

strong impact on total levels of traffic on urban road networks. However, the level of effort necessary to manage demand if any one of these policies is implemented alone is likely to be quite high – high enough to lesson the chances of its implementation. In order to reduce the burden of these policies in tackling excessive congestion, urban areas should consider deploying a mix of all three demand measures – in conjunction with the operational and infrastructure measures called for by the local context.

A

35 000

30 000

25 000

20 000

15 000

10 000

5 000

24:00

23:00

22:00

21:00

20:00

19:00

18:00

17:00

16:00

15:00

14:00

13:00

12:00

11:00

10:00

09:00

08:00

07:00

06:00

05:00

04:00

02:00

5%

April 2005 April 2006

40 000

02:00

USA FHWA (hrs. by cause)

Impact of the Stockholm Congestion Charge 45 000

01:00

Sources of Congestion: Share of Recurrent vs. non-recurrent causes

Congestion Charging is effective: Results from Stockholm

Veh/hr entering the charging zone

s for attracting customers to rail- transport in the mobility chain, that is why EXECUTIVE SUMMARY – 15 way passenger transport, the au- their importance should not be neglected. thorities in big European cities In the future, the set quality standards plan a connection of their cities to high- will have to be delivered for all types of speed trains and trains, whose servipassenger services, including commuter Congestion is night typically categorized as either recurrent or non-recurrent ces will provide superior quality, thus mak- services and they will have to be adapted to ing railway transport the mode of mobility Recurrent congestion is choice, generally the thedifferent consequence of needs, factorswith thatspecial act but not on very long distances. By apply- attention granted to people with reduced regularly or periodically on the transportation system, such as daily ing sustainability as fundamental principle mobility. weekendthetrips. However, even recurrent display forcommuting all politicalor decisions, municipality Experts in thecongestion area believecan that due to a large degree of randomness, especially in its duration and severity. can manage the development of the city the increasing mobility, railway commuter towards an environmentally friendly ap- transport will continue to be the main pasproach.What is also clear from an examination senger market close competition to the of theincauses of “recurrent” commuter transport by personal vehicles congestion across different types of road networks is the extreme Modern regional and urban railway trans- or by bus. However, these last two types of vulnerability to sudden as demand approaches the port systems willof betraffic confronted with breakdowns a transport will not pay the entire generated significant demands such as costs. in the area also technicalproportion maximumofthroughput capacity on aMoreover, link or inexperts the network. When commuter or other jour- maximum foresee that the intercity segroads aretransport operated at ortype nearof their capacity, small transport changes in neys. These services are efficient if they are ment will also develop with the extension available capacity due to such factors as differential vehicle speeds, lane the subject of transparent public obliga- of high-speed railway transport. However, changes, and deceleration cycles canexisting trigger infrastructure, a sudden switch tions signedand withacceleration public authorities: they with all the they from mobility flowing while to stop-and-go traffic. Likewise, saturated intersections can ensure ensuring a stricter cannot cover construction costs entirely. safety and environment denselyupstream Consequently, the state’s will quickly give rise to criteria queuesinwhose propagation can contribution swamp local populated Commuter services are continue to be necessary, either by increasroads andareas. intersections. closely related to the other types of urban ing the price of alternative modes that

Time of day

Source: Gunnar Söderholm, City of Stockholm.

would reflect external costs or by providing the financial support for investments or even, why not, both. To cut things short, more progress is necessary as regards the railway policy if commuter rail transport is to exploit its full potential in the future. Moreover, more commuter services between cities will significantly reduce the cars in traffic and, implicitly congestion and pollution. As related to the extension of railway commuter transport services, the economic component is also important, apart from the social aspect, due to the benefits it brings to regional economic development.

MANAGING URBAN TRAFFIC CONGESTION – ISBN 978-92-821-0128-5 - ¤ ECMT, 2007

France: SIRIUS (Paris Region) Network (HKM)

5%

2% 12%

Развивается рынок перевозок пассажиров маршрутного транспорта

15% 40%

Germany (ADAC) (hrs. by cause) 4%

10%

86% 25% 32%

31%

33% Recurring Congestion Weather

Traffic Incidents (crashes, disabled vehicles, etc…)

Poor Signal Timing

Other non-recurring (special events)

Work zones Other recurring

Source: FHWA (2004c), ACEA (2004) and SIRIUS (2004). www.railwaypro.com | December 2011

Non-recurrent congestion is the effect of unexpected, unplanned or

Рынок перевозок пассажиров маршрутного транспорта растёт по всей Европе. Благодаря развитию систем городского и пригородного транспорта, население, проживающее в пригородах уже не сталкивается с ограничениями в плане мобильности. Преимущества развития перевозок пассажиров маршрутного транспорта являются множественными, но для повышения эффективности и итермодального характера данного вида услуг необходимо обеспечить связь с маршрутными автобусами или с системами park&ride.


Products ASSET & Technologies MANAGEMENT 33

Recyclable materials make underground stations energy-efficient [ by Pamela Luică ]

Modern underground stations provide passengers a part of tomorrow’s technology that tries to innovate everything, from the concept of what an underground station and its energy-efficient facilities should be like to what passenger flows and the services provided for them means. Many of the recently built or upgraded railway stations rely on new-generation and innovative technologies which deliver opportunities for reducing energy consumption and developing ecofriendly structures.

E

ven when we talk about underground stations, this is not an impediment for developing structures with environmentally friendly facilities and functions, with reduced energy consumption, a primordial factor in the construction of stations. Solid concrete structures, heating systems using photovoltaic panels, air-conditioning with natural air, natural ventilation systems based on scuttles, these are only few elements necessary to a station which aims at reducing energy consumption. Such a construction is the underground station Siilitie in Helsinki (Finland) that will be redeveloped as example in the city for environment protection by carrying out a project that will contribute to the energy-efficiency of the station: the constructors will use recyclable materials and solar energy. In fact, it will be the first environmentally friendly station of the underground network. In conformity with the project, new recyclable glass walls will be installed using eco-friendly materials such as natural rock for exterior structures. These rocks will be the result of the excavation works for the extension of the line to the western part of the city, currently under construction. The new roof will be equipped with photovoltaic panels which will produce 20-25% of the necessary energy in a year’s time and the lighting systems will be redesigned using the LED technology and where possible, natural

light. As regards energy-efficiency, the lighting system of the station relies on minimising the intensity of consuming energy and, at the same time, supply the necessary energy for the optimal functioning of equipments. The total cost of the project will be EUR 11 Million and it now awaits for the approval of the city council. If approved, tenders will be launched immediately, which will permit the initiation of works starting with 2012. Although serious redesign works will be carried out, the station will not be closed during works and the authorities will conduct studies for rapidly distributing pas-

sengers. The station is due for completion in 2013.

Материалы повторного использования повышают эффективность энергопотребления на станциях метро Современные станции метрополитена предоставляют пассажирам часть технологий будущего, где меняется всё, от концепции станции метро со всеми возможностями и от энергоэффективных систем и до пассажирских потоков и услуг, предоставляемых для них. Для многих новых или модернизированных станций используются новейшие технологии, с новыми функциями, которые дают возможность экономии энергоресурсов, при этом являются экологически чистыми структурами. Даже если речь идёт о подземных станциях, это не является препятствием для развития экологически структур и приспособлений с низким уровнем энергопотребления. Это первоочерёдный фактор в плане строительства станций. December 2011 | www.railwaypro.com


34 Products & Technologies

Dry lubrication of tyres, a modern and eco-friendly solution [ by Teodor Turcu ]

The proper lubrication of the wheel flange ensures a more silent run of trains in curves, reduces the wear of the wheel-rail contact surface, reduces the risk of derailment and increases the lifeexpectancy of the tyre and, consequently, of the monobloc wheel. The new dry lubrication system using lubrication sticks is a modern and environmentally friendly solution carried out in conformity with environment protection rules.

K

eeping the wheel flange lubricated is absolutely necessary for reducing the wheel and rail wear, a phenomenon emphasized especially by the traffic of trains on hauling sections with high percentage of curves, their wear being directly proportional with the speed and the axle load and in inverse ratio to the curve radius. The liquid lubrication, currently used worldwide, is a system which requires complex equipments and still presents several disadvantages related to the high-cost maintenance operation and negative effects on the environment. The explanation of all this is the fact that the oil or petrolatum in the dynamics of the vehicle are not directed exclusively on the wheel flange and are driven by air currents to the bogie unit, locomotive case or even on the running track, with devastating effects consisting in the impregnation of these sub-assemblies with flammable substances, investing the environment and even reducing adhesion. An eco-friendly and efficient alternative to the classic system is the dry lubrication using lubrication sticks, a modern

solution which meets environment protection requirements. The eco-friendly character is also turned into account by noise-reduction in curves. According to manufacturers, this system requires a simple installation being compliant to a variety of conditions and has minimum maintenance costs. “The life-expectancy of a lubrication stick of 110 mm (the support being designed for 3 such lubrication sticks, totalling 330 mm) can reach around 15,000 km, but there can be great differences depending on the influence of the environment, the quality of the running track etc.”, declared Adrian Zanfir, Production Manager Schunk Romania. This system is successfully used for the trams in Saarbrücken (Germany), in Rome (Italy) and for several trains in Italy and Portugal. It is currently submitted to tests by DB. In Romania, upon the demand of SNTFC “CFR Călători”, Softronic Craiova has locomotives on which they install the new dry lubrication sticks on its modernisation line. “These locomotives are the first ones for which we implement such a system. As we are the first company to implement

the system, we are currently relying of the outcome of the research carried out by manufacturers and we will assess the effects of the system under domestic conditions. We will expand the implementation of the system as soon as we will evaluate exploitation results. Research results have shown that, for example, if in the case of the classical lubrication wear of the wheel flange for 1,000 km was of around 0.07 mm, when using lubrication sticks, the wear was of around 0.023 mm for the same distance, which means nearly 3 times less wear”, declared Sorin Dumitrescu, Technical Manager, Softronic.

Lubrication Sticks for Wheel Flanges

Flange wear rate mm/1000km)

photo: Schunk

Trackside grease lubricator

0,08 0,07 0,06 0,05

With Without

0,04 0,03 0,02 0,01 0 Tram 1

Source: Schunk www.railwaypro.com | December 2011

Tram 2

Preliminary

Metro

Новая система сухого смазывания графитовыми карандашами Хорошее смазывание колёс реборды бандажа обеспечивает более тихое движение поездов на поворотах, снижает износ контактной поверхности между колесом и рельсами, снижает опасность схода с рельсов и продлевает срок эксплуатации оси. Новая система сухого смазывания графитовыми карандашами - это современное и экологически чистое решение, с соблюдением норм по охране окружающей среды.


MARKET ASSET MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT 35

Shopping trip at rail stations [ by Pamela Luică ]

With the development of railway stations in the past years, a new type of commercial facility was launched, the mall which is built either in the neighbourhood of railway stations or even inside rail stations displaying shops for products and services, creating a new life style and adapting to new market requirements. As part of the railway sector development, rail stations with shopping areas become a “must have” of a modern city, where people spend their time shopping until the train arrival.

A

part from the advantages of ensuring an efficient and modern transport system, the project consisting in the construction and modernisation of a rail station and of the adjacent area includes the development of shopping areas which contribute to economic development, but also to changing the mindset of rail station as “simple area for the transport to and from the city”. As example for the development of railway stations as shopping areas in stations or in their neighbourhood, the list of the European Shopping Centre Awards, in the category “continued developments”, includes a shopping centre in the close neighbourhood of Munich railway station which is connected to the railway transport facility. The centre is built on sustainable criteria and attracts hundreds of passengers who spend their time in the railway station. Currently, there are 100 shops and another 60 such commercial areas will be built by 2013. Katowice railway station: renovation and innovation The city of Katowice (Poland) will have a modern station (to replace the one built in 1972) based on the project carried out at the initiative of the authorities and which presents a surface of 136,000 square meters, of which 17,350 square meters for the actual railway station, 8,100 for offices, 4,800 square meters for the construction of a hotel, 24,000 for shops and 19,000 square meters for cultural activities. Works for the implementation of the project have already begun in the second half of 2010 and the new rail station

Galeria Katowicka. Fashion avenue.

building will be opened for passengers in the second half of 2012. Costs for project development amount to more than EUR 250 Million from the state budget and financial institutions. After 2012, the authorities deal with the construction of adjacent buildings and spaces. The project also includes the development of a shopping centre connected to the new station, to Katowicka Gallery Centre and to the underground network. The shopping centre of the rail station will include coffee shops, restaurants, land planning elements and children’s areas. The project development is absolutely necessary for the European Football Championship 2012 as it will help ease traffic, increase passengers’ comfort and stimulate the economic development of the city.

FACTS AND FIGURES : 53 000 sqm retail space : - Three over ground level (Multikino – - Galeria Katowicka the largest tenant on the - New railway station hall 3rd level) - Office building - Underground parking: 1200 lots • 250 units •The best access by train – connections • Four levels for retail, service and enter- with all of the cities concentrated in Sitainment: lesian conurbation, as well as the largest - One underground level Polish cities and European capitals

Шоппинг на железнодорожных станциях Вместе с развитием железнодорожных вокзалов, в последние годы появился новый вид приспособления - торговые ряды недалеко от вокзалов и даже на станциях, с магазинами, которые предоставляют товары и услуги, создают новый стиль жизни и одновременно адаптируются к новым тенденциям в плане потребностей. Таким образом, в рамках развития железнодорожного сектора, вокзал с торговыми рядами становится необходимостью в современных городах. Здесь люди проводят время до прибывания поезда. Они делают покупки или занимаются другими делами. Помимо приспособлений в плане обеспечения эффективной и современной системы транспорта, проект строительства или модернизации вокзала и прилегающей к нему территории предусматривает строительство торговых рядов, которые участвуют в экономическом развитии, при этом меняя старые концепции вокзала, который раньше являлся лишь „пространством, обеспечивающим транспорт в сторону / из города”.


36 MOBILITY

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Transport CO2 emissions 2008 2%

5%

Road 7%

Rail 2%

Domestic Aviation 9%

International Aviation 72%

3%

Domestic Navigation International Shipping Other transport

Source: Internatonal Transport Forum, Transport Green House Gas Emissions 2010

nal Energy Outlook 2010

www.railwaypro.com | December 2011

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Internet access, attractiveness factor in public transport

TRANSRUSSIA 17th INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION & CONFERENCE FOR TRANSPORT & LOGISTICS

[ by Pamela Luică ]

Internet supply in public transport is an every day more accessible service due to the fact that operators have become aware of the importance of communications not only on board but also inside vehicles so that they could be accessed by all users. Therefore, the implementation of these systems becomes an informant factor for boosting the attractiveness of public transport.

R

ailway transport begins to replace air and road transport and the tendency is on the increase due to railway operators who implement the new regulations and meet the passengers’ needs in terms of quality. In these circumstances, the development of the IT sector plays an important role, as these systems permit companies to supply the information required by users. They will also help attract new users who will be delighted to have real-time access to information while travelling. Information includes general and interactive information, WiFi connections, audio and video intranet with customized content. Free internet access for passengers is one of the most important services supplied by railway operators. For providing wireless internet and broad band services via WiFi and WiMAX technologies at the underground, the authorities in Moscow will grant RUB 329.5 Billion (EUR 8.3 Billion) to the development of the IT network in 2012-2016. “Starting with 2013, passengers travelling by underground will be able to access the internet. According to studies, they would be willing to pay for the internet on their phones using the Near Field Communication (NFC) technology which permit data exchange between devices around 10 cm away of one another”, declared Artyom Yermolayev, manager of the Moscow Municipality IT Department. Also, the passengers of Bucharest underground have free internet access in stations and in tunnels, due to the programme implemented in 2011 by the underground operator in partnership with internet services suppliers. “We have convinced phone companies to equip the underground network with the necessary installation that facilitates fast connections by using the internet and the new service is very popular among passengers and makes travelling by underground more attractive too”, declared Gheorghe Udrişte, Executive Manager Metrorex. The implementation of the latest technologies in the area will determine people to choose public transport not only as an environmentally friendly and fast means of transport, but also as the best choice for a comfortable transport mode which combines working on the internet and travelling at the same time.

Доступ к Интернету - фактор привлекательности общественного транспорта Предоставление доступа к интернету в общественном транспорте становится всё более распространённым, так как операторы осознают важность связи и коммуникаций не только на борту транспортных средств, но и в самих транспортных средствах, для того, чтобы этими услугами пользовались и пассажиры. Таким образом, внедрение этих систем становится важным фактором повышения привлекательности общественного транспорта.

24 – 27 APRIL 2012 EXPOCENTRE • MOSCOW www.transrussia.ru/eng

General Sponsor

ITE Group Plc Julia Wocka-Gowda Tel +44 207 596 5188 transport@ite-exhibitions.com

Supported by


Products & Technologies 38 MOBILITY

Diesel propulsion still plays an important role in the European railway network [ by Elena Ilie ]

The latest amendment of Directive 68 of 1997 (NRMM) on the measures against the emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants from internal combustion engines to be installed in non-road mobile machinery was made through Directive 26/2010 applicable to all member states, as well as to all types of engines used in railway traction.

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echnical progress has been achieved since the amendment of Directive 97/68/EC in 2004 until currently in the design of Diesel engines for making them compliant with the limits of exhaust gas emissions set for stages III B and IV. Among the different types of non-road engines, the present Directive also refers to the engines designed for the propulsion of multiple-units or to the engines designed for the propulsion of diesel locomotives. In 2010, just prior to the review of Directive NRMM, the Union of European Railway Industries (UNIFE) proposed several recommendations for the announced amendment of the Directive in force and of its regulations. The respective proposals submitted by the railway industry manufacturers represent points of view on the best methods of approaching specific provisions in the future global recast of the NRMM directive so as to create an increased stability for the profile markets and to reach the best results in terms of railway environment performance. The timeframe between two phases of setting emissions should take at least seven years, so as to permit the apprehended technical adjustment. A flexibility diagram of three years should be extended

to railway applications so as to appreciate the projects that rely on the business cycle of the industry and these should rely on the present discussions on railway transport flexibility, UNIFE’s representatives believe. The existing categories of multiple-units and locomotives should suffer no changes. However, industry manufacturers remain neutral about the period dedicated to testing the multiple-units and they should apply the legislation as included in the reviewed Directive. Many of the current problems of the profile industry on the implementation of stage III B of Directive NRMM (on the certification after the type of the diesel engines) are caused by the fact that the timeframe between stage IIIA and IIIB was of only three years for this niche market. In fact, the auxiliary railway requirements, such as the TSIs of Directive 57/2008 on the railway interoperability, stipulate a stability period of seven years for specifications applied to rolling stock. The TSIs should serve as benchmark for the future reviews of Directive NRMM when it comes for implementation deadlines. The railway sector and the diesel engines manufacturers have conducted a risk study

Changes in EU-27 greenhouse gas emissions by sector, 1990–2006 Total emissions

-8%

Energy (excluding the transport sector)

-11%

Transport

27%

Industrial processes

-13%

Agriculture Waste -35

-20%

-32%

-30

-25

Source: EEA 2008 www.railwaypro.com | December 2011

-20

-15

-10

-5

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

on the damaging effect of implementing Directive NRMM in the railway market that delivers diesel engines, which, in fact, could lead to a modal shift from the railways to roads on regional passenger lines and on freight-dedicated routes. Therefore, UNIFE and other 23 railway companies, launched in 2009 the CleanER-D project whose objectives consist in the development, improvement and integration of technologies for reducing emissions for locomotives and railway vehicles. For two years, CleanER-D has aimed to reduce the emission levels below the limits set by the EU legislation, as well as the evaluation of the best innovating solutions and hybrid systems for the contribution to reducing CO2 emissions. Moreover, the recent conclusions presented at the reunion in October 2011 showed that the project has proved that the rolling stock driven by diesel engines compliant to the requirements defined in the European Directive on Non-Road Motor Machines was flexible and safe in use.

Дизельная тяга играет важную роль для европейской железнодорожной сети Самое последнее изменение Директивы № 68 за 1997 год (NRMM), касающейся принятия мер против вредных выбросов, источником которых являются двигатели внутреннего сгорания, которые будут монтироваться на мобильных средствах, не предназначенных для автотранспорта, было сделано с помощью Директивы № 26/2010. Она будет применяться в отношении всех государств-членов ЕС и всех видов двигателей, которые используются для железнодорожной тяги.


ENVIRONMENT 39

High-speed can change the market share of air transport and reduce emissions [ by Pamela Luică ]

Apart from road transport, responsible for two thirds of the greenhouse gas emissions generated by the transport sector, air transport has also seen a fast-growing percent of the generated emissions making emission-cutting policies necessary in these transport sectors and for encouraging less polluting transport modes.While the emissions generated by other means of transport have dropped by 15% in 1990-2007, those generated by the above-mentioned sectors have increased by 36% over the same period and this growth has occurred despite the improved efficiency of vehicles. For long-distance transport, high-speed railway transport answers mobility needs and manages to change the market share of each segment.

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he emissions generated by air transport have been included in the EU Emission Trade Scheme (ETS) that will become effective in 2012, the air sector joining the railways (excluding the electric sector, which is indirectly included). Therefore, any emissions generated by air transport will be included in the White Paper target of reducing 60% of the emissions (including the international air traffic). The emission-cutting objective is not officially divided on the different characteristics of the transport means. Under the circumstances, the decision makers are preoccupied by the sustainability of interurban and inter-regional transport, air traffic being perceived as a generator of excessive emissions because of conventional pollutants. Taking into account these characteristics, the delivery of rail transport services, in the interurban and interregional segments, is seen as a second policy for increasing the benefits of transport. But for the long-distance passenger transport, high-speed railway services are considered attractive enough (compared to air traffic) to change the transport market. The advantages of high-speed railway

Impact of TGV Sud Est on alternative air and motorway routes

Source: SNCF and the development of high-speed trains 1950-1981, Alain Bertrain 1993

transport include less time on the route compared to air transport. “The environment benefits are minor and are, in fact, compensated by costs (especially high, fixed costs) with the exception of the situations when the demand is very high and there are air transport capacity problems”, states the report Competitive Interaction between Airports, Airlines and High-Speed Rail (International Transport Forum October 2009).

EU-27 Total and transport emissions (Kyoto base + bunkers) 100.0 90.0 80.0

Total EU-27 GHG emissions (incl. bunkers)

EU-27 20% and 30% emission reduction target range

70.0

Linear trajectories toward 80% and 95% reduction targets

60.0 50.0 40.0 30.0

Transport emissions (incl. bunkers)

20.0 10.0

Transport emission growth 1.61% p.a. (avg 1990-2008)

19

90 19 92 19 94 19 96 19 98 20 00 20 02 20 04 20 06 20 08 20 10 20 12 20 14 20 16 20 18 20 20 20 22 20 24 20 26 20 28 20 30 20 32 20 34 20 36 20 38 20 40 20 42 20 44 20 46 20 48 20 50

0.0

Source: EEA 2010

Total emissions (Kyoto base + bunkers)

Transport emissions (Kyote base + bunkers)

The situation in France is one in which the capacity of air transport has played a crucial role in evaluating high-speed line projects. Part of the line connections has brought a significant change in approaching the transport mode in favour of highspeed railway transport. Low-costs services could be an alternative to highspeed railway transport by increasing the frequency of the transport services, but in what concerns the railways, a significant improvement would be the allocation of financing for buying performing trains, even if it led to high costs. However, highspeed services are a success in transport as they takeover part of the air transport and the development of networks helps reduce air, as well as road traffic emissions.

Высокая скорость может изменить долю рынка воздушного транспорта и определить сокращение выбросов Помимо автодорожного транспорта, который является источником двух третей выбросов (по сегменту транспорта) газов с парниковым эффектом, воздушный сектор тоже сталкивается с быстрым темпом роста выбросов. Это означает необходимость принятия политики сокращения выбросов для этих видов транспорта и для поощрения тех видов транспорта, которые являются наименее загрязняющими. В то время, как на уровне других видов транспорта выбросы снизились на 15% (в общем значении) в период 1990-2007, вредные выбросы в вышеуказанных сферах зарегистрировали рост в размере 36% за этот же период, а такой рост произошел вопреки повышенной эффективности транспортных средств. Для перевозок на дальние расстояния, высокоскоростной железнодорожный транспорт отвечает требованиям мобильности, и ему удаётся изменить долю рынка по каждому сегменту. December 2011 | www.railwaypro.com


e emissions of that a significant part of the reductions will be improvements (particularly in maritime shipping). other sectors within a country/region or in other However, use due toof thebiofuels. substantial growth in activity countries/regions. However, power generation in the rmer elements will achieved through the increased expected in these sectors and the rate of penetration ČąÂ’ÂœČąÂ’Â—ČąÂ?ÂŽÂ—ÂŽÂ›ÂŠÂ•ČąÂ’Â—ÂŒÂ•ÂžÂ?ÂŽÂ?ȹ’—ȹČąǰȹŠ—Â?ČąÂ‘ÂŽÂ—ÂŒÂŽČąÂ’Â?ČąÂ’ÂœČą Policies & Strategies 40made he efforts of improvements limited by the long lifetimes of subject to a GHG emission cap. re determined actions. These elements are Whilst some of the life-cycle GHG reductions are ships, for the use measures that offer of hydrogen could The RED (EC, 2009b) alsoaircraft set aand target allofMember very substantial GHG reduction inin theupstream entire This reliance on biofuels as one of the key pillars to ssed further in the next two sections. There expected to be made emissions from or a substantial Â?ŠÂ?ÂŽÂœČąÂ?Â˜ČąÂ›ÂŽÂŠÂŒÂ‘ČąÂŠČąĹ—Ĺ–ČąĆ–ČąÂœÂ‘ÂŠÂ›ÂŽČąÂ˜Â?ȹ›Ž—Ž Š‹•ŽȹŽ—Ž›Â?¢ȹ fleet (i.e. not just in new stock) will be necessary. achieve long-term reductions in transport emissions lso be a need for future in regulations conventional fuels flaring transport of byvehicle 2020. Current projections show Therefore in both sectors, most(e.g. of the reduced emission doesand carry venting inherent risks. Critically, indirect land reduction will probably need to be met through the use change (ILUC) is not currently factored into performance to shift from direct tailpipe at oil production sites), it is currently anticipated that this will be almost completely fulfilled by utilisation of biofuels. the sustainability criteria and GHG assessment ions to include full life-cycle emissions of that a significant part of the reductions will be biofuels providing that they meet the subsequent within the RED (EC, 2009b). This has the potential to port energy carriers. Thesustainability former elements will— especially through increased biofuels. Dueachieved to the technical (and cost)the constraints facing use of substantially undermine the life-cycle effectiveness rgy sources criteria concerning aviation fuel, it is expected that aviation will rely of biofuels and is the subject of a Commission bute substantially beyond the efforts made land use change. Biofuels'mostly share has increased on conventional fuels in the near future; impact assessment due for publication later in 2011. proving efficiency. use of hydrogen could The RED for all other Member recent research (IEEP, 2011) already dependant on fuels The substantially in the last 10Š•Â?‘˜žÂ?Â‘ČąÂ’Â—ÂŒÂ•ÂžÂœÂ’Â˜Â—ČąÂ’Â—ČąÂ?‘ŽȹȹȹÂ?Â›Â˜Â–ČąĹ˜Ĺ–Ĺ—Ĺ˜ČąÂ’ÂœČą years, from(EC, 0.2 2009b) % to also set a targetHowever, [ by Pamela Luică ] expected to provide greater incentive for use of suggests existing plans up to 2020 could potentially ually complete the picture for a substantial Â?ŠÂ?ÂŽÂœČąÂ?Â˜ČąÂ›ÂŽÂŠÂŒÂ‘ČąÂŠČąĹ—Ĺ–ČąĆ–ČąÂœÂ‘ÂŠÂ›ÂŽČąÂ˜Â?ȹ›Ž—Ž Š‹•ŽȹŽ—Ž›Â?¢ȹ of total energy 4.3 % of petrol and dieselbiofuels, fuels;this however, most EU alone will not even out the currently lead to an increase in GHG emissions overall, reduction. in transport by Current projections show substantial differential in 2020. price versus kerosene even using lower-end estimates of ILUC. A further pward trend in Ž–‹Ž›ȹÂ?ŠÂ?ÂŽÂœČąÂŠÂ›ÂŽČąÂ•Â’Â”ÂŽÂ•Â˘ČąÂ?Â˜ČąÂ?Š••ȹÂ?ÂŠÂ›ČąÂœÂ‘Â˜Â›Â?ČąÂ˜Â?ČąÂ?Â‘ÂŽČąĹ˜Ĺ–Ĺ—Ĺ–Čą jet fuel. However, there arealmost currently no direct concern since is by the long-term Progress in reducing air pollutants generated by transports has been achieved 1990.competition for a limited that this will be completely fulfilled eaked in 2007, with indicative targets for biofuel use (see Box 2.12). mechanisms for tracking the introduction and use of biomass/land resource across a range of alternatives, However, many cities are confronted with even greater challenges in terms of the pollution biofuels providing that they meet the subsequent e economic crisis biofuels in aviation and shipping, making this target with impacts on both cost and sustainability. For level (set byenergy thebest European road having the greatest share in there damaging difficult totransport monitor. In addition, the— overall 60 % example, will be competition for biofuels not FuelAnalysis quality and sources sustainability criteria especially concerning Using the technology available 2010. The majority oflegislation), biofuels are currently used within target in the White Paper onremains Transport relates to only among conventional uses (i.e. food, wood for air quality. Under the circumstances, electric transport the best choice in reducing land use change. Biofuels' share has increased 50 roadmap the road transport sector,direct although is transport also sector according construction, paper and other crop uses), but also emissionsthere from the emissions. pean transport is oil currently dependant on for fuels substantially in the lastis10 years,asfrom %bioenergy to IPCC accounting, where biomass considered for0.2 future crops and other biomass uses present levels of some limited use rail to and inland shipping. The ed from oil for around 96 % of total energy 4.3 % of petrol and diesel fuels; however, most EU needed by 2050 in white paper (EC, 2011a) also provides objectives for Trends in energy GHG emission factors oad transport is responsible of the cities to adopt measures that mption (EC, 2011a). Thedecarbonising upward trendtransport in for tion Ž–‹Ž›ȹÂ?ŠÂ?ÂŽÂœČąÂŠÂ›ÂŽČąÂ•Â’Â”ÂŽÂ•Â˘ČąÂ?Â˜ČąÂ?Š••ȹÂ?ÂŠÂ›ČąÂœÂ‘Â˜Â›Â?ČąÂ˜Â?ČąÂ?Â‘ÂŽČąĹ˜Ĺ–Ĺ—Ĺ–Čą HG reduction target fuels beyond road Figurehelp 6.2 Trends in energy GHG emission and electricity (EU-27) and%%renewable renewable electricity (EU-27) 17.5% of the total greenhouse gas would themthe meet theirand targets plays factors a Whilstconsumption some of the life-cycle GHG are sustainable port energy peaked inreductions 2007, with indicative targets forallbiofuel use (see Box 2.12). sectors: 'Low carbon inand aviation emissions rail which makes reducing crucial role, bothfuels locally over Europe. e expected to bedue made inthe upstream emissions from The other energy source that has been identified EU-27 average EU-27 share of ubsequent decline economic crisis emissions one oftothe top priorities on the The industry alsolong-term has its GHG well-defined GHG emissions factor, crucial to achieving emissions role renewable electricity, icle signs conventional fuelsoff (e.g. reduced flaring and ventingas kg used CO /kWh within % of total generation reduction is electricity for road transport (potentially ing of levelling in 2010. Analysis The majority of biofuels are currently EU agenda. Urban passenger transport can in this chain which contributes to reducing 0.50 18 at oil production sites), it is currently anticipated complemented with renewably produced hydrogen). help Commission reduce emissions significantly. Accord- emissions. The new technologies will sube European 2050 roadmap the road transport sector, although there is also Current low-carbon electricity generation options allow that a significant part of the reductions will be 0.48 for substantial GHG emission savings, as well as other 16 ing to estimates, passenger transport to reducing emissions consumption (EEA-30) ates of 70 %urban on present levels of oil stantially somecontribute limited use and inland shipping. The environmental benefits, such asfor noiserail reduction and air will a reduction achieved through increased of 88%, biofuels. 0.46 emissions can bethereduced byuse over in thus supporting long-run objectives. The quality improvement in cities. 14 transport will needed by 2050 white paper (EC, also provides objectives for emption in conformity with thebe 2050 scenarios elabo-in White Paper includes an2011a) intermediary step 0.44 The emission factors for EU electricity have 12 ould The RED (EC, 2009b) also set a target for all Member me progress Energy consumption, TJ millions tolimited achieve the long-term GHG reduction target decarbonising transport fuels beyond the road and substantially (by almost 1990 rated by the European Environment Agency, for meetingdecreased these goals and22it%)is since estimated 0.42 (IEA, 2011), in part due to an increase in renewable sl been achieved Â?ŠÂ?ÂŽÂœČąÂ?Â˜ČąÂ›ÂŽÂŠÂŒÂ‘ČąÂŠČąĹ—Ĺ–ČąĆ–ČąÂœÂ‘ÂŠÂ›ÂŽČąÂ˜Â?ȹ›Ž—Ž Š‹•ŽȹŽ—Ž›Â?¢ȹ 20 2011a). rail sectors: 'Low carbon sustainable fuels in aviation 10 in which part of the citizens has agreed with that transport-generated emissions electricity generation. The latest official datawill showdrop s and vehicle 0.40 inthe transport by 2020. Current projections show renewable electricity accounts for % of(the the implementation of stricter measures for byEU-27 20% by 2030, compared to16.7 2008 8 electrification has total, while the share in the EU-10 Member States is that this will be almost by 0.38 cutting down urban transport fulfilled emissions, equivalent of an 8% growth compared to 18completely he sharebiofuels of rail providing that they meet the subsequent still less than 8 %. 6 even if it implies changing the daily mobi- 1990). 0.36 The Action Plans within the framework of the EU asing to sustainability 61 % criteria — especially concerning climate and energy package (EC, 2009d) commit lity habits. Overall, the consumption EU has been active This means that the reduction has to be 4 re Transport energy (EEA-30) 16 0.34 are6.1 important Europe to obtain 20 % of its energy from renewable landsetting use change. Biofuels' share has and increased legislative frameworks mea- greater from 2030 to 2050 than previously. sources by 2020 under the RED (EC, 2009b). ternativeinfuels 2 0.32 uels substantially the lastthe 10 years, fromof 0.2trans% to sures whichinsupport reduction The main hypothesis is increasing the avaiason for the 14 ent years, there has been some limited progress Energy consumption, TJ millions y 4.3 % ofemissions, petrol andespecially diesel fuels; however, most EUlability of technologies that help reduce 0.30 0 port from the urban Source: EEA, 2011. G) and natural gas ucing oilŽ–‹Ž›ȹÂ?ŠÂ?ÂŽÂœČąÂŠÂ›ÂŽČąÂ•Â’Â”ÂŽÂ•Â˘ČąÂ?Â˜ČąÂ?Š••ȹÂ?ÂŠÂ›ČąÂœÂ‘Â˜Â›Â?ČąÂ˜Â?ČąÂ?Â‘ÂŽČąĹ˜Ĺ–Ĺ—Ĺ–Čą dependence. This been achieved 20 Key has activities include the emissions (especially after 2030), such as the hasis has environment. moved rily through the use of biofuels and vehicle withemissions, indicative targets for 12 biofuel use (seestandards Box 2.12). electrification of transport and a broader use legislation adopted on the CO2 EU-27 average electricty emissions factor HG ology improvements. Railway electrification is (for automotive vehicles) and rolling has stock of bio-fuels. For this purpose, European ciEU-27 share of renewable electricity 18 ow-carbon educed oil dependence, with share ofstate, rail city The majority ofAlso, biofuels aremember currently used withinties implement projects for the extension or 10 the regulations. each EU-27 average transport energy emissions factor uality benefits — cal energy consumption increasing to 61 % the road transport sector, although is also orthrough region, can develop its own there policies in modernisation of tram lines or of their un- Source: Eurostat 2011 ntially also 16 51 % in 1990. There are important ofly, oilfromsome limited use for rail and inland shipping. conformity with EU long-run objectives. A Thederground network. A recent example is the rm). 8 ality drivers for switching to alternative fuels 0 in white paper (EC, 2011a) alsoactivity provides objectives for clear example where local is essential construction of the second line of Warsaw 52 Laying rically thishave was set the primary reason for the C, 2009c) 14 the foundations for greener transport arget decarbonising transport fuels beyond the road andunderground, is that on meeting the objective for reducing for which the UE and the Mu6 e life-cycle of Liquid GHG Petroleum Gas (LPG) and natural gas Đ­ĐťĐľĐşŃ‚Ń€ĐžŃ‚Ń€Đ°Đ˝Ń ĐżĐžŃ€Ń‚Ńƒ rail 'Low carbon sustainable fuels in aviation thesectors: use ofrecent conventional motorized vehicles nicipality have signed the financing agreensport). However, emphasis has moved supplied to the 12The project is expected to cost EUR by 50% by increasing the urban transport ment. ŃƒĐ´Đ°Ń Ń‚Ń Ń? Đ¸Ń ĐşĐťŃŽŃ‡Đ¸Ń‚ŃŒ rilyfuel ontosuppliers reducing life-cycle 4GHG emissions, on share by 2030 and by gradually eliminating 1.34 Billion, with EU’s share in the financing gh in many cases the use of low-carbon Đ¸Ń ĐżĐžĐťŃŒĐˇĐžĐ˛Đ°Đ˝Đ¸Đľ % by 2020 (relative them from cities until 2050. The intenestimated at EUR 619 Million. 10 ative can also the have air quality benefits — st thefuels FQD target автОПОйиНоК в ĐłĐžŃ€ĐžĐ´Ń ĐşĐžĐš

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ĐĄ 1990 гОда ĐˇĐ°Ń€ĐľĐłĐ¸Ń Ń‚Ń€Đ¸Ń€ĐžĐ˛Đ°ĐťŃ Ń? ĐżŃ€ĐžĐłŃ€ĐľŃ Ń ĐżĐž направНонию Ń Đ˝Đ¸ĐśĐľĐ˝Đ¸Ń? ŃƒŃ€ĐžĐ˛Đ˝Ń? вродных Đ˛Ń‹ĐąŃ€ĐžŃ ĐžĐ˛ в Đ°Ń‚ĐźĐžŃ Ń„ĐľŃ€Ńƒ, Đ¸Ń Ń‚ĐžŃ‡Đ˝Đ¸ĐşĐžĐź кОтОрых Ń?вНŃ?ĐľŃ‚Ń Ń? Ń‚Ń€Đ°Đ˝Ń ĐżĐžŃ€Ń‚Đ˝Ń‹Đš Ń ĐľĐşŃ‚ĐžŃ€. Đ?ĐľŃ ĐźĐžŃ‚Ń€Ń? на Ń?Ń‚Đž, ПнОгио гОрОда Ń Ń‚Đ°ĐťĐşĐ¸Đ˛Đ°ŃŽŃ‚Ń Ń? Ń ĐşŃ€ŃƒĐżĐ˝Ń‹ĐźĐ¸ выСОваПи Ń Ń‚ĐžŃ‡ĐşĐ¸ СрониŃ? 70 % reduction of 2009 oil consumption Total oil derived fuels ĐżŃ€ĐľĐ´ĐľĐťŃŒĐ˝ĐžĐłĐž ŃƒŃ€ĐžĐ˛Đ˝Ń? Đ˛Ń‹ĐąŃ€ĐžŃ ĐžĐ˛ 0 12 1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 (кОтОрыК йыН ŃƒŃ Ń‚Đ°Đ˝ĐžĐ˛ĐťĐľĐ˝ ĐľĐ˛Ń€ĐžĐżĐľĐšŃ ĐşĐ¸Đź Road gasoline Biogasoline Road diesel ĐˇĐ°ĐşĐžĐ˝ĐžĐ´Đ°Ń‚ĐľĐťŃŒŃ Ń‚Đ˛ĐžĐź). Đ’ Ń?тОК Ń Đ˛Ń?Си, EU-2710plus Norway, Switzerland and Turkey. Đ°Đ˛Ń‚ĐžŃ‚Ń€Đ°Đ˝Ń ĐżĐžŃ€Ń‚ в Đ˝Đ°Đ¸ĐąĐžĐťŃŒŃˆĐľĐš Ń Ń‚ĐľĐżĐľĐ˝Đ¸ Biodiesel Natural gas LPG Eurostat, 2011. в Отвото Са ĐşĐ°Ń‡ĐľŃ Ń‚Đ˛Đž Đ˛ĐžĐˇĐ´ŃƒŃ…Đ°. Đ’ 8 Laying the foundations for такОП ĐşĐžĐ˝Ń‚ĐľĐşŃ Ń‚Đľ, Railgreener electricity transport Rail gas/diesel51 oil Aviation gasoline Ń?ĐťĐľĐşŃ‚Ń€ĐžŃ‚Ń€Đ°Đ˝Ń ĐżĐžŃ€Ń‚ 6 ĐžŃ Ń‚Đ°Ń‘Ń‚Ń Ń? Đ˝Đ°Đ¸ĐťŃƒŃ‡ŃˆĐľĐš Đ˛ĐžĐˇĐźĐžĐśĐ˝ĐžŃ Ń‚ŃŒŃŽ Đ´ĐťŃ? Aviation kerosene Ship diesel/gas oil Ship residual fuel oil Ń ĐžĐşŃ€Đ°Ń‰ĐľĐ˝Đ¸Ń? Đ˛Ń‹ĐąŃ€ĐžŃ ĐžĐ˛. 4 Đ?втОдОрОМныК в Отвото Са 70 % reduction of 2009 oil consumption Total oil derived Ń‚Ń€Đ°Đ˝Ń ĐżĐžŃ€Ń‚ fuels 17,5% От ОйщогО ОйъёПа Đ˛Ń‹ĐąŃ€ĐžŃ ĐžĐ˛ гаСОв 2 Ń ĐżĐ°Ń€Đ˝Đ¸ĐşĐžĐ˛Ń‹Đź Ń?ффоктОП, в Ń€ĐľĐˇŃƒĐťŃŒŃ‚Đ°Ń‚Đľ чогО на ĐľĐ˛Ń€ĐžĐżĐľĐšŃ ĐşĐžĐź ŃƒŃ€ĐžĐ˛Đ˝Đľ йыНи 0 ОпродоНоны приОритотныо ПорОприŃ?тиŃ?, 1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 51 Đ˛Ń‹ĐąŃ€ĐžŃ ĐžĐ˛. Laying the foundations for greener transport направНонныо на Ń ĐžĐşŃ€Đ°Ń‰ĐľĐ˝Đ¸Đľ Source: Road Eurostat gasoline2011 Biogasoline Road diesel Biodiesel

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www.railwaypro.com | December 2011


ENVIRONMENT 41

Eco buildings: railway stations 1 point – airports 0 [ by Elena Ilie ]

If in terms of phonic pollution or chemical pollution, the European airport organisation and planning managers have adopted measures for reducing the two pollution types in the past years, planning the airport-related infrastructure (buildings, terminals, parking lots), especially for those found in the immediate neighbourhood of cities, cannot represent the object of a strategy for reducing the space and hence the pollution. The increasing mobility need noticed in the past twenty years has required airport infrastructure development. One cannot say the same thing about the infrastructure planning related to railway stations where the space intended for buildings, persons and parking lots is much more reduced, in such a way that the modernisation of railway stations located in the cities raises only the problem of noise pollution and not the one of space extension. In terms of noise pollution, the railway industry has developed some noise-reduction methods in the past years.

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plexity of air transport, this transport mode will not be able to compete with railway transport as regards the reduction of the space intended for carrying out the activity. On the other hand, even though railway transport is considered to be sustainable, railway stations usually face increasing energy demands and carbon footprint re -PDBMBJSQPMMVUJPO leased in the'JHVSFÂ…/0YFOHJOFMJNJUT environment. A recent example of what we could call an eco railway station is Accrington, located /0YFOHJOFMJNJUT inthe northern part of the British railway network.   Completed in 2010, the building is made  from recycled stone and uses photovoltaic  cells to provide some of the electricity re quirements, incorporates solar water heat ing, a wind turbine for electricity generation  and  rain water harvesting for flushing toilets. The  thirty photovoltaic solar panels, which                     areexpected      to  supply     over    4,000kWh       of :FBS electricity –4FB MBSHFFOHJOF

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42 Policies & Strategies

Noise pollution, an everyday more serious issue [ by Elena Ilie ]

The contribution of rail transport to noise pollution is significant, 10% of people being exposed to noise levels exceeding the “serious disturbance� threshold. In some European regions, the public opinion includes severe opponents of railway noise who demand political initiatives for reducing this type of pollution. The European Community has already taken a stand against such problems and adopted measures on environment protection and railway interoperability.

     

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oise is seen as the most important the conventional cast iron brake shoes, the environment issue for those living main cause of rail and wheel roughness. in the neighbourhood of a railway These new brake shoes release up to 50% line. To solve this problem with negative in- less noise. The K-type brake shoes reprefluences, infrastructure companies, railway sent a tested technology used for new cars, operators, but mostly the industry work but which also implies high post-equipping on progressively reducing noise pollution. costs. That is why other type of brake shoes, The constantly increasing market demand such as the LL brake shoes, is especially in transport in Europe leads to a less peace- manufactured for the post-equipping of ful transport system affecting many citizens cars. At the beginning of 2008, a type of K both during the day and over night. How- brake shoes received UIC’s permanent apever, studies show that noise pollution is proval, while three types of LL brake shoes much higher in road and air transport, than were only temporarily certified. in railway transport. Until presently, two According to the impact assessment study, of the most important measures for reduc- it is necessary to post-equip 370,000 cars, ing noise were aimed towards introducing almost two thirds of which being owned noise barriers and insulating the windows by national railway operators and one third of the trains. by private operators (including combined Noise will remain one of the key environ- transport operators and small railway unment issues for all types of transport in the dertakings). EU for a long period of time because of the With the current technology, the postinherent nature of the problem and the in- equipping with trigger investment cost of creasing transport demand. As part of the EUR 200-700 Million (LL brake shoes) Directive on Environmental Noise, each and EUR 1.0-1.8 Billion (K brake shoes) member state will make noise maps for the and additional costs of EUR 200-400 Milnoise generated by main highways, railways lion (until 2015 for both technologies).  and airports. On the other hand, reducing the noise /PJTFFNJTTJPOT In the last 10 years, the railway industry caused by airplanes seems to become a prihas developed several types of brake shoes ority project on the EU’s noise pollution using composite materials'JHVSF…(SBQIJOEFDJCFMT for replacing agenda.

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ENVIRONMENT 43

Integrated and successful transport system improves passengers’ choices [ by Pamela Luică ]

The existence of several transport modes in urban areas is an important factor and a natural consequence of permanent and increasing agglomeration. These transport systems serve the city and when urban areas develop, transport has to cope with demand and discourage individual transportation. The key to the problem is intermodality which needs transport integration projects and policies oriented to the economic, environment and social segments. In the competition between public transport and individual motorized transport, intermodality has become a successful condition for encouraging public transport.

T

he benefits of intermodal transport have determined the authorities in big cities to develop new projects for making public transport more efficient and for reducing travel times, important factors for passengers in choosing transport modes. The Romanian Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure has approved the set up of a work group for identifying the solutions necessary to operate trains on Bucharest ring route as part of a project that aims at developing intermodal and passenger transfer points. “Intermodal stations permit the simultaneous access to the means of transport of RATB (surface transport operator), of CFR Călători and where possible, of the underground transport operator. In this way, a journey will take at least 30 minutes, compared to one hour, as currently”, declared Brânduşa Raeceanu, spokeswoman of RATB. Bucharest’s rail ring will be integrated in the transport system of the city and of its metropolitan area and for this “we have already taken the necessary steps to elaborate the cost study and the project could benefit from external funding”, said the Executive Director of Metrorex, Gheoghe Udrişte. Construction projects will not be the only concern of transport operators. They will also have to integrate their charging system in the near future. Studies for creating single charging systems are already underway. The authorities in Moscow, next to RZD and

Long distance demand figures

Source: DG MOVE

the commuter transport operator, introduce single tickets for trains and for the underground, ticket that will cost less than the present ones, as the capital’s administration is not interested in increasing costs, but in promoting public transport by integration and intermodality services and projects. “We don’t want to increase the ticket price, we want to attract many more passengers towards integrated public transport services. The single ticket will be used on all lines and it could cost much less. It is far cheaper to provide subsidies to public transport than to build roads”, declared the mayor of the Russian capital, Sergei Sobyanin. For providing an intermodal and single

Level of agreement with 6 selected recommendations

Source: DG MOVE

transport system that will help reduce travel time and will optimise the passengers’ comfort, the authorities will have to manage and coordinate the projects implemented between transport operators so as to succeed in attracting passengers towards public transport and increasing the revenues of companies.

Интегрированная,и успешная транспортная система даёт больше возможностей пассажирам Наличие нескольких видов транспорта в городской среде - важный фактор и естественное последствие роста городского населения. Эти транспортные системы обслуживают город, а когда городские зоны развиваются, транспорт должен отвечать потребностям, чтобы люди отказались от индивидуального транспорта. Ключ к решению этого вопроса - интермодальность, которая нуждается во внедрении проектов интеграции транспорта, а политика должна быть направлена на экономический, экологический и социальный сектор. В конкурентной борьбе между общественным транспортом и индивидуальным автотранспортом, интермодальность стала успешным условием для поощрения развития общественного транспорта.


44 Policies & Strategies 

Electrification on the right track &MFDUSJDJUZ.JY in the railway transport market

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METROPOLITAN 45

2035 Strategic Concept to place Bucharest among the greatest European capitals [ by Pamela Luică ]

Bucharest Municipality has launched the 2035 Bucharest Strategic Concept (CSB) that seeks to shape the development example for Romania’s capital, setting joint principles that lead to the development of a harmonised and competitive area. The concept is built in several phases and follows five axes: territorial context, productive city, operating city, sustainable city and urban management, considering a city’s role of European capital, influence area, demographic, economic, infrastructure, transport and environment figures etc.

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he permanent development of Bucharest and urban agglomeration play an important role in adopting a clear mobility policy that would harmonise the accessibility objective with that of improving life quality. The capital needs an integrated transport system with periurban coverage, an attractive commercial offer and also a correlation of urban and railway transport for strengthening territorial cooperation. Therefore, the Strategy plans to organise the entire territory (city and its influence area) through an integrated planning and management, by developing transport and increasing its connectivity, as well as by organising intermodal poles for the transfer from peri-urban to urban transport. The General Master Plan for Urban Transport stipulates the need to develop and implement the Metropolitan Transport Authority, to ensure the efficient integration of transports and services. “The accent has to fall on the development of the underground network and on the territory of the villages and cities around Bucharest, as stipulated in the development plans – towards Mogoşoaia, Buftea, Otopeni, Voluntari etc. - as this means of transport is efficient, eco-friendly and has a strong structuring character capable to highlight the functional cohesion of the entire territory”, declared Prof PhD Architect Mihaela Negulescu, responsible for the urban mobility section of the Strategy. The Strategy will prioritise those means of transport with reduced environmental impact, both by expanding the under-

Perceived life quality in Bucharest and other 75 European cities

Source: EUROSTAT

ground, as well as surface vehicles, trams or light metros, thus contributing to the urban landscape integration. “These transport modes are currently appreciated by everybody for their structuring character, efficiency, comfort and a certain “urbanity” that resides from a high landscape integration potential – grassing or framing its routes in a grass-covered area, creating special-design stations that can become a symbol of something or can represent architectural monuments of a territory. Reintroducing the tram in the central area

GDP evolution of Bucharest-Ilfov

Source: CNP 2011

of the city can be one of the potential measures of an integrated policy - LUT (Land Use & Transport) of complex rehabilitation of this area for which the Bucharest Central Urban Development Integrated Plan is underway”, concluded Negulescu.

Стратегическая концепция 2035 способствует тому, что Бухарест станет одной из крупнейших европейских столиц Мэрия города Бухареста запустила стратегическую концепцию Бухарест 2035 (CSB), нацеленную на определение способа развития румынской столицы и установление общих принципов создания гармоничной и конкурентоспособной территории. Концепция состоит из нескольких этапов, по пяти направлениям (территориальный контекст, производственный город, функциональный город, город устойчивого развития и управление городом), с учётом выполнения роли европейской столицы, зоны влияния, демографической платформы, экономической зоны, инфраструктурной и транспортной зоны, экологической зоны и т.п. December 2011 | www.railwaypro.com


46 Policies & Strategies

London Olympic Games impose a boost in the accessibility of public transport [ by Pamela Luică ]

For an efficient transport, the accessibility is a key factor for passenger flows and the infrastructure segment dedicated to disabled people plays an important role. It includes the infrastructure elements in stopping areas, stations, hubs, but also in public transport vehicles. In view of the London Olympic Games 2012, the authorities invest in projects for facilitating the accessibility to public transport, in order to allow this passenger segment to use public transport much easier.

I

n order to have an increased accessibility degree, authorities must elaborate and implement strategies taking into account all the means of transport, the identification of new initiatives for the access and implementation of projects for ensuring the passenger flow. Since 10 million tickets are estimated to be sold during the Olympic Games, the public transport system must be accessible. For instance, for the (2012) Olympic Games in London, the authorities have considered developing projects for 13 types of transport which could be used by disabled people. The Department for Transport (Df T) has launched the programme “Safe access for everybody” (ever since 2006) in which it invested GBP 370 Million (EUR 430 Million), and until 2015 it estimates an yearly investment of GBP 35 Million (EUR 40 Million) for removing obstacles, increasing accessibility of routes and stations, approximately 100 stations being equipped by the end of 2011. In addition, according to the financing schedule, GBP 7 Million will be granted each year for implementing innovative solutions for the access to the transport stations. As regards the underground transport, the London Subway has implemented the

23,000 - Estimated number of ticket holders who will have some difficulty using, or will be unable to use, stairs and escalators on the busiest day of competition at the Olympic Games 1% - Estimated proportion of spectators who will be unable to use stairs and escalators during the Games 7% - Estimated proportion of spectators who will have some difficulty negotiating stairs and escalators during the Games. 13 - Estimated number of different modes of transport that could be used by disabled people travelling to the Games. programme “Step-Free” which provides lity study for the availability of park & ride accessible routes from the street level to projects (dedicated to people with reduced the platforms. 25% of the network is ex- mobility) which will be directly connected pected to have this type of access by 2012. to the underground network in order to enLikewise, 175 subway stations will be mo- courage this category of passengers. dernised until 2012, the equipping being The increase of the accessibility degree, pursued for the supply of visual and audi- as well as the challenges for ensuring an tory information, improvement of rails by operational transport system are some of adapting them to appropriate heights, re- the topics to be debated during the 4th moval, modification or emphasis of obsta- edition of Intermodes, held in Brussels in cles, provision of visual contrasts between February 2012. the information points and the help points, modernisation of signals and pictograms, mounting surfaces for tactile warning areas (at stairs). In order to allow disabled persons to use the transport system, addiОлимпийские игры tional measures must be implemented. The в Лондоне требуют authorities are also implementing a feasibi-

повышенной степени доступности к общественному транспорту

Для эффективного транспорта, эффективность является ключевым фактором с точки зрения управления пассажирскими потоками, а по этому сегменту важную роль играет инфраструктура, приспособленная для доступа инвалидов. Речь идёт об элементах инфраструктуры на остановках, станциях, узлах, но и в транспортных средствах, предназначенных для перевозки пассажиров. Для Олимпийских игр, которые будут состояться в Лондоне в 2012 году, власти инвестируют средства в проекты по обеспечению доступа в общественный транспорт, чтобы облегчить данному сегменту пассажиров использование общественного транспорта. www.railwaypro.com | December 2011


15 - 17 FEBRUARY 2012 KARLSRUHE TRADE FAIR CENTER GERMANY

REGISTER NOW AND JOIN THE IT FAMILY! www.IT-TRANS.org

Organisers:

Direct access to Conference programme:


48 ENGINEER

Technology S-CURVE It is over 10,000 years since the wheel was originally invented. Since then, after a very long period of ‘early exploration’, we have seen many technological breakthroughs in transport, especially in public transport. Today, our industry has a wide and colourful palette of tools to perform its tasks. However, we already reached the wheel’s technological limits a few decades ago and with it, the end of its impressive developmental curve… INFORMATION Technology Instead, we are concentrating on improving the existing tools, through the use of innovative information and communication technologies, at all levels, and in every detail. We increasingly want to offer integration and interoperability to create a seamless journey. By intelligently linking our separate tools, we transform them into systems; if the connected entities are also ’digitally aware‘, the created system becomes ’smarter‘: whether through eTicketing or Travel Information, our passengers want to become smart travellers. At the same time there is a relentless demand for more efficiency and higher performance. New technologies allow us to optimize and fine-tune our traditional operations and services like never before. But above all, information technology enables us to act beyond simply operations and to finally become genuinely customer-oriented. Social Media opens up an unavoidable one-to-one dialogue with our customers. The use of information technology also ushers in new potential partners previously beyond the scope of our sector. EMV and NFC bring us banks and telecom operators, Google and Apple bring us ’Apps‘… How to capitalise on this growing interest from big business ready make a foray into our ’killerapplication‘: public transport? Given that technology itself is almost never a problem - but rather the underlying complexity and organisation – such global topics need a lot of discussion time to mature. The conference sessions at ITTRANS are the ideal networking platwww.railwaypro.com | December 2011

Photo: Johan van Ieperen

IT-TRANS in sync with customers’ lifestyles form for you to discuss and learn about the latest thinking on these difficult and challenging issues. IT-TRANS Designed specifically to discuss IT solutions in public transport, is the international conference and exhibition platform ITTRANS, offered by UITP. UITP’s extensive membership – from industry middle and top management - enables us to mobilize quality people to deliver quality content for you to experience quality time. We like to talk about our IT family. The 2012 edition of the biannual conference and exhibition will address again a wide range of issues via: • Conference sessions providing you with global developments and overall knowledge to support strategic decisions (8 main sessions with 36 speakers), • The Exhibition, home to 56 market update presentations, providing local knowledge and operational decisions from all over the world. There are problems that you simply cannot solve by yourself. These have to be addressed – with the help of the IT Family - on a national, or even international level. Clearly, these are the domain of UITP and its partners like ASSTRA, VDV and UTP. The platform is IT-TRANS. PTx2 At IT-TRANS 2010, UITP Secretary General Hans Rat launched the sector strategy PTx2: to double the market share of public transport worldwide by 2025. Not surprisingly, a pivotal role will be played by Information Technology professionals. Your area of expertise will be instrumental to bringing public transport into the 21st century and advancing the PTx2 goals; we want to become a lifestyle choice, be at the leading edge of new business, act more commercially, and create the space for yet more improvements. How we accomplish all of this largely depends on the success of your solutions. We are looking for any kind of forward-looking innovation, large or small, short or long term. Three issues will form the central plank of IT-TRANS:

Travel information There is an ongoing discussion about a ’European multimodal journey planner‘. The discussion is driving the hotly-debated topic of ’sharing of data‘, and not only on the European scale. The public transport sector has been developing attractive and advanced IT solutions for journey planning, including real time information and fares for a long time now. Travel information and journey planners that are successful today are mostly local or regional, but also national with responsibility taken by the local and regional - and sometimes national - authorities. However, over the past 10 years, there has also been successful cooperation on a larger scale, for example EU-Spirit. This kind of (European) planner is based on the principle of Distributed Journey Planning so that the local data can stay under the control of its owners. These ‘local’ sources would preferably be tapped into from the highest possible level of aggregation, such as a national mobility service provider. If such a national MSP does not exist, the sources (have to) move down to regional and local levels. The key questions when discussing journey planners are access to data and rules for reuse of data. Responsibility needs to be clearly defined and there is an essential customer requirement for affordable, accessible, reliable, relevant and updated information. On a global level, we need a framework that is supported by the public transport sector including local, regional and long distance public transport but also supports attractive and user-friendly solutions using different channels developed not only by the public transport sector but also by third parties. For more details you can consult the UITP EuroTeam common position on the “European MM Journey Planner”. It is the result of years of consensus-building for a Travel Information Market (TIM) and the proposed EU-TravelNet project. Add your voice to this discussion at IT-TRANS. Ticketing Today, there is a definite trend for moving data from the card to the back office.


49

Photo: Johan van Ieperen

ENGINEER

The information on the medium could be replaced by a unique ID number serving as a reference to your data and your means of payment. Actually, this is what is ’sort of ’ behind the term EMV, which uses contactless bankcards as a medium. But instead of a bankcard, the medium could also be a passport, health card, or a mobile phone… …“ID-Based Ticketing” or ticketing as a service, is unlike existing ticketing schemes. In the future a system would probably accept many different kinds of unique ID numbers – as long as there is some means of guaranteeing payment. And what to think about the everlasting NFC (Near Field Communication) hype? Perhaps NFC-enabled phones will quickly penetrate the market. That would certainly catapult schemes based on this technology like Deutsche Bahn’s Touch&Travel.

Johan van Ieperen UITP Information Technology, Innovation and Service Industry Manager

Whatever happens, it will not consolidate the developments in electronic ticketing. The same is true for the European interoperable electronic ticketing agenda. The conclusions from the IFM-project are still valid but these new techniques open up new ideas and solutions. Choices are difficult and will not get any easier. Talk and listen to the experts at ITTRANS to form your own opinion, your own vision. Social Media Maybe the most important part of ITTRANS is the serious introduction of the Social Media topic – the real customer perspective. Many of us are aware of it, but keep following a traditional approach. Some play it down as insignificant (“why should I Twitter”) and others see it

for what it is: a modern means of communication, especially with our younger customers. Social Media is all about two-way conversations, providing information in a customized way, being there when necessary, and not staying silent when a customer asks for a response. Social Media requires a concept and should not be underestimated. Would you still send a letter or a fax to register for the next UITP World Congress in Geneva? Why would a teenager use the phone if he/she has Facebook? The world around us is changing rapidly and we tend to live in our own small world. This is a wake-up call for all those who do not want to miss the link with the new generations, the new way of thinking, the world of social networking. See it at IT-TRANS.

Johan van Ieperen was born in 1965 in The Netherlands. He studied Civil Engineering at the Technical University of Delft and specialised in Infrastructure Planning. For his thesis on “Optimizing Networks to User and Builder requirements by introducing additional nodes” he also wrote the accompanying interactive Windows software. After having lived in The Netherlands, Canada, South Korea and Germany, Johan moved to Belgium to start working for the International Association of Public Transport (UITP) in 2005 where he is in charge of all Information Technology issues, specifically the Information Technology & Innovation Commission and the Information Technology & Industry Services Committee.

Before UITP, Johan worked with TTK GmbH in Karlsruhe, a consultancy and city renowned for its very successful light rail scheme development known today as “tramtrain”. He was involved in establishing “Verkehrsverbünde” (tariff integration), tramtrain feasibility studies, the organization of light rail related conferences and numerous European funded projects. One such project was the Light Rail Thematic Network (LibeRTiN), a project that aimed at technical standardisation and harmonisation of light rail vehicles. Within this project, Johan was responsible for the topic Accessibility. Besides running and sailing, one of his serious hobbies is computer programming, of which you can see an example at http:// www.urban-navigation.info/ (the Travel Planner Portal). December 2011 | www.railwaypro.com


opinions 50 METROPOLITAN

Rail station, a historic monument of the city

[ by Elena Ilie ]

Most old European rail stations date back from the 19th century and reflect the grandiose architecture of those times and, why not, still borrow from their prestige to the city, if not to the railway transport activity as well. Old rail stations are the testimony of a nation’s past, each corner of such a place bearing the story of a long gone world. Today’s challenge consists in adapting the old rail stations to present needs, as regards both the increase in the number of trains and the new trends regarding the passengers’ comfort without bringing any damage to their character of architectonic monument.

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he British people have anticipated success. By redeveloping a railway station whose origins go back into the Victorian Age, preserving the specific architectural elements and even enhancing them with modern 21st century elements, the British managed to transform St Pancras International not only into a modern railway station but also into a commercial and tourism centre of great importance to the British capital. The aggressive international promotion of the newly refurbished railway station was the key element of the St Pancras’ success. Thus, in 2001, the actual restoration and modernisation works began in the entire complex and starting November 2007, St Pancras is the new “home” of the Eurostar trains. The costs of the entire project rise to GBP 800 Million. During the rehabilitation works, many of the Victorian architectural elements were successfully restored or rebuilt. The French have also kept the guard up in terms of preserving historic monuments. Here is an example of how the old and the modern can be usefully and successfully combined. Once the first sector of the LGV Est was put into operation, in June 2007, Strasbourg railway station, the terminal of LGV Est, has started to be considered too small and

cramped. Consequently, the railway station was subjected to a programme of refurbishment and modernisation. It was inaugurated six months later, on November 5, the same year. The initial building of Strasbourg railway station was built by the German Railways because, at the time, Alsace-Lorraine region was located on German land. The initial building of the railway station, built in 1883, was preserved but yet extended due to a huge glass dome which covers the old construction. However, at nights, the glass dome becomes transparent in order to allow passers to observe the original façade of Strasbourg railway station, covered in rose-coloured ceramics. Nevertheless, the construction of the glass façade was considered inappropriate by many citizens in Strasbourg. They didn’t approve the fact that the contemporary façade covers the old historic construction, making it visible only at nights. But the modernisation works enabled the extension of the railway station and the establishment of several connections between different transport modes. The rehabilitation project of Strasbourg railway station was not focused just on the modernisation and preservation of the old 19th century building, but represented an opportunity to the tourism development in the area and to the development of the economic importance, an opportunity gener-

ated by the opening of the LGV Est. Other big cities have also developed projects for rehabilitating the historic monument rail stations and among these cities we can name Anvers, Leipzig, Moscow and Saint Petersburg. Romania has also initiated a series of projects aimed at upgrading railway stations built in the past century, such as those in the cities of Suceava, Arad, Timişoara, Iaşi etc. Bucharest plans to have its central rail station, Gara de Nord, modernised. For this purpose, the Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure signed a memorandum of understanding in September 2011 for supporting the development of a feasible modernisation project. Unfortunately, not all historic monument rail stations in Romania have been included in modernisation projects, some of them being, in fact, abandoned to...oblivion. It is also the case of Gara Filaret, the first rail station of the capital from which the trains Bucharest Filaret – Giurgiu left, this being the first railway line on Romanian territory. Gara Filaret was inaugurated in 1869 and today, in 2011, the rail station “receives” no trains, as it has been ironically transformed into a bus terminal, being closed since 1960 and then transformed into a departure and arrival terminal for automotive vehicles.

Вокзал - исторический памятник города Большинство старых европейских вокзалов были построены в 19 веке, и они отражают грандиозную архитектуру тех времён и, почему бы нет, ещё придают некий престиж городу и железнодорожной транспортной деятельности. Старые вокзалы являются свидетельством прошлого наций. Каждый уголок имеет свою историю, связанную с миром, давно канувшим в лету. Вызов наших дней заключается в приспособлении старых вокзалов к потребностям наших дней как с точки зрения количества обслуживаемых поездов, так и в плане новых тенденций обеспечения комфорта пассажиров, без воздействия на их характер архитектурных памятников. www.railwaypro.com | December 2011


Policies & Strategies 51

Ambitious projects on railway transport modernisation for Russian Railways

[ by Elena Ilie ]

Present at the Second Railway Congress of Russian Railways, held in Moscow on 18 and 19 November, the President of Russian Railways, Vladimir Yakunin, talked about the evolution of reform in the Russian railway industry, but also about the railway transport and infrastructure modernisation projects carried out in the four years that had passed since the First Congress of RZD, in 2007. The projects related to the company’s future expansion were also among the topics debated in Moscow.

To maintain a close relationship with foreign railway industry partners, a company has to prove the efficiency of its management and credibility in signing partnerships”, declared Vladimir Yakunin. The reform of the railway system in Russia has held an important position on RZD’s agenda in the past four years. “Russian Railways has finalized the third stage of reform, currently being at the beginning of the fourth, the company thus making significant structural changes. Important subsidiaries have been established, such as the Federal Passenger Company, but also Freight One and Freight Two, in case of freight transport, as well as companies dealing with rolling stock repairs. The established subsidiaries bring incomes of more than RUB 500 Billion (EUR 12 Billion) every year”, pointed out Yakunin. “It is necessary to carry out railway infrastructure development programmes especially for cross-border regions. The modernisation of the railway infrastructure has not been dictated only by the increase of traffic speed, but also for ensuring the passengers’ safety”, stated Valentina Matviyenko, President of the Federation Council of Russia. Moreover, despite the different problems mainly caused by the economic recession which has also affected railway transport, the suburban passenger transport system has been radically changed, currently including 26 independent companies, while the freight transport market has been redesigned. The reform was aimed at increasing the attractive-

ness and efficiency of railways. “Despite limited investment funds, Russian Railways have focused on the modernisation and development of railway infrastructure, with investments over the past four years exceeding RUB 1,000 Billion (EUR 24 Billion) in infrastructure modernisation. The Federal Passenger Company has received subsidies of RUB 68 Billion (EUR 1.7 Billion) for passenger transport development. By 2015, RZD will invest RUB 400 Billion (EUR 10 Billion) for the development of the most important infrastructure projects”, added Yakunin. “We have to focus on delivering an efficient passenger transport system. The development programme by 2015 includes modernisation and construction of railway transport infrastructure, but unfortunately the federal budget cannot grant a large amount for investments”, declared Igor Levitin, the Russian Minister of Transport. However, significant progress in improving the passenger transport infrastructure and in modernising the rail stations has been achieved and RZD has accepted the modernisation of the railway hub to Moscow. As for the railway high-speed transport, more than 4,7 million passengers have been carried between Moscow, Saint Petersburg and Nizhny Novgorod since the launch of the Sapsan trains and over 300,000 passenger have travelled between Saint Petersburg and Helsinki (Finland) with Allegro trains. “Baikal – Amur line is an important project of Russian Railways, but it requires a large amount of investments. Once upgraded,

railway transport on this route will boost and will permit an efficient connection with Asian countries”, said Vadim Morozov, Vice President of RZD. Under the 2030 Strategy, over the next two decades, railway high-speed transport will be developed reaching from the present 650 km to 10.887 km. However, railway high-speed projects require a large investment amount from Russian Railways and are usually planned for a period of time between three and five years. The development of rapid transport will not only occur in the regions of the Russian Federation capitals, but also in Far East, in the river basin of Volga and in the south of Russia. As part of the project for reinforcing a rapid connection between Moscow and Sochi, the current line will be rehabilitated and the process is underway. To avoid the hub in Rostov, a bridge across the Don River will be built, thus cutting the time travel from Moscow to Sochi from 36 to 15 hours. The route along the coast of the Black Sea, between Tuapse and Adler could be transferred through a tunnel or an alternative mountainous route. By 2030, the length of high-speed lines will reach up to 1.500 km. Choosing between the options of building high-speed line to link Moscow and Nizhny Novgorod and Moscow – Smolensk – Krasnoe (western border) will be determined by the dynamics of the socialeconomic development of Russia.

Российские железные дороги внедряет смелые проекты модернизации железнодорожного транспорта На Втором Железнодорожном конгрессе Российских железных дорог, проведённом в Москве 18 и 19 декабря, президент компании, Владимир Якунин, говорил об эволюции реформы российской железнодорожной индустрии, но и о проектах модернизации железнодорожного транспорта и инфраструктуры, внедрённые за четыре года с момента проведения Первого конгресса РЖД в 2007 году. Среди тем, обсуждённых на мероприятии в Москве, числились и проекты будущей модернизации компании. December 2011 | www.railwaypro.com


opinions 52 METROPOLITAN

Rail station, a new city centre [ by Elena Ilie ]

What are the expectations of the modern citizen as regards rail stations? The diversity of functions and a better integration into the urban landscape. Railway stations have to be a pleasant environment for those who work here, a true shopping and retail location, an active environment 24h a day and a rapid and convenient transit and transfer point between transport modes. An important urban pole can be built in the area located around the rail station, but it is necessary that those responsible for urban policies to adopt an integrated approach for the sustainable and coherent development of the rail station.

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he rapid development of the different transit systems has led to the modernisation of railway stations along the crossed route. They have to be as aesthetically built or modernised as possible and to dispose of enough capacity to provide shelter for users. Passengers in transit need special places where they should wait for the next train. Railway stations, integrated to other open and attractive public spaces, and eco-friendly pedestrian ways will attract users and will maintain passenger traffic. The public transport system has become more and more important as mobility mode for people living in cities, especially due to the recent increase in the oil price; more and more people are focusing their attention towards public transport to travel in the city, as an alternative mode extremely reliable when trying to avoid traffic congestion. The rail stations supporting railway and road transport don’t play the role of simple bus stations, they don’t serve the passenger using the simple “touch and go” model, but they are neither a mere architectural space. Transport is not identified only with mobility, it has become a significant urban part in big cities, compared to other civil buildings; transit stations have the potential to reshape the environment built in a city, they provide op-

accesibility: transport systems

passenger (customer)

city (region) region public transport system (rail & bus)

city

access

mobile phone internet travel agents

HS service info travel time frequency cost reservations sales ticketing

urban transport system

transfer time

operator

information customer service ticketing control sales lounges waiting rooms

portunities for creating places which improve the quality of urban life. Most rail stations have a typical design which doesn’t consider the exterior environment, so that, experts say, it is necessary to rethink a more environmentally friendly design and planning. One of the most representative projects for the integration of the railway station into the urban landscape is in Germany, in Stuttgart, where the architects have planned the modernisation of the old railway station into an area of 100 ha dedicated to the establishment

private transport system (highways)

citizens not travelling

land use planning urban renewal

shops & services concourse

new regional developments

access control

HS train operation and maintenance

on station train operations cleaning catering...

depot workshop

traffic regulation and control High Speed and the city

Source: www.uic.org

www.railwaypro.com | December 2011

provided

The actors: quality relationship

A.3

of green spaces, residential and work groups, the station being a crossing point for eight lines of the high-speed network. The eight lines will be located in the underground and will replace the existing 16 surface lines. The very ambitious EUR 4 Billion “Stuttgart 21” project is intended to become the new city centre being connected to the underground network and to the surface public transport. The number of passengers to cross the new intermodal hub every day is estimated at 250,000.

Вокзал может стать новым центром городаа

HS tracks and platforms

operator

September 2010

rail infrastructure manager perceived

Source: www.uic.org

urban transport system

information customer service ticketing control sales lounges waiting rooms

traffic regulation and control High Speed and the city

offices

travel time

on station train operations cleaning catering...

depot workshop

HS train operation and maintenance

city (region)

P

new regional developments

access control

region

transfer time

concourse

HS tracks and platforms

& HS sales

mobile phone internet travel agents

urban renewal

shops & services

P

city

HS service info travel time frequency cost reservations sales ticketing

land use planning

offices

travel time

passenger (customer)

access information time

citizens not travelling

information time & HS sales

accesibility: transport systems

public transport system (rail & bus)

private transport system (highways)

September 2010

rail infrastructure manager

The actors: monetary flows

A.2

Каковы ожидания современного гражданина в отношении вокзалов? Эти ожидания касаются разнообразия функций и лучшей интеграции в городской пейзаж. Вокзалы должны являться приятной средой для тех, кто на их территории работает, и должны быть адекватной точкой для шоппинга и для розничной торговли. Они должны быть доступными круглосуточно и должны являться быстрым и удобным способом транзита и трансфера между различными видами транспорта. На привокзальной территории можно построить важный городской полюс, но для этого необходимо, чтобы лица, отвечающие за городскую политику, приняли интегрированный подход к устойчивому и последовательному развитию.


Products & Technologies

53

Performing diesel engines increase the quality of railway transports [ by Teodor Turcu ]

In November 2011, the European Parliament and the European Commission adopted a new directive on limiting the exhaust gas emissions for the diesel engines of railway vehicles, in the eve of passing to a new phase, starting with January 1, 2012, the limit figures accepted so far.

D

irective 97/68/EC refers to the measures against the emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants from internal combustion engines to be installed in non-road mobile machinery, with subsequent amendments and supplements, where the engines for multiple-units and locomotives are included in a different chapter. December 31, 2011 is a new threshold in limiting the level of gas emissions from diesel engines for railway traction. Starting with this date, the stage IIIB becomes effective which imposes an even more drastic cutting of the polluting emissions generated by diesel engines. Therefore, if in 2006, for the engines superior to 130 kW, dust emissions were limited to 0.2 g/kwh, starting with 2012, they will be limited to 0.025 g/kwh. Also the limit of hydrocarbon emissions decreases from 0.5 g/kwh in 2008 to 0.19 g/kwh from 2012. On November 16, 2011, the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union have adopted a new directive, namely Directive 2011/88/EU that amends and completes the old directive. According to the new directive, it is possible to use the IIIA stage engines in the construction of locomotives through the flexibility programme which allows an equipment manufacturer to use a specific type of engine for another 3 years since the indicated date, but no more than 16 engines. Also, the directive assesses the possibility to approach the post-equipping with systems for the post-treatment of the gases generated or the existing fleet of railway vehicles, as well as the establishment of periodical testing methods for the rolling stock with special engines so as to make sure that their emission performance is compliant with the figures declared upon registration. For diesel engine manufacturers, limiting the gas emissions is a constant concern for aligning to the legislative requirements of the EU and the reason why they seek innovative technical solutions. Among other requirements that have to be observed, reducing the NOx is made through the catalytic oxidation after burn, either by using a system to limit the temperatures that favour the formation of NOx or by recirculating part of the burned gases. According to the representatives of Caterpillar in Roma-

nia, the diesel engines for locomotives are equipped with the above-mentioned equipments and with filters for retaining particles (DPF - Diesel Particulate Filter), particles generated by still unburned elements coming from fuels or from the lubrication oil. “For controlling the hydrocarbons and the carbon oxide resulted from burned gases, we also apply the catalytic oxidation, the exhaust pipes including a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC). As the components included in the exhaust route of the burned gases have to occupy a reduced space, we couple the DOC with the DPF, resulting the so-called Clean Emission Module”, declared Gheorghe Robu, Sales Key Account, Eneria CAT. An electronic system of diesel engine management is capable to interact precisely between the systems of the diesel engines and the pollution levels imposed by Directive EU 97/68/EC stage IIIB, according to the representatives of MTU Friedrichshafen in Romania. “For achieving an efficient combustion of fuel in the diesel engine, we have introduced, for the first time, the “common rail” system which realizes the combustion injection of the fuel in 3 stages and for eliminating the variation of the injection pressure in the combustion room, we have developed a new type of injector with an incorporated pressure battery. The injection pressure increased from 1,600 bar to 2,200 bar, and for the future MTU plans to increase the injection pressure to 2,500 bar”, declared Vasile Nicodim, Executive Manager, Service Faur S.R.L. In order to align to the limits of polluting emissions regulated in the European directives and for reducing nitrogen oxides, MTU has developed new systems for supplementing the air supply of the engine. These systems are capable to reduce the temperature in the combustion room. The company has also introduced the EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation), which reintroduces in the suction gallery of the engine part of the exhaust gases after cooling them. The SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) system, relying on the injection of urea in the exhaust gases, the products being nitrogen and water, the nitrogen oxides are reduced by 90%. Also, through the DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter) system, which retains solid particles

resulted from the combustion process in a ceramic filter, the electronic engine management system increases for a specific period of time the temperature of exhaust gases so that the particles retained by the ceramic filter will burn. This method eliminates the need for the maintenance of the filter. All processes that contribute to reducing polluting emissions are efficiently conSolutii constructive noi aplicate deby firma MTU-Germania, la motoarele trolled and monitored the ADEC system pentru tractiune feroviara, in vederea reducerii emisiilor poluante for the management of the diesel engine for In Uniunea Europeana, emisiile poluante sint reglementate prin Directiva EU increasing thedirective performance of engines. 97/68EG. Conform acestei incepind cu 1 ianuarie 2012 intra in vigoare stagiul IIIB care presupune o reducere si mai drastica a emisiilor poluante ale motoarelor diesel utilizate in tractiunea feroviara. Pentru a avea o imagine mai clara privind gradul de reducere a emisiilor poluante impuse prin directiva EU 97/68EG va prezentam urmatorul grafic care este foarte sugestiv:

Emission reduction on MTU

Source: Service Faur NUMAR REGISTRUL COMERULUI: J 40/276/1997, COD UNIC: RO 912 1855 CONT: RO95RNCB0074029217870001 – BCR Sucursala SECTOR 3, BUCURESTI; WEB: www.servicefaur.ro.

Современные дизельные двигатели - основные источники ограничения вредных выбросов Ограничение вредных выбросов газов и твёрдых частиц двигателей, предстоящих монтажу на мобильных машинах, не предназначенных для дорожного движения, составляет предмет ДИРЕКТИВЫ 97/68/ CE. Дизельные двигатели оснащены фильтрами для вылавливания частиц, катализатором, а также другими системами снижения содержания вредных веществ, установленными европейскими директивами. Начиная с 31 декабря 2011 года будет осуществлён переход к новому порогу ограничений уровня вредных выбросов дизельных двигателей, предназначенных для железнодорожной тяги. December 2011 | www.railwaypro.com


opinions 54 MOBILITY

An easier way to attract passengers [ by Elena Ilie ]

Many of the new or modernised railway stations have already applied modern concepts from own sustainable systems for energy production, performing security systems, e-ticketing and communication systems to a revolutionary architectural design facilitating the improvement of the access for passengers. Impressive and futuristic buildings, doubled by the use of sustainable materials and concepts meant to increase the passenger transit flow, transform many of the current railway stations into architectural and public transport models.

T

he way railway passengers buy tickets is already undergoing a transformation and modernisation process so that ticketless systems based on smart cards and contactless technologies are preferred to the old paper ones. More than that, ticketless concept developers intend to make a step forward by replacing smart cards with near-field communication (NFC) technology using chips which can be integrated in credit cards or in smartphones for the payment of travel prices. The leaders in this field are the developed countries in Asia, Japan and South Korea using this type of technology for several years. Therefore, for Japanese and Korean passengers, chips installed in phones used for the payment of the travel ticket are not a technology of the future, but of the present. A recent poll revealed that 69% of Asians would prefer this travel payment method compared to only 26% of those interviewed in Europe and the USA. Nevertheless, in Europe, Germany continues to be the leader in terms of innovations for passengers, therefore the near-field communication system was implemented as a pilot project in Berlin Central Railway Station (Hautbahnhof) and Potsdam railway station. An analysis carried out after the implementation of the pilot project showed

www.railwaypro.com | December 2011

that 82% of the customers had a positive answer to the easy use of this technology, the satisfaction level reaching 75%. As a result, all the 320 railway stations serving the long-distance railway transport benefit since November 1, 2011, from the Touch & Travel technology. Railway stations will need to adapt to the increasing number of passengers but also to their demands. Nevertheless, the development of railway stations will be carried out in different phases and will include many changes over the time. The design of the future railway stations will have to consider attributes such as the sustainability, accessibility, intermodality and to include smart ticketing facilities. According to the data provided by the International Union of Railways (UIC), at world level the number of passengers in the railway transport increased by 3.5% in 2010. This and the development of the high-speed railway transport had an impact on the way passengers need railway stations to function and operate in the future.

Более лёгкий способ привлечения пассажиров Множество новых или модернизированных железнодорожных станций уже применяет современные концепции, от собственных надёжных систем производства электроэнергии, усовершенствованных систем безопасности, систем электронной выдачи проездных билетов и систем современной связи, и до радикально нового архитектурного дизайна, способствующего облегчённому доступу пассажиров.


ENVIRONMENT 55

How transport is affecting climate change

30% reduction of polluting emissions, a target still difficult to reach

The debate on climate change has shifted dramatically in recent years. There is

now unequivocal scientiďŹ c evidence – summarised in the 2007 report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) – that global warming is happening [ by Elena Ilie ]

that human actions are responsible; and that this poses an enormous threat to life on Earth. The aim of EU’s greenhouse gas emissions trading scheme (EU ETS) represents the promotion of a mechanism for cutting greenhouse gas emissions in the fields of activity responsible thisincreasingly type of emissions, Politicians, businesses and the publicforare aware so of that the problem and are meeting the commitments assumed by the EU under Kyoto Protocol will be less expensive. calling for urgent action to cut the man-made emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs that cause climate change, in particular carbon dioxide (CO2).

Figure 1: Planned reductions EU-wide greenhouse gas emissions Planned reductions ofof EU-wide greenhouse gas emissions

T

RAILWAYS AND THE ENVIRONMENT | TRANSPORT AND THE ENVIRONMENT

he important environmental agreements on protecting the environment against climate change have included the transport sector among those sectors whose objectives will be cutting polluting emissions by 2020. With all the efforts made by specialized industries, transport is undoubtedly the only sector whose polluting emissions have increased significantly starting with the ‘90s. More than 90% of the total emissions in national transport in Europe are caused by road transport, while railway transport is responsible only for 0.6% of diesel emissions and less than 2% of emissions resulted from power generation. But this does not mean that it has been exempted from making commitments on cutting polluting emissions. Despite the many initiatives of launching policies and strategies for cutting emissions, including that of the railway sector to cut emissions by 39% by 2020, it is estimated that the transport demand will be the highest in all sectors and even through the limited decoupling of the energy consumption caused by the transport demand, the resulted energy consumption will increase just as much. The European Commission has 6foreseen a 21% growth in the energy consumption for transport from 2000 to 2030. In Europe, Kyoto Protocol, which is still in force and will be replaced in 2012, is the second priority in terms of reducing transport emissions. Much more severe is the European Directive on reducing greenhouse gas emissions which became effective in 2004. Moreover, in March 2011 the European Commission adopted a complex strategy called “Transports 2050� aimed to develop a competitive transport system that would increase the mobility level and stimulate economic growth. At the same time, the proposals will dramatically reduce Europe’s dependency on imported oil and will help cut transport-generated carbon emissions by 60% until 2050. “Transports 2050 is a roadmap for a competitive transport sector that will





 

 

    &6FNJTTJPOT 

&6UBSHFU &6UBSHFUJG 'VUVSF&6UBSHFU  HMPCBMBHSFFNFOU  

Source: UIC

help reduce emissions. Restricting mobility and maintaining the present situation are out of discussion. We have the capacity to eliminate the oil dependency of our transport system without sacrificing its efficiency and without compromising mobility�, believes Siim Kallas, the European commissioner for transport. Meeting the objectives requires a transformation of the current European transport system. Key objectives by 2050, include eliminating the automotive vehicles powered by conventional fuels from urban traffic and the transfer of 50% of he interurban medium-distance passenger and freight transport from road transport to railway and maritime/inland waterways transport.

ХОкращонио вродных Đ˛Ń‹ĐąŃ€ĐžŃ ĐžĐ˛ на 30% Đ˛Ń Ń‘ ощё Ń?вНŃ?ĐľŃ‚Ń Ń? Ń‚Ń€ŃƒĐ´Đ˝Đž Đ´ĐžŃ Ń‚Đ¸ĐśĐ¸ĐźĐžĐš СадачоК ĐŚĐľĐťŃŒ Ń Ń…ĐľĐźŃ‹ Đ•ĐĄ, Ń Đ˛Ń?СаннОК Ń ĐżŃ€ĐžĐ´Đ°ĐśĐľĐš Ń ĐľŃ€Ń‚Đ¸Ń„Đ¸ĐşĐ°Ń‚ĐžĐ˛, Ń Đ˛Đ¸Đ´ĐľŃ‚ĐľĐťŃŒŃ Ń‚Đ˛ŃƒŃŽŃ‰Đ¸Ń… Đž Đ˛Ń‹ĐąŃ€ĐžŃ Đ°Ń… гаСОв Ń ĐżĐ°Ń€Đ˝Đ¸ĐşĐžĐ˛Ń‹Đź Ń?ффоктОП (EU ETS), ĐˇĐ°ĐşĐťŃŽŃ‡Đ°ĐľŃ‚Ń Ń? в прОдвиМонии ПоханиСПа Ń ĐžĐşŃ€Đ°Ń‰ĐľĐ˝Đ¸Ń? ĐşĐžĐťĐ¸Ń‡ĐľŃ Ń‚Đ˛Đ° гаСОв Ń ĐżĐ°Ń€Đ˝Đ¸ĐşĐžĐ˛Ń‹Đź Ń?ффоктОП. ДанныК ПоханиСП дОНМон ĐąŃ‹Ń‚ŃŒ принŃ?Ń‚ хОСŃ?ĐšŃ Ń‚Đ˛ĐľĐ˝Đ˝Ń‹ĐźĐ¸ Ń ŃƒĐąŃŠĐľĐşŃ‚Đ°ĐźĐ¸, Đ´ĐľŃ?Ń‚ĐľĐťŃŒĐ˝ĐžŃ Ń‚ŃŒ кОтОрых Ń?вНŃ?ĐľŃ‚Ń Ń? Đ¸Ń Ń‚ĐžŃ‡Đ˝Đ¸ĐşĐžĐź такОгО рОда Đ˛Ń‹ĐąŃ€ĐžŃ ĐžĐ˛. Đ­Ń‚Đž ноОйхОдиПО Ń Đ´ĐľĐťĐ°Ń‚ŃŒ Đ´ĐťŃ? тОгО, чтОйы выпОНнонио ОйŃ?ĐˇĐ°Ń‚ĐľĐťŃŒŃ Ń‚Đ˛, принŃ?Ń‚Ń‹Ń… на Ń ĐľĐąŃ? Đ•Đ˛Ń€ĐžŃ ĐžŃŽĐˇĐžĐź в Ń ĐžĐžŃ‚Đ˛ĐľŃ‚Ń Ń‚Đ˛Đ¸Đ¸ Ń ĐšĐ¸ĐžŃ‚Ń ĐşĐ¸Đź прОтОкОНОП, Ń Ń‚Đ°ĐťĐž Поноо Đ´ĐžŃ€ĐžĐłĐžŃ Ń‚ĐžŃ?щиП. December 2011 | www.railwaypro.com


56 Policies & Strategies

Recast of the First Railway Package ensures the independence and impartiality of national regulatory bodies To encourage the accession on the rail transport market of new operators and to be sure of the quality of rail transport services, on November 16, the European Parliament has adopted, at first reading, the proposal for the Recast of the First Railway Package (legislation in force since 2001) on the liberalisation of railway services. At the beginning of 2012, the European Council will pass its resolution at first reading. [ by Elena Ilie ]

T

he development of the railway sector, since the adoption of the First Railway Package, has not met the expectations regarding the recovery of the sector. As the current system has demonstrated its shortcomings, rules need to be strengthened and harmonised and new elements need be added to make railways more attractive as a mode of transport for both passengers and freight. These were only few of the reasons why the Recast of the First Railway Package was necessary. The Recast should achieve a comprehensive and integrated European railway area. The European Rapporteur Debora Serracchiani, the project initiator, support this objectives, for which the Parliament has already expressed its support during the debates regarding previous railway packages. The current reform should go beyond the limits of nationally defined interests in the railway sector. The lack of independence of infrastructure management prevents the true transnational integration of the rail networks which continue to be managed along national considerations that are often dominated by the interests of incumbent railways undertakings. This limits in turn the attractiveness of the railway for new operators, new services and eventually customers. It reduces the possibilities of cross-border transports which are of crucial importance for the rail to become competitive vis-à-vis the road (freight) and air (passenger). Due to the size of EU Member States many medium-distance connections of 300 km imply already crossing the border of one or several Member States. The coexistence in the Member States of different social security schemes in the railway sector poses a risk of unfair competition between new railway operators and incumbent undertakings, and requires harmonisation while respecting the specific characteristics of the sector and of the Member States. In order to complete the European railway area, complete interoperability of the rail system at European level is necessary. The European Railway Agency should be assigned the appropriate powers and resources to attain this objective more quickly, inter alia as regards the development of common standards for certification of rolling stock and safety and signalling systems, is pointed out in the new text proposed by rapporteur www.railwaypro.com | December 2011

Debora Serracchiani and adopted by the Par- which should focus on stops that are ancilliament in mid-November. lary to the international route. The principal In order to ensure the future development purpose of such services should be to carry and efficient operation of the railway system, passengers travelling on an international a distinction should be made between the journey. When assessing whether that is the provision of transport services and the oper- service’s principal purpose, criteria such as ation of infrastructure. Given this situation, the proportion of turnover, and of volume, it is necessary for these two activities to be derived from transport of domestic or inTransport infrastructure managed separately and to have separate ac- ternational passengers, and the length of the counts, guaranteeing the transparency which service should be taken into account. The ensures that no public areindiverted to assessment of the service’s Map 2.15: Outline planfunds for Roads the Trans-European Transport Network (TEN-T) principal purpose other commercial activities. should be carried out by the respective naAnother amendment adopted is the intro- tional regulatory body at the request of an duction of new, open-access, international interested party. passenger services with intermediate stops Opening up international passenger serv-

2

Source: EUROSTAT

eurostat ■

31


Policies & Strategies 57 ices to competition may have implications for the organisation and financing of rail passenger services provided under a public service contract. Member States should have the option of limiting the right of access to the market where this right would compromise the economic equilibrium of these public service contracts and where approval is given by the relevant regulatory body and, where applicable, the network of regulatory bodies on the basis of an objective economic analysis, following a request from the competent authorities that awarded the public service contract. In light of the experience acquired through the network of regulatory bodies, the Commission shall, no later than two years after the publication of this Directive, draw up a legislative proposal establishing a European regulatory body. This body shall have a supervisory and arbitration function to deal with cross-border and international problems and to hear appeals of decisions taken by national regulatory bodies. “One of the major objectives of the European Commission was the recast of the First Railway Package, which brings nothing new but clarifies the current implementation norms in the European Union’s member states, because, as already known, ten years after the implementation of the Package, its alignment to national legislations has not been completed”, pointed out Frank Jost,Strategy Director, DG MOVE, EU Commission. The new text adopted stresses the importance of observing the rights of all passen-

gers. Therefore, to ensure transparency and non-discriminatory access to rail infrastructure and rail-related services for all railway undertakings, all the information required to use access rights is to be published in a network statement, including formats which are accessible for people with disabilities or reduced mobility. New Fourth Railway Package could be presented by the end of 2012 The 2011 Commission White Paper lists among its most important initiatives the need to “ensure effective and non-discriminatory access to rail infrastructure”. This means that the Commission is determined to further open the rail market in the near future. Therefore, if the rail market is to be liberalised, it is essential that conditions to operate in such an open market are as nondiscriminatory and transparent as possible. An extremely important aspect in the new text adopted in November refers to the measure according to which the Commission should present a legislative proposal on the separation of the infrastructure manager and the operator by the end of 2012. As the railway sector is not fully opened until now, the Commission should present a legislative proposal on the market opening by that date. This is one of the main aspects to be included in the new Fourth Railway Package, a legislative measure which could be presented by the Commission for con-

solidating the railway transport market opening. The main objectives of the Fourth Railway Package will include the total separation of infrastructure and train operations, will permit authorised applicants to obtain train paths, will facilitate the development of dedicated freight network and the development of the EU-wide track and trace system, will ensure the implementation of a freight quality package and will allow TENs railway and waterway project funding from road charges.

Голосование за пересмотр Первого Железнодорожного пакета обеспечит независимость и беспристрастность национальных регулирующих органов Для поощрения вступления новых железнодорожных операторов на транспортный рынок, а также для поощрения обеспечения качественных услуг в сфере железнодорожного транспорта, Европейский парламент 16 ноября одобрил предложение о пересмотре Первого Железнодорожного пакета в первом чтении. Данное законодательство (которое применяется с 2001 года) касается либерализации железнодорожных услуг.

December 2011 | www.railwaypro.com


Infrastructure investments: where, how much and StatisticS how?58Passenger mkt in Western Balkans The Voice of European Railways

Source: CER and ITF

Comparative development of rail passenger markets (in P/Km) in the Western Balkans.

Rail reform in South, East and Central Europe. PSO undercompensation SOURCE: CER October 2011

9

The Voice of European Railways

CER

Average State Compensation in EU15 and EU12

Source: CER 2010

(as % of difference between expenses and ticket revenues).

SOURCE: CER 4 October 2011

www.railwaypro.com | December 2011

19

CER


proportion of respondents who travelled by train between once and three times per month ranged from 8% in Spain to 22%-23% in the Czech Republic, Estonia and Slovakia. StatisticS 59 In the Czech Republic, the country with the most frequent travellers, 13% of respondents said they took the train between once and three times per week and 12% answered that they travelled by train Acrosson all countries a majority of rail passengers said that theyhigh took proportion the train in their less than once a month; a daily surveyed, basis. Other countries with a relatively of country “frequent travellers” werethis proportion ranged from 53% in the Czech Republic to 88% in Spain. The proportion of respondents who travelled by train between once Latvia, Slovenia and the three Benelux countries (17%-19%). and three times per month ranged from 8% in Spain to 22%-23% in the Czech Republic, Estonia and Slovakia. Frequency of journeys by rail Most days

1-3 times per week

1-3 times per month

Less than once a month

100

Flash EB No 326 – Survey on passengers’ satisfaction with rail services

DK/NA

Analytical report

80

53 Flash EB No 326 – Survey satisfaction with rail services 60 on 62 passengers’ 64 64 65 64

Country variations 60

66 68 70

72

73

72

74

76

74

76

77

79 80 80 80 84 85 85 88

2

4

5

3

3

4

4

4

4

3

2

1

EL

SE

DK

BG

LT

PT

EU27

DE

FR

RO

IT

PL

31

1

IE

FI

10

ES

5

HU

EE

BE

LV

LU

SK

SI

NL

CZ

6

6

very satisfied with this facility.

table 1b.

5

UK

4

0

AT

ess than once Across a month were more likely to be women (79% vs. 74% of 40 almost all countries, more than 7 in 10 rail passengers said they were very or rather satisfied 22 (78%-81% vs.with 63% the of 15-24 year-olds), respondents with the lowest in level ease21 of tickets in railway stations their country; in six countries, the level of 20buying 23 16 19 18 22 17 18 % of the most satisfaction educated), and manual workers 20 13 non-working respondents 17 19 17 20 16 Slovenia was over 90%: Lithuania (95%), Latvia (93%), Slovakia and 15 15 15 (92%), 7 10 12 11 8 14 13 Finland, 14 14 12 14 11 8 9 7 9 6 6 oyees and the self-employed). 4 5 4 6 4 6 3 12 2 2 5 11 9 2 2 likely Estonia (all 91%). in 4these six countries, respondents were among the most 7 Furthermore, 7 3 to be

The highest proportion of "very satisfied" respondents was found in Ireland, Finland and Estonia SOURCE: European Commission

rneys by rail (61%, 60% and 59%, respectively).

Q1. How often do you travel by train [IN YOUR COUNTRY]? Base: all respondents, % by country

respondents said that Mostinfrequent purpose of journeys byhand, rail were considerably less likely to be very or Rail passengers Germany and Austria, on the other Socio-demographic considerations neys by rail were for satisfied with the ease of buying tickets (54% and 61%, respectively); furthermore, 33% of rather 0 a tenth (11%) respondents of rail Leisure in Austria and 42% of those15inand Germany were rather and or very dissatisfied withwere this facility. The youngest respondents (between 24 years-of-age) full-time students the most 21 e train to go to their Slim majority (56%) of respondents said that likely to be “frequent” rail passengers: 16% said they took the train in their country either or leimost of their domestic journeys by raildaily were for i.e. commuted)Although and a the overall level of satisfaction was Business trips higher in Poland and purposes. Italy (76% and a85%, respectively) sure Roughly tenth (11%) of rail passenbetween once and three times per week. Across all other socio-demographic groups, the proportion of aid that most ofthan their in Germany and Austria, respondents the first-named countries were overall the likely toschool gers mainly tooklevel the train to goleast to their work, “frequent” rail passengers varied between in 4% among those with the lowest of education and 10% Travelling to work/ ness. Finally, 21% of or university (i.e. commuted) and a similar proporbeamong very satisfied with the ease of buying tickets: 16% in Poland and 18% in Italy (compared to 22% in 11 school/university 56 tion (12%) said that most of their rail journeys were other than theGermany ones employees. and 26% in Austria). Other on business. Finally, 21% of respondents listed purposes other than the ones mentioned above. page 7

12

Although Spain and France1 were characterised DK/NAby a relatively high proportion of respondents who were very or rather satisfied with the ease of buying tickets in railway stations in their country (90% and 84%, respectively), the proportions selecting the “very satisfied” response were considerably Q2. What is the most frequent purpose of your rail trip SOURCE: European Commission nts who travelled bythan [IN YOUR lower in most other countries (32% and 35%,COUNTRY]? respectively). Base: all respondents, %EU27 mainly for leisure in Hungary to 76% Satisfaction with ease of buying tickets ned by Romania, Poland and Bulgaria, with roughly 4 in 10 rail passengers Very satisfied Rather satisfied Rather dissatisfied Very dissatisfied DK/NA ourneys by rail were for leisure purposes (39%-41%). These four countries 1 100 2 1 3 2 1 4 for 3 4 6 ns of respondents who23 mentioned 1 2 of 5their 4 most 5 3 6 4 3 6 13 “another” 6 3 8 7 purpose 6 7 5 7 9 4 8 6 9 10 10 8 4 12 18 9 10 8% in Bulgaria and8047% in Hungary). 11 12 15 15 13

45

52

42 39 38

60

39

32

42 43

41

32

18

9 11

11 18

10

Travelling to work/school/university

Other

EU27

SE

DK

BG

BE

LU

IT

FR

HU

CZ

UK

RO

IE

ES

PT

FI

SK

EE

SI

LT

ness trips

LV

0

se of journeys by rail

31

47

42 16

42

21

35

24

32

31

26 22

DE

44 47 48 60 espondents who mostly used the train to commute 65 58 to work or school49were d Denmark (20%). Other countries with a relatively high proportion 67 of 40 x countries, Estonia, Hungary, the Czech Republic and Slovenia (between 61 60 59 52travellers 52 business trips 50 44 proportions of business (i.e. 47 those making mainly 42 40 20 40 35 32 25 Greece were found in Sweden (24%), Italy (21%) and (18%). 18

AT

35

NL

28

EL

31

PL

32 43 43 44 48

DK/NA

SOURCE: European Commission Q3. Are you very satisfied, rather satisfied, rather dissatisfied or very dissatisfied with the following features of the train

stations [IN YOUR COUNTRY]?

Base:with all respondents, country tickets in 11 14almost 16 Across all countries, more than 7 in 10 rail passengers said they were very or rather satisfied the ease %ofbybuying 22 21 20 23 24 29 in23six 27 railway stations in their country; countries, the26level of satisfaction was over 90%: Lithuania (95%), Latvia (93%), Slovenia (92%), 33 38 41 43 47 8 20 14 Finland, Slovakia17and11Estonia (all 91%). Furthermore, in9these six countries, respondents were among the most likely to be very satisfied 18 16 to the results Similar discussed above, more than two-thirds of rail passengers across most countries 16 12 12 8this with facility. 12 10 15 22 12 4 10were said they rather satisfied with provision information about schedules and 7of “very 15 8 or 8satisfied” The highest proportionvery respondents wasthe found in Ireland,ofFinland and Estonia (61%,train 60% and 59%, respectively) 9 18 24 12 7

18

62 62 62

12 platforms (ranging from 68%5 in 5the Netherlands Germany to 92% in Lithuania). Furthermore, in 8 13 and 16 6 3were dissatisfied with the provision of such most countries, less than a quarter of respondents 61 60 58 57 56 55 53 53 49 48 December 2011 | www.railwaypro.com 45 however, 44 44 41about information in stations. In Poland, 39 39half 35 (49%) of rail passengers were satisfied, and a similar proportion (46%) were dissatisfied with information about train schedules and platforms


60 Products & Technologies

Passengers could plan journeys with just a few clicks

[ by Pamela Luică ]

For the development of the passenger railway transport system at European level and for breaking limits regarding ticket booking for abroad travels, the Transport Commission has adopted the regulation on travel planning and booking for EU territory. Therefore, the operators will have to provide information on train types, train stop period and location, availability of seats on categories, price structures etc. The regulation stipulates that the operators should elaborate the information related to available schedules, as well as price information agreed upon by partners. 3.4.6. Q10 : WHAT IS THE IMPORTANCE OF GOOD INFORMATION ON THE IMPACT

T

he 2014-2020 period aims, especially at the European Union level, to interconnect member states, from the point of view of transport, energy and information technology. The European connection is a completely new scheme, meant for financing pan-European infrastructures, projects which will be financed by EUR 40 Billion and another EUR 10 Billion from the budget of the cohesion policy. All EU strategies, regulations and programmes lead to the same conclusion: a single market Europe. Under the circumstances, as regards passenger railway transport, it will be essential for the operators to harmonise IT networks for ensuring single information. What a single passenger railway transport at the European level needs is the implementation of projects for enabling pan-European travelling, by forcing the standardisation of dates, hours and prices. Therefore, the Transport Commission has adopted the new regulation (May 2011) for travel and ticket planning, the key for the booking and information regarding the ticketing system being the interoperability, the information being exchanged between the railway companies and between the travel ticket suppliers. “If we are serious about getting people onto rail, and particularly about having rail compete with air travel over middle distances then we need to offer

OF NEAR-TERM PLANNED NETWORK DISRUPTIONS (E.G. ROADWORK OR WhatRAIL is the importance of good information on thePLANNING impact of?near-term planned ) FOR EFFECTIVE TRAVEL MAINTENANCE network disruptions (e.g. roadwork or rail maintenance) for effective travel planning?

Source: EUROPEAN COMMISSION

rail passengers the seamless planning and ward a legal complementary regulation This question was answered by 193 respondents. ticketing offers that match the airlines. We requesting the operators to align their IT want to make it as easy, in the future, to systems so that standardised data should be This afigure needsfrom to further comment. importance between of information on planned book rail ticket Barcelona to Brus-The transferred European operators. disruptions is very important.as it is to book sels or Berlin to Bratislava These measures will be the basis for the a corresponding flight. Making common technical foundations in order to allow the 3.4.7. Q11: HOW THE available LANGUAGE new ISSUE BE TREATED FOR planning A EUROPEAN timetabling and fare SHOULD information generation of travel systems SERVICE ? to operators is a significant first step, but it is and ticketing systems to make their launch just the start of a much bigger push to make on the railway transport market. This open question was answered by 172 respondents. pan European rail planning and ticketing a reality.”, said Vice President Siim Kallas, the A large majority of the respondents agree on the precondition of multilingualism of such a commissioner responsible for Transports. Пассажиры могли бы service, available at least for any user in its native language and in the language of the For 2012, the Commission will put forзапланировать свои

country where he is travelling. 3.3.3. Q3: DO YOU SEE THE NEED FOR A EUROPEAN MULTI -MODAL JOURNEY

Do you?see the need for a european multi-modal journey planner? PLANNER WHAT CONDITIONS COME TO YOUR MIND ?

поездки лишь с помощью

What conditions come to yourissues mind? are put forward, such as the нажатия на (which несколько Several location names may differ by

кнопок

languages), and the different alphabet (Latin, Greek, Cyrillic…) or non-european languages (Mandarin, Japanese, Hindu,…) useful for tourism travellers.

Для развития системы

транспорта Most of the respondents write that the language железнодорожного issue is not a technical problem, using на европейском уровне иthe an initial language independent format, that canпассажиров be then locally translated through дляas устранения ограничений, связанных user specific interface, or using a format that avoid much as possible text information с бронированием билетов для проезда and use logos, maps, and common signs.

Source: EUROPEAN COMMISSION This question was answered by 198 respondents. www.railwaypro.com | December 2011 This question could be answered by multiple-choice and by free text. Most respondents provided free text, not only those who checked “Yes, under the following conditions”.

за границу, Транспортная комиссия утвердила регламент планирования и бронирования проездов по территории ITS ACTION / Framework contractоператоры TREN/G4/FV-2008/475/01 ЕС.PLAN Таким образом, будут предоставлять информацию о виде18/42 110721_ITS_AP_1 5_D4_V1.doc/ 21 JULY 2011 поездов, о периоде и месте остановок поездов, о наличии мест по классам, о структуре тарифов и т.д. Регламент предусматривает, что операторы будут предоставлять информацию о действующем расписании и о тарифах, согласованных с партнёрами.


Railway PRO - Mass Transportation  

Railway PRO - the railway business magazine in the Wider Balck Sea Area

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