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First Date Cutlery


First Date Cutlery


Figure 1: Pumpkins, Borough Market.


First Date Cutlery

First Date Cutlery

Cristina Guardiola - K1242918 MA Product and Space Major Project Report August 2013


Content INTRODUCTION - 8

Synesthesia - 39 Jinhyun Jen - 40

RESEARCH - 10 Molecular gastronomy - 42 FOOD -12

Ferran Adrià - 43

Food Today - 14

Somerset House Exhibition: Ferran Adrià

Food Design - 15

and the Art of Food - 44

Martí Guixé -16 Eating as a social experience: gathering,

Formafantasma -17

sharing and communication - 46 CULTURE -18

Marije Vogelzang - 47

Culture and Food - 20

DesignMarketo - 49

Roots - 21 Gathering at Home - 22 Family and Tradition - 23 DESIGN IDEATION - 50

Doshi Leiven - 25

Food Textures - 52 Food Markets as a Social Space - 26

Clay textures - 53

Benefits - 28

Silicon textutes - 54 Latex textures - 55

Table Manners and Etiquette - 30

Perfect Handles - 63

Knife - 31

Ceramic Plates Alterations - 65

Fork - 32

Disposable Cutlery - 66

Spoon - 33

Wine Glasses - 68

Ezgi Turksoy - 33 EXPERIENCE - 36

MY BRIEF - 69

Multi-sensory experience - 38

Soup Spoon - 70


Ideation - 71 Modelling Blue Foam - 74 Metal - 76 Mould - 77 Finishing - 79 Join - 80 Wood Handle - 81 Last Details - 82 Knife and Fork - 86 Crossing - 89 Magnets - 90 Dessert Spoon - 96

FINAL PICTURES - 100 CONCLUSION - 114 LIST OF FIGURES - 116 BIBLIOGRAPHY - 122


INTRODUCTION


Food holds a huge fascination for me. During these recent years I developed enthusiasm in exploring the social component of dining - ranging from crockery design to social behaviours while consuming. I enjoy designing the objects and utensils that are part of this act but also shaping the experience. I believe that food is a great enabler to bring people together and encourage conversations. I like to look at the behavioural differences toward food in different cultures and the tools used. The cutlery I have designed is a set of a soup spoon, knife, fork, and dessert spoon which guide the diners through their first date meal. They are intended to facilitate the dinner in order to ensure good manners whilst enabling a natural and closer encounter.


RESEARCH


I have been inspired by food. Therefore, my investigation started exploring everything around the experience of eating. I have divided the research into the following points: - Food: from its origins to the latest applications where it is used as an ephemeral material. - Culture: analysing how our built-in cultural background influences our experience and shapes the way we interact with food. - Experience: evaluating how the act of eating changes depending on how and with whom it is performed. We make choices for food everyday, at least three times per day. Eating is part of our daily routine, but we are usually not aware of the factors involved in this experience


FOOD ‘Food represents who we are, our culture and society; it feeds our senses and emotions; it binds us together and give us an understanding of our place in the world and our relationship to other people’ (Catterall, 1999, p.23)

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Figure 2: Tomatoes, Borough Market.


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Food today

Food

Our relationship with food is on of the fundamental things that separate us from animals. It represents our humanity, it define us. But nowadays, it is not only there so that we can survive. There is an unprecedented growth of interest in food. People has a considerable knowledge about cooking and others countries’ cuisine. Television is full of cookery shows and cookers become famous. Having dinner out is not special anymore and we do it almost everyday. The streets are full of shops specialized in kitchen utensils and our kitchen is becoming the central space for living and entertaining at home. It looks like the culture of food has become sophisticated.

At the same time, according to Catterall (1999) we are losing side of the traditional culture of cooking and eating. The recent years breakdown of the traditional family unit has increased the number of people living on their own. Long hours spent in the preparation and cooking of food is no longer necessary; supermarkets are full of take away food. Therefore, over a third of people is tucking into more take away than five years ago.

Figure 3: Royal Gardener John Rose presenting a pineapple to King Charles II. (Hendrick Danckerts, 1675)

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Food Design The terminology of food design is used to refer to any design that use food as a material. It is a framework in which food act as a cultural, sensorial and social element. ‘Besides a material, is also a medium of communication’ (Vogelzang, 2008, p. 32). Usually the design is a consequence of collaboration between different professionals such as chefs, designers, scientists or craftsmans. And the result is an ephemeral creation that can take different forms: from food craft to events, performances, and diners.

‘A food designer is somebody working with food, with no idea of cooking’. Inga Knölke, 1999

Food

Figure 4: I- cakes.

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Martí Guixé Part of Martí Guixé designs investigates the role of design in the creation, display and consumption of food. In those, food is perceived as an edible designed product that can be regarded as an object of design (Guixé Talk, 2013).

Guixé´s food projects caught my eyes because of its simplicity. The pie indicates the ingredients of the cake in percentages (figure 4) and the orange candy lollipop have a seed inside to activate a sporadic and spontaneous reforestation just by splitting it (figure 5). The way he communicates his ideas is simple and easy to understand. He also has a critical attitude. Projects such as Sponsored Food deals with the idea of creating a network of restaurants that allow people to eat for free (figure 6).

Food

Surprisingly, even he works with food he does not like cooking. For him food is a material as wood or metal could be a material for a stool.

Figure 5: Oranienbaum Lollipop.

Figure 6: Sponsored food.

Figure 7: Food Design: A talk by Marti Guixé.

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Formafantasma Formafantasma has been inspired by a Sicilian folk event to create Baked. In Salemi, flour-based material is used to create architectural decorations. The result is a collection of containers and vessels made from ingredients found in the kitchen such as flour, coffee, cocoa and spinach, mixed together with other natural products such as salt, shellac and spices to make the objects durable (Formafantasma, 2009). Figure 8: Baked.

Food

Formafantasma use cultural references as a background for this project, which makes it really interesting and personal. I also like the way food have been used and how they explore the structural properties of the material. Plus, each piece has a unique sense of aesthetics that make it a stunning project. Figure 9: Baked.

Figure 10: Baked.

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CULTURE ‘Tell me what you eat and I will tell you what you are’, (Brillat-Savarin, J.A.)

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19Figure 11: Board, Boqueria Barcelona.


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Culture

Culture And Food Culture is defined for the Oxford Dictionary as the ideas, customs, and social behaviour of a particular people or society. It is passed from generation to generation through socialization. It also defines whom we are, shaping our personality and the way we behave. Food is an important part of most of cultures. According to Helstosky (2009, p.VII), there is no way to understand a culture, its values, preoccupations, and fears, than by examining its attitudes toward food. Beyond nutrition, it is a powerful factor in the construction of identity. Food preferences and habits serve to separate individuals and groups from each other. We physically, emotionally, and spiritually become what we eat.

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Roots

Figure 12: Crown of Aragón.

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Culture

We understand a Catalan meal as a collaborative event. While having an informal chat, some guests set the table, others help on the kitchen and someone else uncorks the wine. When on the table, food is always a topic on the conversation, someone is always asking for the recipe. Onces the meal is finished is time for the sobretaula, the period after eating where

we stay at the table for an extended chat. Sometimes prolonged for hours, is usually accompanied by some liquor and pastries. It is the best moment of the meal where a lot of discussions are going on, usually about politics and economy. Culturally based food habits are often one of the last practices people change. I have proved myself being in London how difficult is to change some of my habits and adapt to other country - especially when it concerns about eating times. Our built-in culture of food is sometimes too strong that is part of our routine and us.

‘Catalans are serious about food. Their appetite is built-in’ (Néstor Luján)

Within the Catalan context, a food experience is an important social event. Having a culinary experience is not only about cooking and eating, it is also a social activity and an experience to bind family and friends together.


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Gathering at Home

Culture

Growing up in a Catalan household, food has always been important at home. We spent a considerable time on the everyday practice of cooking and eating. Food is not only present in special occasions and celebrations; it plays an important part of our everyday life. Living in Barcelona, where distances are not as long as in London, my family used to gather together every day for lunch, which is not usual in every Catalan home. Even when we were all working, the Spanish tradition of two-hour lunch brake let us have time go home for eating. We took this moment as a brake from our everyday work routine. It is a nice moment of the day to share with my family.

Figure 13: Family gathering.

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Family and Tradition The brunyol is a typical dessert made out of a wheat-based dough, flavoured with anise. Shaped into individual pieces, fried and finished off with a sweet topping is consumed in Catalunya during the Lent and Easter holiday. For years, brunyols have been baked every year in my home. Although is a tiring activity and sometimes you do not feel desire to do it, it has become a family tradition and it is still on going nowadays.

Figure 14: My grandmother, my mother and I cooking.

We always cook lots of kilos and we have the habit to share it with our friends and neighbours. This practice is particularly usual in the village where my family is originally. Having a peasant farmer tradition, people usually exchange the surplus of their harvest.

Culture

In my childhood memories I remember my great-grandmother baking with my mother and my grandmother, now new generations has taken over for them. For me, this tradition has become something else than cooking; is a way to forge bonds between my family and I, which food is the link.

Figure 15: Dough.

Figure 16: Brunyols.

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We have been keeping cooking recipes for years.

Culture

Most of them are hand-written for my greatgrandmother and my grandmother. Others are from friends or neighbours, and some has been cut off from magazines.

Figure 17: Wallet with recipes.

Figure 18: Hand-written recipes.

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Doshi Leiven According to Doshi and Leiven (2010) The Mosaic cookware was designed to create a range of authentic pots to emphasise the cultural layer of different countries. Their challenge was to retain the practical and visual characteristics of the original cookware, while using new materials suitable for contemporary appliances. Each pot expresses a strong cultural identity through material, colour and the variant Tefal marques on the bases.

Culture

Doshi Leiven’s designs are an amazing combination of culture and tradition with new technology. They have been able to find the right balance to create a really wonderful cookware. The shapes are simples but easy to understand the culture it represents. Figure 19: Mosaic.

Figure 20: Mosaic.

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Food Markets as a Social Space

Culture

I have always been fascinated about food markets. Every time I travel I like to visit the local food market of the city I am. It is amazing to be surrounded by their buzzy atmosphere. I enjoy seeing how fresh food is sold and arranged in the colourful stalls. Since I am in London I have frequented food markets. I like to compare them with the ones in Barcelona. In my city there is at least one food market in each neighbourhood. Is open every weekday and some of them also on Saturday and Sunday. Surprising, food markets in London seems to be a trend. While in Barcelona are full of elderly people who likes to spend more time talking with the sellers than buying, in London is a Saturday’s plan for cool young people.

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I visited six different food markets as a part of my research (Broadway market, Maltby market, Borough market, Smithfield market, Brixton market and La Boqueria in Barcelona). I took pictures of what it caught my eye and I gathered in different groups by typologies. It is really interesting to play the observer role on a place that you usually frequent as a visitor. I saw things that it have never hold my attention before.

Culture

Figure 21: Pictures of differetStreet Food Markets.

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Benefits

Culture

Having read the London’s Retail Street Markets Report made by Regeneris Consulting, I did a summary of the most relevant points for my research.

COMMUNITY COHESION - social interaction for all groups in the community ( older people, especially women) - social inclusion role (mixing) - opportunity to linger

The graphic explains the benefits of the street food markets in London in terms of community cohesion, environment, food and health, culture and tourism and economic development.

RETAIL MAR Lond

ENVIRONMENT - effective waste management systems - lowest weight of waste - highest proportion of recyclable waste

Figure 22: Graphic summarizing London’s Retail Street Markets Report.

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FOOD & HEALTH - provide access to cheaper goods - helps to increase standards of living - promote regional and local food - local communities have access to fresh produce - promote healthy eating campaigns

CULTURE & TOURISM

- markets are very important reasons for visiting London

REGENERATION & ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT - sources of employment and income generation - promoting entrepreneurship and business start-up - customers shopping for food at street markets spend between £3 and £15 a day on nearby shops

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Culture

STREET RKETS don

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Culture

Table Manners and Etiquette According to The Civilizing Process book (200, p. 53) we can find abundance of information on what was considered socially acceptable behaviour at the Middle Ages. Eating and drinking then occupied a far more central position in social life than today. Manners were primary thought as a way of differentiation, for the secular upper class- the courtly circles around the great feudal lords. Nowadays, not everyone has knowledge about etiquette. We eat different variety food, from different countries and in very different situations. But I still believe the table manners are a way of differentiation between cultures and classes, and it has a meaningful value. The following research has been based on the Debrett’s New Guide to Etiquette and Modern Manners. My attention was focused on the cutlery and the correct way to hold them.

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Knife The knife is the principal eating implement, symbol of our primitive eating habits. It came before the fork. I took pictures of myself showing how a knife is supposed to be held following Debrett’s guidelines.

Culture

Figure 23: Proper way to hold a knife.

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Fork At the end of Middle Ages the fork appeared as an instrument for taking food from the common dish. The use of this instrument met more general need. For sixteen century on, at least the upper classes, the fork came into use as an eating instrument. As late as the seventeenth century the fork was still essentially a luxury article of the upper class, usually made of gold or silver. (Elias, 2000, p.59-69)

Culture

Following pictures demonstrate the correct way to hold the fork.

Figure 24: Proper way to hold a fork.

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Spoon At the rich tables of the thirteenth century the spoons were made of gold, crystal, coral. The soup spoons were round and rather flat, so that one was forced when using them to open one’s mouth wide. From fourteenth century onwards, soup spoons took on an oval form as we know today. Next picture shows the proper way to use a spoon.

Culture

Figure 25: Proper way to hold a spoon.

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Ezgi Turksoy

Culture

The silver sensations cutlery aims to challenging the conventional rituals of eating. Each spoon is inspired by reckless and naughty eating habits as biting and licking a spoon, stealing someone’s food, or sharing a dish. Turksoy’s design provokes and reminds us of our unexplored table manners, thus creating new sensational, playful and interactive experiences.

Figure 26: Silver Sensations.

Figure 27: Silver Sensations.

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Turksoy has created a range of cutlery just doing slightly modifications of existing ones. It is a simple and direct design. The audience can understand the message easily.

Culture

Figure 28: Silver Sensations.

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EXPERIENCE ‘Eating is an experience to which we ascribe emotions and meanings that all too often surpass the food itself’ (Vogelzang. M., 2008, p. 21)

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Figure 29: People’s Kitchen, Dalston.


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Experience

Multi-sensory experience Whereas in the early 11th century food was exclusively intended to satisfy the palate, by 21th century eating has become a more ambitious occupation altogether. Today, gastronomy appeals to all five senses: sight, touch, smell, hearing and taste. Smell, appearance, texture, memory and mental expectations; all shape the way we enjoy food (Gordon Shepherd, Yale).

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‘This neuronal condition is used to denote a condition which stimulation in one sensory modality also gives rise to an experience in a different modality’; (Robertson, 2004, p.3). David Sutton researcher on the field of food, cooking and the sense, recognises that, ‘our experience of food is always inherently synesthetic’ (2011, p.470). There are everyday examples of how synesthesia affects our act of eating. Sometimes vision can trigger taste sensations when it anticipate the taste of the food before eating. So, just taking a glance of the food we can actually taste it.

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Experience

Synesthesia


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Jinhyun Jen

Experience

Tableware as Sensorial Stimuli has been inspired by the phenomenon of synaesthesia. Jinhyun Jen (2001) provided information about making eating a much richer experience. Each of his designs has been created to stimulate or train different senses. More than just tastes buds are engaged in the act and enjoyment of eating. The tableware challenging the senses even in the moment when food is still on its way to be consumed.

Figure 30: Tableware as Sensorial Stimuli.

Figure 31: Tableware as Sensorial Stimuli.

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It seems that only watching at Jen’s cutlery your senses are stimulated. Have not event tried this cutlery I believe that eating with it can be an amazing multisensorial activity. I am sure his cutlery fulfils its purpose.

Figure 33: Tableware as Sensorial Stimuli.

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Experience

Figure 32: Tableware as Sensorial Stimuli.


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Experience

Molecular gastronomy Molecular gastronomy is the term created by Ferran AdriĂ that explore new culinary possibilities in the kitchen by embracing sensory and food science. It takes the advantages and technical innovations from science to create new ways of cooking such as deconstruction, spherification and dehydration.

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Ferran Adrià Ferran Adrià, chef of elBulli restaurant, has played a decisive role in developing a new language of cooking. ‘His innovative proposal was aim to transform the act of eating into a new experience when, in addition of the five senses, other parameters come into play, such as irony, provocation, playfulness and metaphor’ ( elBulli: Ferran Adrià and The Art of Food, 2013). I have been fascinated for Ferran Adrià’s work since I collaborated with him. He takes into account the entire journey of food– from food preparation to consumption with the same passion. Hence his process is a collaborative work that involves different key actors such as different cook specialists, chemists and designers. Ferran Adrià is not only a chef; he creates experiences through food. And el Bulli restaurant was its factory.

Experience

Figure 34: Spoon with clip.

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Somerset House Exhibition: Ferran AdriĂ and the Art of Food

Experience

Being part of the Design Picnics at Somerset House I visited the exhibition el Bulli: Ferran AdriĂ and the Art of Food. It is always inspiring to see how a genius works. The exhibition not only explains the foundation of the restaurant, you can also learn about their philosophy of working. It is also really interesting to see the cooking utensils and cutlery they used, some of them inspired by chemistry.

Figure 35: Bulli dog, Somerset House.

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Experience

Figure 36: Cooking utensils and cutlery , Somerset House.

Figure 37: Cooking utensils, Somerset House.

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Experience

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Eating as a social experience: gathering, sharing and communication Food is a most powerful social element and we do it everyday. Even though is as an automatic act we do not realize that is more than feeding, its also communication.

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Marije Vogelzang

Vogelzang’s aim is to look at the content and background of the food. She takes in consideration everything that plays an active role when it comes to food, so she creates experiences where guest interact with food.

Figure 38: Sharing dinner.

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Experience

Vogelzang’s projects are really inspiring. You can see how she is passionate about food. From her wide range of projects I particularly like the Sharing Dinner (figure 38) because of the way she subtly creates a link between guests. Dinners have two half of a plate with the same food on each,


First Date Cutlery

Experience

so they have to swap one of them with a partner that have other two halves, in order to dine completely. Guests are also all connected with the tablecloth, as this is suspended from the ceiling. It hides their clothes, so people’s status is not shown. Therefore all are equal. She also likes working with memories. On the Food memory workshop (figure 39) she served some typical Old Dutch dishes to elderly people. So, this eating experience, recall memories from their childhood, when they had no money enough to eat proper food.

Figure 39: Food memory workshop.

Figure 40: Food memory workshop.

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DesignMarketo Wanting to experience a food related experience I attended to the Ice Sculpting and Cocktails Workshop at Somerset House. DesignMarketo curated the event in collaboration with the food designer Jacopo Sarzi.

Experience

People cooperated to make a cocktail within a three main stages. In the first one, glasses where filled with ice carved from a huge block of frozen material. Using different tools and techniques we carved the ice while making a collaborative sculpture. The second one, glasses were filled with juices that go through pipes inside a block of ice. And at the last stage, we garnished the cocktail crystalizing caramel on the top of ice cube.

Figure 41/42/43: Ice Sculpting and Cocktails Workshop. Stage 1, 2 and 3.

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DESIGN IDEATION


First Date Cutlery

Design Ideation

Food Textures The aim of these experiments was to reproduce fruit and vegetables textures in order to create patterns. The experiment was focused on investigating the visual appeal of its. These patterns were thought to be later applied to the surface of tableware or cutlery.

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Clay textures

My first attempt was using clay. I stamped the skins directly into the row material and then I let it dry. The result was not as successful as I expected because the patters were so light. I realized that the material I used was not the appropriated.

Figure 45: Clay textures.

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Design Ideation

Figure 44: Clay textures.


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Silicon textures

Design Ideation

The clay tiles were to heavy and no flexible. Therefore I created silicon textures made out of plaster molds. The result was flexible skins with the textures of fruits and vegetables printed on it. The textures were deeper, so I could see the patterns better. It gave me the opportunity to twist and play with the samples in order to adapt to different handle shapes.

Figure 46: Silicone textures.

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Latex textures The last step was using latex. The latex gave me more consistency and the textures were not as fragile as the silicon ones. I also dyed it according to the color of the fruit or vegetable that was made out of it.

Design Ideation

Figure 47: Process of making latex textures

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Design Ideation

First Date Cutlery

My attempt to use the textures to apply to cutlery handles was unsuccessful. I tried to reproduce it on some handles but it lost all the appealing. The attractive of the natural material was missed once I used the latex to reproduce it.

Figure 48: Process of making latex textures.

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Design Ideation

Figure 49: Latex textures with its belonging fruit or vegetable.

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Handles

Design Ideation

Using blue foam I did a range of different handles for cutlery. The aim was to analyzed their appealing and comfortability. Some of them were experimental. It purpose was not based on ergonomics but it plays with the user experience.

Figure 50: Sketches of forks with different handles.

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Figure 52: Examples of blue foam handles

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Design Ideation

Figure 51: Blue foam models of forks with different handles.


Design Ideation

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Figure 53: Experiments observing how people use the cutlery.

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Design Ideation

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Design Ideation

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In that point and after the previous experiments I decided to look deeply on table manners and etiquette. Having not defined my brief exactly I experimented with tableware, not only cutlery but also plates and glasses.

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Perfect Handles Having read about the proper way to behave on the table and how to use cutlery correctly, I worked on designing handles that drive the diner to act well mannered. I tried to design the shape having only one correct way to hold it, which the user should feel confortable. After testing the cutlery with people I was aware that it did not work properly. The crockery was not ergonomically perfect and people use it incorrectly. I realized that is nearly impossible to create the perfect cutlery without an exhaustive ergonomic studio.

Design Ideation

Figure 54: Cutlery that impulse you to used it in a correct way.

Figure 55: Experiments observing how people use the cutlery.

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Design Ideation

First Date Cutlery

Following experiments were based on how to indicate that the diner have finished or not eating. Based on Debrett’s indications, when you want to have a short break and a willingness to chat with your partner, the knife and fork must be cross each other like swards. Once you are done with your food the cutlery is placed in a six-thirty position. This rage of cutlery has slots that guide the diner to rest the cutlery on the plate in the correct position.

Figure 56: Cutlery with some slots to help to understand how to behave on the table.

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Ceramic Plates Alterations

Figure 57: Alteration on ceramic plates.

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Design Ideation

Based on the same concept than before, I worked with ceramic plates. I did some slots on ceramic plates to indicate where to place the cutlery in each occasion.


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Disposable Cutlery I designed a set of disposable cutlery and plate made out of paper. I wanted to test how was the feeling of eating with a disposable cutlery, arranged well-mannered and with the shape of silver cutlery.

Design Ideation

Usually we think of disposable cutlery for fast food, but what happened if we use it to have a proper meal? Does our taste change? Do we experience the dinner in a different way?

Figure 58: Laser-cutting the model with the Zun machine.

Figure 58: Laser-cutting the model with the Zun machine.

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Design Ideation

Figure 59: Mould for the vacuuzm machine.

I after did an experiment with the vacuum machine to try to make the same mock up with volume. The mould was made out of clay, a ceramic plate and steel cutlery. The result was a plastic sheet with the volume shape.

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Design Ideation

Wine Glasses In relation with the modern etiquette a glass should never be filled more than two thirds full. I did some experiments using the san blasting machine to make different marks on wine glasses. The result was a range of glasses with visual signs that help the diner to behave according the modern manners. Figure 60: Me using the sandblaster to polish wine glasses.

Figure 61: Wine glasses after sandblasting.

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MY BRIEF Narrowing my brief I decided to design a set of cutlery for a first-date dinner. Title: Cutlery for First-date Dinner

Design and table manners I have designed a cutlery set comprising a soup spoon, knife, fork, and dessert spoon. While mirroring three consecutive courses, the set guides through the sequences. They are intended to facilitate the dinner in order to ensure good manners whilst enabling a natural and intimate encounter. Bon appetite!

It is the beginning, which counts – hence the first impression is key. The soup spoon is designed to have a modern etiquette dinner, with the shape supporting adequate use from the side of the spoon while having a soup. Main Course The knife and fork are designed to stimulate conversation, so diners can result in knowing each other better. A built in magnet allows crossing fork and knife like swords. This facilitates short breaks from eating and open opportunities for communication. and a willingness to chat. Dessert As the rendezvous builds up over the evening, the dessert spoon´s mission is to facilitate closer encounters. Therefore its shape is characterized by an oval bowl, which was turned 180º. This allows sharing one dish and feeding one another confidently and pleasantly.

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Design Ideation

Dating for the first time over dinner can be nerve-wrecking. Some manners are required but not everyone is familiar with traditional etiquette. However, stiff table manners can limit your self-expression and won’t allow you to be yourself. Finding a balance between the two is what makes a first-date meal successful. So how can we be wellbehaved and at the same time approach our counterpart? My cutlery collection explores the interaction between objects, people and table manners in a dinner context, particularly in a face-to-face first date scenario.

Starter


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Soup Spoon

Design Ideation

‘Always, weather consuming soup or pudding, eat from the side of the spoon and never torpedo-like from the end of the implement’ (Morgan, 1999, p.323).

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Ideation Following the table manners, the aim of my spoon is to impulse the diner to eat from the side. My firsts sketches were turning the oval bowl 180ยบ. Changing this part, the spoon is wider and it points you to use it from the side.

Design Ideation

Figure 62: Sketches of the soup spoon.

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Design Ideation

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My design evolved into a spoon with only the left side wider.

Design Ideation

Figure 63: Iteration of the evolution of the soup spoon.

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Design Ideation

Modelling Blue Foam

After doing some drawing iteration I picked four models to create with blue foam.

Figure 64: Process of model making using blue foam.

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So, with a real size model I could test better which one was more suitable for the final design.


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I finally chose to produce model on the left side of the picture, made out of metal and a wood handle.

Design Ideation

Figure 65: Four final models of the soup spoon.

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Design Ideation

Metal

Cutlery is usually made of stainless steel. I first did some trials wit aluminium because is a soft material, easy to bend. I was worried about using stainless steel for the final product. It is a hard material and the shape of my spoon is complicated. Figure 66: Working with stainless steel. Using the bandsaw and polishing with files.

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Mould

None of the moulds available on the workshop for the butterfly press had the shape I need for my spoon. Therefore, I produce mine with the CNC machine. Usually press moulds are made out of aluminium. As the CNC machine does work with metal I did it with hard wood, because of its resistance.

Figure 68: Fixing the soup spoon mould..

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Design Ideation

Figure 67: Soupspoon moulds made with the CNC machine..


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Design Ideation

Figure 69: Spoon before being pressed.

With Chris’ help I pressed the stainless steel with my own mould using the butterfly press. After some testing I had to modify the mould a little bit, because it was too deep (figure 67). I also realized that bending the top of the handle before pressing I got a better result.

Figure 70: Using the Butterfly Press with Chris’s help.

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Finishing

Design Ideation

Even the shape was quite accurate; the material had some wrinkles because of the depth of the mould. So, it requires some hammering and sanding after the pressing.

Figure 71: Hammering, bending and sanding at the workshop.

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Join

Design Ideation

I considered different ways to join the handle with the steel. My firsts trials were using some silver/nickel rod specially made for knife handles. Having made holes through both materials a piece of rod (larger than the hole) is place inside. Then it is hammered. As the metal is soft, is expanded through the hole joining both parts. I rejected using this option because the design looked old fashion and it was not what I wanted to achieve. Therefore, I decided to glue the handle with the metal using epoxy. I first hid the metal part inside, so it was not showed from the side. But at the end, I decided to leave the metal visible on the side as a part of the design.

Figure 72: Mock-ups with different joins.

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Wood Handle I finally did my handles out of a planed black walnut. Hard woods come into thicker thickness. So, John planed for me to get 4 mm. Then I used the CNC machine for cutting the right shape.

Design Ideation

Figure 73: John planing the wood.

Figure 74: CNC Machine cutting the final walnut handles.

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Last Details Both metal and wood needs lot of sanding for the finishing.

Design Ideation

I also used lacquer protection against the rust for the stainless steel and wax to protect the wood.

Figure 75: Polishing the walnut handles.

Figure 76: Using the metal protection spray.

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Design Ideation

Figure 77: Handles clamped to get them dry.

Figure 78: Final polishing before the wax application.

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Figure 79: Soup spoon, final model.

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Design Ideation

Knife and Fork ‘When eating, it is bad to hoover up your food. Take a little at a time and place your knife and fork across each other like swords to indicate you have not finished. The rest of the time you should be conversing with other guests’ (Morgan, 1999, p.325).

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Design Ideation

The concept behind my knife and fork is to make the diners interact to know each other better. So, the crockery guides the users to cross the knife and fork following the table manners. Therefore, they can start a conversation. Figure 80: Filing with needle files.

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Design Ideation

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To produce the knife and fork I followed the same steps I did with the soup spoon. Even the shape is easier than the spoon- as it did not require mould pressing- it need more time of hand sanding. The fork has more details and the blade of the knife needs patience to be done perfectly.

Figure 81: Cutlery before being shaped.

Figure 82: Knife blade.

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Crossing It took me time to solve the way the knife and fork had to be. My first idea was to make some slots in both utensils, so they could fit with each other. At the same time the design had to be visual understandable for the user. I played with different shapes but all designs I liked were not obvious enough for the user. And the once that were easy to understand had lack of design. I played with paper and plywood mock-ups trying different shapes until I came up with the idea of using magnets.

Design Ideation

Figure 83: Paper mock ups of the knife and fork handles.

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Magnets

Design Ideation

The magnets help the user to cross the cutlery but the way they are place had to guide them to do the action. I tried different options. I made some models placing the magnets in different ways; I also tried to hide them inside. For the final design I decide to placed it in a cross mode.

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Design Ideation

Figure 85: Me cutting a magnet with a Dremel tool.

Figure 84: Different versions of possible solutions for the knife and fork’s handles using magnets (page before).

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Figure 86: Knife and fork, final model.

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Figure 87: Knife and fork crossed, final model.

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Design Ideation

Dessert Spoon It is usual to share or ask for trying others’ dessert. This spoon is designed to promote sharing one dish and feeding one another, so encourages a closer interaction.

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Figure 88: Dessert spoon mould.

Figure 89: Spoons before being pressed.

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Design Ideation

For designing the dessert spoon I followed the same steps done with the soup spoon. I only made a new press with the correct shape.


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Figure 90: Dessert spoon, final model.

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FINAL PICTURES


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Figure 91: Table setting.

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Figure 92: Cutlery set.

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Figure 93: Cutlery set.


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Figure 94: Soup spoon.

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Figure 95: Knife and fork.

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Figure 96: Dessert spoon.


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CONCLUSION


In one point of my development I was too much ambitious. I got stuck with the fancy idea of making an experience for a lot of people without thinking on a proper concept. I still believe it would have been really interesting to make another set of cutlery and film an experience between

two people having a real date. I would have insights into how people behave using my cutlery and how do they feel. Unfortunately I had no time to develop it for the hand-in, but I don not dismiss doing it to furthering my project. Taking forward my project I would design more pieces for my set such as fish knife and fork, and dessert fork. And I would also had liked to make some tests with diners to help me to really know if the purpose is understandable. On the other hand, I am proud of how the final models are. The prototypes are quite accurate and look real. I have learnt a lot about model making and I feel now more confident working at the workshop.

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I have been jumping through different concepts from the beginning of my project. Even though all were related with food, it took me too much time to frame my actual concept. So, although I am really happy with the final outcome, I wish I had started early. So, I could have had more time for experimenting and improve my project. I have now realized I should be more determinant with my decisions and confident with my ideas, otherwise I do not move forward until is too late.


LIST OF FIGURES


List of Illustrations

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Figure 1: Pumpkins, Borough Market. Author’s owns (16 February 2013). Figure 2: Tomatoes, Borough Market. Author’s owns (16 February 2013). Figure 3: Royal Gardener John Rose presenting a pineapple to King Charles II (Hendrick Danckerts, 1675). Available at: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Royal_Gardener_ John_Rose_and_King_Charles_II_-_Hendrick_Danckerts_1675.jpeg (Accessed June 2013 ). Figure 4: I- cakes. Available at: http://www.food-designing.com/01-food.htm (Accessed September 2012). Figure 5: Oranienbaum Lollipop. Available at: http://www.food-designing.com/01-food.htm (Accessed September 2012). Figure 6: Sponsored food. Available at: http://www.food-designing.com/02-system.htm (Accessed September 2012). Figure 7: Food Design: A talk by Marti Guixé. Somerset House Thursday. Author’s owns (July 2013). Figure 8: Baked. Available at: http://www.formafantasma.com/home_baked.html (Accessed July 2013). Figure 9: Baked. Available at: http://www.formafantasma.com/home_baked.html (Accessed July 2013). Figure 10: Baked. Available at: http://www.formafantasma.com/home_baked.html (Accessed July 2013). Figure 11: Board, Boqueria Barcelona. Author’s owns (10 April 2013). Figure 12: Crown of Aragón. Available at: http://www.burbuja.info/inmobiliaria/ guarderia/341377-mi-historia-esquizofrenico-11.html (Accessed August 2013). Figure 13: Family gathering. Xavier Guardiola (August 2011). Figure 14: My grandmother, my mother and I cooking. Xavier Guardiola (April 2011). Figure 15: Dough. Xavier Guardiola (April 2011). Figure 16: Brunyols. Xavier Guardiola (April 2011). Figure 17: Wallet with recipes. Hand-written recipes. Xavier Guardiola (June 2013). Figure 18: Hand-written recipes. Xavier Guardiola (June 2013). Figure 19: Mosaic. Available at: http://www.doshilevien.com/projects/products/mosaic (Accessed 28 June 2013). Figure 20: Mosaic. Available at: http://www.doshilevien.com/projects/products/mosaic (Accessed 28 June 2013). Figure 21: Street Food Markets. Author’s owns (February - March 2013). Figure 22: Graphic summarizing London’s Retail Street Markets Report. Author’s owns (April 2013). Figure 23: Proper way to hold a knife. Author’s owns (June 2013). Figure 24: Proper way to hold a fork. Author’s owns (June 2013). Figure 25: Proper way to hold a spoon. Author’s owns (June 2013).

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List of Illustrations

Figure 26: Silver Sensations. Available at: http://design-milk.com/silver-sensations-by-ezgiturksoy/ (Accessed June 2013). Figure 27: Silver Sensations. Available at: http://design-milk.com/silver-sensations-by-ezgiturksoy/ (Accessed June 2013). Figure 28: Silver Sensations. Available at: http://design-milk.com/silver-sensations-by-ezgiturksoy/ (Accessed June 2013). Figure 29: People’s Kitchen, Dalston. Author’s owns (February 2013). Figure 30: Tableware as Sensorial Stimuli. Available at: http://jjhyun.com/ (Accessed June 2013). Figure 31: Tableware as Sensorial Stimuli. Available at: http://jjhyun.com/ (Accessed June 2013). Figure 32: Tableware as Sensorial Stimuli. Available at: http://jjhyun.com/ (Accessed June 2013). Figure 33: Tableware as Sensorial Stimuli. Available at: http://jjhyun.com/ (Accessed June 2013). Figure 34: Spoon with clip. Available at: http://tendencias2009.wordpress.com/2009/04/21/ faces-by-ferran-adria/ (Accessed June 2013). Figure 35: Bulli dog, Somerset House. Author’s owns (July 2013). Figure 36: Cooking utensils and cutlery, Somerset House. Author’s owns (July 2013). Figure 37: Cooking utensils, Somerset House. Author’s owns (July 2013). Figure 38: Sharing dinner. Available at: http://www.marijevogelzang.nl/www. marijevogelzang.nl/PROJECTS/Paginas/sharing_dinner.html#1 (Accessed July 2013). Figure 39: Food memory workshop. Available at: http://www.marijevogelzang.nl/studio/ workshops/Pages/food_memory_workshop.html (Accessed July 2013). Figure 40: Food memory workshop. Available at: http://www.marijevogelzang.nl/studio/ workshops/Pages/food_memory_workshop.html (Accessed July 2013). Figure 41: Ice Sculpting and Cocktails Workshop at Somerset House. Stage 1. Somerset House Facebook Group. Figure 42: Ice Sculpting and Cocktails Workshop at Somerset House. Stage 2. Author’s owns (July 2013). Figure 43: Ice Sculpting and Cocktails Workshop at Somerset House. Stage 3. Author’s owns (July 2013). Figure 44: Clay textures. Author’s owns (April 2013). Figure 45: Clay textures. Author’s owns (April 2013). Figure 46: Silicone textures. Author’s owns (April 2013). Figure 47: Process of making latex textures. Author’s owns (May 2013). Figure 48: Process of making latex textures. Author’s owns (May 2013). Figure 49: Latex textures with its belonging fruit or vegetable. Figure 50: Sketches of forks with different handles. Author’s owns (June 2013).


List of Illustrations

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Figure 51: Blue foam models of forks with different handles. Author’s owns (June 2013). Figure 52: Examples of blue foam handles. Author’s owns (June 2013). Figure 53: Experiments observing how people use the cutlery. Author’s owns (June 2013). Figure 54: Cutlery that impulse you to used it in a correct way. Author’s owns (June 2013). Figure 55: Experiments observing how people use the cutlery. Author’s owns (June 2013). Figure 56: Cutlery with some slots to help to understand how to behave on the table. Author’s owns (June 2013). Figure 57: Alteration on ceramic plates. Author’s owns (June 2013). Figure 58: Laser-cutting the model with the Zun machine. Author’s owns (June 2013). Figure 59: Mould for the vacuum machine. Author’s owns (July 2013). Figure 60: Me using the sandblaster to polish wine glasses. Guido Albano. (July 2013). Figure 61: Wine glasses after sandblasting. Author’s owns (August 2013). Figure 62: Sketches of the soup spoon. Author’s owns (July 2013). Figure 63: Iteration of the evolution of the soup spoon. Author’s owns (Jult 2013). Figure 64: Process of model making using blue foam. Author’s owns (July 2013). Figure 65: Four final models of the soup spoon. Author’s owns (July 2013). Figure 66: Working with stainless steel. Using the bandsaw and polishing with files. ChiaLun Jen (August 2013). Figure 67: Soupspoon moulds made with the CNC machine. Author’s owns (August 2013). Figure 68: Fixing the soup spoon mould. Author’s owns (August 2013). Figure 69: Spoon before being pressed. Author’s owns (August 2013). Figure 70: Using the Butterfly Press with Chris’s help. Guido Albano (August 2013). Figure 71: Hammering, bending and sanding at the workshop. Author’s owns and Guido Albano. (August 2013). Figure 72: Mock-ups with different joins. Guido Albano (August 2013). Figure 73: John planing the wood. Author’s owns (August 2013). Figure 74: CNC Machine cutting the final walnut handles. Author’s owns (August 2013). Figure 75: Polishing the walnut handles. Author’s owns (August 2013). Figure 76: Using the metal protection spray. Author’s owns (August 2013). Figure 77: Handles clamped to get them dry. Author’s owns (August 2013). Figure 78: Final polishing before the wax application. Fabienne Felder (August 2013). Figure 79: Soup spoon, final model. Author’s owns (August 2013). Figure 80: Filing with needle files. Author’s owns (August 2013). Figure 81: Cutlery before being shaped. Author’s owns (August 2013). Figure 82: Knife blade. Author’s owns (August 2013). Figure 83: Paper mock ups of the knife and fork handles. Author’s owns (August 2013). Figure 84: Different versions of possible solutions for the knife and fork’s handles using magnets. Author’s owns (August 2013). Figure 85: Me cutting a magnet with a Dremel tool. Guido Albano (August 2013).

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Figure 86: Knife and fork, final model. Author’s owns (August 2013). Figure 87: Knife and Fork crossed, final model. Author’s owns (August 2013). Figure 88: Dessert spoon mould. Author’s owns (August 2013). Figure 89: Spoons before being pressed. Author’s owns (August 2013). Figure 90: Dessert spoon, final model. Author’s owns (August 2013). Figure 91: Table settings. Author’s owns (August 2013). Figure 92: Cutlery set. Author’s owns (August 2013). Figure 93: Cutley set. Author’s owns (August 2013). Figure 94: Soup spoon. Author’s owns (August 2013). Figure 95: Knife and fork. Author’s owns (August 2013). Figure 96: Dessert spoon. Author’s owns (August 2013).

List of Illustrations

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BIBLIOGRAPHY


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Brillat-Savarin, J.A. (1755-1826) The physiology of taste. Boston, Mass.: IndyPublish.com Catterall, C. and Bayley, S. (1999) Food design and culture. Glasgow: Festival Company Ltd. Crouch, C. and Pearce, J. (2012) Doing research in design, London: Berg. Helstosky, C. (2009) Food Culture in the Mediterranean, Westport: Greenwood. Cytowic, R.E. (2003) ‘Synesthesia: A Union of the Senses’, Chicago Journals, pp. 507-508, University of Chicago Press [Online]. Egleman, D.M. (2010) ‘Synaesthesia: Is a common and harmless perceptual condition’, BMJ Editorials, January, Volume 340, pp. 221-226 [Online].

Bibliography

Eagleman Laboratory For Perception and Action http://www.eaglemanlab.net/ elBulli: Ferran Adrià and The Art of Food (2013) Somerset House, London, 12 July 2013. elBulli: Ferran Adrià and The Art of Food, [Leaflet obtained in Somerset House London], 12 July 2013. Doshi, N. and Levien, J. (2010) Available at: http://www.doshilevien.com/projects/products/ mosaic Accessed: xx Majsj 20393).. Elias, N., Dunning, E., Goudsblom, J. and Mennell, S. (2000) The civilizing process: sociogenetic and psychogenetic investigations. Oxford; Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Publishers. Guixé, M. (2013) Food Design: A talk by Marti Guixé [Talk] Somerset House, London. 25 July. Jinhyun, J. (2012) Jinhyun Jen. Available at: http://www.jjhyun.com/ (Accessed: xx Majsj 20393). Kirshenblatt-Gimblett, B. (1999) ‘Playing to the senses: food as a performance medium’, Performance Research, pp. 1-30. Klanten, R. and Silus, R. (2011) Delicate: the new food culture. Berlin: Gestalten

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Korsmeyer, C. (2011) ‘The Communion of Senses’, in Sutton, D. and Korsmeyer, C. The sensory experience of food’, Food, Culture & Society, Volume 14, Issue 4, [Online]. Oxford University Press (2013) Oxford Dictionaries. Available at: http://oxforddictionaries. com/definition/english/culture (Accessed: August 2013) Pears, R. and Shields, G.J. (2010) Cite them right: the essential referencing guide. Icat Library Kingston University [ Online]. Available at: http://www.palgrave.com/ cite10th34emrigh100t/. Pearse, J.M.S. (2006) ‘Synaesthesia’, European Neurology Historical Note, December 18, [Online].

Regeneris Consulting, London’s Retail Street Markets Report. Available at: http:// www.london.gov.uk/sites/default/files/archives/London-Retail-Street-Markets-2010.pdf (Accessed: February 2013).

Sutton, D. (2010) ‘ Food and Senses’, The Annual Review of Anthropology, June 21, [Online]. Sutton, D. (2011) ‘Memory as a sense: A Gustemological Approach’, in Sutton, D. and Korsmeyer, C. The sensory experience of food’, Food, Culture & Society, Volume 14, Issue 4, [Online]. Tannahill, R. (2000) Food in history, New York: Crown Publications.

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Robertson, L.C. and Sagiv, N. (2004) Synesthesia: perspectives from cognitive neuroscience. USA: Oxford University Press.


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Project Report designed by Cristina Guardiola

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