Page 1

92 C

AL pu

L-

o-

NE

bl

ic

io

W

at

an Game for

n

In collaboration with

e? r u t n e v d a

18

Cai r o : i ne The Can ! o d n a m Com

30

M C I ( P ) 15 5 / 0 7 / 2 014 • P P S 16 4 6 / 0 2 / 2 013

ISSN 1793-380-3 9 771793 380006

92

S G $ 7. 5 0 ( G S T I n c l u d e d )

SS92_Cover.indd 1

22/6/15 2:47 PM


Power up and be exam-ready

Tailored to meet your exam needs, these guides provide you with study tips that will boost your exam readiness.

M

Y

Y

n Singapore, with oping high-quality g the standard of hers, parents and world.

2nd Edition

Science Revision Guide Primary 3 & 4

— The most complete handbook developed to prepare pupils for success in Science revision

The Ultimate Guide to Mastering

Features of this book especially designed to help primary 3 & 4 pupils develop a deeper understanding of key Science concepts and to guide them to master the application of skills and processes: Topical Notes Covers all topics for quick and systematic revision

Revision Notes

Comprehension Introduction Shows the connection between themes and chapters Get It Right! Explains and corrects common misconceptions

Good To Know Provides additional information for enrichment

Primary 6

6

Primary

My Revision Checklist Assesses understanding of key concepts

Application To Daily Life Provides an understanding of how Science is infused into our lives

Skills and Processes

Useful guidelines and tips to master the application of skills and processes

Case Studies

Detailed guide to answering challenging examination questions

Science Revision Guide Primary 3&4

The Ultimate Guide to Mastering Comprehension

Y

ension is designed ion skills through approach. Ample er understanding. rther test pupils’ ented graphically. sh exam format, de for pupils who

B Pri y the ma so ry le Scie pu nce blish tex er o tbo f Adapted from the best-selling Science PSLE Revision Guide ok s with more than 100, 000 copies sold

Science Revision Guide Primary 3&4

Shaheed Salim

h ispaper for self-assessment (with answers provided) Specimen Practice Examination section whic

al Text format Includes a Visu the new exam 5 thematic maps that show the learning outcomes of each theme Maps based on writtenThematic in the Primary 3 and 4 Science syllabus

Ample teaching

guidance tips for better Meet the Challenge!

-based progressive skill ding Systematic and gthen understan approach to stren ially Questions spec

s

prehension skill

com crafted to hone

ISBN 978-981-01-9868-8

For stud ents taki ng

PSLE 2017

Based

ISBN 978-981-01-9787-2

+ The most comprehensive revision guidebook for Primary 3 & 4 Science + Based on the revision guide highly recommended by teachers and widely adopted in schools + Detailed guide to answering challenging examination questions

late ston

MOE sy

from

llabus

Shaheed Salim

(S)PSLERevGuide_Cover.indd 1

12/6/14 9:39 am 16/5/14 6:03 pm

• Titles are available at all major bookstores. • Check in-store for more titles. © 2015 Marshall Cavendish Education Pte. Ltd.

All information presented is accurate at the time of printing.

Times Centre, 1 New Industrial Road, Singapore 536196

marketing@mceducation.com

www.mceducation.com

www.facebook.com/mceducation

SS92_In House Ad.indd 1

22/6/15 3:59 PM


Contents Science Scoops

Cover Story

4

The Experimental Corner

8

Have Wings, Can’t Fly Gravity

Hot Stuff

12

Science in a Nutshell

16

Let’s Fly to Mars The Science Behind the Movies

X-Factor 24 Ants

General Manager, MCE : Joy Tan Assistant General Manager and Publisher : Leong Phooi Qwan

Editorial Team Chief Editor : Shalani Lorenz Assistant Acquisitions Manager : Jarrod Tam Chun Peng Team Leader : Paula De Ceglie Associate Editor : Manjari Mitra Editors : Thomas Danny Jeyaseelan, (Science Centre Singapore) Sanjali Jain, Goh Kiat Teng Project Manager : Roderick De Asis Reviewers : Lim Tit Meng, Anne Dhanaraj, (Science Centre Singapore) Andrew Giger

Creative Team Senior Creative Manager : Heymans Tho Creative Designers : Cris Eres, Lee Khong Kee, Arnie Mallorca, Eve Hon Li Voon Creative Illustrators : Chia Wing Fee, Soo Eng Goh, Roy Foo, Fee Fong Wong, Chen Zhiwei, Justin Tan Zi Qiang

Incredible Finds

30

Ethics Watch

33

Amazing World

34

Tech Talk

38

Published by Marshall Cavendish Education Pte Ltd

Bio Buzz

40

15 Science Centre Road, Singapore 609081

Spy News

46

Cairo-The Dog that is a SEAL The Pros and Cons of Animal Testing Looking into the Night Sky The Drinkable Book

Sales and Marketing – Promotions Assistant General Manager : Jasmond Ng Assistant Business Development Manager : Alex Ho DID 6213 9496 Mobile 9681 2086 Email alexho@mceducation.com Issue 92, July-August 2015 2015 Marshall Cavendish Education Pte Ltd Times Centre, 1 New Industrial Road, Singapore 536196

In Collaboration with Science Centre Singapore

Tasty Bites

Unlock Your Gadgets in a Heartbeat!

Comic Series

Adventures with Dr. Atom The Great Forest Adventure, Episode 1

Profiles

Science Rockers STEM Everywhere!

Contests

Science at Work

Odds and Ends

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner. Any requests for permission should be addressed to the Publisher. Marshall Cavendish is a trademark of Times Publishing Limited. Printed in Singapore by Times Printers, www.timesprinters.com

18

42

32

Acknowledgements

6 Ostriches © Mattia D'Antonio / 123rf.com; 6 Emu © Benjamint444 / Wikimedia Commons; 6 Cassowary © Anan Kaewkhammul / 123rf.com; 7 Penguin © javarman javarman / 123rf.com; 7 Kiwi © Eric Isselee / 123rf.com; 7 Kakapo © Mnolf / Wikimedia Commons; 10 Reduced Gravity Aircraft © Pdiamandis / Wikimedia Commons; 12 Space shuttle taking off © Fernando Gregory / 123rf.com; 12 Space shuttle rocket boosters separation © Konstantin Shaklein / 123rf.com; 13 Space shuttle flying © John Teeter / 123rf.com; 13 Planet Mars © tristan3d / 123rf.com; 13 Cartoon of astronaut © Theodoros Timpilis / 123rf.com; 14 Astronaut in the background © Iurii Kovalenko / 123rf.com; 14 Earth and Mars © tristan3d / 123rf.com; 15 Mars Odyssey © NASA / JPL / Corby Waste / Wikimedia Commons; 15 Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter © NASA / JPL / Corby Waste / Wikimedia Commons; 15 MAVEN © NASA / Goddard Space Flight Center / Wikimedia Commons; 15 Mars Express © NASA / JPL / Corby Waste / Wikimedia Commons; 15 MOM © Nesnad / Wikimedia Commons; 17 Clapperboard with Waving Film © yasnaten / 123rf.com; 17 Film strip background frame © iloveotto / 123rf.com; 17 Toy robot © Pavel Ignatov / 123rf.com; 17 Abstract clock background © Thanamat Somwan / 123rf.com; 17 Enigma Encryption Machine © Dvmsimages / Dreamstime.com; 24 Ant © Andrey Pavlov / 123rf.com; 24-25 Ants background © Andrey Pavlov / 123rf.com; 31 Purebred Belgian sheepdog © Bonzami Emmanuelle / 123rf.com; 31 German shorthaired pointer © © Margo Harrison / 123rf.com; 31 French basset hound © Viorel Sima /123rf.com; 31 Labrador retriever © Eric Isselee / 123rf.com; 31 German shepherd © Eric Isselee / 123rf.com; 31 Beagle © khunaspix / 123rf.com; 31 English springer spaniel © Eric Isselee / 123rf.com; 31 Military grunge background © Iryna Denysova / 123rf.com; 40 Letters T-A-S-T-Y B-I-T-E-S made of food © Cseh Ioan / 123rf.com; OBC Nebula and galaxy © rustyphil / 123rf.com

26 44 45 47 48

In col

A LL

labora tion wit

Co

h

92

-p

ub

-NE

li c

on

W

a ti

Brain Booster Puzzle Tussle Search Saurus Answers and Winners Subscription Forms

General Enquiries: Tel: (65) 6213 9274 Fax: (65) 6281 1327 Email: magazine@mceducation.com

Game for

adventur an e?18 Cairo: The Cani ne Commando !30 MC I (P ) 15 5 / 07 / 201 4 • PPS 16 4 6/0 2/2 013 SS92_C

ISSN

9 77 17

SG $

1793

-380-3

93 38 00 06

7. 5 0

(GS

T In clu

92 ded

)

over

.indd

1

15/6

/15

SS92_Contents.indd 1

3:05

PM

22/6/15 5:12 PM


ence i c S e at th w e N ? s am What’ Singapore by Jeremy Paki e r t Cen

Scienc

E R O P A G SIN

e Festival

Science can be serious at times, but it can be really fun, too! The Singapore Science Festival is back this year from 10 July to 2 August, giving everyone the chance to discover the wonders of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) and how it relates to our everyday lives.

2015

The theme of this year’s Science Festival is Transformation. You’ll get to see awesome exhibits by scientists, researchers and even science enthusiasts! So come down and explore the many events that have been lined up specially for you, this coming July! Don’t miss these highlights of this year’s Science Festival: ★ X-periment!    Science Buskers Festival   Maker Faire Singapore Bring family and friends for a visit, as we bring you science straight out of the labs! Science enthusiasts, those who are curious about science, as well as anyone who just wants to have a great time are welcome to witness the wonders of science.

2

SS92_SCS_pg2&3.indd 2

19/6/15 10:40 AM


a Festiv s r e k e B us

l

Scienc

Sun) 5 (Sat– 1 0 2 y l ity 11–12 Ju Date: enue: Vivoc V ience the Sc s of life t A ? n walk be fu e can’t nts from all c n e i c aid s icipa Who s estival part F rs s to Buske gether. l’ hope s l e t o d t n come ow-a ication skill ive ‘sh t a un e r c comm cience. and ’ s e t u n q i a This un the particip ressions of s p exp develo eative r c h g throu

Maker Faire Singapo re

X-periment!

15 (Fri–Sun) Date: 10–12 July 20 Venue: Vivocity

scientists and lose with real-life -c up t ge to t an W ? their cool projects y science vourite, three-da fa tho e th is t! X-perimen various research ures Singapore’s at fe at th al iv rn ca . e and technology projects in scienc ers from ntists and engine ie sc t ee m to ce nies, Get a chan ersities or compa iv un s, te itu st in ntions and local research cutting-edge inve te ra st on m de ey ous ways. as th aining and ingeni rt te en in e nc ie teach sc hops that ises several works pr m co t en ev e Th riment portunity to expe op e th ne yo er ev e shows give t miss the Scienc n’ do nd A ! te va around and inno performers from e nc ie sc l ia ec sp featuring the world!

Date: 11–12 July 2015 (Sat–Sun) Venue: 15 Tampines Street 11, Singapore 529454

The Maker Faire is a celebration of the DIY culture, featurin g interesting and wa cky projects in science, ar ts and craft, enginee rin g and technology. This year’s fair is set to be even bigger than before, as 20,000 attendees ar e expected to participa te. It will include worksh ops for families, day camps for students and pop-up maker spaces in com munity centres. Visit the Mak er Faire to see some quirky exhibits on display, an d also showcase your craft for the rest of Singapore to see!

Visit http://www.sciencefest.sg for more details about the Singapore Science Festival, or drop by the Singapore Science Festival Facebook page at www.facebook.com/ singaporesciencefest to get the latest updates! 3

SS92_What New at SCS.indd 3

22/6/15 10:05 AM


Story r e v o C ak

#Diversity #General Knowledge #Observation and Inference

ay nisha N by Ma

uld o ? tw at i what h ed w Guess ing the , r e ond bird? think r not w r o . eve y like a ght be eve it an fly u e yo e to fl rds mi o! Beli ings c v a s, H e lik e bi w o area ts r o b Som hing, t s with ds tis t bird slan . Scien but i e d s y, r te sam ot all ola edato ould fl eded s i pr on n ne sc

ird less om live ger rds nger fr these b no lon flight m! i b e a f ss y he htle little d stors o as the ut som bout t g i is ce ko sa st fl ity, Mo e there the an is abil e chec g fact n r w th ti at whe eve th y lost story, nteres i r i e l e be me th s cov a few d thi r ti ove fly. In irds an b to

4

SS92 Cover Story.indd 4

15/6/15 4:20 PM


See m of us o ore n next p the age! 5

SS92 Cover Story.indd 5

15/6/15 4:20 PM


Emu

Ostrich

Cassowary

Th i n k a b o u t i t ! Why do flightless birds have feathers?

What do you think flightless birds use their wings for?

6

SS92 Cover Story.indd 6

18/6/15 5:06 PM


Penguin

Kakapo Kiwi

Interesting Facts

Interesting Fact

7

SS92 Cover Story.indd 7

22/6/15 10:06 AM


ntal e m i r pe The Ex orner C

#Interaction #Observation #Prediction

GRAVITY Gravity is probably one of the strangest, yet strongest forces in the universe. It is even responsible for the formation of our universe! So let’s find out more about gravity.

What Is Gravity?

Gravity is a natural phenomenon, which attracts all objects including stars, planets, galaxies and even light and sub-atomic particles towards each other. In everyday use, it is described as the force that causes an object to fall to the ground. In fact, the story goes that British scientist, Sir Issac Newton discovered gravity 300 years ago when he saw an apple fall off a tree! He realised that there must be a force that makes all things fall towards the ground and called it gravity.

When travelling in space we would assume that as an astronaut moves further away from Earth, the gravity exerted by the planet would slowly decrease and eventually disappear. But does this really happen? As you think about the answer, let’s head back down to Earth to understand what ‘force’ is.

8

SS92_The Experimental Corner.indd 8

22/6/15 10:11 AM


What Is Force?

Although we can’t see them, forces make the world go round—literally! A force is a push or a pull. Gravity is an example of a natural and invisible force, which occurs between two objects and pulls everything down towards the ground. A force can also be exerted by another body, such as a person or a car.

For a force to be present, two things must take place: • The object that the force is applied on must have some mass or weight. • The object must also undergo acceleration or change in speed, becoming faster or slower. The equation below sums it up: Force = Mass x Acceleration

Push

Pull

But let’s do an experiment to understand this concept better.

Experimental Corner What You Need?

Two balls of different sizes, say a football and a golf ball.

What Do You Observe?

Which ball hits the ground first? Answer: Both balls will hit the ground at the same time.

How And Why Does It Happen?

This shows that both the balls were traveling at the same speed when they hit the ground.

What To Do?

What If? Step 1 Take both balls and raise them up high.

Step 2 Drop both balls at the same time.

You might wonder, what would happen if we drop two things of extremely varied weights. If we dropped a brick and a feather at the same time, the brick would probably hit the ground first. But this is because of the differences in the amount of friction between these objects and the air around them, not because their masses are different. If there were no air, the feather and the brick would hit the ground at the same time.

Did You Know?

Italian scientist, Galileo Galilei, did a similar experiment in around 1590. He climbed up the Leaning Tower of Pisa and dropped two balls of different masses to the ground. Both hit the ground at the same time. Until then it was commonly believed that heavier things fall faster than lighter things.

9

SS92_The Experimental Corner.indd 9

22/6/15 3:10 PM


In order to experience absolute zero gravity, an object has to be extremely far away from any celestial bodies (planets, moons, stars, etc.). However, we can simulate or reproduce the conditions of zero gravity. Reduced Gravity Aircraft provide brief near-weightless environments for astronauts in training, research and for making gravity-free movie shots. These aircraft are popularly known as Vomit Comets because weightlessness can create a sense of panic causing people to throw up. A similar feeling of weightlessness is created during the freefall of a roller-coaster ride. If you think about it, isn’t it strange that the only way for us to be free from gravity, is when we’re undergoing freefall?

So back to our question. Does an astronaut in space experience gravity? The answer is yes! Although gravity diminishes the further we go away from Earth (that is why astonauts float in space), the spaceships and space stations they live in orbit the Earth because they are held by the Earth’s gravitational pull. At the same time the spaceship doesn’t fall to Earth as it moves at the right speed. Thus, the rocket engines of a spacecraft play an important role in not only launching the spaceship into space but also in keeping it in orbit.

We cannot get away from the forces of gravity. The Moon orbits the Earth, our Solar System orbits the Sun, and the Milky Way orbits its galactic core—all thanks to gravity. So if anyone tells you that ‘money makes the world go round’, you can respond by saying, ‘actually, gravity does a whole lot more!’

Th i n k a b o u t i t ! Why do we need gravity? What would happen if there were no gravity?

es zard when one bodtyamctov i W Word ance that occurshich it is in con

w t nal a resis r body with vitatio e h t o n a he gra t o e t r e e y wh relativ f a bod cent o ting on it s e d e fre e ac ly forc th e o n is e c r fo

10

SS92_The Experimental Corner.indd 10

22/6/15 10:12 AM


SS92_AD SCS1.indd 1

22/6/15 3:20 PM


uff Hot St

#General Knowledge #Curiosity #Discovery

pin s a g n taki ?

gined a spaceship a m i r ay m in u e ve

ste yo mm Have our Solar Sy at your drea t h e le th f all ound ar ossib ea l i t y. O ars is p e t i u It’s q e c o m e a r System, M ay r w b s o o n in our Sola s are under e. n ts ac plane est and pla s rocky surf it nd os the cl to land on out Mars a . n ab for ma d out more Red Planet e n Let’s fi ission to th m man’s

12

SS92_Hot Stuff.indd 12

22/6/15 2:24 PM


Mars, also called the Red Planet because it’s covered with a red-coloured rust-like dust, is the next frontier man wants to conquer after the Moon. In the last five decades, development in aeronautics and aerospace research has made it possible to launch several manned and unmanned flights into space, land on the Moon, and send scientific probes to explore the planets, asteroids and comets in our Solar System.

Why Go to Mars?

Mars is very similar to Earth in its formation and evolution. Understanding Mars will help us understand our own planet better. There is a possibility that in the past Mars had conditions suitable to sustain life. If we find evidence of past life forms while exploring Mars, we will know that life can exist beyond Earth. It will also help us understand what went wrong and what we need do to preserve our planet.

A more important reason is to protect the human race and other life forms from extinction, in case of a natural calamity. Although a farfetched thought, an asteroid could strike Earth and destroy all life forms. It has happened in the past and was responsible for wiping out the entire dinosaur population from our planet. Thus, a mission to Mars can also be seen as an insurance against our extinction.

More on the next page!

13 13

SS92_Hot Stuff.indd 13

22/6/15 3:27 PM


Earth vs Mars

Earth

Mars

150 million km 1,2756 km 24 hours 365 Earth days 78% nitrogen 21% oxygen 1% other 14 °C 1 (The Moon)

AVERAGE DISTANCE FROM SUN

229 million km

DIAMETER

6,792 km 24 hours 40 minutes 687 Earth days 96% carbon dioxide 2% nitrogen 2% argon - 63°C 2 (Phobos and Deimos)

LENGTH OF A DAY LENGTH OF A YEAR ATMOSPHERE

AVERAGE TEMPERATURE NUMBER OF MOONS

Fun Facts on Mars Dust Storms

Olympus Mons

Valles Marineris

Mars has the largest and most violent dust storms in the Solar System.

Mars has the largest known mountain in the Solar System.

The largest known canyon in the Solar System is also located in Mars.

They regularly blanket the entire planet for a few days.

It is 25 km high (three times higher than Mount Everest).

It is 4,000 km long.

14

SS92_Hot Stuff.indd 14

23/6/15 8:11 AM


Our Flight so Far ...

Man has tried to find out about Mars since the discovery of the telescope in the 1600s. However, it was only in the late 20th century that unmanned interplanetary journeys to Mars began. In spite of the fact that two-thirds of all space missions destined to Mars have failed, there are several success stories as well.

MARS ODYSSEY

NASA This spacecraft was created to find out the planet’s composition, to detect water and to study the radiation environment.

The twin NASA Mars Exploration Rovers Opportunity and Curiosity, continue to beam signals and photographic information back to Earth, operating beyond their original mission dates. Five satellites from three organisations also orbit Mars surveying the planet. They are:

MARS RECONNAISSANCE ORBITER

MARS ATMOSPHERE AND VOLATILE EVOLUTION (MAVEN)

MARS EXPRESS

This spacecraft carries a powerful camera, which gives a detailed view of Martian geology and helps identify obstacles that could endanger the safety of future landings.

This spacecraft provides information about the Red Planet’s atmosphere and climate history in detail.

This spacecraft is exploring the atmosphere and surface of Mars from its polar orbit.

NASA

NASA

ESA

MARS ORBITER MISSION (MOM)

ISRO

This spacecraft explores the Martian surface and atmosphere using its own scientific instruments.

They are sent by the following agencies: The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

is the United States government agency responsible for aeronautics and aerospace research. It has been in the forefront of space exploration since it was founded in 1958.

The European Space Agency (ESA) is an intergovernmental organisation dedicated with 22 member states to the exploration of space.

Flying Forward ...

, After these successful robotic missions to Mars ned man a for n begu preparations have already mission. In December 2014, NASA launched the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). It is designed to carry a crew of four astronauts and enable the further exploration of Mars. ly On its successful test flight, Orion was necessari the g pyin occu inium alum of ks unmanned, with bloc ng amo ms, syste al critic seats. The goal was to test . them the return of the crew safely back to Earth

The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)

is the space agency of the Indian government. It is the first Asian nation to enter a spacecraft into the Martian orbit on its maiden attempt.

However, in order to avoid any serious technical tists glitches during the main mission, aerospace scien the So . tests er furth g and engineers will be conductin take only will sci-fi dream to land humans on Mars place by the mid-2030s. Till then, all we can do is wait for technological our advancements and innovations that will make ! alive e com l trave dreams of interplanetary

Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV)

15 15

SS92_Hot Stuff.indd 15

22/6/15 2:26 PM


ell

tsh u N a n ei

Scienc

The e h t d n i h e B E SCI NCE

MOVIES

ie Big Hero 6? Have you seen the mov azing? Believe Isn’t the robot just am ings the it or not, some of the th ie are slowly robot does in the mov becoming a reality.

Action!

As a treat, here are three movie write-ups for you to enjoy! Hopefully, they will inspire you to think more about science fiction and how it is turning into reality.

16

SS92_Science in a Nutshell.indd 16

22/6/15 3:52 PM


Big Hero 6 which ated blockbuster, im an an is 6 o er Big H p and p of friends develo shows how a grou art a villain. Building tsm use gadgets to ou onist to allows the protag e and s et dg ga their own e fir ts, such as breath do superhuman ac aracters is One of the key ch fly with a jetpack. can fly! flatable robot that d in ft so a , ax ym Ba an movies, scientists Thanks to the up with amazing me engineers have co that vations like robots technological inno , as well as 3D scanners lves assemble themse r ances in compute and printers. Adv robots al enabled tradition technology have do ould you What w t’? o b ro oft with a ‘s

Word Wizard : motors that move or control other mechanisms or systems

at complex tasks th to perform many ample ex r t impossible, fo were once though y. rforming surger driving cars and pe re, iration from natu Drawing insp ts w designing robo researchers are no ponents, that can com with soft flexible is environments. Th ng t adapt to changi en pm lo ed the deve has in turn prompt sensors that rely on and of soft actuators stead xible electronics in pneumatics and fle ructures. So robots id st of motors and rig reality! one day become ay m like Baymax Eileen Tan

by Ryan Hong an

: branch of physics or technology concerned with the mechanical properties of gases

d

Predestination

Predestination ex of time travel plores the idea But what if w and question e could go s whether time an or not we cou d change histo back in ld prevent crim ry? Are es or bad things fro there alternat m ive histories th could travel b happening if we at could be writt ack in time. T en? Would th his is a central them e p re se n t change if we e in many tim changed e tr sci-fi movies. something in Since H.G. Wel avel th e p as t? ls The Time Mach ’ novel, in by Seah Jian Xi many time-tra e, became popular, ng vel stories an d movies have ex plored this co ncept. Although Ein stei told us that ti n’s discoveries have me as many peop is not an absolute If you could travel le believed, ti me travel is still an unp in time where back roven concep t. would you go?

n!

The Imitation Game

attempts midnight. That meant all The Imitation Game tells the ring the du d ge an ian to decode the messa story of British mathematic less if it ing an ring day were rendered me cryptanalyst Alan Turing. Tu t. igh Enigma was not decoded by midn helped crack the Germans’ that which Turing invented a machine code during World War II, ssible war. could crunch millions of po allowed the Allies to win the was ge ssa me solutions until the During World War II, the her of fat nd secret decoded. And so the gra Germans had an incredible Enigma, today’s computers coding machine called the ble da was born. which transformed rea s wa t tha e by Zara Lin cod a o int ges messa s wa It . thought to be unbreakable intillion qu 159 ing rat ne How would you capable of ge 0) ,00 00 0,0 ,00 ak 00 bre something that is (159,000,000,0 unbreakable? at y da ry eve et crypts, and was res

Which time period would you visit?

So, pay attention in those science lessons. Who knows, you could very well be the next inventor or scientist, and future science fiction movies could be inspired by your work!

17

SS92_Science in a Nutshell.indd 17

22/6/15 12:25 PM


#Diversity #Living Things #Classification

18

SS92_Adventures with Dr Atom.indd 18

22/6/15 2:34 PM


19 19

SS92_Adventures with Dr Atom.indd 19

22/6/15 2:34 PM


20

SS92_Adventures with Dr Atom.indd 20

22/6/15 2:34 PM


21 21

SS92_Adventures with Dr Atom.indd 21

22/6/15 4:13 PM


22

SS92_Adventures with Dr Atom.indd 22

22/6/15 2:34 PM


To be continued... 23 23

SS92_Adventures with Dr Atom.indd 23

22/6/15 4:10 PM


or X-Fact

#Observation #Inference #Curiosity

s t An

ago ymir Y d a l V by

, you’ll s r e t t i r c se fierce ts belong to e h t y b n bitte ts. An n n e a e d which b i o o e t v v ’ , a a u e r o l e y p t o p If d why pe nown as Hymeno bout 22,000 n a t s r e d k a un f insects elong. There are ut this insect o r e d r o b the d out abo sps also n a fi w d d n n a a n bees s. Read o saurs. t n a f o s specie the dino s a d l o s that is a

24 24

SS92_X Factor.indd 24

22/6/15 10:44 AM


STRONG LEGS Ant legs might be very thin, but they are extremely strong. Research done at the University of Cambridge has shown that ants are able to lift 50 times their weight! Ants’ strong legs also help them run very fast— 300 metres per hour. That means if ants were of human size, they could run as fast as racehorses!

TWO STOMACHS Ants live in large groups known as colonies. They go in search of food for their colonies, and accomplish this by using their two stomachs. The first one is for digesting the food they eat. The second is for storing the food that they gather for the colony. Who needs a lunch box when you have two stomachs, right?

lunchbox

MODIFIED HEADS In some species, the heads of soldier ants are shaped like the entrance to their nest. Why? Soldier ants sit at the entrance with their heads facing out, blocking the entrance and protecting the nest from predators. So how do fellow ants enter the nest? Simple —they just knock!

Never seen a soldier before?

SPRAY ACID Some species of ants, such as woodland ants, spray formic acid instead of stinging or biting. They do this to ward off predators. Formic acid is found in small amounts in fabric cleansers and softeners. This is why some birds allow ants on their feathers. The ants squirt formic acid on their wings, eliminating parasites from the birds feathers! ac Att

k!

Th i n k a b o u t i t ! Of the four X-Factors here, which do you like most? Why? Are there any other insects similar to ants?

25 25

SS92_X Factor.indd 25

22/6/15 10:44 AM


): Systems 4 P & 3 (P k c lo B Lower 1. Which of the following is an example of a natural system? a) (a)

b) (b)

c) (c)

2. Match the organs to the correct organ system. (a) Gullet (b) Heart (c) Skull (d) Windpipe

(i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

Circulatory system Digestive system Respiratory system Skeletal system

4. Ramli kicks a ball as shown below. (a) Which two organ systems work together to help him kick the ball?

(b) Is the human body a system? Why or why not?

(d) d)

3. Organ system X breaks down the food in the body into simple substances. Organ system Y carries the simple substances to all parts of the body. (a) Identify organ system X and organ system Y. Organ system X: Organ system Y: (b) Name one organ for both organ systems X and Y. X: Y:

5. Four pupils wrote a statement each. Which of the following is incorrect? (a) The body of a cat is a system. (b) Systems can be natural or man-made. (c) Organs are made up of organ systems. (d) Organ systems work together to make the body function properly.

26

SS92 Brain Booster.indd 26

22/6/15 11:15 AM


6. An organ system is shown below. Fill in the blanks to label it correctly.

7. Some organs in the digestive system are listed below. Underline the organ(s) where digestion does not occur. (a) Mouth (b) Gullet (c) Stomach

(d) Small intestine (e) Large intestine (f) Rectum

9. Which of the following plant parts are only found in adult plants?

(a) Flower (b) Fruit (c) Leaf (d) Stem

(i) B only (ii) C only (iii) A and B only (iv) C and D only

8. The diagram shows the human digestive system. (a) In which of the parts—A, B or C—is digestion completed? (b) In which of the parts—A, B or C —are minerals absorbed from the undigested food?

A

Stomach

B

Small Intestine

C

Large Intestine

10. Look at the picture of the plant. From the diagram, we can infer that the _________ of the plant is/are weak. (a) fruits (b) leaves (c) roots (d) stem

27

SS92 Brain Booster.indd 27

22/6/15 3:12 PM


P6): Systems & 5 (P k c lo B r e Upp 1. Some transport systems in a plant carry food from the (a) stem

(b) roots

2. The path of some substances in the transport systems of a plant is shown below. Root Ă Stem Ă  Leaves (a) Name two substances that are transported in this manner. (b) Name the substance carried by the other set of transport tubes in a plant. 4. An organ system is shown below. Fill in the blanks to label it correctly.

to the other parts of the plant.

(c) fruit

(d) leaves

3. The pie chart below shows the composition of the air around us. Which of the gases is required for burning? (a) A only (b) B only (c) C only (d) A and B only

A. 21% B. 1% C. 78%

Other gases Oxygen Nitrogen

5. The gills of fish have a rich supply of blood vessels. Why is this? Choose the correct option(s). (a) To enable oxygen in the blood vessels to enter the gills (b) To enable carbon dioxide in the gills to enter the blood vessels (c) To enable oxygen in the water to enter the blood vessels through the gills (d) To enable carbon dioxide in the blood vessels to be released through the gills

28

SS92 Brain Booster.indd 28

22/6/15 3:13 PM


6. Look at the picture below. Top side

(a) Where are stomata found—X or Y?

Underside

(b) Explain why the stomata are found there? X

Y

7. Why does our heart beat faster when we exercise?

8. The apparatus below is commonly found in laboratories. (a) Name the apparatus.

(b) How is this apparatus useful?

9. The diagram below shows a plant cell. S T R Q P

(a) Which of the parts—P, Q, R, S and/or T—are also found in animal cells? (b) What is the function of part T?

10. Maria set up a circuit as shown below. Her bulb did not light up. Her teacher asked her to replace the plastic spoon with a spoon made of another material.

plastic spoon

bulb

(a) Why does the bulb not light up when a plastic spoon is used?

(b) Name one material that the spoon could be made of that would make the bulb light up.

See answers on page 47.

29

SS92 Brain Booster.indd 29

24/6/15 9:27 AM


s

ind F e l b i cred

In

#Systems #Comparison and Inference

i chi Sain by Pra

o r i a C

L A E S a s i t a h t g o D e - th

*

rt in a p n e , k has ta is in action ng t a h t e g li ois do ns. When h ss for absei n i l a gian M y operatio ith a harne ght-vision l e B a i iro, litar of vest w i a C as a n m t l s l e u e o o w r r Me dange ulletp ers, as highly to wear a b m helicopt of vision. o s he get rachuting fr degree field a and p with a 180 a camer

*A SEAL is a member of the Sea, Air and Land teams, an elite special operations unit of the United States Navy.

30

SS92_Increadible finds.indd 30

22/6/15 11:23 AM


Cairo’s job is to sniff out booby traps and secret rooms, as well as attack enemy soldiers. But in order to do so, he had to go through the US Navy SEAL training designed for canines!

Yes, sir! Roger and out!

Training to be a SEAL

Cairo’s training started with tough ‘bio-sensor stressing’ just three days after his birth. This included tickling his paws with cotton buds, blowing air into his face, exposing him to adults, children and loud sounds such as thunder, sirens and motorcycles. His next lesson was to swim past the point where he could see land. He was also trained to get in and out of a helicopter, as well as hang out of it. He is alert with high energy levels and capable of running at 48 km per hour, even at high altitudes. And that’s not all! He also has a powerful bite.

Cairo is not the only superdog around. The US military has about 2,800 canine SEALs in its service, and spends about US$50,000 (approximately SGD$67,000) in the training and deployment of each dog.

izard the Word W vertically using rope coiled around

descendingigher point harm at can cause xed at a h fi d an y d o b g objects th touching them n ki o o -l ss harmle usually by ates them, mething to who deton eone or so military action m to anyone so of g in a d the sen perform ission or to military m complete a

Other Amazing Dogs Many breeds of dogs have amazing qualities. Which dog do you think can be the most beneficial to society?

German Shorthaired Pointer

French Basset Hound

While most This dog sniffs by pointers run almost touching with their noses the ground with up, German its nose. Its long, Shorthaired heavy ears sweep Pointers hold their the ground, large brown noses drawing the scent low when they are upwards towards following scents its powerful nose. on the ground.

Labrador Retriever

German Shepherd

Not only does this dog make a great companion, it is often engaged in various scentrelated jobs, for example searchand-rescue operations.

These dogs have 225 million scent receptors in their noses! They are commonly employed by the police, as well as by search-andrescue teams.

Beagle

English Springer Spaniel

These dogs This sporting make great pets, dog can be either but also have field-bred or fantastic noses. show-bred. The They are often field-bred dog is used at airports great for hunting, because they can while the showrecognise over 50 bred dog unique odours makes an with a 90 per cent excellent success rate. house pet.

31

SS92_Increadible finds.indd 31

23/6/15 8:32 AM


ork W t a e cienc

S

Carry out the activity and send us your observations and explanations. If possible, include photographs or drawings with your entry. The top entry will win a

Mystery Prize!

What you need!

A large bowl filled with water

1

A small mirror

2

Place the bowl under direct sunlight.

A sheet of white paper

Sunlight

Hold the mirror underwater in the bowl, with the reflective side facing up.

What to do! the sheet of white 3 Hold paper directly over the mirror in the bowl.

4

Adjust the position of the mirror and paper until you see the reflection of the light on the paper.

Science at Work Fill out the entry coupon and send it together with your answer to: Science Spy Issue 92 Marshall Cavendish Education Pte Ltd Times Centre 1 New Industrial Road Singapore 536196 You may use a photocopy of this page. Closing date: 31 August 2015

Name:

Age:

Home address:

Email address: Contact number:

Gender:

School:

32

SS92 Science at Work.indd 32

22/6/15 11:46 AM


tch a W s c thi

E

#Objectivity #Responsibility #Evaluation

orra essa G by Van

Animals play a very important role in medical research. Mice and rats may appear very different from us, but surprisingly we share many biological similarities. This is why researchers use these animals for testing and developing medicines and cosmetics, so as to check their safety for human use. Unfortunately, the animals involved in these laboratory experiments suffer a cruel fate. It causes them pain, reduces their quality of life and in some cases even leads to death!

Let’s look at some of the arguments for and against animal testing. Th e Pr o s are in People who claim : imal testing favour of an

Th i n k a b o u t i t ! What’s your take on animal testing? Are you for or against animal testing? Why?

to many ing has led st te al ns im n • A for conditio treatments g in av -s e e lik lif ses ma and disea such as asth s. tuberculosi bjects, research su make good s al his im T n A s. • espan e shorter lif cts fe ef as they hav y the tists to stud e th r allows scien ts ove us treatmen l of the vario ross severa ac r o tire life animal’s en generations. om enefitted fr pets have b r u o s and n ie ve b E ra • for ing. Vaccines s et p r animal test u kill o ses that can s. al other disea im er an sted on oth were first te

Th e Con s People who are against animal te sting claim : • It is wrong to ca use pain and suffe ring to any animal or liv ing thing, or to maim it for life or even kil l it. • The animals ar e first infected with the disease before the medicines can be tested on them. Of ten, the period of infection is ex tende d for testing the various stages of the illness, causing prolonged sufferin g to the animal. • Other ways to fin d solutions to life threatening medica l conditions should be found. If require d more money and resources shou ld be spent to find animal-free altern atives.

33

SS92_Ethic Watch.indd 33

18/6/15 5:10 PM


orld W g n i maz

A

Y by Jian

i Yong

#Discovery

#Possibilities #General Knowledge

t n i o g n i k o o

L the Night Sky

er than what we can see—and our Earth g g i b — e ug is as not stopped humans o se is h f it. However, that h v r e e r v i to c ove r w h a t l i e s b e y o n d o u r un The t a tiny par from trying to dis erstand the ‘universe’ bu turies human quest to und n e c the Thi s , and study celestial objects . t e t n a e l p n r pla utside ou s astronomy. a n w o o n is k Astronomy was most likely invented in an attempt to travel to foreign shores and predict the seasons. Over time, it also helped develop the science of navigation and agriculture, among many others. Let’s find out more about this fascinating field.

Look up at the sky on a clear moonless night, preferably away from city lights. The moon and the lights brighten the night sky and reduce the visibility of stars. On a dark night, we can see around 2,000 stars with our naked eye (i.e. without the aid of a telescope).

34

SS92_Amazing World.indd 34

22/6/15 11:34 AM


The Big Dipper, an asterism (pattern) of seven stars and part of the much bigger constellation of Ursa Major, points towards the Pole Star at the north.

s Use r o l i a te? id S a d g i w v o a H s to N r a t S the sailed

tar Pole S h? e h t s oe ort Why D int to the N s Po Alway r to appea

hey tars, t e west, just s e h t t in th bserve that If we o e east and se ant to note he th ort rise in un. It is imp not due to t ment y l l S a is v e u n o s h m e tio ou like t nt mo ars, but the axis at rs, wh d of easily e r e a m p o p n o s this a nt of the st tilts on its rs. t astro a meth ginar y line e u th a Ancien rs, created . s e im p movem rth. The Ear s every 24 ho ining isable sha ailo jo s a e y h t E b it w gn ar s . of the .4° and rota ying st rotate m reco lations identif them to for rns constel hese, 48 out 23 eem to ar, b s a y l t n e ft en tt ppare ole St betwe led these pa tions. Out o are known stars a l pole, the P ms to l l l a a e l a r l e c e e il t T h ey cons misph So wh he celelstia rth Star see ore are 88 orthern He s. o ef dt T h e re N n aroun wn as the N . It was ther ation. tio the a l l in e o d t g e n l s e a k n n vig isin fix visib also ient co tually y sailors for nterpr to c e ir n v t a s r e in fi as th rema tensively b re the 50 bce x ho we n around 15 igate w , s n used e v na atio nicia o e is t il o s t r h n iv a r P c g The he st re they lea e tradin used t e e maritim , must have rts. Once th ese to nam h e o t c p d b w k e Pole Star us ee ay e 300 y to Gr deities and ference. Tod ations a 2 w 3 .4 ir ° the eek tell y re the Gr or eas r most cons about stellations f o f n ames the co the same n . s e s me d still u orthern skie ere na tarted n w e s n o in th i lat or s s onstel y, when sail here. c g in isp main ntur The re the 18th ce uthern Hem o g S durin ing to the ventur

Astronom y in World

Although Culture people in different see the s par am their inte e shapes of conste ts of the world rpretatio n of them llations, is a reflec tion of th eir environm ent. One good example is t Although he Big Dipper. most see it as a dipper or a ques tion mark, the Chinese s ee it as a wh eel barro w, since the y in The Britis vented it. hc plough, a all it a nd the Fre nch see it as a saucepan !

35

SS92_Amazing World.indd 35

22/6/15 11:34 AM


Why are you planting now? Don’t you know that when Orion is visible in the southwest evening sky, it’s winter?

The brightest stars are joined to form one of the most recognisable constellations, that of Orion, the Hunter.

How the Stars Predict the Season? The Earth also orbits the Sun in a regular path, and takes a year to complete one revolution. During this journey, it faces different parts of space. The stars in the night sky tell us their position relative to the Earth’s movement through its orbit. Our ancestors repeatedly observed the position of the stars, the cyclical phases of the Moon and the recurring weather patterns. This information helped them to learn about the seasons and when to plant and harvest crops. This led to the development of agriculture. Ancient civilisations created structures that were used as calendars. The prehistoric megaliths of Stonehenge were most probably used for measuring time and seasons using the Sun and stars. This led to the birth of engineering and architecture. Mayan temples, Chinese tombs, Egyptian and Mexican pyramids also had connections with celestial phenomena and human beliefs. The Great Egyptian Pyramids were supposed to facilitate the pharoh’s ascent to the heavens.

Word Wise

s, planets, moons, etc. objects in space, such as star ; seafaring ping ship of or relating to navigation or overhead the ctly dire sky the in t an imaginary poin s Earth’s North and South Pole y those forming part of a stones of great size, especiall prehistoric monuments

Besides the stars, our Universe is composed of many other fascinating objects including galaxies, planets, comets, nebulae, etc. Look out for the Cover Story in our next issue to discover more. If the universe intrigues you, why not visit Science Centre Singapore’s Observatory on Friday evenings for stargazing. For more information visit http://www.planetary.org/explore/space-topics/citizen-science/.

Today, we do not look at the night sky for the same reasons our ancestors did. Astronomy has become a popular hobby enjoyed by millions. The goal of today’s astronomer is to explore and discover water and possible life forms in and beyond our solar system, and finally travel to other planets. The development in technology makes us hope that we will achieve this goal soon.

Th i n k a b o u t i t ! What do you think of when you look up at the night sky? Do you think there is life beyond Earth? Why?

36

SS92_Amazing World.indd 36

22/6/15 11:34 AM


Danger us Drugs Some people may tell you that you could feel happier and make your life better, by abusing a ‘substance’. This ‘substance’ could be a tablet, powder, liquid or herb. They may also offer you some to try. Don’t accept the offer! Do you know that the ‘substance’ could be a drug? Read on to find out about drugs and why one should avoid them. Drugs are dangerous. They are highly addictive substances that damage both the mind and body. Once you abuse a drug, you will become dependent on it. One of the most common drugs around is methamphetamine.

Methamphetamine

Other names: ‘Ice’, glass, crystal, speed and ya ba What it is: This drug comes in a crystal, tablet or powder form that is odourless and colourless. Some of the things that are used to make it include drain cleaner, lithium (taken from batteries) and paint thinner. What it does: It increases the amount of a chemical called dopamine in the brain, and creates the feeling of temporary pleasure. A person who takes this drug will feel a sudden strong sense of happiness, but later feels extremely depressed. Over time, methamphetamine changes the brain, so a person cannot feel pleasure in a normal way.

Remembe r M a ke th c h oi c e r igh t e. St a y cool, sa t o dr u y N O gs !

Effects of Methamphetamine • • • •

Anxiety and irritability • Liver and kidney diseases Damage to heart and nerves • Mood swings, confusion, Fits, stroke and even death delusion and hallucination Increased heart rate and body temperature

If you a re of fer ed someth ing you ar e n o t su about, te re ll your teacher s or parents .

Teacher!

Beware of These Other Drugs and Substances, Too! Cannabis

New Psychoactive Substances (NPS)

It is also known as marijuana, pot, grass or ganja. It looks like dried herbs or tea.

They mimic the effects of other drugs, such as methamphetamine and cannabis.

NPS may be found in ‘smoking blends’. They are referred to as synthetic weed, K2 or Spice.

Inhalants (Glue Sniffing)

These could be glue, paint thinner and aerosol sprays, which give off vapours or fumes that contain high concentrations of toxic chemicals. The sniffing of vapours or fumes is known as inhalant abuse.

Wear the Anti-Drug Abuse Ribbon proudly to show your support for the fight against drug abuse! The green and white colours symbolise health, vitality and strength.

SS92 Editorial Narcotics.indd 16

Drug abuse hurts our body and the people around us.

s ar e D r u g f ul a n d d n har m r o u s , a e g ! n l l a i k d c an they s Say NO to anyone who say in gs dru e tak st mu that you order to be their friend.

Visit CNB website www.cnb.gov.sg for more information on drug abuse. If you have been approached to try drugs or wish to report any information, please call the CNB Hotline at 1800-325-6666.

6/8/15 11:08 AM


lk Tech Ta

#Ethics

#Curiosity

#Evaluation

van ahade M a n r by Apa

The

e l b a k rin k o o B

D

Acc 780 clea th

? ook before find out b a m o r f ver drunk ad on to Have you e ell, now you can! Re u clean water. W yo No, never? t book that can give firs about the

The Drinkable Book was invented by Dr Theresa Dankovich from McGill University in Canada to help poor rural communities around the world purify their drinking water. Not only does each page teach the reader tips on hygiene, the pages also serve as filters to purify contaminated drinking water! How cool is that? 38

SS92_Tech Talk.indd 38

22/6/15 11:38 AM


How Does Th

Why Do We Need to Purify Drinking Water?

In Singapore, thanks to the Public Utilities Board (PUB) and its strict water quality monitoring, we can enjoy clean drinking water. However, not everyone in the world enjoys this privilege. water is The common symptoms of these diseases include fever, vomiting, muscle aches and diarrhoea. In serious cases, people may even die from them. Water contamination is quite common in developing countries. It is caused by human and animal waste, as well as rubbish being deposited in or near water sources. But even in developed countries, viruses, bacteria and improper chemical disposal can contaminate water sources.

e

Drinkable Dr Danko Book Work vich inven ? ted a spec at Canada ial filter p ’s McGill U aper while niversity. elements stu She embe called ‘ba dded micro dying ctericidal s some thic scopic il v ka er nanopa rticles’ int to bacteri nd strong paper. Th o aa ese eleme nts paper, the nd when polluted w bacteria in ater passe are deadly s through the water and are kil th a led. Dr Da nkovich, a bsorb these particle e researche long with s rs, succes a team of sfully test sources in ed the filt South Afr e r s ic on water a . The pape The Drinka r filters were then b ble Book. T o here are in und into a book, ca each page lled structions of the boo pri k it is impor tant to pu to teach the user ho nted on rify drinkin w and wh After tes y g water. Book in he ting The Drinkable r laborato ry, Dr Dankov ic filtered wa h noted that the ter had 99 .9 per cen less bacte t ria than be fore.

What’s the Secret Method Behind Producing these Filter Papers?

According to th e United Natio ns, more than 780 million pe ople in the wor ld lack access clean drinking to water. This is ab out 144 times the number of people in Singap ore now.

Word Wizard

Dr Dankovich uses eco-friendly raw materials for the filter paper and inexpensive and harmless chemicals to produce the silver nanoparticles. The paper is soaked in a bath of silver ions and a reducing agent . Then, the bath is drained and the paper is heated to about 105°C for a few minutes to lock the silver ions into the paper. After this, the paper is rinsed and allowed to dry. The end result is the orange-coloured paper used in the book. Surprisingly, this groundbreaking idea doesn’t come with a heavy price tag. Each piece of bactericidal filter paper costs only a few cents to produce. Each sheet in the book is made up of two paper filters that can be torn off the book. Each paper filter guarantees up to 30 days of clean drinking water, while the entire book provides four years’ worth of clean water. With this smart invention, millions of people around the world are now more likely to get access to cheap and safe drinking water.

contaminated: mixed with poisonous substances waterborne: transported and spread by water gastroenteritis: inflammation of the stomach and intestines resulting in fever, vomiting and diarrhoea bactericidal: deadly to bacteria nanoparticles: microscopic components ions: atoms with extra or missing electrons reducing agent: a solvent (thinner) that reduces other substances, usually by making them lose one or more electrons

Th i n k a b o u t i t ! Can we continue to produce The Drinkable Book indefinitely? What are other ways to produce clean drinking water?> 39

SS92_Tech Talk.indd 39

22/6/15 11:38 AM


Z BIO BUZ

#Systems #Digestion #General Knowledge

ar ti Kelk by Swa

ce cream? i r o e colat o h c , eat! r ps i a r v c g e e h p c o w o t e t a t o yd s tas Wh nswer is simple. These food ? ea em Th what helps us appreciate th But wer that, let’s understand ans To and fl avour. te tas

Taste and Flavour

Taste is a sensory response to a chemical stimulus such as food. We’ve got five primary tastes that influence our food choices and our cravings. Each type of different-tasting food has its own benefits and is really good for us. For example:

Salty

food contains carbohydrates required for energy.

erals food is rich in min ed um and must be cons . in small quantities

Umami

food has proteins that give us strength.

food is acidic but nutritious and must be eaten in small amounts.

Bitter

food helps stimulate digestion.

So how is taste different from flavour?

When we talk about the taste of a particular dish, we are actually describing its flavour. The flavour is the sensory impression of a food item formed by its taste and aroma. The aroma, or smell, of a food item travels up our nose, which triggers the sensory receptors inside our nose. These receptors along with the taste buds on our tongue create an impression of the true flavour of the food item. Another very interesting aspect of taste is the look of the food. Food tends to be more appetising when presented beautifully!

is Ugh! Th le! r or ib looks h

40

SS92_Bio Buzz.indd 40

22/6/15 11:39 AM


Th e T a s te

Taste Buds

If we look at our tongue in the mirror, we see tiny bumps on its surface. These are called lingual papillae, and they give the tongue its rough texture. There are hundreds of papillae on the surface of our tongue and a smaller number at the base and back of our tongue. Taste buds sit in pockets of the papillae wall. Taste buds are onionshaped, and each one has 50–100 taste receptor cells. These cells have microscopic hairs called taste hairs.

Taste buds

Taste hair Taste cells Nerve

Here’s how they all work together: The soluble chemicals in the food we eat are quickly dissolved by our saliva.

Did You Know?

These dissolved chemicals spread through our mouth, enter the papillae walls and make contact with the taste hairs. The chemicals stimulate specific taste receptors to relay information to the brain, which interprets the taste of the food. So the taste of food depends on several factors. And even if we don’t remember them all, at the next meal, let’s be thankful for the food and for the amazing senses that enable us to savour their tastes and flavours!

Ma p

Since th e common early 1900s, th er misconc eption th e was a parts of at differe the tong ue are re nt helping spon us tastes. R experience the sible for ecent re five bas sea ic this the ory. It is rch has disprov ed now be all regio lieved th ns of the at to taste s ensation ngue can genera s. How te parts m ever, so ay be me more s certain fl ensitive avours. to

Prehistoric man liked spicy food as much as us. A study has revealed traces of mustard in 6,000-year-old pottery.

The average individual has about 10,000 taste buds. When our nose is blocked, aroma cannot reach the smell receptors in our nose. So we feel as if our food has lost its flavour. ​

41

SS92_Tasty Bites.indd 41

16/6/15 2:42 PM


ers k c o R e Scienc

x

=

%

=

x ademic disciplines of ac e th to rs fe re at th STEM is an acronym Mathematics. d an g in er ne gi En , gy Science, Technolo STEM Inc. was set up in Science Centre Singapore, widethntthseto ent called ing to inspire stu In 2014, a new departm to promote STEM learn is aim Spy, Its . on ati uc Ed of In this issue of Science support of the Ministry aticians of tomorrow. em th ma or . rs lds ee fie gin EM en out more about the ST become the scientists, EM educator and find we meet Zara Lin, a ST

, STEM s i t Wha hy is it and w tant? y g r I m p woorld, technrotlion

What best th is the ing ab your jo out b? A s a ST EM ed

ay’s l pa In tod an integra be it a s y life, . pla ryday MP3 Player e v e r a ou y r l i o da phone e use smart hnology w ssible o c The te een made p stant b o s c n ha to the elopment s k n a th d dev f STEM. ch an resear the areas o in done

uca coolest thing th tor, the at do is cr eate ne I get to w things with m y have m students. We ad and ele e simple robo ts ctric gu itars Lego eV 3, and a out of lso b aeropla ne mod uilt els.

What is your role at STEM Inc.?

42

SS92_Science Rockers.indd 42

I work as a STEM educator, where we teach modules such as Aeronautics and Forensics Science to secondary school students between the ages of 13 to 16. STEM covers eight areas of study in all, which range from Health Science and Technology to Environmental Science and Material Science.

22/6/15 11:43 AM


Wha

=

t wa s th e mo It wo m o m uld h e n t in st mem ave Scie t o you ora n Cent ce Fest be the ble Shel r j o b i r v e a l i n stud orga l Sin Aug en ga ? nis u

st ts po built e prot . During 2014 fo d at the re Yout r otyp h Scie t S h eco ee n e solu s of vari vent, th ndary 3 ce ( e o tion s for us mac particip N)T hine sust a nts s aina bilit to provi y. de

Wh

My drye team pro r. t vege Food dry otyped a table ers a re us solar foo s and them ed to d m . A e a s d to dr t y the olar drye , so as to ry fruit, prese and p food it r uses s rv o em a ro nd is lar energ e tradi tects th y m e tiona l met food com uch faste hods r p of air ared to We m d a r de ying. recyc led m the sola r dry ateri er us al, su bo in I was xes and ch as pac g t k ing Thei very pro rays. inspi r never-g ud of m y te ivered form me, and up attitu am. m de ed de ep bo any of th e n m d the c s amp during .

out

he to

s f

x

A sol a r fo o d dr proto type m yer a de durin g the S h e ll Scien ce Fe (show stival ing th interio e r)

%

at do Iw yo ou f u t ld l u an ike re u hop da t o of it p s E to ply ee S e for STE ngin STEA ing S more T E T e cur AM p ering M (S EM a peop M ? t h e c ric nd le ro , A ie

nc ex ul an gr r e bel d en um a amm ts an e, Te xten plor in c d d iev cou nd e h er rag dra s add Math nolo ing g t h w g e em the at A y Ar true creat on de rt to atic , ts a i s v t s nd beau e sol ign p he ST ). Sci ty c uti EM o rin en ces oexis ns. I ciples in d ts b am aily etw a life een .

I als o prac wish t o se tise Sing e d pro apore, at a hi STEM b duc by d g ei h pro ts, eve esign er leve ng duc i l n n in g d t i solu s, that o-it-yo nnovat ur iv tion b s to ring ab self (D e IY) ever out e yda y lif asy e.

=

Th i n k a b o u t i t ! If you were a STEM researcher, what everyday problem would you solve?

What kind of Knowledge would you require to solve your problem? 43

SS92_Science Rockers.indd 43

22/6/15 12:07 PM


ACROSS rs, planets, such as sta s ie d o b l ia f celest the study o laxies ga d n a moons bstances

2 su poisonous mixed with t is also the 4 ess bird tha tl h ig fl , g in a fast-runn 7 largest living birsednses that allows us to five one of the avours fl omens ce n e ri 9 expe slender abd d n a s d a e h nies h large insects wit ther in organised colo e g to 10 that live See answer

1 3 5 6 8

DOWN

a bird living in th e cannot fly and ha Southern Hemisphere that s flippers and w ebbed feet a handheld com pu by a touch screen ter that is operated an automated m achine program med to perform specifi c tasks like a hu man the other term for a movie thea ter also known as th e Red Planet

. s on page 47

44

SS92_Puzzle Tussle.indd 44

17/6/15 4:58 PM


Search Saurus

sent on a mission! Gizmo the Robot has been these clues, but He must find the answers to an’s help. Help to succeed, he needs a hum g for! Gizmo find what he’s lookin C

E

F

W

O

N

T

C

G

R

A

V

I

T

Y

S

O

N

X

K

C

F

B

S

B

Y

P

L

H

X

X

G

N

R

H

B

O

D

G

L

O

F

N

N

I

P

W

C

S

O

D

U

Z

R

T

F

G

P

A

C

X

Y

I

L

T

B

H

R

A

N

X

G

A

N

F

D

T

Z

N

E

E

R

B

S

S

H

F

R

O

C

M

G

V

T

B

C

L

E

G

G

X

U

T

P

R

N

R

S

Y

Y

E

A

L

T

O

N

A

Y

A

F

W

A

M

L

W

F

I

S

A

A

Z

P

B

R

F

T

E

H

A

T

Q

A

D

Q

T

W

J

O

T

O

R

P

T

H

K

J

N

D

M

U

I

J

O

I

R

U

E

L

F

O

I

V

K

C

X

E

O

B

C

C

R

S

C

I

T

A

M

U

E

N

P

U

N

L

E

O

V

F

N

T

E

K

L

Q

X

N

S

O

E

K

P

O

L

E

S

T

A

R

C

A

X

Z

M

S

Z

1. A harmless-looking object that can detonate a hidden bomb when touched or moved 2. A helmet-like structure, as on the head of a cassowary 3. A group of stars that forms a pattern in the sky when connected with an imaginary line 4. The push or pull on an object 5. The natural force that makes objects fall towards the Earth

6. Microscopic particles measured in nanometers 7. The study of the mechanical properties of gases 8. The star that seems to remain virtually fixed on the celestial pole. 9. The nerve endings on our tongue that help us to taste 10. Carried and spread by water

See answers on page 47.

45

SS92_Search Saurus.indd 45

22/6/15 11:44 AM


ws

Spy Ne

1. How would you like to make your own heartbeat your password?

2. A group of scientists from Toronto, Canada are doing just that. They have developed a wristband that reads the rhythm of a person’s heart and uses it to function like a password!

4. Unlike regular passwords and PIN that can be easily hacked, human body characteristics, like our heart rhythm, finger prints and an iris scan, are hard to steal and biologically unique, making them possibly the most secure passwords.

3. Think of it this way: instead of using a combination of letters, special characters and numbers as a security measure for accessing our emails or unlocking our gadgets, we can now simply use our heartbeats to unlock them.

5. This technology is known as biometrics. It uses unique physiological characteristics, such as DNA or behavioural characteristics, such as voice, to authenticate a person’s identity. 6. Scientists even say it won’t be long before they develop music players with earphones that only unlock in our own ears!

Source: European Space Agency

46

SS92 Spy news.indd 46

16/6/15 3:30 PM


Answe

ners n i W d r s an

In Science Spy 90

Congratulations!

Knotty Tizzy

Here are the winners of Science Spy 90:

Captain Spook has four fish and three fishbowls

Einstein Alert

KNOTTY TIZZY

SEARCH SAURUS

When the hole of the straw is covered, air is trapped inside. As the straw hits the potato, the air inside compresses and presses against the walls of the straw. This prevents the straw from bending and makes it strong enough to pierce through the potato.

Jalyn Tan (7) Temasek Primary School

Jayden Chia (9) Anderson Primary School

Search Saurus

Ivan Ling Hao Zhe (9) Riverside Primary School

Ik Zhi Yi (9) Henry Park Primary School

M

I

C

H

A

E

L

F

A

R

A

D

A

Y

D

Q

E

N

B

V

J

L

U

A

T

U

X

I

P E

U

E

N

N

N

V

B

A

P

G

A

N

P

O

R

V

E

N

H

S

H

L

Z

J

M

T

E

W G

E

H

O M

T

E

D

E

D

O

C

R

A

B

I

G

E

R

S

Q

A

X

A

C

K

I

X

H

X

D

R

L

N

I

J

P

L

Q

E

N

Q

T

S

X

N

I

H

T

E

M

X

I

C

E

R

Q W

Y

U

I

N

Lim Zhi Min (11) Poi Ching School

T

C

K

X

T

C

R

A

O

U

I

K

O

Q

E

Q

A

G

Z

M G

K

E

V

H

T

Z

G

A

A

F

K

C

E

O

Z

V

Y

S

I

Q

S

Q

J

I

J

H

I

Z

Y

N

U

D

U

G

T

G

E

W O

T

E

A

R

I

B

E

Q

A

Z

I

I

H

G

Q

N

T

I

C

U

H

Y

W

T

K

P

M

E

Q

J

L

E

G

R

H

V

F

K

T

I

B

Q

C

S

T

2. Astronomy 4. Contaminated 7. Ostrich 9. Taste 10. Ants

Search Saurus

In th

rre u C e

n

itio d E t

n

Lower Block – Systems

Upper Block – Systems

1. (b) 2. (a) – (ii), (b) – (i), (c) – (iv), (d) – (iii)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

3. (a) Organ system X: Digestive system, Organ system Y: Circulatory system (b) X: Mouth/Gullet/Stomach/ Small intestine/Large intestine/Anus, Y: Heart/Blood vessels/Blood 4. (a) The skeletal system and the muscular system (b) Yes. The human body is a system because it is made up of different parts that work together to make the body function properly. 5. (c) 6. skull, ribs, backbone 7. (b), (e), (f) 8. (a) B, (b) C 9. (iii) 10.(d)

1. Penguin 3. Tablet 5. Robot 6. Cinema 8. Mars

C

E

F

W

O

N

T

C

G

R

A

V

I

T

Y

S

O

N

X

K

C

F

B

S

B

Y

P

L

H

X

X

G

N

R

H

B

O

D

G

L

O

F

N

N

I

P

W

C

S

O

D

U

Z

R

T

F

G

P

A

C

X

Y

I

L

T

B

H

R

A

N

X

G

A

N

F

D

T

Z

N

E

E

R

B

S

S

H

F

R

O

C

M

G

V

T

B

C

L

E

G

G

X

U

T

P

R

N

R

S

Y

Y

E

A

L

T

O

N

A

Y

A

F

W

A

M

L

W

F

I

S

A

A

Z

P

B

R

F

T

E

H

A

T

Q

A

D

Q

T

W

J

O

T

O

R

P

T

H

K

J

N

D

M

U

I

J

O

I

R

U

E

L

F

O

I

V

K

C

X

E

O

B

C

C

R

S

C

I

T

A

M

U

E

N

P

U

N

L

E

O

V

F

N

T

E

K

L

Q

X

N

S

O

E

K

P

O

L

E

S

T

A

R

C

A

X

Z

M

S

Z

(d) (a) Water and minerals, (b) Food/Sugar (a) nose, windpipe, lungs, air tubes (c) and (d) (a) Y, (b) Stomata are found on the underside of leaves, away from direct sunlight. This prevents water in the plant from evaporating too quickly through the stomata. 7. When we exercise, our body needs more energy. More oxygen and digested food in the blood need to be transported to the various body parts to produce this energy. The heart beats faster to pump the blood at a faster rate. 8. (a) Microscope, (b) It helps us see things that are too small to be seen with the naked eye. 9. (a) P, Q and R (b) Part T supports the plant cell and gives it shape 10. (a) Plastic is an electrical insulator. It does not allow electric current to flow through it. (b) Steel/Copper [Accept any reasonable answer.]

47

SS92_AnswersWinners.indd 47

18/6/15 5:12 PM


Embark on

EXCITING LEARNING ADVENTURES C

AL pu

L-

o-

In collaboration with

bl

NE

ic

io

W

at

with

92

n

In collaboration with

Brought to you by Marshall Cavendish Education & Science Centre Singapore an Game for

Featuring a wide range of informative articles, engaging activities and games, this bi-monthly magazine is your door to an enriching experience of Science around you. Step into the fun and fascinating world of Science today!

e? adventur

18

Cairo: ine The Can o! Com m a n d

Wide variety of articles on the hottest Science topics

30

Stunning photographs & colourful illustrations that bring Science to life M C I ( P ) 15 5 / 0 7 / 2 014

Latest buzz on Science & highlights from Science Centre Singapore Intriguing experiments, puzzles & contests with exciting prizes in store!

• P P S 16 4 6 / 0 2 / 2 013

ISSN 1793-380-3 9 771793 380006

92

S G $ 7. 5 0 ( G S T I n c l u d e d )

SS92_Cover.indd 1

22/6/15 2:47 PM

For Singapore Subscription: Mail the subscription form to:

In collaboration with

1-year @ $40* (6 issues)

Marshall Cavendish Education Pte Ltd 1 New Industrial Road,Times Centre, Singapore 536196 Subscription enquiries: 6213 9466 (Mon–Fri 9 a.m. to 5.30 p.m.) Email: magazine@mceducation.com

Please indicate how you found out about Science Spy:

By completing this form, you are granting consent for your personal information to be used, stored and processed for the purpose of providing the services offered by this subscription. Please inform us in writing to withdraw your consent. All information in this form will be kept strictly confidential.

Marshall Cavendish Education Science Centre Singapore Adept Learning

Subscriber’s Particulars(订阅资料): Name(姓名) :

Age(年龄) :

Address(地址) :

Postal Code(邮编) :

Telephone(电话) :

Mobile(手机) :

Sex(性别) : M/F

Email(电邮 ) :

School(学校) :

Class(班级) :

Payment Mode(付款方式): Cheque(银行支票) : Please make cheque / cashier’s order payable to Marshall Cavendish Education Pte Ltd (请在所有转账/现金支票的收款线上填写 Marshall Cavendish Education Pte Ltd

Credit Card(信用卡): Credit Card No:

(信用卡号码) Expiry Date(终止日期) :

MASTERCARD

VISA CVV Code: Name of Cardholder: (CVV验证码) (持卡人姓名) Signature(签名) : * Please allow 2 to 4 weeks for order processing and subscription fees are non-refundable.Terms & Conditions apply.

SS92_Subscription page.indd 27 SS_Subscription form 2015.indd 1

22/6/15 4:04 PM 16/6/15 6:04 PM


SS92_AD SCS1.indd 1

16/6/15 4:31 PM


ars, stellar xy is a group of st la ga A . es xi la ga There me to countless gravitational force. by er th ge to Our universe is ho ld he all laxies have just llar gas and dust— se! Small ‘dwarf’ ga er iv remnants, interste un r ou in es xi trillion! The billion gala ve as many as 100 ha n ca are more than 100 es xi la ga ’ ve anything s, while ‘giant is estimated to ha , em st Sy about 10,000 star r la So r on planets. laxy that houses ou d at least 100 billi an Milky Way, the ga s ar st on lli bi 0 between 100 to 40 us galaxies in the details on marvelo e or m r fo t ou ok Keep a lo e Spy. next issue of Scienc

SS92_OBC.indd 2

6/16/15 4:16 PM

SS92  
SS92  
Advertisement