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ADVANCED ENGLISH GRAMMAR AND COMMUNICATION

Prof. Vipul V. Makodia

PARADISE PUBLISHERS Jaipur (India)


Published By :

PARADISE PUBLISHERS E-479, Ground Floor, Vaishali Nagar, Jaipur - 302021 (Raj.) Ph. :0141-5114157

First Published - 2008

ŠAuthor

ISBN: 978-81-905349-3-2

Composed at: Guruji Computers; Jaipur

Printed at : Jaipur

All rights reserved . No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any mean without permission in writing from the publisher.


PREFACE

ADVANCED ENGLISH GRAMMARAND COMMUNICATION attention to one of these topics in particular for detailed investigation professional classroom skills that thee English teacher mayor may not have in addition to the matters relevant to the above question. It aims also to help beginning teachers in making them aware as to how to teach grammar and communication. Also the book tried to make a hand book for use of English language and grammatical part for the readers. An English teacher's initial task is what he has to teach where the nature and purpose of the course are already well-established. Imparting teaching of English also necessitates consideration on certain human and external factors that have immense bearing on the subject.

Special emphases has been given on teaching strategies to be adopted and many activities to be performed by the teachers for the benefit of students. This involves selection of appropriate approaches, methods and techniques by the teacher passes all these in detail to make English teaching a success for the teacher. Author


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CONTENTS

Preface

ONE Simple Methods of Basic Grammar

Two Teaching of English Grammar and Communications

iii 1 21

THREE

Use Noun, Gender and Adjective

55

FOUR

Word Building and Verb Formation

77

FIVE

Essential Skills of Speech Making

127

SIX

Modem Methods Thought of Language

161

SEVEN

Approaches Methods in Language Communication

177

EIGHT

Nature and Idea of Writing

205

NINE Radio News, and Advertismenting Communication

233


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CHAPTER ONE

SIMPLE METHODS OF BASIC GRAMMAR

A teacher who approaches the problem of spelling, pronunciation, and the other items treated in this chapter should again be reminded of the fact that he is dealing with skills calls for precision and accuracy. In the use of language one acquires accuracy and precision in much the same way as a girl does in the use of a sewing machine or a boy in the use of a lathe. They get a clear concept of what the job is and then acquire the skill through conscious practice that leads in the end to the unconscious following of the acquired technics. Let us repeat once more the fundamental statement about correctness in the use of language: Good English is that which is customarily used by most cultivated and educated English speaking people. This applies to all the items in this whole chapter on the mechanics of composition. Shall we write glamor or glamour? We see both in good writing. Our personal observation indicates that glamor is used by "most cultivated and educated American people." I am not too sure, however. I consult a dictionary. The observation and inquiry, have come to the conclusion that both spellings are used, with glamor more frequently by Americans and glamour more commonly by British writers. Keep this basic principle-fu mind as we consider each of the skills covered by this chapter.


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Simple Methods of Basic Grammar

Spelling: A man or woman who never writes anything can get along pretty well without knowing how to spell words. One who reads more or less consciously becomes aware of the order of the letters in the words he reads. This helps to clarify meaning. He distinguishes between lead a metal and led a verb by the letters in the two words. If his eyes become accustomed to -per instead of pre in perspiration he will pronounce the word properly. You see, there are some advantages in being able to recognize the customary letters and the order of the letters in what one reads. But this is a minor value. Our primary interest in spelling is in acquiring the ability to write our words as educated people write theirs. Even men and women who are almost illiterate occasionally write a letter. They need to know how others spell the words they are using in their letters. Spelling has been overemphasized in the past that bad spelling is pretty generally regarded to this day as a sign of illiteracy, if not of low mentality. A fairly intelligent but uneducated workman running an irrigation ditch for a farm owner wrote: "lie half to lay a tile cyfern Li under the rode." The owner understood what the workman meant even though the spelling was somewhat unconventional. When our language was in its stage of transition from Anglo-Saxon to Middle English and was used mostly by uneducated people, uniform spelling was net regarded as important. Even literary people, Chaser for one, often spelled a common word in two or three ways on a single page. But as more and more people learned to read, especially to read the New Testament, spellings became conventional. Then came the dictionaries to give authority for a single spelling for a given word. At the present time everybody, educated or uneducated, is intolerant of all spelling that does net how-the established customs. In American schools through the nineteenth century spelling was greatly overemphasized. The schools caught very little outside of reading, writing, and arithmetic. Spelling contests were devised as a means of entertainment to go along with Friday afternoon "speaking pieces." Nobody thought of limiting the words to those the children would ordinarily meet in their writing (or in their


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3

reading). The game was to find "hard" words, that the pupils would not often see in print and probably never have occasion to use in writing. Spelling books were filled with all kinds of familiar and unfamiliar words. These were arranged according to length, onesyllable, two-syllable, three-syllable, etc. It was as-summed that the longer a word is the harder it is to spell it. We now know that too, separate, and lose are probably much more frequently misspelled than extravagant and inconsequential. Length has little to do with difficulty in spelling. The word lists in modem spelling books are made upon an entirely different plan. The authors have tried to find cut what words young people actually misspell m their writing. The ideal word list would be one made up of all the words commonly misspelled in letters spontaneously written (not under the direction of teachers or parents) by thousands of school children, and with these words arranged by ages or school grades. Spelling Lessons in High Schools: Special periods for spelling, using a spelling book for study, may be justified in the upper elementary school grades, but the value of this sort of instruction In either junior or senior high school is doubtful. One pupil's list of misspelled words may overlap another's ten or twenty per cent. The whole list if words commonly misspelled m the writing of thirty pupils in a ninth grade group may run as high as 220. Of the two hundred and twenty words Jack may miss sixteen, Harry fortyeight, Mary thirty, poor Freddie (such a nice' boy, but so dumb; ninety-six, etc. Why give a daily class period to the study of a spelling book containing eighteen hundred words when the spelling problem is one of individual mastery of a few words by each pupil, and not the same few for any two?

The economical way is to find out what common words each pupil regularly- misspells in his writing and then to assist him in breaking the habit of misspelling those words. Then he should be directed and assisted in building up new habits or' correctly spelling his own group of troublesome Words. Spelling Demons: Several studies have been made to discover what words are frequently misspelled by high school pupils pretty


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4

generally scattered all over the country. These words were taken from written papers and letters and an account was taken of the relative frequency of the misspellings. From the long list thus secured a list of a hundred words most frequently misspelled was compiled and tagged with an opprobrious name-The Spelling Demons. It was assumed that a child who had learned unerringly to spell these one hundred words would be pretty free of misspelled words in his writing. This seems to be a fairly dependable assumption, especially if knowledge of the correct spellings has been reduced to an automatic habit. After the first list of demons was published, several observers made other demon lists, each overlapping the others to a certain extent. We have here a blending of three such lists. The total is 171 different words. ache

can't

having

across

choosing

hear (verb)

again

coarse

heard (verb)

against

color

here (a place)

all right (two

coming

hoarse

Words)

cough

hour (time)

almost

could have

instead

already

country

interest

altogether

cries

its (pronoun)

always

crowd

just

among

dear (adjective)

knew (verb)

answer

describe

know

any

divide

known

around

doctor

later

asks

does

later

bear

doesn't

lead (metal)

been

done

led (verb)

before

don't

lies (verb)


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Simple Methods of Basic Grammar

beginning

early

loose

believe

easy

lose

bled

enough

loving

blew (verb)

every

making

blue (color)

exciting

many-

break

February

meant

built

finally

minute

business

forty

modifies

busy

friend

much

buy

grammar

night

canned

guess

nineteenth

canning

half

ninety

Young People none (no one) occurred often once one's paid peace (not war) perform

perhaps perspiration perspire piece (a part of) presence (not absence) probably raise (to lift) read (past tense) ready receive relieve road (highway) rode (verb) rough said says seems seize sense (not money) sentence.


6

Simple Methods of Basic Grammar Spelling, Capitalization, Abbreviations

separate shoes (noun) such sugar

ties till

wear W:dnesday

shone (to shine) sure

tired

week (/ days)

could have

too (adverb) where

surprise

shown (to show) their (pronoun)

toward

whether

since

there (place)

tries

which

since

they

trouble

whole (all of)

truly

whose

Tuesday

women

some(adjective) those speak

though

stopped won't

threw (to throw)

stopping

through (prep.)

until

wouldha'-e

straight (not

thrown (to

used

write (verb)

crooked

throw)

very

writing

stretch

throws (to throw)

(adjective)

\ wrote (verb)

two (number)

weak

In the following sixty-three pairs or triplets we have words identical or closely similar in sound but with different spellings and meanings. They are not often misspelled. The problem is to attach the correct spelling to the desired meaning. The pupils should be advised to use the dictionary to assure themselves that they are getting the appropriate spelling to reflect the Meaning they desire. Pairs of Words with Different Spellings for Different Meanings accept advice

except advise

affects

effects

Ready all together altar already altogether alter ascent

assent

berth

birth

breath

breathe

all!


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Simple Methods of Basic Grammar

canvas

canvass

capital cite

sixth.

coarse

course

complement council

consul

capital site

compliment counsel dairy decent

descent

desert

dessert

device

devise

dyeing (to color)

dying (expiring)

eminent

imminent

formally forth

formerly fourth,

hear

holy

ingenious

innocence

instance

irrelevant

its

knew

know

later

lead

lose

muscle

of

past

peace

personal

plane

precede

precedence

presence

principal

quiet

respectfully

right, rite

shone

staid

stationary

statue

steal

straight

their

threw

nil

to

track

diary descend


8

weak

Simple Methods of Basic Grammar weather

your here wholly ingenuous innocents -instants, irreverent it's (it is) new no latter led loose mussel oft-passed (to go by) piece personnel plain proceed precedents presents principle quite respectively write, weight shown stayed stationery statute steel strait there through until too tract week whether you're stature two

Learning to Snell Plurals and Possessive: Q 10 of the most common errors found in the papers of secondary school pupils is the misspelling of possessives. Pupils seem to avoid the apostrophe with such complete nonchalance that one is almost disarmed into thinking that they have never seen or heard of such a written symbol. Perhaps teachers in both the elementary and secondary schools are spending too much time on the commonly misspelled words and not enough on the plural and possessive forms of nouns. Plurals first. Teach the young people that the usual way to change a singular noun to a plural is to spell the singular and then add s-book-books, pencil-pencils, light-lights. But singular words ending in x or s require es-fox-foxes, box-boxes, Jones-Jortses. Observe that the addition of an /s/ sound to one of these words causes you to pronounce it with an added syllable-box, boxes. Then there are the words ending in y and ey. The e. y words add only the usually the y words usually character Jie y to i and add es. We built a house only one story high. The Martins built theirs two stories high. (Both story and story are accepted spellings for the architectural term.) Monkeymonkeys. But lady-ladies, city-cities, beauty-beauties, etc.

Individual Spelling Lists: Many successful teachers have had each pupil keep books on his own spelling. Each one may have a pocket-size blank book for his spelling, or he may have a general notebook in which he sets aside a page or two for spelling. The teacher may pronounce all the words in this demon list to all the pupils m her grade or class. These are spelled m writing on scratch paper. Now the teacher gives the correct spelling. Repeat the process after two or-three days. It may be assumed that a word missed twice by a pupil is one of his habitual misspellings. Let each pupil enter in his spelling book all the words he has missed twice.


Simple Methods of Basic Grammar

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Teachers should from that time on check misspelled words in the writing the pupil does in all his classes, and the pupil should add these to the list he has already begun. Make it a game to conquer these spellings. Pupils may study their own lists and from time to time pronounce to each other these individual lists. As soon as a pupil discovers that he has conquered one of his demons, he may cross it out of his list. The teacher may take a hand in the game once in a while. If a pupil discover it the beginning of a school year that he misspells sixty-eight of the demons, he realizes that it would not be difficult to learn to spell that number of common words and that he can surprise himself in two or three months by promoting himself from the class of poor spellers to that of the pretty good Keep in mind always that it is the misspelling of a relatively small number of common words that marks a pupil as a poor speller. Some Unusual Cases : We learn most of our spelling unconsciously by seeing a word over and over in print. Our eyes photograph words for us to such an extent that when we see one with an extra letter in it or with the right letters in some unusual order we are conscious of something wrong about the word. But there are pupils who are not visual-minded, and others who have defective vision, and so get and retain no clear picture of the words they see in print. These are special cases requiring special attention. Some of them may need to see a good oculist.

Then there are readers who misprononnce common words or who do not sharply enunciate their words. A good deal of oral reading with emphasis on pronunciation and enunciation will do much toward remedying poor spelling in such cases.

Formal Spelling Lessons: Most of the newer spelling books used m schools where special tune is given to spelling set forth helpful plans for both testing and study. That described in the HomAshbaugh Spelling hook was among the first, and with some modifications :s pretty generally followed in other spellers. Spelling Orally: Having pupils stand and spell aloud as the teacher pronounces the words is still a fairly common practice in some schools. The practice is a heritage from the old-fashioned spelling contests. It has come limited value, but it is not now


10

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Simple Methods of Basic Grammar

considered economical or very effective. One needs to see the spelled word, not to hear it. And the pupil needs to give his spelling time to the comparatively few words he misspells rather than to the thousands of words he sees in print or in other people's handwriting but does net himself use in writing. Some writers and teachers have thought that the spelling words should be pronounced in sentences, rather than as single words from a column. Recent studies have shown that children learn as well when the words are pronounced to them from a list. Much time is saved for the teacher by this method, time both in preparing the \Alord list and in checking the pupil's written spellings. The purpose of the spelling lesson is to fix in the pupil's mind a visual image of the written or printed word, not to enable him to spell words aloud. With some pupils both seeing and hearing the words correctly spelled seem to add to the effectiveness and permanence of the teaching. Spelling matches in which the pupils make a contest arc not objectionable as entertainment and for variety, but no good case can be made for such competitions in which a whole spelling book is ransacked for unusual and difficult words the children may never have occasion to write. Spelling drills should be made only upon the common words the pupils are likely to need in writing. They can use the dictionary for unusual or new words as occasion calls for them. That is the way adults manage their unusual words. For emphasis let us say once more that out of a list of two or three hundred words pupils often misspell in their writing each pupil should be drilled on only the few that he commonly misspells. This brings us to the method of selecting the words for the spelling drills and studying the word list by the pupa.

The Spelling Lesson: In many junior high schools, and in a few senior, a spelling book is used, and daily lessons, or lessons two or three times a week, are assigned. In other schools the teacher takes one or another of the spelling demon lists and breaks it up into a series of lessons. Others keep a record of words misspelled in the written work of their pupils and pupils in other classes than


Simple Methods of Basic Grammar

11

their own, and from this compilation make up the study lists used day by day in the spelling period. This is the most logical procedure and probably the most effective for group teaching. Now consider a method of study for the pupil, and testing by the teacher. Let us say that the spelling period for a Tuesday is going to cover a list of twenty words. On Monday pronounce those words to the whole class. Permit each pupil to check his own errors when .you give the correct spellings, or have the pupils exchange papers, each checking a paper not his own. A girl who misses six words out of the twenty will study only those six in preparation for the test lesson on Wednesday; a boy who misses thirteen will study those words; one who spells all the words correctly in this Pretest will not study any in preparation for Wednesday. How to Study Words for Spelling: The Hom Method.- These directions are for the pupil. a.

Look at the printed or written word. Pronounce it aloud, saying each syllable very distinctly, and looking closely at , each syllable as you say it.

b.

With closed, eyes try to see the word, syllable by syllable, as you say it in a whisper. After saying the word, keep trying to recall how it looked in print or in writing, and at the same time say the letters either silently or aloud. Spell by syllables.

c.

Open your eyes and look at the word to see whether you had it right.

d. Look at the word again, saying the syllables very distinctly. If you did not have the word right on your first trial, any the letters again, as you look sharply at the syllables. e.

Try again with closed eyes to see the word as you spell the syllables in a whisper.

f.

Look again at your list to see if you had the word right. Keep trying until you can spell each syllable correctly with closed eyes.

g.

Then write it without looking at the book.'


Simple Methods of Basic Grammar

12

h.

Now write it three times, covering each trial with the hand till the new attempt is written. If you make a single mistake, begin the whole process with that word over again.

Reviewing: See to it that a word once learned by this process comes up in a lesson about a week later, and again after about a month. Such reviews serve to fix the words permanently in the memory. Spelling Rules: The unabridged dictionaries cite many rule for spelling. These cover such a wide range of cases and each has so many exceptions that it seems best to disregard the rules and learn to spell the words by memory. 1. Lippincott's Hom-Ashbaugh Speller, 1920.

J.

B. Liopincott Co.,

There are, however, four rules that are found by many to be helpful. These are: j. The final silent e. When a word ends in a silent e, drop the e before adding such syllables us ing, able, action, ous, and ary. denier, admiring, admirable,

explores, exploring, exploration

admiration

fame, famous

10'cf, loving, lovable

desire, desirous

mot't, moving, movable Words ending in a silent e usually keep the e when/w /, or ment is added. care, careful

hate, hateful

move, movement

arrange, arrangement

2. if or ei. In word? containing if or ei carrying the sound of e as in scene or a in mate the i comes first, piece, orief, chief, grief, relieve, freight, weight, etc. If the letters if or ei follow c, the e comes first, receive, receipt, ceiling.

There are six exceptions to the two parts of this rule. They are: either, neither, leisure, seize, weird, and financier.


Simple Methods of Basic Grammar

13

3. Doubling the final consonant before adding a syllable like ing or ed. If a word of one syllable ends in a consonant preceded by a single vowel, double the final consonant before adding a syllable beginning with a vowel: drop, dropping, dropped; but droop, drooped, drooping. The same rule applies to words of two or more syllables if the last syllable is accented and ends in a consonant preceded by a single vowel: propel, propelled, propelling; submit, submitting, submitted; occur, occurring, occurred, 1. Nouns ending in y preceded by a consonant nearly always make their plurals by changing the y to i and adding es: city, cities, fly, fliss, lady, ladies.

The same rule applies to spelling the third person, singular number form of verbs ending in y: copy, copies, marry-marries. There are a few other rules for spelling plurals, knife-knives for example; but it is probably more economical to learn to spell the words when one comes to then, rather than to memorize thE rules. Possessives.-Instruct your pupils to spell the singular noun form correctly and then add the 's-boy-boy's, girl-girl's, box-box's, horsehorse's, Jones-Jones's (not Jone's). To form the possessive plural of nouns presents more of a problem. Adding another s sound to a plural already ending in s produces too many sibilants (hissing sounds) to be pleasing. To avoid that we usually add only the apostrophe to the plural noun, the books' covers, the writers' reasons, the hunters' guns, the four Smiths' farms, all the Joneses' houses, but Harry Jones's house (singular). One Jones's and six Joneses' sound alike, but are spelled differently, as you see. Words forming plurals by a change of form, like man-men, woman-women, and child-children simply add the's to the plural form as they do in the singular: men's, women's, children's. Pupils should be cautioned here against a too free use of possessive forms with names of inanimate objects. In a way, possessive forms go with nouns that can own things, a mans. House, but not a tree's bark, or a question's answer. These are not always avoided in good writing, but many careful writers prefer the bark of the tree, the answer to the question, etc.


14

Simple Methods of Basic Grammar

A simple plan for spelling possessive plurals is to write the plural first and then and the's, but if the plural ends in s add only the apostrophe: babies' toys, dog'-' biscuits, but children's playthings, men's interests. The Question of Testing: Good teaching will help boys and girls to master words commonly misspelled, and good teaching includes intelligent testing. Standardized tests may be used for survey purposes for comparisons of abilities in spelling if such are felt necessary in the school. Diagnostic tests will help to point out the special spelling difficulties that each pupil has. Tests made up of the actual words studied by the pupils are especially valuable in that they will show what needs to be rethought, and so will act as a basis. Some writers propose dropping the apostrophe entirely, since the context nearly always shows whether the noun or pronoun is a possessive. Since most writers and publishers still use it, the schools will do well to follow customary usage. Upon which the pupil may make his own progress chart. The use of standardized tests and scales must be supple-minted by the use of the knowledge of the individual pupil's difficulties, by homemade tests and reviews, by actual study of words, and by practice in using them. The teacher may find if she uses the testteach method that her pupils may accidentally spell a word correctly today and incorrectly some time later. If she uses the teach-test method, she may find that some pupils will waste their time studying -,words they already know. The answer lies in giving each pupil a method of study, in insisting upon the mastery of a few words at a time, in presenting frequent reviews, and in developing a strong testing program not so much for the purpose of grading as for a basis for reteaching. In this reteaching process some of the words will have to be taught to the whole class; others will be for individuals only. Here the teacher may utilize the aid of her pupils, who will be very much complemented if she will allow them to test and to help each other make their progress graphs. A principal who skeptically watched a junior high school teacher use this mutual-aid method for several weeks finally said to her: "Your


Simple Methods of Basic Grammar

15

pupils are as noisy as bumble bees, and as busy as ants, but they are learning how to spell. I haven't been able to catch them on a single word!" It was not the noise that brought about the apparent miracle but the pride that the boys and girls felt in doing a good job, the system that the teacher used in constant review, and the practical testing program based upon her own school-made test? Pupils must, of course, be taught how to spell. The poor speller must have much more practice than the one who can spell. All pupils should be eager to compete with their own previous records, for with this may come the realization that correct spelling brings about the respect of the group and that future opportunities in social and in business life may be bettered. In summarizing, one may say that successful results in the spelling program depend upon the pride of the boys and girls, few words to master at one time, clear meaning, syllable division, visualization of the words to be learned, hard study economical drill, frequent review, and practical testing.

Capitalization : Many of our customs in writing are merely conventional. There is no inherent right or wrong about them. The use of capital letters is one of these. In German writing and print the custom is to capitalize all nouns. In English we capitalize only those nouns that are individual names of persons or things. We begin Pittsburgh with a capital letter, but do not begin city with a capital. City is a noun that can be applied to a thousand large population groups. Pittsburgh is used to designate a certain one. The common custom is to capitalize Ohio and also River in naming Ohio River. Some writers and printers capitalize only Ohio. The prevailing custom is in favor of Ohio River, Rocky Mountains, the Norris Dam, etc. By common agreement we capitalize God and all nouns and pronouns that refer to Him, including the name Jesus and the Christ. We use a capital/always for the personal pronoun. England is a proper noun. It begins with a capital letter. So does English, which is an adjective derived from a proper noun. We capitalize the names of the months and days of the week, but not the seasons spring, summer, autumn, jail and winter. This practice is not logical, but it is a custom, and we follow custom in


16

Simple Methods of Basic Grammar

language. We begin each line of poetry with a capital letter, but some of the new poets, to be different, disregard that practice. We still begin every sentence with a capital letter. If 1 say, "Customs in the North and West differ from those of the East and South," I am using those words as proper names for sections of the country. But if 1say, "After travelling six miles west 1 turned south," I am using west and south as common nouns and do not capitalize them. We capitalize all the words in the title of a book, story, or essay except the articles a, an, the, and the prepositions. The Story of the Indians in Arizona is properly written here as a title for a book or a chapter. The abbreviated titles Mrs., Dr., Hon., etc. are always begun with capital letters and are followed by periods. Since these are customs without inherent reasons, students must school themselves to conform to common practice to avoid being different and conspicuous. Again it is customary to begin a direct quotation with a capital letter, but not an indirect quotation. For example, one might say: Mrs. Clements was so much opposed to the plan that she declared positively, "I have no sympathy with your proposal and will do what 1can to see that it is not carried out." Another might report the substance of what M/ s. Clements said thus: Mrs. Clements declared that she had no sympathy with the plan and would do all she could to defeat it. In the first foml, a direct quotation, her actual words are enclosed in quotes, beginning with a capital letter. In the second form we have the substance of what she said. It begins with the word that and does not give her exact words. This is an indirect quotation, beginning with a small letter, and is not enclosed in quotes.

The teacher should make it clear to the students that there are only ten or a dozen common situations in which we capitalize a word, but that these are so generally observed that neglect or oversight or error makes one as conspicuous as do errors in spelling or grammar. The teacher must point out individual errors for the pupils. Pupils should help each other in this matter. It is difficult for any person to see his own errors. If a pupil writes The French crossed the English Channel near where dover now is and met king


Simple Methods of Basic Grammar

17

Harold at hasting, the sentence may look perfect to him because that is the way he always writes. He needs to have some one who knows the customs to tell him which words to capitalize and why. Capital letters are like traffic signals for writers, just as punctuation marks are. They are a writer's green and red lights and the signs for Curve, Right Tum, Left Turn, etc. Writing without capital letters and punctuation is just as confusing and dangerous as trying to drive through a city without observing the customary signs. The teacher can point out this similarity and can make the, point that by common agreement the signs all over the country are the sap1e. If a driver Jiving in Georgia is driving across the country, he will find the road signs in Nebraska and Utah the same as those he is accustomed to observe 3.t home. The Go sign in Georgia is green. In Utah it is green also, not purple. By common agreement the traffic signs in writing and print are the same throughout the country These are not used because one sign is "right" and another "wrong,'" but merely because one is customary and the other not. If writers and printers all over the country should agree to use this sign instead of the usual period, or this as a question mark, those signs would be right and these wrong. The same applies to the use of capital letters. By common agreement we could stop using capital letters at the beginning of direct quotations and all abbreviations. We are not likely to do this any more than to stop handshaking or wearing useless buttons on men's coat sleeves, it is almost impossible to change quickly the customs of five hundred millions of people no matter how useless or silly the customs may he We are going to continue to write 71/Vr.. Dr., D.C., Columbus, Italy, Spanish, and Florida instead of Mrs .. , dr., d.c., columbns, Italy, Spanish, and Florida. And we are going to begin sentences, direct quotati.ons, and lines of poetry with capitals for a long time to come in spite of the rebellion of a few "moderns" who want to be "different."

Increasing One's Vocabulary: Formal ways to increase the number of words a pupil can use intelligently are not likely to be very successful. In fact teachers are inclined to pay no attention to vocabulary building. They will spend much time upon spelling,


18

Simple Methods of Basic Grammar

punctuation, and grammar but little to the expansion of the pupils' took of words. Word poverty is probably the most significant of the language ills of both school pupils and adults. Even so we are probably wise in not attempting to increase a pupil's stock of usable words by any mechanical or formal program. So far as we know there has not been any reliable study made of the number of words the adult of average intelligence uses in speech or in writing. Nor do we know what the nouns are for a fifteen-year-old boy or girl. More attention, how Cover, has been given to the word range of young people in school than to adults. One thing is apparent. An individual who uses a thousand different words in daily speech will use more words in deliberate writing, perhaps two or three thousand. And such a person would understand maybe five thousand as he is reading. These are not statistics. They are only our guess. Basic English is built upon the assumption that if one knows the right words, eight hundred and fifty are enough to get along with pretty comfortably in speaking and writing the language, and well enough in reading if he has a dictionary at hand. Even so, the man or woman who has a rich word-hoard to choose from gives the listeners or readers a distinct impression of culture. As you listen to such a person talk you are aware of that feeling, even though you may not realize that it comes from the use of a wide variety of words. If a girl thinks everything she sees or hears, or everybody she knows, is cute or swell or just lovely or grand or sweet that means that her range of adjectives goes no further. To her everybody else is either horrid, a washout, a dim bulb, or whatever the current slang word may be at the moment. We all take pleasure in hearing people who use exact and appropriate words, but we may doubt the wisdom of setting up a formal program of vocabulary building with class exercises two or three times a week.

How do people build up their stocks of words? One way is to determine to add a word a day or two words a day. Today as I read I come upon the words myopic, pyromaniac, and snorkel. I can work out pyromaniac without the dictionary both as to pronunciation and meaning. Since I am adding only two words a


Simple Methods of Basic Grammar

19

day to my stock, I pass up snorkel. That leaves me myopic. I learn to spell and pronounce both my new words and contrive to write and speak them three or four times during the day. What a satisfaction! Adding two words a day increases my working vocabulary by 60 words a month, 730 in a year 14,600 in twenty years. Add to that the 5,400 words I had when I started this program at age sixteen and I shall have 20,000 at thirty-six-4,OOO more than Shakespeare had when he died. No, this will not do. Human beings do not work that way. Even if we had the persistence to keep up the struggle for twenty years,

we should have acquired many words we need, but in addition a vast heap of useless lumber. Most of us acquire new words by hearing them spoken or seeing them in print. We ask about them or use the dictionary to find the meaning, the spelling, the pronunciation, and possibly one or more synonyms. Later when we are speaking or writing we use one of these new words. We repeat this from time to time until the word comes to the surface of memory automatically. Then it is ours. Does this mean that the teacher should comfortably leave vocabulary to chance? Not at all. Nor does it suggest that a teacher with a composition class should assign ten words a day 10 be looked up in a dictionary. It suggests a more nearly normal way. As she hears a student reading aloud and stumbling over the word sub til (subtle) she asks him to consult the dictionary and get its pronunciation and i.e. 01 two synonyms. Or hearing another explaining a paragraph he has just read she realizes that he does not understand it because it has two key words in it that are unfamiliar. She can tell him directly what those words mean and then ask him to go on with his explanation. If a boy refers to a girl as a peach or a prune, he might be encouraged to add two or three nouns and as many adjectives to his vocabulary. Make a game of finding ways of saying yes without falling back upon okay. As pupils are reading a piece of literature have them watch for color words, that apply to the sense of taste and smell, words having to do with size and weight, words ex-pressing speed and distance. There are a dozen common devices that one may use one at a time to


20

Simple Methods of Basic Grammar

keep students conscious of the need to build a vocabulary that shows variety, breadth, and discrimination.

Good Taste in Expression: Everyone agrees that good taste and effectiveness of conversation are reflected in one's written and spoken expression. Too often the conversation of boys and girls is meager and barren. Sometimes it seems that fine, grand, cute, and okay are the limits of the available words.

DOD


CHAPTER

Two

TEACHING OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR AND COMMUNICATIONS

Formal grammar as the easiest method: The case just described illustrates a few of the means for replacing formal methods in developing effective usage with more direct, economical, and efficient procedures, quite without denying the utility of formal grammar to teachers and specialists in language as convenient means for professional intercommunication among themselves, or as tools of linguistic classification and research. The case illustrates the very obvious fact that while grammatical terminology, diagraming, parsing, and formal sentence analysis are (and should be) easy for people who earn their living as linguisticians, they are hardly easy for pupils who need help most: and it is probably the latter, as the presumable beneficiaries of instruction in English, who ought to have the final say regarding what is hard and what is not. Adult specialists are much too prone to fall into what Edgar Dale has called the COIKfallacy-Clear Only If Known. The traditional contention that rules and procedures phrased in the professional language of the grammarian are in the long ran the easiest way to learn a language is surceased only half true: true where the truth cou.'1ts least, and consistently false in the very situations where the truth should count most. It is absolutely true only if the teacher has no offer resources at her disposal for treating problems of usage.


22

Teaching of English Grammar and Communications

When this is the case, the methodology of formal grammar must obviously be, not just the easiest way, but also the one and the only way. But in such cases, is not the teacher in much the same position as the physician of old whose limited resources at one time forced him to rely oil bloodletting as a cure for almost everything? Formal grammar as a strictly professional tool: Without denying that the terminology of linguistic science is of great convenience to teachers as members of a licensed profession, cannot teachers prevent it from increasing resistance to learning by using it only as a set of labels for reference purposes after having achieved the language outcomes desired? In the suburban community where this is written, the house-wives often take great pride in preserving the fruits that grow in such abundances the vicinity. They do not begin their canning season by looking up the Latin names for the peaches, pears, prunes, and apricots that they have in mind to preserve. On no occasion have they been known to label their jars before they are sure that they have something in them that will keep. Neither has any housewife ever been known to insist that the contents of the jars with labels taste better than the contents of those without. Cannot the use of grammatical labels be regarded with the same elementary common sense? After all, is net helping people to live more effectively in this world more important than just developing a classroom vocabulary in it? Usage guide for the double negative. Obviously, an approach suitable for teaching one use of the comma is not always appropriate in teaching another. The problem is always one of analyzing the specific language difficulty, of selecting the particular procedures that are uniquely appropriate in treating it, and of realizing always that some students may respond better to one device and others to another. In general, most problems of language usage can be handled in one of four no technical ways. Where thesituation involves two sets of linguistic facts, such as negatives vs. positives in sentences like "He never gave me none neither (I) we can use the usage-guide method by simply writing on the board (for transfer later into the pupils" notebooks) a brief reference outline stating: After ................................. We say hardly ................................. anybody

never ................................. anyhow


Teaching of English Grammar and Communications

23

no(ne) ................................. anyway not (not) ................................. anywhere nothing ................................. ever scarcely ................................. any Then we may have the students change sentences on the board that have been quoted directly from their own writing or speech, using the usage guide as a kind of dictionary. Since none and neither come after never in the sentence "He never gave me none neither," we replace them with the words any and either, not because the words are called positives or negatives, nor because a textbook tells us to avoid dnnV.e negatives, but because that is the customary way effective writers and speakers use English by common consent, much as football players have agreed on six points for a touchdown rather than four or forty. We do not mislead young people into believing that we talk and write in certain ways because of what words are called in a grammar; for the truth is that "languages have come into being, and great literature has been written in them, long before a grammar or a prosody was ever thought of." If a workbook containing sentences phrased in language that the young people will recognize at once as being typical of their own is conveniently available, we may work out just enough exercises to help them clarify the conception in their minds. If not, we may have to supply additional practice sentences, on the board or in duplicated form; for there is no better way to waste time than to ask students to change sentences which they themselves would never think of writing or saying. Unless the students recognize the language of the practice exercises as their own, the carry-over of the work into their personal, independent use of language is destined to be small because of their failure to see any connection between the two.

Use ofpractice exercises: All work with paraphrased exercises, however, may well be limited to the bare amount needed to develop ability to use the usage guide as a kind of dictionary. In order to fix a particular usage in their own speech habits, we would do well to rely for practice more on the composition of short illustrative sentences or questions by the pupils themselves. For example, we may say, "Now let's see if each of us can write ten good


24

Teaching of English Grammar and Communications

questions of our own to prove that we know when to use never-ever, nowhere-somewhere, and the rest of the words in the outline. Then let's try out the questions on each other." This culminating step can provide oral practice and also furnish an appropriate setting for a group evaluation of the questions later. For variety, the procedure can even be turned into a kind of game simply by setting a time limit. The nor then becomes the person or team that has the most sentences done correctly when time is called. The big point is that no one has ever acquired independent ability in writing or speech merely by doing other people's exercises, or reworking other people's language, for such practice too often reduces the learner to the level of a ventriloquist dummy- and ventriloquist dummies cannot perform except in the immediate presence of a master voice.

Confusion of past participles with past tense forms : The approach used in dealing with the double negative can also be applied, with minor modifications, to the confusion of past participles with past tense forms is sentences like we sung a new song,",and to almost any other situations arising from the confusion of two or more sets of language elements. In the case of sans. Vs. suns, did vs. done, and the like, our usage guide might say, "After fonts of to have and to be, we say sung, done, run, seen, or come; otherwise we say song, did, ran, saw, or came," The list can be expanded to cover all the difficulties noted in the pupils' own writing and speech. If the expressions to have and to be are too vague, the forms themselves-since they are only twelve-can easily be listed in the summary. Pronouns as objects of prepositions. Again, if the textbook in current use contains such a rule as, "Personal pronouns that are governed by a preposition must be in the objective case," we may supply a usage guide saying, After ................................. We say to ................................. me for ................................. him of ................................. her by ................................. them with ................................. us


Teaching of English Grammar and Communications

25

between ................................. whom but (except) For example, It's a secret between him and her. Nobody saw it but her and me. Are you going with me or them? Although more prepositions may be included in the left-hand column, the seven that are already listed will take care of ail common errors. Obviously, only a teacher more interested in covering the grammar than in helping young people would ever introduce the topic unless the students own speech revealed serious difficulties with the use of pronouns following a preposition. If any precocious student should inquire, "When do you have to say 'me' after between?" the answer would come closest to the truth if we simply said, "It is a custom that leaders in language have agreed to make a rule of much as leaders in football have agreed on six points for a touchdown rather than sixteen or sixty." Surely, such an answer as, "because personal pronouns governed by a preposition must be governed by the objective case," would not explain the reason why at all. The alert student could still ask, "Why do personal pronouns governed by a proposition have to be in the objective case?" Fortunately for teachers of formal grammar, most normal people do not indulge in such grammatical grandiloquence.

In as much as usage guides of this kincl are intelligible to anyone with the reading ability of a fourth grader, they can be supplied to parents interested in guiding their children's speech. Needless to say, such cooperation would be difficult for most parents if the materials involved several pages of explanations concerning the use of the "past participle after auxiliary verbs in compound tenses, in the passive voices in elliptical passive constructions, and as participial adjectives." The Meaning Approache to Usage:

Transitive and intransitive verbs: Confusions involving so called transitive and intransitive verbs, like sit and set, or lie and lay, can usually be resolved simply by helping young people gain insight into the real meanings of the individual verb forms. This procedure


Teaching of English Grammar and Communications

26

might be called the synonym method, though the term "meaning approach" is entirely adequate. It has already been illustrated in the discussion of the comma before the word for when it can be taken to mean because. The usage guide in such cases may become a kind of alphabetical dictionary of near synonyms for testing the real meaning in specific cases, with the aid of such no technical explanations as: We say laid when we mean placed, as in "He laid (placed) it on the table." We say lying when we mean telling c, lie or resting, as in liThe book is lying (resting) on the table," For the confusion of sit with set the guide may read as follows 3.

setting ... putting, placing, hatching (eggs), going down. The hens are setting (hatching eggs).

4.

sit... (to) be seated. You may sit (be seated) here.

5.

sit out., . remain (stay) seated during. Let's sit out (remain seated during) this dance.

6.

sitting... seated.

What was he doing sitting (seated) there? The procedure from here on is very much the same as that indicated for the previously mentioned usage guides. The aim is never verbatim memorization of the lists, but absorption of their content directly into the learners' own language habits through reference to them in testing their own writing or speech in doubtful cases, much as intelligent people use dictionaries to reassure themselves concerning the spelling, meaning, or pronunciation of words. Although the labels transitive and intransitive can be added in parenthesis along-side the definitions, their use would contribute nothing to the utility of the guide and might even sidetrack the class-work from active practice in the language itself into that unprofitable form of erudite shovel-leaning and academic leafraking that at one time characterized so much pretentious busy work in the teaching of the language arts. A good teacher is no more concerned with technical labels when her young people still say "Him and me aunt never seen it," or write fragmentary or garbled


Teaching of English Grammar and Communications

27

sentences, than a good physician is concerned with a patients mosquito bites when he is obviously suffering from a severe case of malnutrition. A good teacher knows that all the hens in America, as well as the sun, the moon, and the stars will continue to set, and that millions of young people will continue to sit dances out, without the slightest concern as to whether their behaviour is transitive or intransitive. A secure profession never confuses pretentiousness with scholarship.

Specific versus generalized methodology: But how shall young people be taught to use complex or compound sentences effectively if they are not sure even of a subject or predicate, not to mention such things as relative pronouns, prepositional phrases, or subordinating conjunctions? Here, as elsewhere, the first step is always diagnosis of the specific need that is to be served. This means finding out exactly what it is that we wish to accomplish-not in general, but in a particular case: to develop ability to use commas with nonrestrictive clauses? to avoid sentence fragments? to make straggly, overloaded sentences more effective by learning ways to subordinate minor qualifying elements? We do not aim at everything at voice. We locate a particular target and change our aim as the target moves. Sentence pattern methods: If the specific need, for example, is ability to write more intelligible and effective definitions, we assume that models of different varieties of definitions may be essential as guides. We may then complete sentences, modeled after the definitions, from which essential parts have been left out. This preliminary imitative practice soon enables students to write acceptable definitions of then-own. During a group evaluation of the definitions later, no one says that a sentence is poor because an adjectival or adverbial modifier is misplaced Instead, he calls attention to the fact that the meaning is blurred, confusing, or misleading, or the wording so muddy that we have to wade through the sentence or to reread it several times. Improvement then takes place by comparing the sentence with its closest desirable model., and changing it annul She wording parallels that of the closest example. Dr. Luella Cook has discussed this method in co~vincing detail in the May, 1946, issue of the Elementary English Review. Dr. A. I. Roehm of George Pea-body College fm: Teachers has


28

Teaching of English Grammar and Communications

developed similar sentence-pattern techniques for use in both elementary and secondary schools, and even in college foreign language.

The question test for sentence fragments: What can be done, however, in the case of those young people who cannot even tell the difference between a fragment and a completely stated thought? In such cases, if their insight into language is too limited to enable them to learn from contrasting examples, it is certain that no superimposition of grammatical terminology or formal analytical procedures will do more than induce frustration and resistance to learning. Difficulties of the type involved here may be the result of a variety of different factors, not of anyone general cause. Successful teaching, therefore, depends upon accurate diagnosis of the particular difficulty: Are a student's sentence fragments attributable to the fact that he uses periods where he should use commas? If so, the remedy lies in helping him gain insight into the difference between the use of the period as a kind of stop sign at language intersections, and of the comma as a kind of caution signal. Reading his paper aloud exactly as it is punctuated often suffices to indicate both the difficulty and the simplest way to remedy it. Or are a student's sentence fragments attributable to undeveloped ability to visualize an audience? Does he fail to put down on paper all that he really has in mind, perhaps because he wrongly assignees that, everything being perfectly clear to him, others will readily understand? When this is the case, no mere definition of a sentence as a complete thought" will obviously be of much help. Whatever he writes is a complete thought in his own mind; otherwise, he would not write it as such. The need, then, is for experience in writing for audiences and witnessing their reactions. Without ability to visualize a reader or listener to whom we are trying to make things clear, speaking and writing are seldom effective but often deadening for lack of incentive or motivation. Only by learning to imagine ourselves in the presence of a real audience can we learn to write and speak well. In fact, without a reader or listener, speech has very little excuse for being. Even in personal diaries there is an audience-the author himself a week, month, year, or forty years later. Occasionally, when ability to imagine a reader is almost pathologically retarded, a simple self-test for sentence fragments 11


Teaching of English Grammar and Communications

29

may be helpful when other devices fail. This test assumes that a completely stated sentence can be regarded as the answer to an imaginary question and contains the wording of the question inside it. The test, then, is to see whether or not we can form a question out of what has been written by changing always the position of the first word so that it will not come at the beginning or end of the statement. For example: Today is Tuesday. Is today Tuesday? He was here when I arrived. Was he here when I arrived? When a thought is completely stated, as in the examples just given, the question formed by changing always the position of the first word will sound perfectly acceptable. In the case of fragments like "When I was young," however, a question will either he impossible to form by changing only the position of the first word, or sound awkward or forced, as in such strained efforts to beat the test as "I was young; when?" Note that beyond changing always the position of the first word, the question test permits of no other changes except the use of the more emphatic do (n't), does (n't) or did(n't) forms of the action word. For example, to the fragment, "When I was young," we might add "I played (did play) baseball." The question test would then easily give us either "Was I young when I played baseball?" or "Did I play baseball when I was young?" Either question would show that we have finally achieved a completely stated thought in "When I was young, I played (did play) baseball." In a few very exceptional cases involving colloquial or idiomatic usage, the test may require matching the question and answer to see if they make sense together. For example:

Fragment: On going home. Question: Going on home Test: Going on home? On going home (!). Since the reply, "on going home," does not answer the question in any relevant way, it is a fragment, and something must be added to it in order to convert it into a completely stated sentence. This refinement of the test should not be introduced unless a very specific need for it arises from fragments written by the pupils themselves in their own compositions.


30

Teaching of English Grammar and Communications

The question test for clauses. The concept of the question test is of considerable value in enabling young people to distinguish between clauses and phrases, especially in relation to punctuation. The following paragraph illustrates its application to the punctuation desired (but rarely achieved) from the study of such rules as "a dependent or subordinate clause which introduces a sentence is set off from the independent clause by a comma." A group of words that makes a sentence by the question test is usually set off from the rest of the sentence by a comma (,) if the group of words comes right after if, when, while, although, since, because .... For example, in the following model, the group of words in parentheses ( ) is a sentence by the question test. Since this group of words comes right after the word if, a comma (,) is placed at the end of the group, like this: Had the time, I would go to Europe this year. Other key words that commonly introduce"dependent clauses" followed by commas when they begin a sentence can be included in the list as desired. Only one caution need be emphasized in this connection: Schools and textbooks tend to stress over punctuation. If a school-written composition of 250 to 350 words were published in a magazine or book, correctly punctuated according to all the textbook rules, tie printed page would look as if it had the measles. Although editors and publishers are by no means agreed on the details of punctuation, the tendency is to use punctuation marks only where required to assist the reader in grasping the mean-ins readily. As in other cases involving instruction in usage. This handbook is designed to be used in speech-making classes carrying such titles as "Fundamentals of Speech," "Principles of Speech," "Business and Professional Speaking," "Principles of Speech Communication," "Public Speaking," or any other introductory course in speech making. It may be that those who take this course will never have an opportunity to take another speech course. They may never have a second chance to learn of the breadth of the field of speech. These next few pages are addressed to those students. While the class spends several of the first meetings on the inventory assignments, they may read about field itself.


Teaching of English Grammar and Communications

31

What is the field of speech communication? A list of the areas of study might be grouped as follows: Theory Regarding Communication Language Development Semantics Voice Science Phonetics Rhetorical Criticism The process of Speech Communication Speech in a Cultural Context Application of Theory Speech making Interpersonal Communication Argumentation and Debate Oral Interpretation and Readers' Theatre The Theatre Arts Speech Communication on Radio and Television Listening What to Do When communication Breaks Down Speech Pathology Audiology The two areas developed in this book are speech making and oral interpretation (reading aloud). There are sets of assignments in each area. A third area receiving some attention is interpersonal communication. There are assignments in discussion and the interview, but the attention paid to these activities is quite limited. This introduction to interpersonal relations in speech may prompt some students to go to much more intensive study of the activity in another course. To help the student of speech communication understand the field better, we shall now consider four topics: the process of communication, interpersonal relations, speech in a cultural context, and listening. They will help the student know how speech is a process, how it is auditororiented, and how it is a matter of interaction.


32

Teaching of English Grammar and Communications

The Process of Communication Until about twenty years ago, the textbooks in the field of speech concentrated on the speaker's activities in preparing and presenting a speech, The fundamentals often considered included: Thought

Language

Voice Action

When they discussed "thought," the writers spoke of "purpose" in speech: to inform, to persuade, or to entertain. They asked the speaker to consider his audience in selecting materials to fulfil his purpose. Specialists began to work on the speech act. While their colleagues studied the history of rhetoric in the light of the classical canons : Inventio

Disposition

(Ideas and (Arrangement) materials)

Elocutio

Memoria

Pronuntiatio

(Style)

(Memory)

(Delivery)

The Scientists were saying that the act of transferring an idea from the mind of a speaker to the mind of a listener took place in five phases: Psychological

Physiological

Physical

Physiological Psychological

(Mind of speaker)

(Vocal mechanism)

(Air waves)

(hearing mechanism)

(Mind of auditor)

Each phase of the act came under scrutiny. The more they speculated, examined, tested, and pondered, the more important the auditor became in the formula. They selected a name for the behaviour which included his -communication. They labelled the area for study the "process of communication." Models were conceived, arranged, and described to depict the act. A simple early model offered: Speaker

Message

Listener

The speaker and the message are part of the same person. To reach the hearer, it was necessary to include: Speaker

Message

Medium

Listener

Now the scientists concentrated on the process from its be~g to its end, and they realized that it has no end. It is a


33

'Teaching of English Grammar and Communications

continuous, on-going thing. If you said it began with the speaker, you had to say it ended with him, because he received responses from his listeners, which in tum influenced the next thing he would say, and so on around and around. Thus the element of "feedback" came into focus: Speaker -

I

Message -

•

Medium -

Feedback.

Listener

I

New terms were needed to identify what was being done. The first edition of this book, listed the four fundamental processes as: Adjustment to the Speaking Situation Symbolic Formulation and Expression Phonation Articulation The word "encode" was selected around that time to identify the behaviour of using symbols, as a companion word for" decode," which described the behaviour of receiving sound symbols. Many disciplines made their contribution to the study: psychology, linguistics, semantics, physics, pathology, and other. Various models began to appear. They included such features as: Source

Message

Channel

Receiver

At each point along the way, we were told, there can be a breakdown in the process. The start can be blocked if the source of the communication is unfamiliar with the culture in which the encounter with his receivers takes place, if he does not understand the social system, if his knowledge of what he wants to say is limited, if he does not know the symbols used by his hearers, or if he does not have the skills of communication necessary to send out his message on the air waves (for example if his speech mechanism will not function properly-if the quality, pitch, volume or frequency of his utterance is grotesque or if he is unable to articulate, enunciate, or pronounce understandably). What is more, if his attitude bilies the meaning he intends of hopes to convey, a speaker's communication may be blocked at the start of the process.


34

Teaching of English Grammar and Communications

His message may be garble if that is the world. The symbolic code may be foreign the structure and syntax of has language usage distracting, the content may be inadequate for his purpose, or the elements of his discourse may be incomprehensible. In the channel there may be too much "noise," as the scientists called it. Too many distractions through seeing, hearing, touching, smelling, and tasting other things can keep the message outside the ken of the receiver. It may be that the speaker-how he looks or how he sounds-is his own worst distracter. Or it may be that the distance between speaker and receiver is too great. Or there may be interfering sounds. On the other hand, the problem may lie with the listener. What if he comes from another culture or another social system, has no knowledge related to the message, or has attitudes which prevent him from decoding the message in an approximation of the one sent by the source? All of these topics come under scrutiny in the study of the process of communication. Speech in a Cultural Context A man speaks to the people of his times on the problems of his times.

In this text we are much concerned with the audience. We analyse him, plan for his response, speak to him, and react to him. Such an attitude toward the listener has its roots in the history of man's commUnication. Speech instruction has paralleled the society in which man has lived; it has reflected his opportunity to speak to his fellow citizens. We shall see how well, as we take a brief look at the history of speech making, the role of the citizen in his society has influenced his need to speak, his right to speak, and his instruction in speaking. Serious consideration was first given to a person's speaking ability 500 years before Chtist. Long before that the Egyptian PtahHotep had produced a book that gave speech-making instructions of a sort and the Greek writer Homer had written some speeches and had attributed them to his heroes. But by 500 B.C., people in


Teaching of English Grammar and Communications

35

Sicily really needed to speak. There was a problem of land ownership and a man had to go before the courts to prove his proprietary rights. The times called for it, and Corax produced a book for the times-a book on persuasion, explaining the parts of rhetorical argument. About the same time, or not long afterward, a number of Greeks taught men to speak up in their democratic society. Protagoras, Gorgias, and lsocrates, to name three of the most eminent, taught their pupils how to debate both sides of a question, how to develop a praiseworthy style in speaking, and how to make their speech elevated, noble, and educated. The times called for this type of speech and these teachers of rhetoric provided the instruction. There was an opportunity for chicanery in teaching and practice, and there were teachers who taught the people rhetorical tricks. Plato denounced these Sophists, as they were called, and the opprobrium of his attack has stuck to this day. We use the word "sophist" now to characterize someone whose reasoning is captious, deceptive, or fallacious. Aristotle followed with his Rhetoric, in which he systematically dealt with the speaker, with the audience, and with the speech. He identified the types of "proof" as ethos, pathos, and logos (character of the speaker, emotions of the listener, and result of logical treatment). The democratic society of Athens flourished for hundred of years and so did Aristotle's principles. Then Rome came to be the center of the ordinary man became less influential, the major orators still had their day. Day of them, the great wrote down his thoughts of rhetoric in several important books. He demanded that the speakers be a man of wide knowledge and express his thoughts in an elegant style. Quintilian, a transplanted Spaniard, taught in Rome at a time when there was little democratic participation in public affairs, yet he left us a great book, systematic and inclusive, offering a concept that we have come to revere: "A speaker is a good man speaking." Then is a good Roman Empire-a time of pompous display and democratic decay, which lasted for hundreds of years. The teaching of rhetoric came to serve merely the presentation of oratorical exlubitions. The Church was interested in training men for the clergy


36

Teaching of English Grammar and Communications

and the clergy distrusted the oratory of the day. Saint Augustine, however, presented a treatise in which he emphasized the Aristotelian principle that rhetoric proposes to make the truth effective. As the secular schools developed during the Renaissance, they offered a curriculum which included rhetoric, but the instruction centered on the use of language. By the eighteenth century the pendulum of man's participation in the affairs of his times had again swung toward democracy. In England men were once again allowed to speak out. The schools took up the challenge and taught speech making. Three great writers offered tests: Campbell Blair, and Whately. But, at almost the same, point in history, just as these men were encouraging sound argument, direct communication influential, and imposing: the Elocutionists. Their emphasis was on delivery. Austin and Lovell, among them, went to extremes on teaching an artificial precision in voice and gesture. By now, somewhat past the middle of the twentieth century, we' have moved away form their influences, and we use the word "elocutionist" with a critical disdain. The point we make here is that man is the product of his times. Man preserves his time or alters his times, but always speaks in his time. Great problems bring forth great speakers. Great speakers lead people in decision making. The people elect to office those who speak effectively. They choose for leaders of their service clubs those who speak well. They call on their fellows who are effective speakers to speak on hundreds of various programs. There is man's speaking a cultural context, an environmental image, and a historical rhetoric. Man truly speaks in his times. Interpersonal Speech Communication The Speaker, the message, the audience: these have long held a prominent place in our course work in speech. Our plans have been geared to helping the individual become a better communicator- to stand on a platform facing an audience, to present an uninterrupted speech, planned in its entirety and designed to meet the needs of the audience, and to anticipate the reactions and satisfaction of the audience.


Teaching of English Grammar and Communications

37

But man's speech communication is not always like that. More

often he is likely to be in a situation in which his speech is interrupted, in which the conclusion of the presentation is different from what he had planned, and in which the responses of his audience are frequent, immediate, and equal to his own in continuing the presentation. We are referring to the interpersonal speech communication situation, whether one to one or one among several. It is not the purpose of this book to provide for many class assignments in the one-to-one speech situation, or the one-amongmany situation. Such activities as the job interview, the office call, the personal conference, and the group meeting for dfficussion of policy, plans, or problem solution are important-so important that our speech departments devote entire courses to them-but not for our course. We are interested in the individual speaking to groups.

At the same time, to give some insight into the type of communication and the participation he may have, it is well to consider the interpersonal aspects as a type, a class, a form of speech communication. The preparation for interpersonal communication is similar to that for individual performance. The topic is selected, the purpose is identified, the central idea is formulated, material is gathered, and the presentation is planned. Comparable to the selection of a topic might be the decision as to the type of meeting-for example, a conversation between two members of a firm, a staff conference to consider a new directive, or a meeting of supervisors to identify a problem and seek solutions. The central thought of a speech can be a definite statement. A group meeting, on the other hand, usually begins with a question. Just as there is pattern in the ordering of the main ideas of a speech, so there is a pattern in a discussion: identify the problem, describe its characteristics, point out its causes, set some goals, offer several possible solutions, evaluate the suggestions, and try to arrive at a mutually agreeable course of action. But when we come to the matter of presentation, we note the differences. Whereas a speaker can chart his course from beginning to end, with a group anything can happen.


38

Teaching of English Grammar and Communications

Interpersonal relationships lead to multiple barriers to communication. How frequently we misunderstand. How often we disagree. How many times we have different information, much of it faulty. The part of the group leader can be described in terms of his duties: he introduces topics, he summarizes progress, and he directs the course of the discussion. The participant in a discussion group has his own role to play. He should do his homework, offer his information at the appropriate moments, listen to the others, and cooperate in careful appraisal of the suggestions. The trouble is that the role he plays is more than just being another one in a group. He is an individual with a unique personality and he frequently represents a particular point of view. That is his role. He has status. The relationships among the members of the group are interpersonal ones. If the atmosphere is friendly, open, mutually trusting, and sincere in a search for a satisfactory conclusion, then much can be accomplished. If it is not such a productive climate, the leader will need infinite skill to keep the discussion on course, to encourage reluctant members to cooperate, to suppress the obstreperous members, and to arrive at mutual agreement without breaking up in confusion. While you are in this course, you might try a job interview or two. Those in the same field of work might attempt a discussion aimed at solving a troublesome problem in the field. Do these things as an introduction to the activity of interpersonal communication. Perhaps you will understand its importance and want to learn much more. Listening Listening directs our living. Perhaps because it has seemed so obvious, we have not spent much time on it in school. The very study of speech has been considered in the same way: "Everybody speaks. Why should we study something in school that we have been doing all our lives?" "Everybody listens. If you couldn't listen you wouldn't know where to go. Why should we study listening in school?" During the last twenty-five years, however, enough emphasis has been placed on listening to put it in our textbooks and in our


Teaching of English Grammar and Communications

39

courses of study. Researchers have asked so many questions about it: What is it? Is it important? Are there factors that influence it? Is it anything like reading? Can it be taught? Can it be measured? Listening has been identified as important in man's life. His use of language is dependent on it. As a baby he listens to and imitates what he hears. Thus is begun his comprehension of his human ability to formulate hears. Thus is begun his comprehension of his human ability to formulate and express oral symbols. In school the child listens for instructions and thereby learns to perform. A person listens for entertainment. He listens for work assignments. He listens to doctors, to clergymen, to lawyers, and adjusts his living ways.

When conflicts develop and society resorts to discussion to settle its problem, he listens to grievances, offers solutions, listens to advocates, and decides on courses of action. Listening accounts for a good deal of man's time. More than two thirds of his waking hours are spent in some forms of communication and just a little less than half of that time is spent listening. We know a number of things about listening, now that we have given it our att~ntion in recent years. We know that hearing and listening are not he same thing at all. It is easier to provide an example today than it was fifty or sixty years ago. Nowadays it is common for a person to have a radio or television going while he is doing something else. Fifty years ago a school boy or girl could not have had a record player or radio going as he studied. Today he can. It becomes "background music" : he hears it, but he doesn't listen to it. Take another example: some offices and places of business have special types of background music played softly throughout the day. The workers hear it, but they don't listen to it. What is it about listening that makes it important? First there is the desire of the one who hears. He must want to get the message. He can either tum it on or tum it off. He must want to tum it on. This we can teach our students. Listening calls for some effort on your part. You must want to get the message. In the speaking situation the speaker cannot do it all. You must help him by wanting to listen to him.


40

Teaching of English Grammar and Communications

Next, what can the listener do to help get the message better-to help decode what the speaker says into understandings that approximate the thought the speaker had in mind as he was encoding? We tell him to listen for ideas, rather than facts. Facts slip out of memory much faster than ideas. Listen for ideas. Do not let your note taking develop into the listing of a lot of facts. They prevent your restructuring the ideas. Do not jump too quickly to a conclusion. Let the speaker develop his idea himself. Probably you can think a lot faster then a lecturer can speak, but hold with him. Don't daydream or go off on a tangent. Keep listening. Distraction may attract your attention. Learn to stay with the speaker. Let the noises become background, just as you have learned to let your radio play in the background without disrupting other activitiesperhaps reading this book, for example. On the day a listener says, "I don't believe it," he has taken the next step in the listening process. He has begun to evaluate what he hears. He has not just restructured and accepted. He has weighed the information and found that he cannot accept it at face value When asked why he does not believe it , he may answer, "I don't know why, but I don't believe it. I know the speaker is a man of great reputation. I know his personality is most attractive. He looks wonderful on the platform. But as I think about what he said, I must put aside who he is and what he is and conclude that he is outside his area of expertise. I just ~an't believe him. I need more evidence." On the other hand, this cautious listener, who is skeptical of believing just because the speaker seems to be one who should be accepted because of who he is, might also look at himself, the listener, and say to himself, "Do I have some preconceived ideas about this subject that are influencing what I am hearing?" it is hard to disprove the old saying that "we hear what we want to hear." Our backgrounds and attitudes predispose us in certain ways. Good listening demands of us the difficult task of setting aside our attitudes as we evaluate what the speaker said. One way to get at what the speaker really said is to examine his words. We know that a specific word conjures up different pictures ht the minds of the different members of an audience. "State Park" may call up pictures of trout-laden streams to the angler. Or of roads with no billboards to the beauty lover, or of miserable toilet facilities


Teaching of English Grammar and Communications

41

to the fastidious, of crowds of yelling kids on holidays to others, or of rained-out picnics to still others. Listen to a speaker and try to determine his mental picture through the words he uses. While you are about it, listening to his words, check his "propaganda." Does he resort to some of the techniques identified by the analysts as the "bandwagon" technique ("Try it-everyone else does."), the "hasty generalization" ("look what happened here and here and here. Why, it's all over!"), the "glittering generality" ("Isn't it good, isn't it splendid! It's the American Way")? There are many more: "name-calling," "plain folks," and "transfer," for example. Finally, as a listener, you react. First you hear and restructure. Then you evaluate. And then you react. Since we are interested in the whole process of communication we call your attention to the circular form of the model-the speaker gets feedback from the listener, which influences the rest of his speech. So, how do you want to react? It will influence the speaker in some way. In our class we want the speaker to know that we are for him, that we want to help him to improve and become a better speaker, that we want the morale of the class to be high. Students learn as they go through school how to smile and nod in approval at what a lecturer says-without really being "present" at all. Try to avoid that with your classmates. Don't, on the other hand~ take the question-and-answer period as an opportunity to jump 路on everything your classmate has said in his speech. Try not to go to sleep on your classmates. Don't read the college paper during speeches. Try not to frown or groan or fidget in annoyance. Try your best to seem to be in communication. Look at the speaker's eyes so that he look into yours when he has an chance. Sit in what might be called a receptive position. Can you give the impression that, if given the chance, you would be pleased to discuss the matter more fully, but if time does not allow, you can wait for another opportunity? It is difficult to listen. But if you would have the speaker feel that his effort was worthwhile, you can do so by showing that you are listening, really listening.


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Teaching of English Grammar and Communications

These are thoughts to help acquaint you with the field of speech Communication. We have considered the process of communication, speech in a cultural context, interpersonal speech communication, and listening. Your instructor may wish to lecture further on these concepts, or on others of his choosing. The class may decide to do oral reports oral reports term papers on these topics or other. It is yours to decide. This handbook is designed primarily as a manual to assist you in preparing and presenting your speeches and oral readings. The Basic Behaviour of Speech What Happens When We Speak? The Speech Act : The term speech refers to the behaviour or act of speaking. When normal, the act of speech is a total bodily response to a speaking situation of some kind. It is a single, coordinated muscular response to nerve impulses coming from the speaker'S. These nerve impulses occur as a result of thoughts and feelings which the speaker wishes to express in that speaking situation. His thoughts are expressed in words arranged in thought units and sentences. Each word is composed of selected speech sounds. Each speech sound evolves from the speaker's tone of voice at the moment. Listeners hear and react to the tone of this voice according to its pitch, intensity, duration, and quality. Appropriate variations in the pitch, intensity, duration, and quality of his natural tone of voice lend interpretation to his thoughts. Thereby, the listener becomes more fully aware of their logical and emotional meaning. As the speaker formulates and utters his thoughts, natural bodily tension, movements, and poses occur. As a result, the meaning and signification of his thought and feeling is more fully appreciated by the listener. The Speech Mechanism: In speaking, the entire bodily mechanism is used. Certain parts of the mechanism, however, are especially important. They are: the breathing mechanism; the larynx containing the vocal folds; the. cavities of the throat, mouth, and nose; the hard and soft palates; the tongue, the teeth, the lips, and the muscles of the face.


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43

In a normal mechanism the teeth are properly occluded and free from spaces between them. The tongue is normal in size for the mouth cavity, neither too large nor too small, and comparatively free in its movements. The hard and soft palates are normally developed. The latter is active in narrowing and closing the opening between the nasal cavity and the throat. The lips are properly formed so that they can close firmly to stop the breath and release it quickly and explosively, as necessary. The facial muscles are normally developed and free from paralysis or inactivity. The Function of the Speech Mechanism and Other Bodily Parts: To understand the functioning of the speech mechanism, it is especially important to note that, in addition to playing a vital part in the speech process, these parts of the mechanism have other, more important bodily functions to perform. They exist primarily to perform these other bodily functions should be recognized. Speech has sometimes been called an "overlaid" or "usurped" function. The main functions of the breathing mechanism is get air into and out of the lungs to sustain life. The chief functions of the larynx (the voice box) are to regulate the supply of air entering the lungs and to prevent bits of food or other foreign particles from entering the trachea or windpipe. The tongue, teeth, lips, palates, and facial muscles function primarily in the taking in, chewing, and swallowing of food. The mouth, nasal, and throat cavities are passages through which air enters and leaves the body. Food also passes to the stomach through the mouth and throat cavities. Many normal and abnormal but primary activities of these parts of the mechanism interfere with the speech act. These include: inhalation, chewing, swallowing, sneezing, coughing, hiccoughing, sobbing, laughing, sighing, and yawning. If you are speaking, for example, and suddenly need to sneeze, you will sneeze, you will sneeze rather than speak. The primary function of sneezing takes over the mechanism at that moment. Since the parts of the speech mechanism have these other primary bodily functions to perform, speech is a secondary bodily function. The speech mechanism thus is subject to instability and must be kept under constant control by the speaker.


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Nerves and Muscles Must Function as a Unit: The neuromuscular (nerve and muscle) organization of the speech mechanism is very complicated. Many nerves share in carrying impulses to the muscle groups that are called in to play when you speak. Not one muscle, but many cooperate in the speech act. The muscles are arranged in pairs, right and left, each being an exact copy of the other but reversed in position and action. These pairs of muscles receive their impulses to act from several nerve fibres-the right from the left hemisphere of the brain, the left from the right hemisphere of the brain. Hence, for the speech act to be normal and at its best, nerve impulses and muscle actions must synchronize. They must operate together continuously. They must be integrated in their action. All muscles and nerves which participate in the speech act must function as a unit in perfect time order and balance. When this is not the case, speech inadequacies result. What happens When You Speak: As a result of conditions at the moment, you have thoughts and feelings to which you desire your listener or listeners to react. As you speak, these thoughts and feelings become meaningful to the listener through you words, tones, inflection, movements, gestures, and facial expressions. As you continue to express your thoughts and feelings, the following occur almost simultaneously: 1.

Breath in varying degrees of pressure is sent up through you larynx.

2.

You vocal folds in the larynx adjust and readjust appropriately, modifying the outgoing break into a series of breath waves.

3.

Your throat, mouth, and nasal cavities and their openings assume (a) coordinately, (b) momentarily, and (c) successively appropriate sizes and shapes to receive these breath waves and to amplify to build them up into the required vocal tones.

4.

Next, these breafh waves are further modified by your tongue,~~~eth, facial muscles, and lips to form the necessary speech sounds.


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5.

The breath waves, as now modified, are sent forth from your mouth and nose as sound waves and are transmitted through the air. (you have seen the ripples that occur when you drop a pebble into still water. The sound waves coming from your mouth and nose spread through the air in somewhat the same way.)

6.

While you voice mechanism is sending forth sound waves to the ears of your audience, bodily movements, gestures, and facial expressions are causing variations in the light waves that reach the eyes of your audience.

7.

As the sound waves strike the eardrums of your listener, they are changed, through the mechanism of his ear, into a specific pattern of nerve energy. As this pattern of nerve energy reaches this brain it becomes meaningful to him, subject, of course, to the limitations of the sound waves as received by him and his capacity to interpret their meaning.

8.

The light waves received by the eyes of the listener are also changed to a specific pattern of nerve energy, which records an additional impression in his brain. The meaning of this impression is interpreted in relation to what he is hearingyou say at,the moment.

9.

As a result of receiving these sound and light waves, the listener may exhibit behaviour or specific reactions which you may observe and to which you may react as you speak.

Four Fundamental Behaviour-For purposes of study-training and retraining-the speech act is divided into four fundamental behaviour. These are: Adjustment to the speaking situation Formulation of thought Phonation Articulation These behaviour are the foundation of all forms of speaking activity-from conversation to formal oratory. They are treated in detail in the following pages.


46

Teaching of English Grammar and Communications Adjustment to the Speaking Situation

Adequacy in formulation of thought, and articulation is dependent upon the degree to which the speaker is mentally and emotionally adjusted to the speaking situation. If you are well adjusted to the speaking situation you will possess a stable, well-integrated bodily mechanism, and will exhibit poise, balance, ease, naturalness, and purposiveness. You will be free from inhibitions, bodily tensions, and mannerisms. You will speak coherently, fluently, and emphatically. If you are not well adjusted to the speaking situation, you may possess an unstable, poorly integrated bodily mechanism; lack poise; be unbalanced, ill at ease, unnatural, tense, or inhibited. Your behaviour may be purposeless. Uncontrolled bodily mannerisms may become apparent. You may be nervous, excited, frightened, or uncertain, and thus be unable to speak coherently, fluently, and emphatically. If you are not well adjusted to the speaking situation when you face it, if your bodily mechanism is unstable, the other fundamental processes will be affected. You will not, therefore, be able to speak well. The following suggestions may aid you in becoming well adjusted to the speaking situation.

Understand What Good Speaking is : Remember that the function of the speaker is communication, not display; that the audience wishes to hear and understand the speaker's ideas rather than to watch him speak and be impressed by his technique and extraordinary skill. The latter are always less important than communication. Good speaking is neither mechanical nor artificial; it possesses a quality of naturalness. Avoid the attitude that there is nothing interesting or worthwhile for you to talk about. You need not always speak on serious or profound subjects; you need not always present them in serious and profound way. Choose subjects about which you already know a great deal. Your words need not be long or unusual, your gestures need not be elaborate or rehearsed. It is not necessary to use a certain type of posture of special hand and arm gestures or to move about the platform methodically. You are not required to have a richly melodious voice that sings its words in perfect ton and cadence.


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Nor is it necessary for your pronunciation to be as fine as that of professional actors. You need not speak so fluently that there are no hesitations, repetitions, or uncertainties. Use that style of speaking which best accomplishes your purpose in the speCific situation. There is no style of speaking suited to all occasions. Understand the Nature of the "Speech Act" : As we said before, the speech mechanism is an unstable mechanism. You learn that, be cause of its very nature, it is subject to inconstancies. You also learned that the speech organs have more fundamental function than speaking and that these more fundamental functions take precedence over the "speech act" in sneezing coughing, or breathing, for example. Furthermore, the speech act is influenced by bodily and emotional states or disturbances. The functioning of the speech mechanism is affected by fear, excitement, anger, joy, sadness, surprise, fatigue, and so forth. Manifestations of emotional or bodily disturbances during the speech act include: breathing irregularities; stiff, unnatural posture and movements; uncontrolled muscle trembling, such as knees knocking or hand shaking; interruption caused by swallowing, laughing, sighing, yawning, or forgetting; frequent and prolonged hesitations; sudden and uncontrolled changes in pitch, loudness, rate of speech, and quality of tone; inaccuracy or indistinctness of the speech sounds. You must and can learn through experience to keep control over your reactions to these various mental, emotional, and bodily states, Realize, however, that a perfect functioning of the mechanism during the speech act is not only rate but improbable. Even the best and most highly trained speakers experience some of the difficulties that you do. Be Realistic About Yourself as a Speaker: You may make an improved adjustment to the speaking situation by adopting a realistic point of view toward yourself as speaker. Know yourself. Find out the facts about yourself as a speaker. Appraise your talents. Do not think you are better than you are, but do not minimize your abilities. After your instructor has made a diagnosis of your speech needs and abilities in terms of the


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Teaching of English Grammar and Communications

fundamental processes and the basic essentials of effective speaking, study the diagnosis. Become familiar with your weaknesses of inadequacies as well as with your strong points. Then face the facts about yourself as a speaker. Accept the description of your speech needs and abilities as evidence of your present level of ability and use it as a starting point for your training. Avoid worrying about speaking situations that you have not been called upon to face and forget past speaking experiences in which you have not been successful. Do not spend time daydreaming, wishing you were a better speaker than you really are, or pretending that you have acquired skills which in reality you have not. Instead, admit your inadequacies, but learn to emphasize your strong points and minimize your weaknesses. Succeed in spite of your handicaps. Accept criticism in a sincere, matter of fact way instead of feeling that you have been personally belittled. Remember that a recognition of your own needs is the first step toward improvement. Adopt the following point of view: "1 may not be an excellent speaker. In the begiruling. I may be a poor speaker with inadequacies, but I shall constantly strive to communicate my thoughts and feelings to my audience as naturally and directly as I possibly can, despite my limitations. With experience, I know that I shall improve." Let Individuality as a Speaker be Your Goal: Strive to develop yourself as a speaker in terms of goals that are not only possible but probable for you to attain. Individuality as a speaker should be your first goal. Your heredity and environment have made you an individual. Be yourself! Do not try to copy exactly that style someone else uses: his style is his individuality expressing itself. Let your individuality express itself! There is no style of speaking that is suited to all persons; but, in developing your own style of speaking, do not ignore the principles of effective speaking about which you will learn in many assignments. Modify your own personal speaking style in accordance with them. Make a Speech at Every Opportunity : Seek opportunities to speak before audiences as often as possible. The best way to improve your adjustment to the speaking situation is through experience in speaking situation-all kinds of


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them. You may find at first that is not easy, but you will also find that with each successive experience it is easier and soon you will begin to enjoy it. Speak about topics with which you are thoroughly acquainted, that arise out of your own background and experience. Sometimes you will be able to plan what you are going to say over a considerable period of time. At other times you will speak with little preparation. Whatever the circumstances, when the opportunity comes, speak, make your contribution. Concentrate on your ideas and what they mean, not on how you say them. You will find that it will be easiest, in the beginning, to recount experiences that you have had-easier for you because they are part of you and because that audience will be immediately interested. And make these talks short! Do not expect to become well if your progress is slow and gradual. Set a series of goals for yourself that you reasonably attain, so that you need not be dissatisfied or unhappy with your progress. Believe that Stage Fright is a Natural, Normal Reaction: Difficulty in adjusting to the speaking situation is most frequently caused by stage fright but stage fright is the natural, normal attitude and reaction of the inexperienced speaker. If you are not an experienced speaker, you may feel nervous and uncertain about yourself and how well you will do. But you must recognize that experienced speakers have, through their experience, become poised and confident that they can adjust to nearly any circumstance that may arise in speaking situations. You too can attain this poise and confidence through experience in speaking. It takes longer for some speakers to acquire it than for others, but you must speak often and in many kinds of speaking situations. Some of the following suggestions may help you: 1.

Speak on topics about which you are well informed or on experiences that you yourself have had.

2.

When you know that you have to make a speech, prepare well. Think about the topic, make notes, say it over to yourself. Have the notes with you and use them if necessary. If the speech conditions permit, introduce some object in the speech and talk about it and demonstrate it. Or plan to use a blackboard diagram, which you draw while talking about it.

3.


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4.

Think about what you are going to say. Before you are called upon, say the first sentence to yourself. Repeat it to yourself as you go to the platform. As you take your position on the platform, say it to yourself again. Then take a deep breath, say, possibly, "Ladies and Gentlemen," say the prepared sentence aloud, and your speech has begun.

5.

If you are excited and seem to tremble before being called upon, relax and breathe deeply to counteract the bodily tension.

6.

If you feel weak when you get to the platform, lean against something. If your hands or knees tremble, touch them against the desk or lectern to stop the trembling, which, when stopped, usually does not begin again.

7.

Move about the platform. Be active. Make yourself use gestures of any kind. An active body will help destroy the evidence of your fears and actually cause you to be more at ease. Formulation of Thought

Formulation of thought refers to the act of creating, arranging, and expressing thought while speaking. As a speaker converses he creates ideas, chooses and arranges words in thought units and sentences for their conveyance, and utters them, all as part of one act. The speaker who is superior in formulation of thought states his thoughts coherently in a form that is adequate and essentially correct. He knows exactly what he is going to say and says it with economy of words and good taste. His thought is continuous, uninterrupted, hesitations, and uncertainties resulting from not knowing what to say or what words to choose in expressing the thought. It must be coherent, that is, details must be combined into a related whole. It must be clearly and specifically stated and free form abstraction and ambiguity. It must be correctly stated and free from error in grammatical structure. And finally, for thought to be purposive in its formulation, the speaker should speak acceptably, that is, his pronunciation of the words in sequence must be adequate. In the formal speaking situation the speaker must exercise greater skill in the principles mentioned above than in the informal


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speaking situation. He must show that he has a knowledge of and experience in public speaking. Surely he must be sufficiently well adjusted to the speaking situation to allow for normal functioning of the bodily mechanism, thus facilitating the formulation and expression of his thought. Phonation Characteristics: Phonation refers to the production and variation by the speaker of vocal tones-their pitch, intensity, duration, and quality. Pitch refers to highness or lowness of tone. Intensity is loudness. Duration is the length of time a sound lasts. Quality refers to the individuality of tone. A speaker is superior in phonation when his voice has a basic quality that is clear, full, rich, resonant, mellow, pleasing, and beautiful. It is more often medium or low in pitch. It is legato rather than staccato. It has a reserve of intensity. It is flexible, recording easily and without apparent effort the broadest and most subtle changes in thought and mood. Voice Inadequacies: In evaluating the speaker's phonation, the skilled observer looks for the following inadequacies.

Organic Inadequacies: Included may be : 1.

2. 3.

Malformation of the nose, mouth, or throat cavities and the larynx. Obstructions in the cavities, such as adenoids. Chronic inflammations in these cavities and the larynx.

Pitch: Among possible inadequacies are: 1.

2. 3.

Abnormally high or low pitch. Lack of variation in pitch-vocal monotony. Pitch patterns-rising or falling inflections regardless of meaning; identical inflections from phrase to phrase regardless of meaning.

Intensity: Inadequacies may include: 1.

Abnormally loud or weak intensity.


52

Teaching of English Grammar and Communications 2. 3.

Lack of variation in intensity; lack of emphasis. Intensity patterns-the same variation in intensity regardless of meaning, for example, starting each sentence with more intensity than is used at its ending.

Duration: Among the possible inadequacies are: 1. 2.

Tones held for too short a time, resulting in a staccato effect. Tones held for too long a time, resulting in an unpleasant drawl.

3.

Lack of variability of rate of speech with all tones given about the same duration, resulting in vocal monotony and lack of emphasis.

Quality: Type of inadequacies (which were more fully discussed in Section 2) are as follows: 1. Muffled-too much resonance from the throat cavity. 2. Metallic-too much resonance from the mouth cavity. 3. Nasal-too much resonance from the nasal cavities. 4. Denasal-little or on resonance from the nasal passages. 5. Harsh-raucous, unpleasant. 6.

Hoarse-husky-tense muscles in the mechanism, especially the throat, and possible unhealthy conditions in the cavities.

7.

Breathy-the speaker's breath is heard above his vocal tones.

8.

Infantile-has the characteristics of a young child's voice.

Flexibility: Lack of vocal flexibility is evidenced in monotony of pitch, intensity, duration, and quality in the speaker's expression of his meanings. The speaker seems to lack the ability to control these vocal attributes as he speaks. His vocal mechanism is not necessarily in flexible. He simply does not make it function at its best, if at all. Improvement:

If you are found to be inadequate in any of these items, you will want to attack your deficiency soon. Your instructor may help outline a program of retraining for you, which will include many of the following bases for the improvement of phonation.


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Bear your own voice-you must learn to hear your voice as others hear it. You should know its good characteristics and hear them. You should know its bad characteristics and hear them when they occur. Your ear should tell you when your voice is functioning at its normal, natural best. A strong hearing sensitivity to the tones of your own voice is a first essential in voice improvement. Your ear should hear in your own voice: 1. Its habitual pitch level. 2. Its normal natural pitch range from the highest pitched sounds you make to your lowest. 3. Its pitch inflections upward and downward. 4. Its loud tones and its weak tones. 5. Its short, staccato, jerky tones, and its tones which drawl noticeable. 6. The various kinds of bad voice quality, such as nasal, muffled, and so on. Relaxed Mechanism: Your entire speaking mechanism should be relaxed, so to speak, while you are speaking. It should be free from abnormal muscle tenseness or tightness. A relaxed mechanism is the result of : 1.

Good health, both physical and mental.

2.

A proper understanding of what is expected of you when you speak, as we noted in considering adjustment to the speaking situation.

3.

Confidence, through familiarity with your general subject and through preparation of the speech to be given. Absence of stage fright and uncertainty, through experience in meeting speaking situations. The result of experience is a comfortable poise and a natural control of the functioning of the bodily mechanism during speech.

4.

Optimum Pitch and Pitch Range: As you speak, the pitch of your voice fluctuates over a range of different pitches from low to high and high to low. Somewhere between the highest and lowest pitch your voice is capable of producing, there is a pitch level that is most natural for you. The pitch fluctuations of your voice seem to go up and down from this basic pitch level. You use it normally when you are relaxed, at ease, and not emotionally disturbed.


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It is clear that the basic pitch level of men's voices is markedly lower then that of women. The average pitch level of male voices is approximately 128 vibrations per second, the pitch level of female voice is approximately 256 vibrations per second, or about Middle C on the musical scale.

Some male voices are naturally lower or higher in pitch than others. The same phenomenon is true of female voices. Since there is a basic pitch level best for each individual, you must discover and make a habit of using that basic pitch level which is natural and best for you. In addition, you should discover your natural pitch range from lowest to highest and make the use of it habitual. Many speakers, particularly among women, tend to use higher pitch level than is natural for them. They tend also to use more high than low pitches in their pitch range, which usually is not natural for them either. The rule therefore is : speak at your natural pitch level and use your normal pitch range. Your basic pitch level should be medium or low for you. You should avoid too much use of the higher levels of your pitch range. Do not, however, try to lower your pitch level by refusing to use occasional high pitch variations. To force your pitch down and hold it here will result in a low mono pitch, which is also unattractive. Reserve of Intensity: You should have a strong voice. It should have a reserve of intensity that is not easily exhausted. You should have no trouble in making your audience hear in the average auditorium. To have a strong voice, you must:

1.

Have a strongly active breathing mechanism. The muscles of respiration must act, during speech, with energy and power.

2.

Cause a series of strongly vibrating breath waves to come from your larynx. These produce the pitches you desire.

3.

At the same time, adjust the cavities of your throat, mouth, and nose.

4.

Hold the adjustment of the cavities constant and continue the strongly vibrating breath waves until the tone has been built up by the resonance cavities to its full intensity.

DOD


CHAPTER

THREE

USE NOUN, GENDER AND ADJECTIVE

The fundamental distinction between Common and Proper nouns is that the former have meaning and the latter have not. A proper noun merely indicates or points out an individual. It is a mark or sign only, and implies no quality as belonging to the object denoted. A common noun on the other hand implies that the individual denoted by it possesses the various qualities that are distinctive of, and essential to, the class of which it is the name. Proper names are thus in a sense arbitrary, while common names are not. A man who has a horse called Victor and a dog called Bruce may change the names if he chooses, and call the horse Bruce and the dog Victor, but he cannot so change the common names horse and dog, for these names have a meaning. Most proper names have a meaning in their origin or derivation, but in their use they have none.

Proper nouns are used as Common when they denote a class or one of the individuals of a class; as, the caesars, the Howards, the Solomon of his age. A Common noun becomes Proper when it points out a particular person or thing. It is then preceded by an adjective, generally the definite articles the; as, the Earth. A Collective Noun denotes a number of persons or things taken as one; as army, flock, crowd.

Collective comes from a word meaning gathered together.


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Collective nouns are also Common. There are many armies, flocks, crowds. When a Collective noun is so used as that the individuals denoted are thought of separately and not as one body, it is called a Noun of Multitude; as, The Committee were divided in opinion. Material Nouns denote the names of substances; as gold, iron, stone, wood.

Material comes from a word meaning matter; that of which anything is made. A word may be a Material or a Common noun, according to the use; as, Rice is eaten; Rice is a plant. In the first sentence "rice" is Material noun; in the second, a common noun. An Abstract Noun is the name of a state, quality or action; as

servitude, whiteness, truth, reading, laughter. An abstract noun denotes something that has no separate existence. Redness, truth, virtue, exist only in persons or things that are red, true, or virtuous. But we can separate them in thought, and think or speak of them as though they existed independently. The word abstract comes from'a Latin word meaning drawn off.

Abstract Nouns may denote -(a) A quality; as, honesty, hardness; (b) A state; as, health, sleep; (c) A feeling or an action; as, pain, running; (d) Names of arts and sciences; as, painting, astronomy. Abstract Nouns are used as common when they denote the person or thing to which the action, state or quality belongs, "Beauty is admired," "His sight is keen" (abstract); "She is a beauty," "It was a glorious sight" (common).

Point out the Nouns in the following sentences, and name the Class to which each belongs :China is a country in Asia. The Earth is warmed by the rays of the sun. James told the truth. Gold is a precious metal. The police dispersed the crowd. London is the largest city in the world. The teas in the market to-day are inferior. Sunday is the first day of the week. Health is wealth. The people were divided in their opinions. The fleet sailed yesterday. The teacher is a man of learning. The judge dismissed the jury. The officer joined his regiment.


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Use Noun, Gender and Adjective

Righteousness exalteth a nation, but sin is a reproach to any people. The power of speech separates man from the brute creation, and by enabling him to communicate his thought with speed and accuracy, helps him to maintain his supremacy. We speak of the dominion of mind over matter, but without speech mind would be an eagle without wings a lamb without feet. Pride goeth before destruction, and a haughty spirit before a fall. Things without life are sometimes spoken of as if they were persons; as, "0 gentle Sleep!" They are then said to be personified. Such nouns are either masculine or fem~ine. Things remarkable for strength, courage, greatness & c., are regarded as males; as, the Sun, Death, War, Time, Summer, Winter, &c. Things giving the idea of beauty, fertility, gentleness, weakness, grace, & c., are regarded as females; the Moon, the Earth, Hope, Virtue, Charity, Peace, Liberty, Modesty, etc. A sailor calls his ship "she." In Collins' "Ode on The Passions," such passions as Anger, Despair, revenge are masculine; while Melancholy, Cheerfulness, Hope, &c., are feminine. rix is used in a few nouns taken directly from the Latin. En was in old English feminine ending. Bridegroom, fern. bride, and widower, widow, are instances where the masculine is formed from the feminine. Vixen as the fern. of fox is almost obsolete. Vixen now is a bad-tempered women. ITI. By placing a word before or after. (1) By placing a word before.

Bull-calf

cow-calf

He-goat

Billy-goat Buck-rabbit

nanny-goat doe-rabbit

Jack-ass

she-goat she-ass

Man-servant

maid-servant

Cock-sparrow hen-sparrow (2) By placing a word after.

Foste-father

foste-mother

Gentle-man

gentle-woman Step-father

Pea-cock

pea-hen step-mother


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Use Noun Gender and Adjective

Grand-father

grand-mother

Step-son

step-daughter

land-lord

land-lady

Washer-man

washer-woman

Milk-man

milk-maid

Servant-man

servant-maid

Words of Common Gender : The following are examples of nouns of common gender, but there are many others :- cousin, parent, friend, bird, fowl, child, baby, infant, servant, monarch, pupil, orphan, foal, spouse, &c. EXERCISE V

What is the Gender of the following nouns? In the case of masculines and feminines give the form for the opposite gender:duck

husband

sultan

bitch

shepherd

witness

testatrix

mare

beauty

parent

margravine

boar

heart

prince

sloven

dame

flock

count

nun

tutor

widower

marquis

ship

owner

companion

heroine

sovereign

child

lady

stag

friar

landlord

uncle

abbess

doctor

doe

virtue

hart

cook

drake

When a noun denotes only one thing, it is in the Singular Number. When it denotes more than one, it is in the Plural Number.

Singular means one; Plural, more. The difference in the numbers is usually shown by a change in the form of the word. The Plural is generally formed by adding s to the Singular; as, pen, pens; boy, boys. Nouns ending in s, sh, ch soft, x or z, form the plural by adding es; as, loss, losses; bush, bushes; watch, watches; box, boxes; topaz, topazes. It will be noticed that all these words end in a sibilant or s sound. The vowel e is added to such words, because they could not otherwise be properly pronounced.


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59

When ch has the sound of k, s only is added; as monarch, monarchs. Most nouns in 0 add es to the singular; as, buffalo, buffaloes; echoes, hero, heroes; mango, mangoes; negro, negroes; potato, potatoes. A few nouns in less common use ending in 0, with all words ending in eo, io, 00, and yo, add s only, as, canto, cantos; grotto, grottos; quarto, quartos; halo, halos; memento, memeatos; proviso, progisos; piano, pianos; solo, solos; cameo, cameos; folio, folios; nancio, nuncios; bamboo, bamboos; embryo, embryos. Nouns ending in y preceded by a consonant change y into ies. But if the y is preceded by a vowel s alone is added; as, city, cities; day, days; journey, journeys. Noun ending in quy take ies; as, obsequy, obsequies. Proper names in y do not usually change the y; as, Henry, Henrys; Mary, Marys. But Henries and Maries are also used. Most nouns ending in for fe, change for fe into ves in the plural; as, calf, calves; half, halves; life, lives; wolf, wolves; but nouns in ff take s only; as, cuff, cuffs. The following are exceptions to this rule : chief, chiefs; cliff, cliffs; dwarf, dwarfs; fife, fifes; grief, griefs; gulf, gulfs; hoof, hoofs; proof, proofs; roof, roofs; serf, serfs; turf, turfs; reef, reefs; safe, safes; strife, strifes; woof, woofs; waif, waifs; relief, reliefs. Scraf and wharf have both forms, scarfs and scarves, wharfs and wharves, the letter being more usual. Staff, in the sense of a stick or pole, has staves, in all other senses, staffs. The following nouns form their plural by a vowel change: man, men; woman, women; foot, feet; goose, geese; tooth, teeth; louse, lice; mouse, mice. Coachman has coachmen; Dutchman, Dutchmen; Englishman, Englishmen; but German has Germans; Norman, Normans; Brahman has Brahmans, and Mussalman, Mussalmans; but in these cases the terminations are not the English word man. A few nouns form their plural in en; as, ox, oxen; child, children; borther, brethren The plural of cow was formerly kine. Cows is now generally used.


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Some nouns are the same in both numbers; as, deer, sheep, swine, ~almon, cannon, species. The number is shown by other words in the sentence. In reckoning, the nouns, yoke, head, pair, brace, dozen, score, hundred, hundredweight and pice, are used in the plural without s; as, five head of cattle, two dozen, twenty hundredweight make a ton, the price is three pice, & c. Similarly in such compounds as, a ten-rupee note, four-anna piece, a seven-pound weight, a two-foot rule, an eight-day clock, a two-year old horse, a four-ton order, &c., the singular form is used in a plural sense, though in other uses the words form plurals in the ordinary way. In expressions like 10,000 foot, 1,000 horse, the noun soldiers is understood. Proper, material, and abstract nouns have no plurals except when they are used as common nouns. Proper nouns take a plural when they apply to several persons; as, the Ceasars. Material nouns have plurals when different sorts are meant; as, wines, oils. Abstract nouns have plurals when they denote different kinds of the quality named; as, He has many virtues. In such cases the nouns are used as common. Furniture, information, and some other words are not used in the plural. This applies to abuse, when used in the sense of bad language. In the sense of a wrong use of anything it has abuses. Some nouns have no signular. These are generally the names of things of more parts than one; as, tongs, shears, bellows, pincers, scissors, trousers. The follOWing are other examples ;- annals, Commons (House of), dregs, measles, oats, nuptials, proceeds (of a sale), vitals, shambles, obsequies, thanks, tidings, victuals, auspices, environs. Some nouns, plural in form, are generally treated as singular. Such are the names of certain sciences derived from the Greek; as, ethics, hydrostatics, mathematics, mechanics, optics, physics, politics, Amends and odds are sometimes used as singular; means is generally so; news and gallows are always singular.


Use NOW1, Gender and Adjective

61

Some nouns, plural in form, are used in both numbes according to the sense; as, series, species, pains; alnls and riches, properly sigular, are now generally plural. The plural of compound nouns is generally formed by inflection of the principal noun; as, maid-servants, sons-in-law, major generals. But the sign of the plural is at the end of words in -ful, or when the meaning is incomplete till the whole word is known; as, spoonfuls, three-per-cents. Some compound nouns have both the words inflected; as, men-servants, women-servants, knightstemplars,lords-Justiees. We may say either the Miss Browns or the Misses Brown. In addressing letters the second form is used. The plural of letters and arithmetcial figures is formed by adding an opostrophe. The present tendency is to reject foreign plurals; cherubs, formulas, bandits, &c., are often used. Some foreign nouns are used only in the plural; as aborigines, antip'odes, archives,literati, minutice. Give the meanings of the following words: Iron and irons; force and forces; advice and advices; return and returns; dies and dice; indexes and indices; shot and shots; genius and genii; cloth and clothes; brothers and brethen; pennies and pence. Correct the following sentences where necessary: Your writing is bad; you must take more pain with it. My brother has too heads of cattle. Ten yokes of oxes were ploughing. I have lost a ten-rupees note. My scissors is not strong enough. Mechanics are his favourite study. He has three son-in-laws. Step-fathers are not always kind. It is well for us when the crisis of life find us prepared. Large households have generally both man and woman servants. A five-shillings piece is called a crown. The race was for four-years-olds only. Case is that form of the noun which shows its relation to some other word in the sentence.


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Use Noun, Gender and Adjective

English nouns have three principal Cases: the Nominative, Possessive, and Objective. The Nominative names the agent, or one who does something : as, Ali brought a slate. Nominative comes from a Latin word which means naming. The Possessive denotes the possessor or owner; as, Rama's book. The Objective denotes the object, or that to which something is done; as, John caught a bird. The Nominative and Objective are alike in form. They are distinguished by their position as regards the verb, or by the sense. The nominative generally comes before the verb, and the objective after it; as, John struck James. To find the nominative, ask a questin by putting who or wha t before the verb, and the answer will be the nominative. When a noun in the objective is governed by a verb, it answers to the question formed 1:>y putting whom or what before the verb and its subject. Thus, Who struck James? John (nominative). Whom did John strike? James (objective). The possessive is formed by adding an apostrophe (') and s to the nominative; as, Joseph's.

Apostrophe means turned away. It is so named because it shows that something has been left out. In Old English the possessive ended in es. The e was left out, and an apostrophe was put in its place. The Possessive is now the only case in which English nouns change their form. Possession is often expressed by of; as, The book ofRama. When the plural ends in s, the possessive is formed by adding only an apostrophe; as, books'. When the plural does not end in s, the possessive is formed as in the singular; as, men's. To avoid too many hissing sounds, the apostrophe only is added when the plural ends in s. For the same reason, the letter s is omitted in the singular whenever the last syllable both begins and ends in s, and also before the word "sake;" as, "Moses'rod;" "for conscience' sake."


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63

The possessive is generally used only with living beings or personified objects. We may say lithe fox's tail," but not "the house's roof." In the latter case the preposition of is used instead of the inflection; as, "the roof of the house." Ofis also used with compound nouns in the plural; as, "the estates of my brothers-in-law." Nouns denoting time or space, or dignified objects, may take the apostrophe and s; as, "a day's journey," "a stone's throw," "the court's decree. II

Collective nouns, even when denoting living beings, cannot take the possessive case. We cannot say "the multitude's uproar." Write down the Possessive Case, Singular and Plural, of: Boy, lady, monkey, wife, thief, negro, chief, man, hero, mouse, wolf, goose, month, man-servant, woman, child, mistr~.;s. Change the following Possessives into Objectives with of: A man's arm. This boy's sum is not correct. Ladies' shoes. Couper's Letters. The woman's cries. The flies' stings. The gentleman's horse is dead. Milton's Poetical Works. Four oxen's heads. The soldiers' camp. Charles' affairs. Children's toys. Insects' wings. A nation's tears. Some men's promises. Put the following into the proper Possessive form, if they are not already in it : The servants of the king. The flowers of autumn. The songs of the girls. The dresses of the boys. The quarrels of the soldiers. The mane of the horse. The colour of the ox. The commanders of the armies. The work of six men. The lesson of Charles is difficult. The dens of the tigers. John took the slate of William. The wool of the sheep. When a name consists of several words, the sign of the possessive is added only to the last; as, William the Conqueror's tomb. When there are two or more separate nouns in the possessive case, the sign is added to the last word when joint possession is meant; as, "John and James' horse" (one horse). But when separat~ l?ossession is meant, the sign is added to each noun; as "John's and James' horses" (two horses).


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Both of and's are used when it is intended to indicate that the thing mentioned is only one of a number of similar things possessed; as, "This is a book of Robert's," that is, Robert has many books, and this is one of them. A noun is said to be declined when the various forms which it assumes to show case and number are written down in order. The changes in its form are made chiefly by endings, and are called its inflexions. The word case comes from a Latin word meaning a falling; inflexion from one meaning to bend in; and decline and declension from one maning to slope down. The Nominative Case was represented by a perpendicular line, and the other cases by slanting lines. Some English Grammarians, following the example of Latin and other languages in which case endings are much more numerous, give the Vocative and Dative as separate cases. The Vocative is used in calling; as, "Brother, come." In English it is more commonly called the Nominative of Address. The Dative denotes the person to whom a thing is given, or for whom a thing is done; as, He gave him a mango; Make me a kite. The Dative is generally called the Indirect object; the objective, Direct object. The Vocative, Dative, and Objective are alike in form. Parsing means telling the parts of speech to which words belong, and their relation to other words in the sentence.

In parsing nouns, give (1) the kind (common, proper, &c.); (2) the Gender; (3) the Number; (4) the Case; and (5) the Relation to other words. The following is an example:John, Noun, Proper, masculine, singular, nominative, subject of bought.

Book, Noun, common, neuter, singular, objective, object of bought.

PRONOUN Thou is seldom used except in poetry and prayer. Applied to a person, it generally expresses contempt. You is used in the singular as a mark of respect. It should have a plural verb; as, You are a wise man. Ye is an old form, now used chiefly in poetry.


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65

In Old English ye was used as a nominative, and you as a dative or accusative. In the English Bible, this distinction is carefully observed. It is often applied to living beings whose sex is not marked; as,

infant, dog, ant. It may be used not only in place of the name of an object, but instead of a clause of a sentence; as, To learn his lessons well is the scholar's duty; or It is the scholar's duty to learn his lessons well. In such expressions as, It rains, It freezes, It does not stand for either a noun or a clause of a sentence, but is used to point out the effect of some cause not mentioned.

The possessive cases of most of the personal pronouns have two forms. My, thy, her, our your, their are used when placed before their nouns; as, My book, her slate. Mine, thine, hers, ours, yours, theirs are used(1) When the noun is understood; as, Here is my book, where

is yours? (2) When a verb comes between noun and pronoun; as, Yours is the gain, mine the loss. (3) When the pronoun is preceded by of; as, That house of yours is convenient. Hers, ours, yours, theirs, are double possessives, both the r and the s being possessive terminations. Of ours, &c., is a kind of three fold possessive. The apostrophe should not be used with hers, its, ours, yours, theirs. Write yours, not your's. The word own is sometimes added to the possessive case to render it more emphatic or forcible; as, It is your own fault. The word self is added to the possessive case of the first and second personal pronouns and the objective case of the third to form Reflexive Pronouns. The plural pronouns take the plural form selves. Thus we have - myself, ourselves; thyself, yourself, yourselves; himself, herself, itself, themselves.


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Use Noun, Gender and Adjective

Reflexive comes from a word meaning to bend back. Reflexive pronouns denote the coming back of an action upon the doer. They are used when a person does something to or for himself; as, "I hurt myself." Reflexive pronouns are also used for emphasis; as, "He himself did it." They have only the nominative and objective cases, which are alike form. When own is added to emphasize these reflexive forms it comes before self, and in the third person the possessive form of the personal pronoun is used instead of the objective; as, my own self; your own selves; his own self; their own selves. My brother's horse is lame; so he has sent it out to graze. As the boys could not say their lessons, they must repeat them to-morrow. John and I are going out; but we shall return soon. Take this food to the boys, and tell them that I brought it for them. Mary has been very good; so she will be allowed to visit her aunt. James hurt himself when he was playing. "Can you not understand that I must keep my word," he cried to the crowd, but they answered him with hisses .. "My name is John," said his companion, "but you need not tell me yours unless you like." Is this your book? That book is yours. My dog is gentle; it will not bite you. I myself saw him. Is the field ours? Wash yourselves before you leave. I am yours obediently. Let them come themselves if they wish for their money. This land is not theirs. Is it your own property? A Demonstrative Pronoun is so called because it points back to some noun going before it, and instead of which it is used. This noun is its antecedent. The principals demonstrative pronouns are he, she it, they, this, that, these, those, one, ones, none, and such. He, she, and it are generally called personal Pronons, because they point out the third person as distinct from the first and second; but they are properly demonstrative pronouns. It may refer eighre to a noun or clause going before, or to a phrase or clause coming after; as, His chance was gone, and he know it; It is very likely that he will be here.


Use Notm, Gender and Adjective

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This refers..to something near at hand or last mentioned; that to something at a distance or not last mentioned. Both this and that may have a backward reference, but when they are used together this refers to the nearer and that to the more distant antecedent; as, "He tried both to capture the fort and to join the main force; this he accomplished, but that was beyond his power." This and that, with their plurals these and those, are adjectives when they are followed by a noun or require some noun to be understood after them; as I take this place; you take that-place understood. They are pronouns when they are used instead of nouns previously mentioned, and cannot have nouns after them; as, liTo be or not to be-thatis the question." One is the adjective one used as a pronoun. None is a shortened form of not one. It is used when the noun to which it refers is omitted. One is used in the plural as well as the singular, "If you want a knife I have some good ones." None does not admit of a plural form, and yet it is quite commonly and correctly used with plural verbs. As to snakes in Iceland, there are none." II

Such is used as a pronoun when it stands for a noun; as, If you are a friend, show yourself such. It may be used for either number. Indefinite Demonstrative Pronouns. Some demonstratives may be used in an indefinite sense, i.e., without reference to any express antecedent. Such are, they, it, one, another, &c; as, Is it John? No, itis James. It is very late. They say the King is coming. One may do what one likes with one's own. Do not laugh at another's pain. Parse the following sentences, distinguishing Adjectives from Pronouns: None but the brave deserve the fair. One can hardly believe his statement. This is yours; that is mine. There is none that doeth good; no, not one. That is not to be touched. He took the one; I took the other. Some men are better than others. Such as go down to the sea. This box is larger than that. Bear ye one anothr's burdens. It was such a night as this. Let another praise thee, and not thine own mouth. This book belongs to that boy. Both were young, but one was beautiful. This is a find house.


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Make three sentence showing the use of the pronouns one. Make sentences containing the pronouns none, other another, such. A Relative Pronoun is so called because it relates, or ferers, to an Antecedent. It is called a conjunctive pronoun because it also joins sentences or parts of sentences together like a conjunction; as, The student who passed is here. Relative comes from a word meaning carried back. A relative pronoun carries back our thoughts to its antecedent noun in the sentence. Demonstrative pronouns also have antecedents, but they have no conjunctiv force. Relative pronouns have the singular and plural alike. -, Who is either masculine or feminine; that is masculine feminine or neuter; which is now neuter; what, as a relative pronoun, is always neuter. That and what are not varied by case. Who and which are thus declined: Who is used of persons; as, The man who came. Which is used of the lower animals and things without life; as, The dog which barks; the book which was lost. That is applied both to persons and things. That is now used instead of who or whidl : (a) After the superlative degree of adjectives; as, This is the best peicture that I ever say. (b) After two antecedents, one requiring who and the other which; as The boy and the dog that you saw. (c) As the restrictive, limiting or defming relative; as, The book that I bought is lost. Who or which connects two co-ordinate! or independent sentences; as, I met a man who told me; Take care of the book, which will be of greate use to you. They have thus a continuative force. Who and which are also sometimes used in a way which implies cause or purpose. "An officer was sent who should examine the matter;" (= that he might examine). "The entire wall, which was undermined, fell with a crash," (= because it was undermined.)


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What is equal to that which. It is used only for things. It is used when the antecedent is omitted; as, This is what he wanted (= the thing that). Who, which, and what are combined with so and ever to form Compound Relatives; as, whose, whoever, whosoever, whatsoever and whichsoever. As is used as a relative after such, as, and same. It is applied to both persons and things; as, Should such a man as I flee? As many as I saw. His book is the same as mine. After such and as, as must be used. After same, that may often be used. "This is the same mistake that you made yesterday." But is a relative when it means that not. It is used after no, not, none, or other negative. It is sometimes called the Negative Relative; as, There are no woman but wept. There is no language so difficult butmay be mastered. When, where, whence, with their compoW1ds, are sometimes used as relative pronoW1s; as, "That was when I was YOW1g;" "This is where I found it;" "He returned to the place whence he came." When so used they are called Adverbial Relatives. The Interrogative Pronouns are who, which, what and whether. They are used in asking questions.

Interrogati ve means asking questions. Who is applied to persons, and is indefinite. "Who did it?" supposes complete ignorance of the person. Which applies to persons as well as things. It refers to one out of a definite number; as, "Which will you have?" What is applied to things, and is indefinite; as, "What did you get?" Whether is applied to either persons or things, and means which of the two, as, "Whether is easier" The Interrogative who may be used in the possessive case, and also in the objective after of; as, "Whose voice do I hear?" (the answer must be in the possessive-John's) "Of whom is this true?" (Answer-of John). What is also used as an exclamatory pronoW1; as, "What a silly boy!" "What abW1dance!"


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When what refers to persons, it is followed by a noun; as, What man said so?

Who is he? asks a person's name, etc. Which is he? asks that the person meant may be pointed out. What is he? asks a person's employment, etc. Whoever, whichever, and whatever, are Compound Interrogatives. Ever added to the interrogatives not only gives the idea of universality, as in the case of the relatives, but also often serves to express surprise, etc., making the words almost exclamatory pronouns. Thus, Whoever told you so? = Who told you so? I am amazed that anyone should have done so; Whatever are you doing? = What are you doing? You seem to me to be doing some extraordinary thing. The Distributive Numeral Adjectives, each, every, eithr, neither, are sometimes used as pronouns.

Distributive, as already explained, denotes that things are taken one at a time. The are adjectives when they qualify nouns, and pronouns when used instead of nouns. Reciprocal Pronouns denote acting in return. They are each other and one another.

Reciprocal means backward and forward. Each other properly refem to two persons or things; as, Rama and Govind loved each other. One another refers to more than two person or things; as, The boys pelted one another.

In parsing Pronouns give (1) the kind; (2) person; (3) number; (4) gender; (5) case; (6) the relation to other words of the sentence.

"We saw the person whom you named." We-First personal pronoun, plural, common gender, nominative, subject to the verb saw. Saw-Verb.


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Types of of Adjective Adjectives may be divided into four principal classes: Adjectives of Quality, Adjectives of Quantity, Numeral Adjectives, and Demonstrative Adjectives. I. Adjectives of Quality show the quality or state of the thing named; as, a fa t man.

Quality comes from a Latin word meaning of what kind ? Most adjectives belong to this class. They may be divided into Common and Proper. Proper adjective are those formed from proper nouns; as Indian, English. II. Adjectives of Quantity show how much of a thing is meant; as, much, little, some. Quantity comes from a Latin word meaning how much.

III. Numeral Adjectives show how many are meant or in what order; as, four, first. IV. Demonstrative Adjectives point out the thing spoken of; as, this, the.

The above four classes respectively answer the questions: (1) Of what sort? (2) How much? (3) How many? (4) Which? Adjectives of two syllables ending in e, ow, or y, may also be compared like adjectives of one syllable; as, able, abler, ablest; narrow, narrower, narrowest; happy, happier, happiest. The following distinctions in meaning should be carefully noted: (1) Farther is used for the more distant of two objects. Further means more in advance or additional. These meanings will not be confounded if the positives are remembered. (2) Laterrefers to time, and is opposed to earlier; latter denotes order, and is opposed to former; as, You may stay later today; The former and the latter rains. (3) Manyreferst to number; much to quantity. (4) Older and oldest are used of both persons and things; elder and eldest of persons only, and chiefly with reference to members of the same family.


72

Use Noun, Gender and Adjective

Some adjectives have no positive; as, under, undermost; some have no comparative; as, southern, southernmost. The comparative degree is generally followed by than; as, He is wiser than his brogther. But some adjectives ending in -ior (superior, inferior, anterior, posterior, senior, junior, prior) are followed by to; as, This is superior to that. Other adjectives in -ior and some comparatives, as, former,latter, etc. are used simply as adjectives in the positive degree; as, the interior parts, the la iter rain. They do not take than or to after them. The syllable ish is sometimes added to the positive, to lessen its signification; as black, blackish. When the positive ends in e, the e is omitted before ish; as, white, whitish. The ad verb very is often prefixed to the positive to increase its signification by expressing a degree of quality somewhat less than the greatest, or superlative, degree; as, wise, very wise.

Too is sometimes wrongly used for very; as, "Yesterday was too hot," instead of, "Yesterday was very hot." Double comparatives or superlatives are improper; thus, more stronger ought to be only stronger. It should be noted that the comparative and superlative of adjectives express the difference in the degree in which a particular quali ty is possessed by two or more objects. When we compare the degree in which two different qualities are possessed by one object the ordinary comparative form cannot be used.

John is cleverer t11at James, is correct; John is cleverer than industrious, is wrong. We must say, John is more clever than industrious, or better, John is clever rather than industrious, or, John is not so industrious as [he is] clever. Point out the Adjectives and the name the Degree of Comparison in the following sentences London is the largest and wealthiest city in the world. The old man has a sharp knife. The inner garden contains some beautiful plants. I met a blind boy with a white dog. The first prize was won by a little girl. Lead is hevier than silver. He died in the worst inn's worst room. The poor man has a wooden leg. The large black dog


Use Noun, Gender and Adjective

73

has a curly tail. This is a most interesting book. The brave sailor crosses the wild stormy seas. Which of the two is the larger? Which of the three is the finest? This rose is white. Correct any errors you may find in the following sentences He expects to see happyer days. You have got the lesser share. This book is more cheap than that. Govind is the sharper of the four boys. Autumn is the interestingest season of the year; Tuesday was more cold than Monday. This summer is hotter than the latest. Robert is more taller than William. Solomon was the wisest man; Methuselah was the eldest. Jane is livelyer than Mary. This is the beautifulest flower I ever saw. My hat is littler than yours, but his is the littlest of the three. Ali is the neglegeutest boy in the class. This is the largest of the two, but that is the most bautiful. It is best to be silent than to speak in anger. The later of the two reasons that you gave is the most convincing. The weather has lately been warmer than wet. It has been warmish tor a long while but yesterday was the most warmish day we have had. Adjectives of Quantity and Number Adjectives of Quantity restrict the application of the noun in quantity or degree. They are much, little, no or none, some, any, great, small, all, half, etc. Adjectives of Quantity are followed by a noun in the singular which must be either abstract or material; as, I have much work, He has little chance, Rama has great ability cut no perseverance. Half a loaf is better than no bread.

None is used for no when the noun is understood; as, I have no money and can borrow none [= no money]. Little means hardly any; as, "I have little money." A little means some, as, "I have a little money." Numerral Adjectives refer to number; as, four, many. They are divided into three classes: Definite, Indefinite and Distributive. Definite Numeral Adjectives denote exact numbers. They are divided into three kinds:

(1)

Cardinal numerals denote how many; as, ten, four.

(2)

Ordinal numerals denote order in series; as, third, tenth.


74

Use Noun, Gender and Adjective

Ordinal numbers may also be classed as Demonstrative Adjectives.

(3)

Multiplicatives show how often a thing is repeated.

Multiplicative means having the power to increase. Words of this class are formed by adding -fold, -ble, or -pIe; as threefold, double, triple. Indefinite Numeral Adjectives do not dentoe any exact number; as, all, any, certain, few many, much, more, most, no, none, several, some etc.

All, any, much no, none, some, etc., denote either number or bulk, according to the sense. Anymeans (1) one out of many; as, "Anybodymay enter;" (2) some; as, "did you see any soldiers?"

Few means a small number, and is opposed to many; as, "1 have read few books." A few means some, and is opposed to none; as, "1 read a few books." The few means all though a small number; as, "1 have read the few books I possess." Not a few is emphatic for many. Several dentoes a small number. Many, although plural in meaning, may be joined with a singular noun proceded by a; as, many a man. Each is supposed to be taken singly. A definite numeral adjective is made indefinite by prefixing some, as, "some thirty years had elapsed,"-i.e., about that time, more or less. Distributive Numeral Adjectives denote that things c{re taken one at a time. They are each, every, either, neither, several, other.

Each, every either, neither are joined to singular nouns. Each means two or more things taken one by one. Either generally means one of two: but it also sometimes means each of two; as on either side = on bothe sides. Neither means not either. Every means all of a number of things, more than two, taken singly.


Use Noun, Gender and Adjective

75

Several means different, and each his own; as, They went to their several homes. Other means different fro~ what has been mentioned. It is sometimes added to each, giving it'<\ reciprocail force; as, Be kind to each other. Another means one more; as, Bring another. Each other is the reciprocal f6rm for two individuals; as, "A man and wife should love each other." One another is the proper reciprocal form for more than two, or when the number is unknown; as, "The three sisters loved one another." "Children! Love one another." CO'rrect the following sentences: I have great needs of assistance. I can give you no money for I have a little. He has small uses for such a book. All man are mortal. Every men are mortal. Buy a few bread. Many ill deed is done without forethought. Either houses will suit us. There are less horses in that field than usual. The wall is 17 foot high. Let the carpenter cut a six inches plank into two feet lengths. We ordered three dozens knives. What do you think of these news? Everyone of the two boys got a prize. Do not bring either of the three. None of my two sisters is at home. The four boys were helping each other. Parse the words in italics in the following: I have no friends and no hope. He got some books from me some time ago, and I have asked him twice to return them. Little boys sometimes take great pains with their lessons. There is little chance of any man living at the Pole because of the great cold. Neither of these houses is for sale. Bear ye one another's burdens. Demonstrative Adjectives Demonstrative Adjectives point out the person or thing intended to be indicated, and limit the application of the noun to it. The principal demonstratives are a or an, the, this, that, yon, yonder, such. A, or an, and the are called Articles, and are often classed as a separate part of speech. A, or an, is called the Indecinite Article, because it does not point out a particular person or thing; as, a book; that is, any book.


76

Use Noun, Gender and Adjective

The is called the Definite Article, because it points out some one particular person or thing; as, the king; that is, the king of our own country; or the king that we are speaking about. Adjectives are parsed by mentioning their class, their inflexions, and their relation to other words. Thus: He is a wiser man than his brother. A, demonstrative adjective, called the indefinite article, belonging to the noun man.

lViser, adjective of quality, comparative of wise, qualifying man. Parse fully the adjectives and nouns in the following sentences: The ripest fruit first falls. Of two evils choose the less. Yonder tree is very high. This flower is the loveliest of all. That green dress is for my younger sister. These mangoes are not yet ripe. The young boy was braver than his elder brother. He brought me several books, some old, some new. The old father was happier than his foolish son. Both boys claimed the prize, but it was not given to either. We have money enough for such a short journey. He was the most famous poet of ancient times. A Russian traveller crossed the highest mountain of the range. Open rebuke is bette than secret love. That general was the greatest soldier of his age. Storm and rain have made havoc of the crops. It is an ill wind that blows nobody any good. He that saith to the wicked thou art righteous, him shall the people abhor. Swimming is a healthy exercise. I was not the only person who saw everthing that went on. Write sentences showing the difference in meaning between each and either; all and every; this and that; older, oldest, and elder, eldest.

DOD


CHAPTER

THREE

WORD BUILDING AND VERB FORMULATION

The proper root may be different from the simplest form of the word now in use. Tal, number, is the root of tale, tell, talk. The stem is the root with some change. Love (=: lov + e) is the stem of lov. It is to the stem that all inflections are added. Thus to lov we add d for the past tense. From the simple or primitive words, called roots, we form other words, chiefly in two ways: 1. By adding to the word another word; as, black~board, inkstand, door-way, hand writing, etc. Words so formed are called Compound Words.

2.

By changes in a word.

These may be of two kinds: (1) A chagne may be made in the root; as, strike, stroke; bind, bond; food, feed. (2) By adding some letter or letters either at the beginning or end of a word; as, like, unlike; ever, never; man, manly; good, goodness. The letters placed before are called Prefixes; those placed after are called Suffixes, or Affixes. Words formed from other words are called Derivatives.


78

Word Building and Verb Formulation Derivatives means drawn from; like a channel from a river.

Words formed by changes in the root are called Primary derivatives; those formed by means of prefixes or suffixes are called Secondary derivatives. Formation of Compound Words Compound Nouns may consist of :(1) Two Nouns placed side by side: Railway, teaspoon, cowherd, housetop, rosebud, bloodhound, lapdog, eyelid. Many compound nouns are formed in this way. Usually the first word qualifies the second. When the connection between the two is very close, they are written as one word. When such is not the case, they are separated by the mark-, called a hyphen; as, dog-cart, foot-race, finger-post. (2) A Noun followed by a Verbal Noun in -er (denoting agent) or -ing (denoting process). Shoemaker, bricklayer, lamplighter, penwiper, enginedriver, sooth-sayer, taxgatherer, etc. Shoemaking, bricklying, lamplighting, penwiping, engine driving, soothsaying, taxgathering, etc. (3) A Noun preceded by an Adjective: Nobleman, blackbird, freeman, redbreast, greenhouse, quicksilver, highland, sixpence, goodwill, roundhead, stronghold, sweetheart, madman, quicksand, etc. (4) A Noun preceded by a Verb:

.

Pickpocket, telltale, turncoat, grindstone, stopgap, spendthrift, catch-penny, breakfast, wagtail, cutthroat, skinflint, turnkey, makeshift, breakwater, pastime, etc.

In these cases the verbal part is transitive, and usually governs the noun. A nount preceded by a gerund may be included under this head: looking-glass, bathing-place, writing-desk, walking-stick, spelling-book. (5) A Noun preceded by an Adverb or Preposition:


Word Building and Verb Formulation

79

Bypath, forethought, undergrowth, inside, outside, overcharge, afternoon, onlooker. (6) By the union of other parts of speech: Outlay, runaway, drawback, income, hearsay, onset, gobetween, farewell, welfare. Compound Adjectives may consist of(1) Noun and Adjective:

Sky-blue, blood-red, sea-green, snow-white, nut-brown, icecold, blood-heat, purse-proud, breast-high, way-weary, bloodthirsty. (2) Adjective and Adjective: Blue-black, red-hot, dead-alive, worldly-wise. (3) Noun and Participle: Heart-rending, spirit-stirring, time-serving, sea-faring, housekeeping, moth-eaten, earth-born, tempest-tossed, way-laid. (4) Verb and Adverb: Underdone, outspoken, over-fed, ill pleased, well-bred, thorough-bred. Compound Verbs may consist of(1) Noun and Verb: Backbite, browbeat, waylay, henpeck, hoodwink. (2) Adjective and Verb: Whitewash, fulfil, rough-hew. (3) Adverb and Verb: Foretell, outbid, overthrow, cross-question, outdo. Compound Adverbs may consist of(1) Noun and Noun : Lengthways, endways. (2) Noun and Adjective: Head-foremost, breast-high, meanwhile, always, sometimes, otherwise.


80

Word Building and Verb Formulation

(3) Noun and Preposition: Upstairs, indoors, above-board, outside. (4) Adjective and Adverb:

Somewhere, everywhere, somehow. (5) Adverb and Adverb:

Henceforward, Thereabout. (6) Adverb and Preposition:

Hereafter, thereon, whereupon, forthwith, thereby. Compound Prepositions are chiefly composed of a preposition and a noun, or two prepositions: as, outside, inside, throughout, within, without, into, upon. Compound Conjunctions are almost always due to the union of an adverb wth some other word, most commonly either another adverb or a preposition; as, nevertheless, whereat, whereby, however, moreover, otherwise and likewise. Primary Derivatives Primary Derivatives are formed by making some change in the body of the root. Nouns (1) Nouns have been formed from Verbs by changing the root vowel:Drive, drove; bless, bliss; sing, song; stike, stroke. (2) A change is sometimes made in the final consonant sound Speak, speech; prove, proof; advise, advice; live, life; dig, ditch; practise, practice. (3) In some case both sounds, vowel and consonant, are changed:Choose, choice; lose, loss; live, life; clothe, cloth. Adjectives Adjectives are formed by changing the vowel or the final consonant of the root :-


Word Building and Verb Formulation

81

Heat, hot; fill, full; pride, proud; milk, milch. Verbs (1) Verbs are formed from Nouns by changing the vowel sound:Blood, bleed; knot, knit; gold, gild; food, feed; bond, bind. (2) By a change in the final consonant sound :Price, prize; thief, thieve; half, halve; sooth, soothe. (3) By a change in both sounds :Bath, bathe; breath, breathe; glass, glaze. By the above changes some intransitive verbs receive a transiti\,l or causal sense :Intrans. Trans. Intrans. Fall Fell Rise

raise

Drink drench Lie

lay

Droop drop

Sit

set

Stoop

cling clench

stop

Trans.

Secondary Derivatives Secondary Derivatives are formed from primary words by adding letters either at the beginning or end of words, called Prefixes or Suffixes. Prefixes and Suffixes, like the words themselves, are of three classes-of English, Latin, or Greek origin. English Prefixes A has several meaning. The following are some of the principal :(1) As a corrupted form of on it is prefixed to nouns and adjectives; as, abed, afoot, ashore, asleep. (2) When prefixed to certain words it means off, up, from; as, awake, arise, alight, afar. (3) An intensive force; as, ahungered, aweary, athirst, abide. After, following; as, afternoon, afterthought. All, all; almighty, almost, alone.


Word Building and Verb Formulation

82

At, at; atone. Be, corrupted from by, has several meanings :(1) It changes nouns and adjectives into transitive verbs; as, befriend, becalm, beguile. In behead it has a privative force. (2) It turns some intransitive verbs into transitive; as, bemoan, bespeak, befall. (3) It intensifies the force of transitive verbs; as, bedaub, besmear, beseech, besprinkle. (4) Prefixed to nouns, and adjectives, it forms adverbs, prepositions, and conjunctions; as, beside, beyond, between, betwixt, because, etc. Em, or en, to make, to give; as, endear, enslave, empower. For, through, thorough; as, forget, forgive. In fOlbid, it has a negaive senese. Fore,

before; as, foresee, foresight, foremost.

Gain, against, as, gainsay.

In, in; as, income, inborn, into. Mis(shortened from miss), wrong; as, mistake, mislead, mistrust. N

(shortened from no), not; as, none, neither, never.

Off,

away; offshoot, offspring, offscouring.

On,on;as, onlooker, onset. Out,

beyond; as, out-bid, out-do, out-grow, out-live.

Over,

above, too much; as, overflow, ovemand, overcharge.

To, the or this; as, t~day, t~night, t~morrow. Un has three meanings :-

(1) not; as, unclean, unkind, untruth, unrest. (2) back; as, untie, undo. In unloose it is only intensive. Nouns to which it is prefixed are changed into verbs; as, unman, unhorse, unearth. (3) on; as, unto, until.

Under, beneath, below; as undersell, underground.


Word Building and Verb Formulation Up, upward; as, uplift. With,

back, against; as, withhold, withstand. English Suffixes Noun Suffixes

Denoting agent or doer. - ar,

beggar, liar.

- ard,

coward, drunkard, sluggard, wizard.

-art,

braggart.

-eer,

auctioneer, mutineer.

-er,

baker, builder, rider, weaver.

-ier,

cashier, clothier, courtier.

-or,

sailor, tailor.

-ster,

songster, spinster, youngster, gamester.

-yer,

lawyer, sawyer.

Denoting state or being. -age,

anchorage, bondage, homage, herbage.

-dam, kingdom, freedom, serfdom, earldom. -hood, childhood, brotherhood, knighthood. -ing,

reading, writing, blessing.

-ness, darkness, whiteness, goodness. -red,

hatred, kindred.

-ship, friendship, hardship, lordship, fellowship. -t,

gift, cleft, draught.

-ter,

laughter, slaughter.

-th,

growth, health, length, truth.

-y,

beggary, slavery.

Denoting smallness or diminution. -el,

satchel.

-en,

chicken, kitten, maiden.

83


84

Word Building and Verb Formulation -et,

flowret, lancet, violet, pocket.

-ie,

doggie, lassie, laddie.

-kin,

lambkin, manikin, napkin, pipkin.

-let,

booklet, leaflet, streamlet.

-ling,

duckling, gosling, dar ling, foundling.

-ock,

bullock, hillock.

-y,

daddy, deary, baby, Johnny. Adjective Suffixes

-ed, (added to nouns, like ed in the past participle of verbs) booted, gifted, feathered, scented, coloured, rooted. -en, made of; earthen, golden, leaden, silken, wooden. Golden hair means only hair of the colour of gold. We say a gold chain for one made of gold. -ern,

region, quarter; eastern, northern, southern, etc.

-fold,

denoting multiplication; twofold, manifold.

-ful,

full; fruitful, hopeful, truthful, deceitful.

-ish,

(1) added to nouns, changes them into adjectives; boyish, childish, foolish, slavish. (2) added to adjectives, weakens their force; blackish, whitish, sweetish.

(3) denoting nationality; British, English, Spanish, Turkish. -less,

wanting; heedless, houseless, lawless, senseless.

-ly, like; kingly, manly, heavenly, cleanly. -some, partaking of a certain quality; troublesome, handsome, gladsome, wholesome, meddlesome. -teen, ten; thirteen, fourteen. -ty, tens; twenty, fifty, etc. -ward, direction; home ward, land ward, toward. -y, of the nature of, when added to nouns; hairy, rocky, healthy, wealthy.


Word Building and Verb Formulation

85

Verb Suffixes to make; darken, thicken, lengthen, strengthen.

-en,

-er, frequenta tivel; chatter, patter (pat), batter (beat), flutter (flit), glimmer (gleam). After adjectives -er is causative; linger (long), lower, hinder. -Ie, frequentative;dibble, prattle, handle, sparkle. -k, frequentative;hark(hear), talk (tell). -se, to make; cleanse, rinse. -y, to make; sully, worry. Adverbial Suffixes -re, place where; here, there, where. -es, -se, -ee, -5 (sign of the possessive), unawares, sometimes, besides, else, hence, thence, needs, sideways, lengthways, once. -ly, like; badly, goodly, purely, sweetly. -ling, -long, direction; darkling, headlong, sidelong. -om

(Old English dative termination); seldom, whilom.

-ther, direction towards; hi ther, thi ther. -ward, -wards, direction; home ward, down wards, in wards. -way, -ways, always, straightway, anyway. -wise, anywise, otherwise. Formation of Derivatives Noun Derivatives Nouns ar derived from other Nouns. (1) By means of prefixes :-

After

aftercrop, afternoon, afterpiece.

By

bylaw, byroad, bystander.

Fore

foreman, forenoon, forerunner.

In

income, inroad, insight.

Mis

mistake, misded, mishap.

Out

outhouse, outlaw, outlook.


86

Word Building and Verb Formulation Up -

upland, upshot, upstart.

Most words of this class come under the head of Compound Nouns.

(2) By means of suffixes :(a) Those denoting the agent or doer: Beggar, drunkard, auctioneer, gardener, courtier, tailor, songster, lawyer. (b) Those denoting state or being.

Anchorage, childhood, reading, peasantry, friendship, beggary. (c) Diminutives:

Satchel, chicken, floweret, lambkin, booklet, duckling, hillock, lassie, doggie. Nouns are derived from Adjectives:

By means of suffixes :Yongster, drunkard, freedom, darkness, goodness, falsehood, finery, truth, strength, warmth. Nouns are derived from Verbs.

By means of suffixes :(a) Those denoting the agent or doer: Beggar, speaker, braggart, sailor, spinster. (b) Those denoting state or being:

Hatred, laughter, flight (fly) death (die) deed (do),health (heal). Adjective Derivatives Adjectives are derived from Nouns.

By means of suffixes :Ragged, earthen, fruitful, foolish, childish, leathern, houseless, lawless, kingly, warlike, seaward, healthy, stormy. Adjectives are derived from other Adjectives. (1) By means of prefixes ;-


Word Building and Verb Formulation

87

Unclean, unkind, untrue. (2) By means of suffixes :Greenish, weakly, gladsome, wearisome, tenfold, sixteen, sixty. Adjectives are derived from Verbs. By means of suffixes :-

Painted, married, trodden, stolen, roaring, blazing, shining. Verb Derivatives Verbs are derived from Nouns :(1) By means of prefixes :-

Bedew, befriend, encircle, encompass, empower, unheard, unroof. (2) By means of suffixes :Sparkle, lengthen, strengthen. Verbs are derived from Adjectives :(1) By means of prefixes :-

Bedim, embitter. (2) By means of suffixes :-

Shorten, sweeten soften, lower, cleanse. Verbs are formed from other Verbs :By means of prefixes :-

Await, besmear, forbid, forget, mislead, foretell, enfold, outlive, uphold, withhold. Adverb Derivatives Adverbs can be formed from many Adjectives by adding ly; as, free, freely- bold, boldly- bitter, bitterly- first, firstly- merry, merrily, pretty, prettily. Some Adverbs are formed from Nouns; as afoot, ashore, aside. Adverbs are formed from Participles by adding ly; as knowingly, willingly.


Word Building and Verb Formulation

88

Some are derived from Prepositions; as, upward, downwards, within. Combination of Methods Many words owe their origin to a combination of two or more of the above methods of forming nouns, adjectives, etc.; as, un tru thfuiness, unenligh tened. Influence of Accent Many words are used both as nouns and adjectives, nouns and verbs, or adjectives and verbs, without any change in pronounciation. But a number of dis syllables have the accent on the first syllable in one case, and on the second in the other. Verbs of this class invariably take the accent on the last syllable. The following are examples: Noun

Adjective

AU'gustaugust' com'pact

Noun Verb Ac'cent

compact' Con'duct

In'cense

accent' conduct'

incense' In'crease

increase'

Ab'sent absent'

Per 'vert

pervert'

Pres'entpresent'

Pre'fix

prefix'

(adj. or noun)

Sur'vey

survey'

Adjective

Fre'quent

Verb

frequent' Tor'ment

torment'

Also the following trisyllable-At'tribute (n)

attrib'ute

Latin and French Prefixes Numerous Latin Prefixes are employed in wordbulding. Most have come direct from the Latin and are unchanged. Others, which have come to us from the French, are slightly altered; as, contra, against, becomes COllnter. Prefixes take different forms, in some cases, for the sake of euphony. Thus ad takes the forms mentioned below. A-, ab-, abs-, signifying from, away; as, a-vert, ab-solve, abstract.


Word Building and Verb Formulation

Sy

Ad- (sometimes becoming a, ac-, af-, ag-, al-, an-, ap-, ar-, as-, at-), to; as, ad-ore, as-cent, ac-cept, ai-fix, ag-gravate, aI-lure, annex, ap-peal, ar-range, as-sist, at-tract. Ambi-, amb-, am-, around, about, on both sides; as, ambiguous, amb-ition, am-putate. Ante-, anti- (French an-), before; as, ante-diluvian, anti-cipate, an-cestor. Bene-, well; as, bene-fit, bene-volence. Bi-, two, bis-, bin-, twice; as, bi-ped, bis-cuit, bin-ocular.

Circum- (circu-), around; as, circum-navigate, cir-cuit. Con- (Latin cum, French con) (co-, cog-, col-, com-, cor-, French coun-), with, together; as, con-tract, co-here, cog-nate, col-Iect, commit, cor-rection, coun-cil. Contra-, contro- (counter-), against; as, contra-diet, controvert, counter-act. De-, down, from; as, de-pose, de-throne. Demi-, half; as, demi-god. dis-, di-, dif-, apart, reversal; as, dis-pel, di-late, dif-fusion. French des-, de-, des-cent, de-feat. E-, ex-, (ec-, ef-), out of; as, e-duce, ex-tract, ec-centric, ef-fact. French forms, es-, is-, s-; as, es-cape, is-sue, s-ample. In the words amend and astonish, the e has become a. Extra-, beyond; as, extra-ordinary. French is-, s-; as, es-trange, s-tranger. In-, iI-, im-, ir-, in, into, on against; as, in-vert, ii-lustrate, impute, ir-ruption. French forms, en-, em-; as, en-act, em-ploy. In many words the Prefix can be spelt either as the Latin in, or as the French en; as, in-quire or en-quire. En-, or em-, before Nouns and Adjectives changes them into Factitive Verbs; as, en-dear, em-bitter. In-, ig-, iI-, im-, ir-, not; as, in-firm, ig-noble, iI-legal, im-portant, ir-regular.


90

Word Building and Verb Formulation Inter-, between; as, inter-vene. Intro-, to, within; as, intro-duce. French entra; enter-tain. Juxta-near to; as, Juxta position. Male-, mal-, badly; male-volent, mal-treat. Mis-, French from the Latin minus, less, badly; mis-fortune. Non-, ne-, neg-, not; as, non-sense, ne-farious, neg-lect.

Ob-, oc-, of-, op-, os-, against, in front of; as, ob-ject, oc-cur, offend, op-pose, os-tentation. Pene, almost; pen-insular. Per-, pel-, through; as, per-feet, pel-lucid, pil-grim. French par-, par-don. Post-, after; as, post-script. Pre-, before; as, pre-fix. Preter-, past, beyond; as, preter-natural. Pro-, por-, poi-, for, fore, forth; as, pro-noun, par-trait, pol-lute. French pur-, pur-pose. Re-, red-, back again; as, re-form, red-emption. The presence or absence of a hyphen afte re in Verbs affects the meaning. To recover an umbrella means to get it back; to re-cover it means to put a new cover on it. Retro-, backward; as, retro-grade. French rear; as, rear-guard, rear, arrears. Se-, aside, apart; as, se-duce, se-cede.

Semi-, half; as, semi-circle. Sine-, sim-, sin-, without; as, sine-cure, sim-ple, sin-cere. Sub-, suc-, suf-, sug-, sum-, sUp-, sus-, under, after, up; as, sub-treasurer, sub-scribe, suc-ceed, sui-fer, sug-gest, sum-mon, support, sus-pend. Subter-, under, beneath; as, subter-fuge. Super-, above, beyond; as, sllper-natural. French sur-, sur-vey. Trans-(tra-), across, beyond; as, tans-gress, tra-dition. French tres-, tres-pass.


Word Building and Verb Formulation

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Tri-, three; as. tri-angle, tri-une. Ultra-, beyond;as, ultra-liberal, out-rage, O. French, oultrage. Unus- (un-, uni-), one; un-animous, uni-form. Viee- (Fis-), instead of; as, vice-roy, vis-count. Many hybrid words are formed by the union of Latin prefixes with English roots; as, disown, dislike, distrust, endear, enlighten; relay, reset, recall; sublet, etc. Latin and French Suffixes These are very numerous, and some of them have different meanings. The principal are given below :Noun Suffixes (1) Denoting chiefly the agent or doer of a thing. -an, -ain, -en, artisan, Roman, captain, warden, citizen. -ant, -ent, merchant, servant, vagrant, student, regent. -ary, -ar, -aire, missionary, notary, scholar, milliol~ire. -ate, -ite, -it, candidate, advocate, favourite, Israelite, hermit. -eer, -ier, -er, volunteer, engineer, soldier, messenger, prisoner. -ess, -trix, signs of feminine, from -ix, and later Latin, -issa. -iff, -ive, plaintiff, bailiff, relative, native, captive. -or, -our, -eur, ancestor, doctor, emperor, saviour, amateur. -ee, -ey, -y, grantee, payee, examinee, attorney, jury, levy (2) Denoting action, being, or state of being -acy, -cy, accuracy, delicacy, supremacy, secrecy -age, bondage, marriage, postage, message, damage. -aI, arrival, dismissal, refusal, trial, nuptials. -ance, -aney, abundance, assistance, brilliancy, hesitancy -ence, -eney, diligence, excellence, patience, decency, urgency. -ery, -ry, cookery, slavery, bravery, bribery, musketry -iee, -ise, -ess, avarice, justice, exercise, merchandise, prowess. -ion, -on, -OID, action, admission, opinion, lesson, ransom.


92

Word Building and Verb Formulation -ity, -ty, scarcity,. captivity,. equality,. certainty,. poverty. -ment, agreement, complement, employment, payment. -mony, ceremony,. patrimony,. matrimony,. parsimony. -or, -our, -eur, error, liquor, colour, labour, honour, grandeur. -tude, gratitude, latitude, longitude, magnitude, solitude. -ure, agriculture, capture, departure, pleasure, torture. -y, envy,. industry,. memory,. misery,. victory.

(3) Denoting Dimenutives -el, -Ie, parcel, morsel, damsel, angle, buckle, circle. -eule, -ide, -dIe, -icil, animalcule, article, domicile, codicil. -et, -ot, bullet, chariot, parrot. -ette, cigrette, novelette, statuette, wogonette. -ule, globule, capsule, pilule, nodule. This is also used in a general sense; as, ridicule. So with -Ie; as, pIe, miracle, people. Adjective Suffixes (1) Denoting of or belonging to -aI, animal, mortal, fatal, national, regal, plural. -an, -ane, -ain, pagan, human, humane, mundane, certain. -ant, abundant, ignorant, constant, vacant, brilliant. -ar, singular, solar, lunar, familiar, popular, vulgar. -ary, customary,. contrary,. ordinary,. necessary,. secondary. -ie, -ique, aquatic, domestic, public, oblique, unique.

-iI, -ile, -Ie, -el, civil, fragile, frail, infantile, cruel, gentle. -ine, canine, asinine, elephantine, masculine, feminine. -ory, prefatory,. laudatory,. compulsory,. promissOlY (2) Denoting full of, consisting of, given to. -ate, accurate, fortunate, estimate, obstinate. -lent, opulent, fraudulent, violent, corpulent.


Word Building and Verb Formulation

93

-ose, -ous, verbose, bellicose, glorious, dangerous, furious.

(3) Various meanings -id, quality; rapid, timid, acid, studpid, liquid, solid. -bIe, power in a passive sense; curable, portable, incredible. -ive, power activity; acti\'e, transitive, legislative, imitative. -escent, growing, becoming;putrescent, effervescent, quiescent. Verb Suffixes The following suffixes denote to make or cause to be, in Verbs derived from Nouns and Adjectives :-ate, agitate, cultivate, facilitate, nominate, separate. -fy, beautify, glorify, magnify, purify, stupefy, simplify. -ish, banish, famish, diminish, pub ish, replenish, polish. The suffix -esce means a state of growing or becoming; as, effervesce, coalesce.

Greek Prefixes A-, an-, without, not; as, a-tom, an-archy. Amphi-, both, two; as, amphi-theatre, amphi-bious. Ana-, up, through, again; as, ana-tomy. Anti- ant-, against; as, anti-pathy, ant-agonist. Apo-, ap-, aph-, from, away from; as, apo-state, ap-ologue, aphorism. Arch-, archi-, chief, head; as, arch-bishop, archi-tect. Auto-, self; as, auto-graph. Cata- cath-, down; as, cata-strophe, cath-olic, Dis-, di-, twice; as, di-phthong, dis-syllable. Dia-, through; qS dia-meter, dia-logue. Dys-, ill, amiss; as, dys-entery, dys-pepsia. Ec-, ex-, out, from; as, ex-odus, ec-centric. En-, em-, in, on; as, en-demic, em-phasis. Endo-, withing;endo-genous.


94

Word Building and Verb Formulation Epi-, upon, to; as, epi-taph, epi-stle. Eu-, ev-, well, good; as, eu-Iogy, ev-angel, ev-angelist. Ex-, ec-, out, out of; as, ex-odus, ec-stasy. Exo-, without; as ex-ogenous, ex-otic. Hemi-, half; as, hemi-sphere. Hyper-, over; as, hyper-critical. Hypo-, under; as, hypo-thesis.

Meta-, Meth-, after, across, beyond; as, meta-phor, metaphysics, meth-od. Para-, par-, signifying besides (as if for comparison, and hence it sometimes denotes similarity and sometimes contrariety); as parallel, par-ody, para-dox, para-ble, para-graph. Peri-, round about; as peri-phery, peri-patetic. Pro-, before; as pro-Iogue Syn-, sy-, syl-, sym-, together, with; as syn-tax, sy-stem syl-Iable, sym-pathy. Greek Suffixes Noun Suffixes -ie, -ics, denoting abstract nouns; as, music, logic, optics.

-isk, a diminutive; as asterisk, obelisk. -ism, -asm, state of being; as, sophism, schism, chasm. -sis, -sy, -se, action; crisis, analysis, dropsy, eclipse. -st, -te, -t, agent; botanist, apostate, poet. -ter,-tre, instrument or place; metre, centre, theatre. -y, quality or state of being; philosophy, monarchy, melancholy. The suffixes -ism and -ist are largely used for English and Latin roots, as well as for Greek. Adjective Suffix -ie, -ical. Ie is a Greek suffix; ical has the Latin al added to the Greek. Comic, comical; magic, magical; politiC, political.


Word Building and Verb Formulation

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Verb Suffix -ize, -ise, to make; civilize, or civilise; baptize, criticise. It is used like -ism and -ist. VERB FORMATION A Sentence is any number of words having a full meaning; as, Dogs bark. Every sentence consists at two parts-the Subject and the Predicate. The Subject is the person or thing spoken of. The Predicate is what is said about the subject. Thus in the sentence, "Dogs bark," Dogs is the subject, bark the predicate. The predicate is always a verb. A Verb is word which declares or tells something.

Verb comes from the Latin verbum, a word. It is so called because it is the most important word in a sentence. It is emphatically the word; there can be no sentence without a verb. That which is spoken of, is the Subject of the Verb. That to which something is done, is the Object. To find the subject, put who or what before the verb; the answer will be the subject. To find the object, put whom or what after the verb. A verb declares of its subject that it does something, or has something done to it; or that it is something. Verbs are divided into two great dasses,-Transitive and Intransitive. A Transitive Verb denotes action passing from the doer to an object; as, He struck the table. An Intransitive Verb expresses an action that does not go beyond the doer; as, We walk.

Transitive means going beyond. Intransitive means not transitive, not going beyond. Some transitive verbs may become intransitive by expressing the action generally; as, Fire bums; I hear.


Word Building and Verb Formulation

96

Some intransitive verbs are turned into transitive by adding prepositions to them; as, She lCinghed at him. Verbs of this class are somethimes called Prepositional Verb. Some transitive verbs take two objects after them, onE' of the thing and one of the person, distinguished as the direct and indirect object~.

In the sentence, "I gave him a shilling," the direct object is shiling; him is the indirect object. The prepositions to or for are generally understood. The indirect object always comes first, unless the preposition is expressed. The above sentence might run, "1 gave a shilling to him," but not "I gave a shilling him." Incomplete Verbs are those which require some other word to give a complete sense; as, be, seem, become appear, etc. "He seems" does not express a complete sense. A noun, adjective, or other words, in apposition with the subject is required; as, He seems a stranger. The word or words thus added are called the complement of the verb, because they complete the verbal idea or predication. Factitive Verbs are transitive verbs which also require a complement to complete their predication; as, The loss filled us with grief; They set him free. In these sentences the verbal idea is contained in the words "filled with grief" and "set free," as may be seen by writing them thus, -"The loss grieved us," "They freed him." The complement of transitive verb of incomplete predication is called an Objective Complement because it refers to the object; the complement of an intransitive verb is a Subjective Complement, because it refers to the subject. "He seemed glad that they had made him king." EXERCISE

Say whether the following Verbs are transitive, intransitive, or incomplete :James runs. The man shot a crow. Martha spoke quickly. The girl reads her book. He laughed at it. Bring the book. She required


Word Building and Verb Formulation

97

two days to complete the work. He rode on a white horse. We commenced yesterday. John broke the chair. Tea grows in Assam. The wind blows strongly. He looks a king. The poor man broke his leg. She is a teacher. Boys learn their lessons. He became great. We made game of him. My aunt asked us to dinner. When the gun was fired the horse took fright. Without perseverance you cannot make your business a success. The vessel rode at anchor in the harbour. Make haste! Learn to do well. Trust in God and do the right. A fox one day saw some grapes which hung upon a branch which was a good way from the ground. He tried to get them by jumping as high as he could. But as he could not reach them he turned away saying, "They are sour, I could not eat them if I had them."

Write six sentences having Transitive verbs, six with Intransitive verbs, and three with Incomplete verbs. Inflections of the Verbs Verbs are inflected for Voice, Mood, Tense, Number, and Person. Voice Voice shows whether the subject of a verb acts or is acted upon. There are two Voices-the Active and Passive. The Active Voice denotes that the subject of the verb acts; as, He wrote a letter. The Passive Voice denotes that the subject of the verb is acted upon; as, A letter was written by him.

Passive comes from a Latin word which means to suffer. The object in the active voice becomes the subject in the passive voice. When the agent is chiefly noticed, the active voice is used, and when the object, the passive voice. There are no inflections in English that show the passive voice. To make the change, the verb" to be" is needed, which is therefore called an auxiliary or helping verb. The word denoting the agent in the passive voice has the word by before it, either expressed or understood.


Word Building and Verb Formulation

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Verbs which take two objects after them in the active voice (120) can take one in the passive; as :

Active

Passive

I gave him a book.

A book was given him by me;

He was given a book by me. When a Factivity verb is changed from the active voice to the passive the objective complement becomes a subjective one; as:

Active

Passive

They made him King. He was made King by them. Intransitive verbs have no object, and therefore have no passive voice. But intransitive verbs with prepositions, used as transitives, have the passive voice; as, He was laughed at by all. EXERCISE

Change the verbs in the following sentence from the Active to the Passive voice:I called him. Cain killed Abel. He stole a book. She loves her father. I saw an owl. He rang the bell. A snake bit the man. Mary brought a chair. John wrote a letter. Our habits make us slaves. He showed him his lessons. She gave us some mangoes. We promised him five pounds. A cloud hid the sun. The soldier saw the sick man stumble and fall. Napoleon often defeated the Russians, but at last the Russians defeated him.

Cnang the verbs in the following sentences from the Passive to the Active voice:John was beaten by James. The English were conquered by the Normans. Many have been ruined by gambling. Such mistakes are made by beginners. The remainder was devoured by vultures. The slate was broken by me. War was declared against France by Prussia. Somebody's bullock was killed by a tiger. A present was bought for him by his father. Night was made hideous by their howls. The tank will be completed by the government engineers. Your food should have been cooked by the servant.


99

Word Building and Verb Formulation Mood

Mood shows the mode or manner of the action expressed by the verb. ,

There are four moods - Indicative, Subjunctive, Imperative, and Infinitive. To these may be added the Gerund and the Participle. The Indicative Mood simply decleares a thing, or it asks a question; as, He runs; He will come; Who knows?

Indicative means pointing out. The Subjunctive Mood is so called because it is chiefly used in clauses subjoined to the principal clause of the sentence. It sta~es a thing as a condition or supposition, and does not make a statement of fact; as, I will go, if he comes; were he here, he would tell you.

Subjunctive means joined under. Uncertainty is generally implied. It usually follows such words as if, unless, though, lest & c., but these are not a part of the verb. Its use is dying out in modern English. The Imperative Mood commands, advises, or entreats; as, Do this; forgive and forget; Spare his life.

Imperative means commanding. The Imperative is the root of the verb from which the other parts are derived. The Infinitive Mood simply names the action, and is not limited by time, person, or number; as, To write.

Infinitive means without end. It is not properly a mood, but is a verb used as a noun. The preposition to is usually prefixed, and is hence called the sign, or mark, of the infinitive. It may be either in the nominative or in the objective case. The name Potential Mood has been given to such forms as, He can read; She may go; but it is now generally given up. Can is in the indicative; read is in the infinitive. To is left out after can, may, etc. Potential means ha ving power. The Infinitive of Purpose is called the Gerundial Infinitive; as, he came to learn. The verbal noun ending in -ing is also called the


100

Word Building and Verb Form ulation

Gerund; as, Gambling is hurtful. The word Gerund means carrying on. It denotes the doing of that which the verb signifies. The Participle is so called because it partakes of the properties of the verb and the adjective; as, I saw a boy running. Participle means sharing, taking part. As verbs, participles imply action; as adjectives, they qualify nouns. Participles are verbal adjectives. Gerunds are verbal nouns. Nouns is -ing must be distinguished from participles in -ing; a large building (noun); building a house (participle). In Old English the present participle and the gerund had distinct endings;-present participle, writende, writing; gerund, writung. In later English these two suffixes, -ende and -ung, were merged into one, -ing, and now there is only one form for both parts of the verb; as, I am writing (Present Participle); Writing is useful (Gerund). EXEROSE

Name the Voices and Moods of the verbs in the following sentences ;Do it yourself. To err is human; to forgive, divine. I found him reading. Are you fond of writing letters? If I go, I will let you know. Let him not despond. Forbear to trouble yourself about trifles. I would help you if I could. Had you been present, I should have seen you. I hear that you broke it. The governor refused to comply. I hate lying. You can send him. If that happened, it was a great misfortune. Giving is better than receiving. He can do it if he likes. They came to see the show. I saw him running away. If he were here I should ask him. He was taught reading and writing. We should hate lying. I saw him breaking stones. Seeing for himself the damage done by the flood, he decided to have the dyke strengthened. Learn to act for yourself. Much that you say was known to me. If he comes by train he will arrive in the morning. I like travelling by coach. Riding slowly, I reached home just as the sun was setting. Step aside and speak to the poor fellow.

Make four sentences each contaning a Gerund, and other four each contaning a Participle.


Word Building and Verb Formulation

101

Tense Tense is a change in the verb to express time.

Tense comes from a word meaning time. There are three great divisions of time--Present, Past, Future. The name Tense is given to the different forms of verbs which denote them. The verb is the only kind of word which by its own forms can point out time. The English verb has only two tenses formed by inflection,the Present and Past. The Future is formed by the help of other verbs. The Present Tense denotes that the action is going on now; as, I love; I am loving. The Past Tense denotes that the action took place, or was going on, in time past; as, I saw him; He was walking. The Future Tense denotes that the action is yet to take place. It is formed by means of the verbs shall or will, followed by the infinitive; as, I shall go; he will go. Each tense has three forms: (1) An action simply mentioned is said to be Indefinite; as, I love, I loved, I shall love. (2) An action mentioned as still going on is said to be Imperfect. It is formed by means of the verb be and the imperfect participle; as, I am loving, I was loving, I shall be loving. Progressive (moving forward), Incomplete (not complete), and Continuous (proceeding), and other names for the imperfect. (3) An action mentioned as finished is said to be Perfect. It is formed by means of the verb have and the perfect participle; as, I have loved, I had loved, I shall have loved. The Present Perfect denotes that the action had just now been completed; as, I have dined. It is a common mistake to use the present perfect instead of the past indefinite; as, "I have seen him yesterday," instead of, "I saw


Word Building and Verb Formulation

102

him yesterday." Unless the action has just been completed, or if the time is mentioned, the past indefinite should be used; as, I have just seen him; I saw him an hour ago. The Past Perfect, also called Pluperfect, denotes that the action was completed before another action took place; as, I had seen him before I met you.

Pluperfect meant more than perfect. The past perfect should not be used unless the other action is mentioned; as, "I had seen him yesterday," ought to be, "I saw him yesterday." The Future Perfect denotes that the action will be completed before another future action takes place; as I shall have left before youretum. The active voice has a fourth form, called the Perfect Continuous. It expresses an action going on up to the present time; as, I have been writing. It is also called the Perfect Progressive or Perfect Incomplete. It combines the meaning of the imperfect and perfect.

Table of Tenses (Active Voice) Indefinite

Imperfect or Continuous

Perfect

Perfect Continuous

Present

I love

I am loving

I have loved

I have been loving

Past

I loved

I was loving

I had loved

I had been loving

Future

I shall love

I shall be loving

I shall have loved

I shall have been loving

Tense

EXERCISE

Point out the Verbs in the following sentences and name their Moods and Tenses ;I shall send it to-morrow. You asked me what I was doing. I had filled it before it burst. I shall have great pleasure in going with you. He met me when I was walking. I shall have completed it before tomorrow. We have written that we are coming. If you should see


103

Word Building and Verb Formulation

James, tell him that I want to speak to him. Shall I come down, and will you give me leave? If the sick man be sleeping, do not wake him. You came to ask me what I have been doing. It would have mattered little if he had not spoken harshly. You need not urge me, I inted to do it. If he had not known how to manage the machine, such an accident could not have happened. Do not act without thought. Correct the following where necessary ;Last month I have bought a house. Is this correct? There had been a storm yesterday. I went to see him in the evening. I have spent all my money before I have received your letter. The mail has not yet arrived. He had studid for six months before he left. I have arrived this morning. I had seen him do it. The King has been crowned this year. The fleet should be assembled a week ago. The swallows had left before the winter begins. Number and Person The verb, like the noun, has two Numbers, Singular and Plural; as, He loves, they love. Distinct forms for the plural are found only in the verb to be; as, I am, we are; I was, we were. Person is a change in the Verb, according as its subject is the speaker, the person or persons spoken to, or the person or thing spoken of; as, I love, first person; Thou lovest, second person; He speaks, third person. The plural has no endings to mark Person. The person is known by the subject. The Present Tense of the verb bring is thus inflected :-

Singular

Plural

1st Per. I bring

1st Per.

We bring

2nd Per. Thou bringest

2nd Per.

You bring

3rd Per. He brings or bringeth

3rd Per.

They bring

The pronouns are no part of the verb. The second person singular (thou bringest, thou lovest), is seldom used except in poetry.


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Word Building and Verb Formulation

In ordinary language the plural form (you bring, you love) takes its place. The third person singular present has s, or es, and the old form eth, which is now confined to poetry. These endings belong only to the indicative mood. Conjugations The giving of the moods, tenses, and other parts of a verb is called its Conjugation. Verbs are divided into Strong and Weak verbs, according to the way in which they form the past indefinite tense. A Strong verb forms the past tense bychanging the vowel of the present tense. Nothing is added to the present to make it past. Thus, in write, wrote, the vowel is changed, but nothing is added. Strong verbs are sometimes said to belong to the Old conjgation. A Weak verb forms the past by adding d, ed or t to the present. Thus, love, loved; spend, spent. Weak verbs are sometimes said to belong to the New, or Modern, conjugation. Some weak verbs seem to belong to the strong conjugation, because they change the vowel, as, teach, taught, seek, sought, say, said; but they are weak because they add d or t for the past tense. There are also weak verbs which change the vowel, and make no addition; as, meet, met; feed, fed. Such verbs in Old English had terminations which have been lost. Weak verbs are sometimes divided into Irregular Weak verbs, like beseech, besought, and Regular Weak verbs, like, love, loved. Verbs which form the past tense by adding d, ed or tare sometimes called Regular verbs. Those which do not thus form the past tense are said to be Irregular. Though not strictly correct, the distinction is much more easily understood than that between strong and weak verbs. Some verbs have both forms. Thus, shear, shore, shorn, has also sheared, sheared. List of Strong Verbs Formerly the past participle of these verbs was always formed by adding -n, en, or ne; in some this termination has been lost.


105

Word Building and Verb Formulation

Verbs to which r is prefixed have also weak forms. The past participles which are distinguished by an asterisk (*) are now never used in the formation of tenses, and are verbal adjectives only. The past tenses printed in italics are old forms now seldom used, save in poetry. Present Past

Present

Past Pert.

Past Past Pert.

List of Weak Verbs The follwoing verbs belong to the Weak Conjugation, in addition to the large class which form their past tense and past participle by adding -d or -ed. Class II Present

Past

Past Pert.

Present Past

Past Pert.

Bereave

bereft

bereft

Hew

hewed

hewn

Beseech

besought besought

Keep

kept

kept

Bleed

bled

bled

Kneel

knelt

knelt

Blend

blended

blent

Lay

laid

laid

Breed

bred

bred

Lead

led

led

Bring

brought

brought

Leap

leapt

leapt

Build

built

built

Learn

learnt

learnt

Bum

burnt

burnt

Leave

left

left

Buy

bought

bought

Lead

lent

lent

Catch

caught

caught

Light

lit

lit

Clothe

clad

clad

Load

loaded

laden

Creep

crept

crept

Lose

lost

lost

Crow

crew

crowed

Make

made

made

Curse

curst

curst

Mean

meant

meant

Dare

durst

dared

Meet

met

met

Deal

dealt

dealt

Melt

melted

molten

Dream

dreamt

dreamt

Mow

mowed

mown

Dwell

dwelt

dwelt

Prove

proved

proven

Feed

fed

fed

Rend

rent

rent


106

Word Building and Verb Formulation

Feel

felt

felt

Rive

rived

riven

Flee

fled

fled

Saw

sawed

sawn

Gild

gilt

gilt

Say

said

said

Gird

girt

girt

Seek

sought

sought

Grave

graved

graven

Sell

sold

sold

Have

had

had

Send

sent

sent

Hear

heard

heard

Sew

sewed

sewn

Present

Past

Past Pert.

Present Past

Past Pert.

Shave

shaved

shaven

Spill

spilt

spilt

Shoe

shod

shod

Strew

strewed

strewn

Show

showed

shown

Sweep

swept

swept

Sleep

slept

slept

Swell

swelled

swollen

Smell

smelt

smelt

Teach

taught

taught

Sow

sowed

sown

Tell

told

told

Speed

sped

sped

Think

thought

thought

Spell

spelt

spelt

Weep

wept

wept

Spend

spent

spent

Work

wrought

wrought

Class II. Verb which have the three parts alike. Present

Past

Past Pert.

Present

Past

Past Pert.

Bet

bet

bet

Rid

rid

rid

Burst

burst

burst

Set

set

set

Cast

cast

cast

Shed

shed

shed

Cost

cost

cost

Shred

shred

shred

Cut

cut

cut

Shut

shut

shut

Hit

hit

hit

Slit

slit

slit

Hurt

hurt

hurt

Spit

spit

spit

Knit

knit

knit

Split

split

split

Let

let

let

Spread

spread

spread


107

Word Building and Verb Formulation Put

put

put

Thrust

thrust

thrust

Quit

quit

quit

Wed

wed

wed

Read

read

read Conjugation without Auxiliaries

The following is the inflection of the weak verb to love, without the help of other verbs: Present Tense Past Tense Love

Perfect Participle

Loved Loved Indicative Mood Present Tense Plural

Singular 1.

I love

1.

We love

2. Thoulovest

2. You love

3.

3.

He loves.

They love

Past Tense 1.

I loved

1.

We loved

2. Thou lovedst

2. You loved

3.

3.

He loved

They loved

Imperative Mood

2. Love (thou)

2.

Love (ye, or you)

Infinitive Mood Loving To love Participles Imperfect, Loving

Perfect, Loved

The above are, strictly speaking, the only conjugations of the English verb, the other moods and tenses, which in Latin and other languages are formed by inflection, being formed by the aid of other verbs. The English verb has thus only a small number of inflection. Write has seven forms; write, writest, writes, writing, written, wrote,


108

Word Building and Verb Formulation

wrotest. Regular verbs have only six forms: love, lovest, loves, loved, lovedst, loving.

EXERCISE Conjugate the verbs serve, call, grieve, learn, smite, strive, walk, fight and give, without the aid of other verbs. Give the Mood, Tense, Person, and Number of the verbs in the following sentences ;You walked. They move. I go. He wishes. We cry. Thou laughest. Run you. We praised. You ordered. Tell him to come. I called. Thou turnest. Stop. He came to shoot. They like hunting. You run. The horse fell. They went to bet. I saw him writing. The sailor told his story. You make me ashamed. Auxilliary Verbs Only the Present and Past tenses are expressed by inflections of the verb itself. Additional tenses are formed by the help of other verbs, called Auxiliaries, viz.: be, have, shall, and will. A uxiliary means helping. Such verbs are frequently used, and are of great importance.

Do, May, and Can would be ranked as auxiliaries, if the Empha tic and Potential moods were admitted into the conjugation of the verb. Some of the auxiliaries are also used as principal verbs. The verb be has two distinct uses :(1) As an intransitive verb either of complete or incomplete predication; as, "He that cometh to God must believe that He is, and that He is a rewarder of them that diligently seek Him." The first is = exists, and is complete; the second 'is'is incomplete and has as its complement all the words that follow it. (2) As an auxiliary verb. The Passive Voice is formed by joining the past participle of a verb to the verb "be" throughout; as, he is loved, to be loved, being loved. The Progressive form of the active voice is formed by similarly joining the present participle; as, I am loving, I was loving, etc.


109

Word Building and Verb Formulation

Conjugation of 'be' Present Tense

Past Tense

Am Was

Been

Perfect Participle

Indicative Mood Present Tense Plural

Singular I

Person I

am

I

Person We are

II

Person Thou

art

II

Person You are

ill Person He, shs or it,

is

ill Person They are

Past Tense I

I

was

I

We were

II

Thou

wast

II

You were

was

ill They

ill He

were

Subjuctive Mood Present Tense Plural

Singular I

If I

be

I

If we be

II

If thou

be

II

If you be

be

ill If they be

ill If he

Past Tense I

If I

were

I

If we

were

II

If thou

wert

II

If you

were

were

ill If they were

ill If he

Imperative Mood Singular II

Plural

Be (thou)

II

Infinitive Mood To be Gerunds Being

To be

Be (ye, or you)


110

Word Building and Verb Formulation Participles

Present, Being

Past, Been

The Verb have has also two uses :(1) As a transitive verb in the sense of hold, possess; as, have a book. (2) As an auxiliary: Followed by the perfect participle of another verb have forms the present perfect and past perfect tenses; as, I have written, I had written.

Conjugation of have Present Tense

Past Tense

Have

Had

Had

Perfect Participle

Present Tense Plural

Singular I

I

II

Thou

have

III He has

I

We

have

hast

II You

had

III

They

have

I

We

had

hadst

II You

had

III

They

had

Past Tense I

I

II

Thou

had

III He had

Imperatives I have (thou)

Have (ye, or you) Infinitive To have Participles

Having

Had

Shall and will have only the present and past tenses of the indicative mood. They are used with infinitives to form the future tehses of verbs.


111

Word Building and Verb Formulation

Conjugation of shall Present Tense Plural

Singular I

I

shall

I

We

shall

II

Thou

shalt

II

Ye or You

shall

shall

ill They

ill He

shall

Past Tense I

I

should

I

We

should

II

Thou

shouldst

II

Ye or You

should

should

ill They

ill He

should

Conjugation of will Present Tense Plural

Singular I

I

will

I

We

will

II

Thou

wilt

II

YeorYou

will

will

ill They

ill He

will

Past Tense I

I

would

I

We

would

II

Thou

wouldst

II

YeorYou

would

would

ill They

ill He

would

Shall primarily means obligation, what one ought to do; will means wish, what a person is willing to do. But the force of these two auxiliaries varies with the person of the verb. The following notes should be carefully studies: (1) Shall retains its primary meaning in the second and third persons singular and plural; as, Thou shalt not kill; he shall surely die. Besides commanding and threatening, it also promises; as, He shall be blessd. (2) Shall is only an auxiliary of the future in the first person, and in interrogative sentences in the second person; as, shall you go? It is an independent verb in the seocond and third persons.


Word Building and Verb Formulation

112

(3) Shall, in the first person singular and plural, denotes simple futurity. It does not denote any wish on the part of the speaker. On the other hand, will in the first person implies that the action is dependent upon the will of the speaker. I will go home, denotes that it is my own wish to go.

(4) Will in the second and third persons usually means simple futurity, without any reference to the wish of the agent. He willbe punished, simply states what will happen.

EXERCISE XXII Give the Mood, Tense, Person and Number of the verbs in the following :Will you do it? Shall I send it? Thou shalt not kill. The dogs will bark. He should not have done it. The cat will catch the mouse. I shall go to London. I will go to London. He will suffer for it. You should not hurt him. They would not take the money. Be kind. We were tired, but you had done nothing to tire you. Having nothing of value, I have never been afraid of thieves. If you were as wise as your father we would listen to you. She should have thought about it.

Name the Principal Verbs and Auxiliaries in the following sentences:We shall sail tomorrow. He has lost h1s book. You should not do that. I have a horse. We were stayng with him. Will you come with me? He is a great coward. Shall I send for him? Will you tell them? You should not go. The following is the complete conjugation of the regular verb to love, with auxiliaries. Active Voice

Present Ind. Past Love

Past Participle

Loved Loved Indicative Mood Present Indefinite

Plural

Singular I

I

love

I

We

love


113

Word Building and Verb Formulation

II

II

lovest

Thou

love

You

love

ill They

ill He loves or loveth

Present Imperfect or Continuous I

lam

loving

I

We

are loving

II

Thou art

loving

II

You

are loving

loving

ill They

ill He is

are loving

Present Perfect I

I

have loved I

We

have loved

II

Thou

have loved II

You

have loved

ill He has, or have loved ill They

have loved

Present Perfect Continuous I

I

have been loving

I

We

have been loved

II

Thou

hast been loving

II

You

have been loved

has been loving

ill They

ill He

have been loved

Past Indefinite I

I

loved

I

We

loved

II

Thou

lovedst

II

You

loved

loved

ill They

ill He

loved

Past Indefinite or Continuous I

I

was loving I

We

were loving

II

Thou

wast loving II

You

were loving

ill He

was loving ill They

were loving

Past Perfect I

I

had loved I

We

had loved

II

Thou

hadst loved II

You

had loved

ill He

had loved ill They

had loved

Past Perfect Continuous I

I

I

II

Thou hadst been loving II You

had been loving

We

had been loving had been loving


Word Building and Verb Formulation

114 ill He

had been loving

ill They

had been loving

Future Indefinite I

I

shall love

I

We

II

Thou

wilt love

II

You

will love

ill They

ill He

shall love . williove will love

Future Imperfector Continuous I

I

shall be loving I

We

shall be loving

II

Thou

wilt be loving

II

You

will be loving

will be loving

ill They will be loving

ill He

Future Perfect I

I

shall have loved I

II

Thou wilt have loved

ill He

will have loved

II

We

shall have loved

You

will have loved

ill They will have loved

Future Perfect Continuous shall have been loving I We

I

I

II

Thou wilt have been loving II You

ill He

shall have been loving will have been loving

will have been loving III They will have been loving Subjective Mood Present Indefinite Plural

Singular

I

HI

love

I

Hwe

love

II

H thou

love

II

Hyou

love

love

ill Hthey

love

ill Hhe

Present Imperfect or Continuous I

HI

be loving

I

H We

be loving

II

Hthou

be loving

II

HYou

be loving

be loving

ill H They

ill Hhe

be loving

This is the old form of the Subjunctive. If I am loving is now generally used.


115

Word Building and Verb Formulation

Present Perfect If we

have loved

If you

have loved

have loved III If they

have loved

I

IfI

have loved I

n

If thou

have loved

III If he

n

Present Perfect Continuous I

If I

n

If thou hast been loving

III If he

If we

have been loved

If you

have been loved

III If they

have been loved

have been loving I

n

has been loving

Past Indefinite I

If I

loved

I

If we

loved

n

If thou

lovedst

n

If you

loved

loved

III If they

loved

III If he

Past Imperfect or Continuous I

IfI

were loving I

n

If thou

wert loving

III If he

If we

were loving

If you

were loving

were loving III If they

were loving

n

Past Perfect I

If I

had loved I

n

If thou

hadst loveq n If you

had loved

had loved III If they

had loved

III If he

If we

had loved

Past Perfect Continuous I

If I

n

If thou hadst been loving n

III If he

had been loving

If we

had been loving

If you

had been loving

III If they

had been loving

I

had been loving

Future Indefinite I

If I

shall love

I

If we

shall love

n

If thou

wilt love

n

If you

will love

will love

III If they

will love

III If he


Word Building and Verb Formulation

116

Future Imperfect or Continuous I

I

shall be loving

II

Thou wilt be loving

ill He

I

We shall be loving

II

You wid be loving

ill Theywill be loving

will be loving

Future Perfect I

I

shall have loved

II

Thou wilt have loved

ill He

will have loved

I

We shall have loved

II

You will have loved

ill Theywill have loved

Future Perfect Continuous I

I

II

Thou wilt have been loving

ill He

shall have been loving I will have been loving

II

We shallhavebeenloving You will have been loving

ill Theywill have been loving

Imperative Mood 1.

Love (thou) 2.

Love (ye, or you) Infinitive Mood

Indefinit, To love

Perfect, To have loved

Imperfect or Continuous, To be loving Perfect Continuous, To have been loving

Gerunds Nom. and Obj., Loving

Dative, To love

Participles Present Ind.

Past

Past Participle

Loving

Loved

Having loved

Perfect Continuous, Having been loving EXERCISE

Give the Mood, Tense, Person, and Number of the verbs in the following :-

I have been walking. You commanded. We shall leave. I am going. He has departed. If I write. I shall have sent. Love your


117

Word Building and Verb Formulation

enemies. You had returned. If I have examined. Having defeated. You had been sleeping. He ought to love him. Look before you leap. I am making the box. John has been speaking. They will have arrived. I shall go next week. You may do it. He can remain. I see a boy riding. He likes reading. Lying is base. If he came, I will go with him. Let him that stole, steal no more. If he should come before night I will let you know. Had they invited me I should have gone. To have seen him again would have been a great pleasure to me. To be wasting your time when there is so much for you to do is foolish. Buy the truth and sell it not. Conjugate fully the following verbs ;- Write, bring, steal, keep, make. Passive Voice The Passive Voice is formed by adding the Past Participle of a transitive verb after the verb to be in all the moods and tenses, thus

Conjugation of to be loved. Pres. Ind., Am loved

Past, Was loved

Perfect Part, Been loved Indicative Mood Present Indefinite

I

I

am loved

I

We

are loved

II

Thou art loved

II

You

are loved

m

He

m

They are loved

is loved

Present Imperfect or Continuous I

I

am being loved

I

We

are being loved

II

Thou art being loved

II

You

are being loved

m

He

m

They are being loved

is being loved

Present Perfect I

I

II

m

have been loved

I

We

have been loved

Thou hast been loved

II

You

have been loved

He

m

They have been loved

has been loved


Word Building and Verb Formulation

118

Past Indefinite I

I

was loved

I

We

were loved

II

Thou wert loved

II

You

were loved

ill He

ill They were loved

was loved

Past Imperfect or Continuous I

If!

II

If thou wert being loved II

ill If he

If we

was being loved I

were being loved

If you were being loved

were being loved ill If they were being loved Past Perfect

I

If I

II

If thou hadstbeenloved II

ill If he

had been loved had been loved

I

If we

had been loved

If you had been loved

ill If they had been loved

Future Indefinite I

If!

II

If thou wouldst be loved II

ill If he

should be loved would be loved

I

If we

should be loved

If you would be loved

ill If they would be loved

Future Perfect If I

should have been loved

If we should have been loved

II If thou wouldst have been loved II III If he

would have been loved

If you would have been loved

III If they would have been loved

Imperative Mood II

Be (thou) loved

II

Be (ye or you) loved

Infinitive Mood

Indefinite, To be loved

Perfect, To have been loved Gerunds

Nom. and Obj., Being loved Dative, To be loved Participles

Imperfect or Continuous, Being loved Perfect, Been loved Compound Perfect, Having been loved


Word Building and Verb Formulation

119

The Inflections of the Tenses Verbs ending in ss, sh, ch, x or 0, form the third person singular of the present indicative by adding es; as (dress) he dresses; (march) he marches; (go) he goes, etc. Verbs ending in y change y into i, before the terminations est, es, eth, or ed, but not before ing; as, (try), triest, tries, tried, trying; but y with a vowel before it is not changed into i; as, (pray) prayest, prays or prayeth, prayed, praying, etc. Verbs accented on the last syllable, and verbs of one syllable ending in a single consonant after a single vowel, double the final consonant before the terminations eth, est, ed, ing, etc., but never before s; as (cut), cutteth, cuttest, cutting, cuts; (forget), fortettest, forgetting, etc.; (repeat), repeatest, repeating, etc. EXERCISE

Conjugate the following verbs in the Passive Voice ;- Slay, forgive, shake, reward. Give the Voice, Mood, Tense, Person, and Number of the verbs in the following sentences ;Thou art praised. Thou canst love me. The thieves were all caught. She will love them. Having hated. We should love all men. Thou shalt love thy neighbout. You were loved Remember my advice. We must learn our lessons. They had been forgotten. Thou shalt be rewarded. If he be calld, he will come. He should be punished. He was informed of it. Theymight have loved their friends. Temperance preserves health. Honesty is the best policy. Had anything occurred he would have written. Put the follOWing sentences first into Past, and secondly into Future tenses ;The sun sinks below the horizon. The grain is ready to be cut. At the change of the monsoon, it thounders and lightens terribly. the general has taken his departure. I am going to school. It is impossible for me to do it. the waves are dashing over the pier. This course is approved by Government, and we have to agree to it. Write the second and third persons singlular of ;-


120

Word Building and Verb Formulation

Catch, grind, hope, destroy, injure, crave, pass, err, hunt, tug, sob, attend, differ, apply, copy betray.

Make two sentences, each containing a verb in the present perfect continuous tense, indicative mood, active voice. Make two sentences, each containing a verb in the future imperfect tense, indicative mood, active voice. Make two sentences, each containing a verb in the past imperfect tense, indicative mood, passive voice. Make two sentences, each containing a verb in the past imperfect tense, subjunctive mood, passive voice. Other Auxiliary or Defective Verbs Some verbs in frequent use are thus conjugated :To Do

Present Tense Past Tense

Perfect Participle

Do DidDone

Present Tense Singular do

I

I

II

Thou doest or doth

ill He

Plural

does, doeth or doth

I

We

do

II

You do

ill They do

Past Tense Singular I

I

II

Thou didst

ill He

Plural

did

I

We

did

II

You did

ill They did

did

Imperatice-Do Infinitive-To do. Participles Present-Doing Perfect-Done Go has went in the past tense, and gone in the participle. Tho following verbs are more or less defective, or wanting in some_parts :-


Word Building and Verb Formulation

121

May Present Tense

Plural

Singular I

I

may

I

We

may

II

Thou

mayest

II

You

may

may

ill They

ill He

may

Past Tense

Singular

Plural

I

I

might

I

We

might

II

Thou

mightest

II

You

might

might

ill They

ill He

might

Can Present Tense

Singular

Plural

I

I

can

I

We

can

II

Thou

canst

II

You

can

can

ill They

ill He

can

Past Tense

Singular

Plural

I

I

could

I

We

could

II

Thou

couldst

II

You

could

could

ill They

ill He

could

May means to be allowed, to be possible; chance; as, I may go; he may come. Placed before its subject, it expresses a wish; as May you prosper! Can expresses power; as, I can do it. It is also used to express permission; as, You can go if you like. here can = may. May and can were formerly used to form what was called the Potential Mood. Must expresses necessity, duty, or certainty of inference; as, I must be off; You must be wrong; The wells must be dry by this time.


122

Word Building and Verb Formulation

Must does not change for tense, numbr, or person. It is used only in the Indicative. Ought is the past tense of the verb owe, to have. It is used as a present to express duty, and is always followed by an infinitive; as, I oughtto go; You oughtto have done it. When past time is expressed, ought is joined to a perfect infinitive; as, I ought to have done it. Quoth means said. It is used only in the first and third persons in the past tense, and precedes its subject; as, quoth he. It is now very rarely used. Worth, in Woe worth the day, is from worthen to become, and means woe be to the day. The noun following is in the indirect objective. Dare: In the sense of to ha ve courage, to venture, this verb has both dare and dares in the third person, sing. present, and dared or durst in the past in all persons. When followed by a negative dare only is used; as, He dare not do it. In the sense of challenge dares only is used in the third person, sing. present, and dared in the past; as, He dares you to do it; I dared him to meet me. Need is a regular verb, signifying require. Like dare it is used without the final s in the third person present indicative when followed by a negative; as, He need not go; He needs a rest. Needs has become an ad verb meaning ofnecessity; as, I must needs write. Various Forms of Verbs The Emphatic form is used to give more force, as a person raises his voice in speaking. It consists in placing the infinitive of the verb afte do or did; thus :Indicative Mood

Present Emphatic I

Ido

love

I

We

do love

II

Thou dost

love

II

You

do love

rn

He does or doth love.

rn

They

did love

Past Emphatic I

I did

love

I

We

did love


123

Word Building and Verb Formulation II

Thou didst

ill Hedid

love

II

You

love

ill They

did love did love.

The Interrogative form is used in asking questions. It consists in placing the nominative between the auxilary and the verb; thus, Shall I go? If there is no auxiliary, do or did is usually placed before the nominative; thus, Do I write well? Did you here?

An interrogative sentence may also be formed by placing the verb before its subject; as, Lovest thou me? Said he not so? This old form is now seldom used, except in poetry, and with the verb to be; as, Is he here? A polite request may be made in the interrogative form; as, "Will you have the goodness to do so and so?" The Negative form is used in denying. It requires not, or some other negative. If there is an a uxiliary, not is inserted after it; as, We will not get it. If there is no auxiliary, do is usually put before not; as, I do not wish to go. Not is sometimes simply placed after the verb; as, he spoke not a word. Not is placed before the infinitive; as, I told him not to come.

Do is not emphatic when used in interrogative and negative sentences. EXERCISE

Parse the nouns and pronouns, and give the mood and tense of the verbs, in the following sentences :I must not do it. Can you lend me your knife? He ought to do his duty. My father told me that I might go. "Bring it to me," quoth he. You may go tomorrow. I could give the money if I wished. Did you tell him to come? You can get it next week. I do not see him. She may go as soon as she can. May I speak to her? Could you come tomorrow? Ought I not to let him know? You must be early or you will have to wait. How can I help you? If you are so careless no help will be of any use. Any man may take a horse to water, but no man can make it drink. Boast not


124

Word Building and Verb Formulation

thyself of tomorrow, for thou knowest not what a day may bring forth. If he had said so I should have believed him. If you would lend me your dictionary, I should be much obliged to you. The officer fell while leading his troops. We arrived there first by taking a shorter road. By using false pretences he gained his end, but he suffered for it afterwards.

EXERCISE Put the following sentences into the emphatic form :-

I like him. He told them. Ask him. I detest tobacco. Bid them go away. The two boys fought. Come with me. The sun shines. Their horse bolted. The cock crows early. Put the following sentences into the interrogative form:-

I shall go. He is there. We have some oranges. Your father paid him. You like music. She has finished the book. He has received my letter. They did not understand the questions. There is a tiger in the jungle. He that sows iniquity shall reap vanity. A merry heart maketh a cheerful countenance. Put the following sentences into the negative form :-

He will come. You are fortunate. My brother went away. I am well. Is he afraid? I have finished my exercise. We found them at home. He was shot by the enemy. A wise man keeps silent. Tell me all. The tide comes in slowly. Correct the following errors :Why you come? What they are doing? When the battle of Plassey was fought? To whom you will give this book? You were absent yesterday? Why you told my father? Why you tell lies? How the carpenter does his work? The teacher has come or not? Why you did come? How then you come here? Causative Verbs, Etc. Causative Verbs are those which mean to cause or make. Only a few English verbs have a causal form; as, rise, causal, raise; fall, fell; sit, set; see, shew; lie, lay; etc.; The tree falls; he felled the tree.


Word Building and Verb Formulation

125

Some verbs take a causal sense without any change of form; as, Water boils; He boils the water; Charles ran; The doctor ran a needle into the boil. Intransitive verbs become transitive when used in a causal sense. The causal sense may also be expressed by othe words as, I made him do it. The name Factative is given to some transitive verbs which take one object only,. but require some word or pharase to be added to the verb to make its sense complete; as, The soldiers made him emperor. The word emperor is added to complete the sense of the verb, and is called its Complement. The Complement may be a noun, an adjective, a participle, a phrase, etc.; as, He set him free; They forced him togo. Some intransitive verbs take objects after them of a similar meaning; as, He fought a good fight. Such objects are said to be Cognate, because they are from the same root as the verb. Impersonal Verbs are used in the third person singular; as, it rains, it thunders, how dark it grows. In methinks, it is omitted and the pronoun in the objectives is placed before the verb. The meaning is, It appears to me. Parsing of Verbs The following is the order to be observed:(1) Conjugation (strong, weak); (2) Kind (transitive) intransitive); (3) Voice; (4) Mood; (5) Tense; (6) Person; (7) Number ;(8) Relation to order words in the sentence. If the verb is incomplete its complement should be named. Examples

"The stone you threw smashed the window." Threw: verb, strong, transitive, active, indicative, past, 2nd person, singular, agreeing with its subject you, and governing the relative which (understood). Smashed: verb, weak, transitive, active, indicative, past 3rd person. singular, agreeing with its subject stone, and governing window.


126

Word Building and Verb Formulation "To be diligent is wise."

To be ; verb intransitive, incomplete (complement diligent) forming, with its complement, an infinitive noun-phrase. Is; verb, intransitive, incomplete (complement wise) indicative, present, third person, singular, agreeing with its subject to be diligent.

DOD


CHAPTER

FIVE

ESSENTIAL SKILLS OF SPEECH MAKING

One of the wise practices of modem educational methods is to begin a course "from where the students are now." We may not like where they are. We may wish they were much more able then they are. We may even think they will never do the work of the course. Whatever we think, we should begin, with any particular class, from where they are now. And so it is with this course. We need to take inventory of your needs and abilities. We want to know where you are now in your progress toward speaking effectively. Experienced teachers will pretty well know "where you are now." They know about how much experience a class like yours has had and about what the inventory will show. But you need to know something about it too. Therefore, we will find out where you stand and go on from there. The assignments in this book are built on the inventories of many hundreds of students. It is likely that yours will show many of the same strengths and weaknesses that the others have shown. But we need to find out again, from you. We need know you. Remember that you, the speaker, are not exactly like any other speaker in any other class. As you participate in the work of this class you get to know your classmates better than you will in nearly


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any other course, and they will come to know you equally well. It is you as a person that we will get to know. What Dose This Inventory Include? This inventory includes many of the things that we believe are important to know in order to help you get the most benefit from this course. These things include a little about your personal background and examples of your speaking and reading aloud. There are six steps in this inventory: (1) your background; (2) the basic behaviours; (3) the essential skills of speech making; (4) the essential skills of reading aloud; (5) phonation; and (6) articulation. Your Background: It makes a difference who you are. Some people have a background that may already have helped them become better speakers than others may ever become. Some may have a background that has hindered their making progress in speech making. You might help you become a better speaker.

The Basic Behaviours of Speech: When you speak, under any circumstances, whether in public or in private conversation, you have ideas. You formulate them through the use of words into thought units (usually sentences), and you express them through the activity of the nerves and muscles of your body. This action results in vocal tones, speech sounds, and bodily movements. For convenience of study these actions are classified as follows:

Adjustment to the Speaking Situation : This involves the management of the functioning of your entire bodily mechanism during speech. Speakers who are not well adjusted to the speaking situation may be ill at ease, unnatural, tense, nervous, hesitant, uncertain, or unable to speak coherently. The well-adjusted speaker, on the other hand, is likely to be poised, natural, and calm, and to speak directly to his listeners. Formulation of Thought: Single words and words arranged in thought units, as used by the speaker, are the basic for creating in the mind of the listener the ideas that the speaker has thought or is


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thinking. Inadequacy in this activity is evidenced when the speaker's continuing thoughts are unrelated, interrupted, or inconsistent; when his statements are ambiguous, obscure in meaning, inexact, incomplete, or ungrammatical; when his vocabulary is limited, inaccurate, or inexpressive; or when his pronunciation are noticeably incorrect or inaccurate, often showing a lack of familiarity with the words he is using. Excellence here means that the speaker's thoughts are related, that his statements are clear and exact, and that his vocabulary is better than ordinary "hall-talk." Phonation: This includes the production and variation of tones of the voice and their pitch, intensity, duration, and quality, through which the speaker expresses variations in meaning. Pitch refers to highness or lowness of tone. Intensity refers to loudness of tone. Duration refers to the length of time a tone lasts. Quality refers to the individuality of the tone, its clearness, richness, and pleasantness. Articulation: This involves the modification of tones of the voice in forming the speech sounds while speaking. Speech sounds consist basically of vowels and consonants, which must be formed in continuous series correctly, accurately, and fluently if the listener is to understand easily what the speaker is saying. Essential Skills of Speech Making: OccaSionally, we find it necessary to speak in public. Public speaking requires the exercise of certain skills go beyond those used on conversing. These skills, for purpose of study, are classified as follows:

Choice of Subject : Selection of a general topic or field of knowledge to talk about to a specific audience. Choice of Thought: The selection and statement of one specific phase of a subject that can be adequately covered in the time allowed. Choice of Material: The selection of experiences, illustrations, examples, anecdotes, opinions to develop or amplify the specific thought selected.


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Organization of Material: The arrangement of thoughts and materials in a manner and order best suited to secure and hold the attention of the listeners and to help them understand and remember what the speakers say. Use of Language : The selection of words and their arrangement into thought units to express the speaker's ideas. Projection to The Audience: The children and enthusiasm with which the speaker presents and interprets the meaning of his thoughts. He must strongly stimulate the listener in order to gain and hold his attention and to cause him to respond appreciatively. The speaker's voice is important; his body must be with the full meaning-the ideas and feelings-of what he is saying to stir the listener to active participation in the situation and to insure complete and sympathetic understanding. Control of Bodily Activity: Controlled posture, movements, and gestures while speaking. Such activity aids the speaker in focusing the attention of the listener of the ideas expressed. Bodily activity must be natural and must not call attention to itself. Some effective speakers use much bodily action; others use very little. Rhythm : Fluency in speaking, suitable individual rate of speaking, appropriate changes in the rate of speaking, and the use of pauses without noticeable jerkiness, interruptions, repetitions, or hesitations.

Pronunciation: Choice of the proper speech sounds and their appropriate combination into syllables and words which are spoken correctly and accurately, with stress upon the proper syllables. Voice Control: Control of pitch, intensity, duration, and quality of voice in the expression of meaning, in relation both to the ideas expressed and to the understanding of the listeners. Not all speakers who project well control their voices well. Essential Skills of Reading Aloud: It is difficult to estimate the number of times one may read aloud in public. But think of the oral reading you have heard children's poems and stories at home, scripture lessons at church meetings, entertainers at club meetings, or speakers on radio and television.


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Although the skills required for reading aloud and for public speaking are basically the same, each represents a different type of skill required special study and practice. The basic skills in reading aloud are as follows: Choice of Material : The choice of a suitable selection for

reading to a specific audience. Arrangement of Material: The use of an appropriate introduction and the use of appropriate transitional and connecting remarks to give unity to the material read. Arrangement includes cutting the selection if necessary. Projection of Thought: Interpretation of the thought content

of the material to give a full understanding of its meaning to the listener. Projection of Emotion: Interpretation of the underlying spirit, mood, feeling, and emotional content of the material to insure an appropriate emotional response by the listener. For control of bodily activity, rhythm, pronunciation, and voice control, see the corresponding section above under "Essential Skills of speech Making." Phonation: This is the production of voice. We consider your voice as a part of your skills in the essentials of speech making and reading aloud. Now let us think of it for itself. There are four elements which distinguish your voice from all others: your pitch (the highness or lowness of your voice), your duration (the length of time you hold a tone), your intensity (the loudness of the sounds your make), and your quality. In order to identify voice qualities which are considered unpleasant or "unnatural," we use descriptive words such as the following: 1. Muffled: The tones and sound seem to be produced in the throat. Make the sound 00 as in the word "moot" several times. Then speak a sentence so that the tones of your voice sound as much as possible like 00, and you will have a sample of this type of quality. The tones seem to be throaty, dull, and indistinct.


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2. Metallic: The tones and sound seerr~ to originate in the mouth. Make the sound ee several times. Then speak a sentence so that the tones of your voice sound as much as possible like ee, and you will have a sample of this type of quality. The tones seem to be thin, flat, and without richness; they sound high in pitch. They may carry well but are somewhat unpleasant to hear. 3. Nasal: Too much nasal resonance, because the breath stream is directed mostly through the nose, rather than the mouth. The sound you make has a "humming" Quality about it , somewhat like the "rna-rna" sound of a talking doll. 4. Denasal: A lack of nasal resonance. For amuselhent, you can exaggerate this quality by making all m sounds as b, and r sounds as d. Thus "moon" becomes "bood." "Noon" becomes "Dood."

5. Harsh: A raucous, unpleasant, unmusical voice whose tones are more like noises In pitch the tones may be high or low. 6. Hoarse: Husky-A voice which sounds as some voices do during or following a server cold.

7. Breathy: Breathing noises, as in exhalation, are heard above the vocal tone. The individual may try to speak as he is inhaling. 8. Infantile: A baby voice used habitually by one of highschool age or older.

Articulation: The production of speech involves breathing, phonation, resonation, and articulation. The last refers to the way you embellish your tones to form the identifying sounds of speech. Now What? Do you speak effectively? Few students do. The purpose of this course is to help you to achieve a style of speaking which is as natural, correct, and effective as possible for you. The pathways toward achieving this goal will vtary with your needs and abilities, the condition of your speech mechanism, and the environment form -./


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which you have come. In spite of limitations you can improve you speech. Here have been many instances of students who have become effective speakers in spite of initial inadequacies, poor equipment, and lack of experience. The first step in improvement is for you to discover and recognize your needs and abilities as a speaker. We have tried to do this in the set of six items in your speech inventory. The second step is to become familiar with the goals you must attain and the pathways you must follow in attaining those goals. The third step is to supplant the old undesirable habits with new and more desirable ones through diligent practice and rehearsal before and after any speaking experiences for you which will direct you toward the goals you should try to attain. You must do the rest through your own unstinted effort. In addition, you should take the opportunity whenever possible to hear good speakers and to speak frequently yourself. If you are

thus stimulated by others and stimulate yourself, your improvement't will be more effectively facilitated. The stimulation received from hearing or making a good speech may exercise subtle and unsuspected but nevertheless marked influences on your future performances. The first principle for you to learn is that there are no rigid, hard, and fast rules for speaking at all times. The principles stated in the following pages are submitted as wise principles to be followed in most speaking situations. You have a greater chance of becoming a successful speaker if you follow them then if you do not. When you have become an experienced speakers, astute in audience analysis, an authority on your subject, and confident of your success, you may do as you please, but you probably will not find it necessary to forsake the habits which practice in the use of these principles has engendered. You may rest assured that they are sound. They have stood the test of time as well the scrutiny of scientists and artists. Recognizing Your Needs Abilities: In the ratings your instructor made of your inventory performances, you will probably note more "4" rating than any


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other. The reason is that "4" means adequate, and most of the people are about that. Do not be surprised, however, it at the outset of this course you rate a "3" or a "2" in "Adjustment to the Speaking Situation" and "Formulation of Thought", "choice of Thought," "Organization of Material," and "Projection to the Audience", and" Arrangement of Material," "Projection of Emotion," and "Voice Control". Most students have little trouble with the production of vocal tones or an acceptable quality, pitch, intensity, and duration. But about 10 percent of you will have an articulation inadequacy. Preliminary to making detailed plans for handling the instructional phases of the language programme. It is assumed that the teacher has taken certain steps. First, he has selected the language experiences to be stressed in the grade according to the apparent needs of the pupils and the course of study and textbook provisions, and he has considered relative importance. Second, he has made a working list of abilities and skills needed by the pupils in carrying on the experiences. Third, he has made at least a beginning in the diagnosis of the needs of his pupils in experiences as well as in abilities and skills. And fourth, he has blocked out the semester's work mainly in terms of major experiences. At this point the teacher is ready to develop his program by making plans for handling the various instructional phases. The program includes both experience phases and ability and skill phases; both require consideration and planning. The primary basis for planning is, of course, experiences; abilities and skills are treated as integral parts of the experiences and as separate phases to the extent that organized instruction and practice are required for mastering them. The first experiences to be considered are those included in the group "oral communication," consisting of conversation, discussion, telephoning, and meetings. Oral-communication experiences are taken up first because fundamental oral abilities are well developed by the time the child enters school, because oral work is the basic medium of instruction in the early years, and because (and this is a point that may not receive the attention it


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deserves) habits of oral communication lay the basis for all later language development. Listening is treated as a phase of oral communication. The oral communication experiences are characterized by informality and spontaneity. The objectives are the social purposes of enjoyment, exchanging ideas, giving information, and to some extent, reaching a conclusion or deciding on a course for group action. Informality and spontaneity are encouraged in the spirit and manner of carrying on the experiences and in the setting of standards appropriate to them. It is not required, for example, that children use complete sentences in conversation at all times; and some slang is acceptable. The several experiences have much in common and also have important differences which the teacher will do well to note. Thus, conversation is very general in purpose; the entertainment feature dominates. Discussion, on the other hand, has a more definite goal and follows more rigid requirements in setting up and ,carrying out problems. Telephoning is sometimes handled as a specialized phase of conversation, but it has its own language requirements. Meetings involve several kinds of language experiences, such as talks, reports, discussion, and written minutes, as well as those especially relating to parliamentary procedures and courtesy; meeting are treated here with emphasis on the discussion phase, while the other component language phases will be treated in later chapter. Conversation:

Objectives : The first language experience in school is the informal type which we call conversation. The child learns how to talk with other people and begins the improvement of basic language habits, It follows, therefore, that through early school-life conversation the child may be favourably conditioned toward language, and that he should begin to acquire the attitudes, abilities, and skills that will be useful later in all fonns of expression, oral and written. Primarily important is the desire, the willingness, to participate. Shyness, fear of expressing himself orally before others, must give way to confidence and poise before the pupil can accomplish much


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in improving abilities and skills that lead to easy and comfortable expression. Little Patricia was timid, shy, self-effacing. Her first attempt to share in the conversation occurred when, in a high, sing-song voice she announced one morning, "Last night we had pork chops and my sister came down with the baby." This was a far cry from a complete statement, yet to Patricia it was important. Questions were asked to encourage Patricia to feel that she had made an important contribution: "Did you have mashed potatoes with the pork chops?" "How old is your sister's baby?" "What is the baby's name?" The word nephew was introduced, since the baby was Patricia's nephew. A shy child was showing a little spool doll which she had made. "1 made this doll while I was at home sick with a cold," she said. To the children's comments-"That's cute!" "How did you make it?" "Why did you make the hair blue?"-the child was obliged to reply. She had to tell how she made the doll and justify the blue hair. In so doing she felt important and forgot her shyness. Somewhat late in development is the desire to improve in quality of expression and the willingness to admit need as well as to seek help in correcting mistakes. This development comes gradually under favourable classroom conditions. Courtesy is closely related to willingness to participate; the attentive, friendly class and teacher stimulate the speaker. The courteous speaker does not offend or alienate his audience. The courteous critic offers suggestions in a constructive, friendly manner. The courteous listener not only keeps quiet but also follows the thought of the speaker and shows his attention and interest by asking stimulating questions and making pertinent comments. Primary emphasis in the early years is properly placed what is said-on content. The teacher can aid the pupil in forming a habit of saying something worthwhile by helping him select a topic within his interest, knowledge, and experience Children need training in choosing good topics-such as those which provide opportunities for expressing personal feeling-and in avoiding catalogues of events and the trivial and sensational. Another consideration in choosing topics is limiting them in scope to a single phase-a single


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experience, incident, idea, or feeling. Sheridan says the good topic is "personal, definite, and brief." At times conversation will be improved by inclusion of details, so that the whole story is told. In the primary grades children tend to follow patterns in their comments and talks, and at times confuse fiction and reality; therefore, teachers wisely advise children to express their own thoughts and to distinguish between the real and the make-believe. Emphasis on sticking to the point may well begin early in the grades, although gradual growth is recognized as a necessity. Primary children can give attention路 to simple sequence by telling things in the order in which they occurred. Later, some attention can be given to improving beginning and ending sentences. The idea that communication involves the expression of a complete thought is one of the basic language concepts, and the development of the sentence sense is properly stressed. Although many incomplete sentences are used in informal conversation, complete sentences are conventional in more formal situations, such as talks and reports. Children should clearly recognize and use sentences; they should be taught to avoid meaningless phrases and sentences loosely joined by ands. The more mature pupils in the primary grades can learn to use a variety of sentence constructions. They can also make a beginning in learning to choose words that express meaning exactly and to avoid trite, overworked words. The basic elements of audibility, distinctness, correct pronunciation, voice control, and possibly phases of audience contact can be emphasized in the primary grades. Baby talk is not an uncommon phenomenon that should be corrected by removing the cause. Usage should not be emphasized to the detriment of content, but work on gross crudities may well begin early, particularly on the use of common verbs. The child should have many opportunities to hear the correct from, and occasionally incidental correction can be used. The teachers of later grades will naturally locate children in their various stages of development and will begin instruction at the proper level. Individual differences will be noted at all grade


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levels and the necessary adjustments made. Specific techniques for late development may include talking about pleasant things; avoiding long, tedious accounts; avoiding personalities; avoiding a change of topics too abruptly; avoiding debates; and talking in terms of other people's interests. Emphasis on Specific Objectives: Although any language experience involves the exercise of many abilities and skills, not all of them can be stressed at one time. It is necessary to set up specific points of emphasis. In discussing the need for specific rather than general objectives, Brown and Butterfield say:

Instead of specific language aims, such general aims as the following are often given: 1. Ability to converse easily, agreeably, and effectively. 2. Ability to present facts clearly. 3. Habit of expressing ideas in clear, ready speech. 4. Ability to express one's thought orally to an audience. 5. Ability to respond effectively to an inquiry. Any such general aims may, of course,. be factored into a number of specific aims. If the primary teacher makes no further analysis of the language teaching situation than that she wants the children to improve in conversation, or that she hopes they may learn to express their thoughts orally to an audience, there will probably be little improvement. Without greater focusing of attention she is not able to plan definite procedures which will make for progress. Her plan is vague, and her efforts are spread over too broad a field. In order to insure progress in such a complex subject as language, the teacher should single out for attention one or more specific aims and plan each lesson with a definite aim in mind. If he has not already done so, the teacher may well make a check list of general and specific language goals and make an analysis of the status and specific needs of his class and of individ ual pupils in relation to the broad language experience. The individual-class record sheet is helpful in this tas~ Diagnosis takes the form of observations and informal judgments of pupils' performances. The teacher must make a selection of specific goals from the analysis, using his best judgment in regard to needs and


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order of treatment. In the statement of objectives above, an attempt was made to suggest an order of emphasis. The wide variability in pupil capacity and performance requires that individual goals, as well as class goals, be defined. Children should recognize their own needs possibly making individual check lists. Recognition of specific, individual needs will be apparent in the way the teacher directs the work and in the concentration of the pupils on specific goals.

Finding Purposeful Occasions: Children have so many experiences in and out of school and they enjoy so much the sharing of real experiences that the teacher should never be at a loss for stimulating topics of conversation. Many of these will arise in connection with various curricular activities, such as the care of the teeth, a study of how pioneers made clothes, the reading of items in current newspapers and magazines, field trips, flowers and birds, books, pictures, and music. Others will arise from children's out-ofschool interests, such as hobbies, movies, pets, sports, and occurrences in the community. In addition to real experiences, interesting possibilities for later grades are found in imaginary conversations among historical and fictional characters, such as between tourist and guide in Holland, among representatives of various colonies attending the Constitutional Convention, and among representatives of countries in a United Nations assembly. Materials: Most of the material suitable for stimulating conversation will appear naturally as phases of work in other subjects and in school and community activities, as suggested by the topics above. In certain situations, such as in working with children beginning to learn English, objects and pictures will provide a basis for vocabulary work and will stimulate conversation; but even these will be chosen for their value as sources of information in important curricular areas, particularly the social studies and nature study. The modem language textbooks, especially those for the primary grades, contain pictures for conversation. Pictures are used not only to provide grades, contain pictures for conversation. Pictures are used not only to provide topics but also to direct children in developing certain language abilities. For example, in McKee and Harrison's second-grade book, Let's Talk, a series of pictures


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represents narrative episodes in logical sequence, designed to develop the idea of organization. Processes in Conversation: A suitable procedure for handling conversation experiences, in either a single lesson or in a series of lessons, is the following: ,

1.

Set up a present, worthy occasion.

2.

Encourage informal participation.

3.

As the period progresses, call attention to the effective contributions, and list some of the important standards.

4.

Have each child select an important goal for himself.

5.

Take time to prepare for further participation.

6.

Proceed with the experience evaluating each child's performance in terms of achievement towards his own goals.

The present, worthy occasion is one naturally arising in some phase of the work, as suggested above under the headings Finding Purposeful Occasions and Materials, or one especially set up by the teacher for the purpose of inducing conversation. The teacher may relate a personal experience; for example, he may tell about the unusual behaviour of a squirrel which he saw that morning, and ask, "Have any of you had similar experiences in observing the interesting and unusual behaviour of animals?" Another topic may be a recent assembly program: "Did you," asks the teacher, "enjoy the program? What did you like about it? The show-and-tell period in the primary grades is productive of spontaneous talk. "Plans for the Summer" is a pertinent topic as the vacation period approaches. Hatfield, in the preceding reference, suggests that children should be permitted to engage in the language experience at once, without preliminary instruction in goals, ways, and means. As the conversation period progresses and as interest builds up, the time arrives when attention may be momentarily diverted from subject matter to ways of carrying on the conversation. It will be observed by the pupils that some contributions are better than others. Points appropriate to the grade and maturity of the pupils are then discussed and possibly listed on the board. The teacher uses his


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di8cretion in guiding the children to chov3e a few key points of major importance. The enjoyment of the experience for its own sake is not to be lost in overconcern with technicalities. The instructional phase will add to, rather than detract from, the enjoyment and satisfaction pupils derive from good performance. It may be assumed that work on conversation will continue for some time, in either consecutive or discrete periods. The listing of general goals in the early phases of the work will be followed by analysing individual contributions and by noting individual goals for improvement. In preparation for participation and in the experience itself children will profit from concentrating on their individual goals. The caution regarding the limitation of the number of goals for anyone child is worth repeating. Efforts toward improvement and evidence of improvement should be looked for and rewarded with favourable comment and possibly with checking on a record sheet. ImFrovement in total performance, not simply in a single ability or skill, should be observed; participation should not become merely a practice exercise for the development of skills and abilities.

The teacher will exercise judgment in the nature and amount of running comments and suggestions for improvement. Occasionally a timely suggestion, when an immediate need is felt, is very helpful. Generally, children should not be interrupted; at the conclusion of a contribution, specific suggestions for improvement may be in order, such as the correct pronunciation of a common word or the correction of a gross crudity of usage. Possibly having a word or correct form repeated by the child or by the class will not detract from the free exchange of ideas. The nature and amount of incidental practice will be determined in considerable part by the temperament of the individual child and class. In the report of the lesson that follows, some good points are illustrated, selecting a topic of interest to the children, sticking to the point, and allowing only one person to talk at a time. The lesson is reported by Vera L. White, third grade, Del Paso Heights, California. A flood at yuba City provided an opportunity to begin a unit on watch transportation by means of an informal conversation lesson.


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One little boy during a sharing period told the class that his father had been at Yuba City to help rescue people. The conversation started from this story. John

My dad offered to go and help save some of those people. A man called him on the phone and told him to get someone els~ to go with him, so he did.

David

Was he a life saver in the coast guard?

John

Well, he used to be, but he isn't now, He just wanted to help.

Karen

Did he go right up to the houses and get the people out?

John

Yes, because many people were on top of their tables and even on top of their houses trying to get saved.

Teacher: Were any other kind of boats used in the flood? John

My dad said they used some kind of rubber boat that was used in the last war.

Frank

What kind of boat d;d your dad have?

John

He had a motor boat. It has a motor on the back that is run by gas. It has a thing that goes round and round and it makes the boat go.

Judie

Did your dad get wet?

John

Sure, but he didn't care.

Teacher: Did anyone else go to see the flood? Was anything else used to save those people? Patricia: The helicopters worked all day and night. My mother said some people fell out of the baskets when they were being rescuhl. Teacher: That is right.'Some of the helicopters did not have good baskets to pull the people up in. Connie just came from Hawaii a few days ago. Would you like to tell us how you came across the ocean? Connie : I didn't come on a boat. I came on an airplane. Children: Was it fun? Were you scared? How long did it take you? I would like to do that, etc.


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Teacher: We are all talking at once, and we decided that it was better for only one person to talk at a time. (Connie was very new to the class and did not want to answer all of their questions) Teacher: Let's listen to some other pupils who have been in boats. Freddie: I came from England in a big ship. I was quite little but it was a great big ship. Howard : I rode along the Sacramento River in a boat they called-I can't remember the name of it. Frank

: Was it a yacht?

Howard : Yes, that's what they called it, It had a cabin in it. It dragged another boat behind it. Teacher: We are going to have a good time in learning about the many kinds of boats that are used in transporting people and goods across the wa ter. Teachers: I liked the way you boys and girls talked today. I am sure that everyone heard you. Should we make a list of the things you would like to learn about boats? Let's use complete sentences that say only one thing, so that we can make our meaning clear.

Other Problems : Other problems confront the teacher in handling conversation. It is desirable, in the first place, to work for an informal type of situation. In order to get free expression, it is necessary to reduce self-consciousness. This condition is achieved largely by the attitude assumed and by the handling of the work by the teacher and includes such matters as suitable topics, freedom in pupil choice of topics and in participation, friendly and helpful criticisms, an expressions of appreciation. The seating of the pupils in a compact, social group is a factor also; the children should face one another, and the teacher should participate as a member of the group. Contributing from a sitting position adds to the informality. Stimulating the shy child and tactfully restraining the garrulous one present problems. Timid children appreciate and respond to attention and approval. The teacher will encourage the shy child by inviting participation but not by forcing it. The garrulous child may be restrained by suggesting that everyone should have his


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turn, by neglecting to notice imperious hand waving, and by advising the child to be brief and to the point. In one primary grade it was the practice several times a week to invite any child who wanted to take part in conversation to bring his chair and join the group at the front of the room. The teacher gave the signal by arranging several chairs in the morning. As the children came in and observed the chair arrangement, they knew it meant a conversation period, and anyone who wanted to tell something joined the group. Others took books or busied themselves otherwise. It was an adult situation. No hands were raised, but each child strove to be courteous, to be a good listener, and to speak plainly, concisely, anet interestingly.

In the general sharing and pooling of ideas during an informal conversation period, shy children who will not talk from the isolation of their seats will usually contribute; voices do not have to be raised, and thQ pupils feel a sense of protection from the physical nearness of the other children. The loquacious child has to learn that he must listen or he cannot join the group. In this situation the teacher may get very close to the children and learn much about the interests of the group; recurring crudities of usage may be easily noted, and sometimes gross bits of misinformation are brought to light and explained. The judicious use of criticism by the teacher is effective. Approval of worthy effort is also always in order; such approval does not necessarily have to be for superior levels only, but for any work that is good for a particular pupil. The heartiness of the approval should be adapted to the temperament of the particular child. At times, ignoring obvious faults is necessary to avoid hurting and discouraging an extremely shy child. The value of class criticism is open to question. Group approval is a vital force in classroom behaviour, but the offering of discriminating criticism is something that challenges even the mature and wise teacher. Some teachers feel that children, particularly in the primary grades, are not ready for that responsibility. When such critical comment is permitted, children should be inducted gradually into its use; it should be definitely limited in scope. Other teachers report favourable results from the use of some class criticisms. Observing the effects of class criticism on a particular class should give the teacher the answer.


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For various reasons, the class is sometimes divided into several small groups for conversation. These groups provide opportunities for general participation, which, however, cannot be closely guided; and they simplify the social situation of the shy child. Teacher direction may be given to group work by preliminary discussions and by reports in a checkup period following group work. Sometimes selected groups demonstrate for the whole class. Discussion: Definition: Discussion unquestionably occupies a key position

in the total school program, as well as a prominent place in adult activities. It is a means for learning in much of the work in social studies, nature study, health, arithmetic, and art, and in school and life activities. Discussion in essence is problem solving, the effort to reach an important understaJ'lding by cooperative class thinking. Discussion differs from conversation in that it has a definite purpose or goal. The goal in much of the work is apparent to the pupils as well as to the teacher. In the so-called informal discussion of the primary grades, the goal is apparent to the teacher but possibly not so apparent to the pupils. The procedure is a combination of conversation and the more rigid procedure of discussion. This type of discussion is transitional or hybrid. Children need guidance in the processes of reasoning and they need direct, positive help in setting up problems and in working out logical solutions. Appropriate situations and problems arise in many activities of the school day. Discussion should be distinguished from argument. In discussion the goal to the hones attainment of knowledge; in arguing, the purpose is to defend a position or conclusion already reached by the participant. Discussion should lead to new and better understanding; arguing merely strengthens the convictions of the participants in the soundness of their own original positions. In discussion there is an open-minded search for all the facts; in argument, facts not supporting a favoured position are carefully ignored. Key Objectives : The general language objectives apply in discussion as in conversation and other language activities. These


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objectives are basic and important, and provide the teacher with possible points of attack and emphasis. They are reviewed above under Conversation, but omitted here to save space. It will suffice here to consider the key objectives which distinguish discussion from conversation, in emphasis if not in kind. The clue to distinguishing they key objectives in discussion is found in its purpose, i.e., arriving at a sound understanding or conclusion. In the first place, there must be a definite problem before the class. Setting the problem will be the responsibility of the teacher in the lower grades; but progressively through the grades, the pupils will assume responsibility and gain some ability in setting up specific problem goals for discussion. The problem may require exact definition. A second matter for emphasis is sticking to the point. A certain amount of freedom to change the topic in conversation is permissible, and even desirable, because it adds variety and novelty. In discussion, however, diverging from the point is a waste of time; sticking to the point has purpose and value because it provides opportunity for acquiring an important ability in thinking and speaking. The third point concerns tactful disagreement. Differences of opinion are bound to occur- , concerning facts, the interpretation of facts, and the drawing of conclusions. An attitude of trying to see the other person's point of view and of toleration for a different point of view should be cultivated in all situations involving disagreements. The form as well as the spirit of expressing disagreements is important. In discussion, in the fourth place, there should be respect for authority. Pupils need to discriminate between sources and to respect the statements and conclusions of competent persons. A fifth point for emphasis involves forming independent judgments based on the facts and stating one's own convictions. The pupil should learn to resist the temptation to let other people do his thinking and the temptation to follow merely plaUSible leaders or even majority opinion if he sincerely holds contrary convictions. Other possible goals for the improvement of discussion techniques in later grades include the abilities to distinguish between important and unimportant issues, to raise questions and ask for explanations freely, to avoid repeating what others have already said, to suppress


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anger when one's opinions are attacked, to give accurate and complete information, to obey the chairman, to wait for recognition before speaking, and to participate but not to monopolize.

Purposeful Occasions: Many natural situations for discussing real problems arise in various phases of schoolwork, such as planning a party; deciding how to construct the front of cardboard store or how to make a panorama; organizing the playground for play; determining how to keep the playground clean; emphasizing the importance of care in crossing the street; and investigating why the rabbit lives in a hole in the ground, what makes an airplane fly, or what the fireman does for us. There are many fertile suggestions ~or discussion which appear in language textbooks which are most helpful in supplementing the more immediate problems of school and community life. Processes : The procedure for handling discussions is practically the same as that for conversations. First, the pupils must become conscious of a present, worthy occasion, a problem stated by the teacher or by the pupils. The problem, of course, is not bluntly announced as the work for the period but is allowed to grow out of a consideration of facts and issues in which the reality and significance of the problem are senses. The problem is defined, if necessary. Second, the pupils begin the discussion of the problem. If the discussion proceeds satisfactorily, it is allowed to continue; but if not, the teacher calls the attention of the pupils to the cause of difficulty and leads in considering means for improvement. Possible rules or standards are set up. The textbook, or course, provides ready-made lists of standards; but such standards will be more clearly understood and accepted if they are first proposed and formulated by the pupils. The textbook is useful as a check, however. Third, the pupils consider their own performances, past or present, in terms of the standards: they select one or two for emphasis; and they prepare for further participation, using the standards as guides. Fourth, the pupils again engage in discussion, now attending to specific goals as well as to furthering the discussion. Fifth, reevaluation is made in terms of progress toward the solution of the problem and in terms of individual performances. Sixth, the work is continued in somewhat the same fashion in immediately following


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or in later periods, and individual progress in specific abilities and skills is noted and possibly recorded. During all the work, incidental attention is given to, and some practice provided on, specific abilities and skills as needed by individuals.

Problems: Careful planning on the teacher's part is necessary for directing the lesson in conversation if substantial results are to be achieved; even more is this procedure obligatory in discussion. Planning in discussion takes the form of listing key questions to stimulate and guide the thinking of the class. Planned questions are also useful to aid the teacher in recognizing profitable leads of pupils and to throw before the class when profitable spontaneous questions fail to appear. It is highly desirable, of course, for the pupils to see issues and supply the questions whenever possible. Not many key questions are required, possibly only three to five for a lesson. Sticking to the point is as difficult for children as it is for adults. Having a definite problem helps. The pupil speaker or the class audience may be asked whether a contribution is on the point. Key questions, with a concise statement of the problem, may be written on the ~oard for reference. Irrelevancies may be ignored or cirtically considered, depending on the seriousness of the interruption, economy of time, and the personality of the pupil. Worthy contributions are sometimes lost by the failure of the class to recognize their value or relevancy to the discussion. A good procedure is to make a progressive evaluation of the contributions and an oral summary of points or to keep a running log on the board. A summary may be made at the end of the period: but it is better to keep a cumulative running log, noting and summarizing points as made, while the material is fresh in mind. Pupil leaders for class or groups are sometimes used. Pupil leadership is stimulating, gives a feeling of class responsibility, and provides training in group action. To secure smooth working conditions, it is necessary to give some attention to the discussion of the duties and responsibilities of the members of the group, including the chairman, and to learn certain rules of procedure. This training is even more pertinent to the handling of meetings. The class under pupil leadership, no less than under teacher


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leadership, should be held responsible for substantial accomplishments. Problems of behaviour and discipline may arise in the discussion activity when problems vital to the pupils are considered and when feelings are aroused. Heedless interruptions, personality clashes, and wrangling may defeat the dual purposes of learning something and of developing the techniques and habits of orderly, democratic group behaviour. Setting up an organization after the pattern of adult organizations and using adult procedures tend to lend dignity and preserve order. But the teacher at times may have to perform the functions of a firm but friendly moderator. Implied in the discussion above is the idea that the class will work as a unit. However, discussion groups and other subdivisions such as round tables, panels, and forums may be used to advantage. These variations will appeal to pupils and teachers in the upper grades because they add variety and training in adult procedures. Example of Discussion, Grade 5 or 6 :

Situation: Time has been lost by pupils wandering from the point in the discussion of problems in the social studies. The class is a superior class, accustomed to participate freely in discussions and to take responsibility for leadership. The teacher previously has developed the idea of sticking to the point and has directed class practice lessons. This lesson is a follow-up.

Objective: To improve ability to stick to the point in class discussions.

Preparation: The teacher wrote on the board three problems growing out of the study of Mexico: 1.

Why are the Mexicans poor now when they once had many rich mines?

2.

How has the United States helped Mexico?

3.

What is Mexico doing for her people today?


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The teacher appointed a capable child to act as a discussion leader on each of the three problems. A research period was given, during which each child learned something about each problem. Procedure: 1.

If possible, a circle is formed, so that everyone can see and hear each member of the group.

2.

The teacher announces the discussion lesson and has the pupils recall the need for sticking to the point.

3.

The discussion leader of problem I announces his problem and begins the discussion by commenting on it or by telling a few of the facts about it. He asks whether there is something that can be added or whether there is a question. He has been instructed previously to try to bring everyone into the discussion and to pick up the discussion when it drags. The leader must not interrupt unless members are getting away from the topic. The leader can use various procedures to bring the class back to the problem, such as : a.

Ask the speaker or the class whether the discussion is on the topic.

b.

Reread the topic under discussion.

c.

Ask any number of the group to rise to a point of order when a speaker wanders from the topic.

d.

Encourage any member of the group when in doubt to ask whether the speaker is sticking to the point.

e.

Enter the discussion at the first opportunity and by comments or questions bring the speaker or the class back to the topic.

4.

When the discussion of the first problem has been concluded, the problem is restated by the leader and a conclusion as to whether it was properly solved is drawn by the class.

5.

Through the guidance of the leader, there is a group evaluation of the class improvement in sticking to the point.

6.

The two remaining problems are handled in the same way, improvement in sticking to the point being noted at the conclusion of the discussion of each problem.


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Follow-up: The class is divided into four or five groups, and each group prepares and engages in a group discussion of a topic, giving special attention to sticking to the point. The teacher moves from group to group, advising and guiding as need arises. Telephoning: Telephoning, of course, is not an experience common to school life. We generally train pupils for the use of the telephone in the home rather than in the school. Specific Objective: Training pupils in use of the telephone provides opportunities for the cultivation of certain desirable social attitudes and understandings and for the development of important abilities and skills. They include the following:

1.

Formulate the message or inquiry concisely before making the call.

2.

Give your name and state the purpose of the cell.

3.

Identify yourself in answering a call.

4.

Speak clearly and distinctly.

The use of a party line poses problems of courtesy. A person makes sure that the line is clear before making a call, and he hangs up promptly when he finds the lines in use. Speech and language objectives include brevity, pointedness, speaking distinctly and slowly, and using a well-modulated tone of voice. In addition, certain other specific techniques must be learned : using the directory to find numbers, getting central or dialling, care of the instrument and its hygienic use, and making out-of-town calls.

Situations: Since situations in telephoning are generally situations outside the school, the situation that is set up for learning in the school is usually a recalled or imaginary situation, adapted to the level of maturity of the pupils. The situations represent social " uses and include: 1. Calling mother to see whether one can visit a friend. 2. Receiving a message for some other member of the family.


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Essential Skills of Speech Making 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Making an emergency call to a doctor. Reporting a fire. Ordering groceries. Extending and invitation. Expressing thanks for a favour.

Processes: Tht! processes are similar to those for other types of oral communication but require certain modifications. First, the occasion for using the telephone may be created by recalling the uses of the telephone in the home or possibly by setting up a situation where a pupil must make a particular call for himself or for the class. Second, opportunity for discussion is provided, adapted to the particular purpose and to the grade level. In the discussion, a toy telephone is useful for study and demonstration. Listing steps of procedure may help. Third, selected pupils may carryon typical, imaginary conversations before the class. Fourth, there should be evaluation of specific points by the class. This demonstration and practice work continues. As a follow-up the pupils may make calls at home and report experiences to the class, noting good and bad practices. Especially bad practices may be highlighted by dramatization or monologue. A representative of the telephone company may explain and demonstrate, or the class may take a trip to the telephone exchange. Thus, discussion, demonstration, dramatization, and reporting are the basic procedures of instruction. Meetings: Meetings have a place, even if not a prominent one, in the school life of children and, of course, in adult life as well. Training in organized group behaviour not only contributed to the effectiveness of the children's voluntary, cooperative enterprises but also sets up situations in which there is a definite and immediate need for certain types of social behaviour and language abilitiEs. The training received in meeting techniques should carry over into other types of group situations involving discussion.

Specific Objectives: Pupil participation in meetings gives point and emphasis to many of the language abilities and skills, particularly those of discussion, and in addition involves certain parliamentary procedures. Specific social objectives in the latter


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(lrea include gaining the attention of and addressing the chairman, making a motion, discussing a motion, seconding a motion, amending a motion, calling for a vote to end unduly prolonged d.ebate, voting, choosing officers, presiding, acting as secretary or treasurer, presenting reports, observing order of business, delaying action for further consideration, and adjourning. Specific language and speech techniques concern such matters as having a point and sticking to it, speaking at the proper time, gi ving convincing reasons for a proposal, organizing ideas and presenting them with clarity and directness, proposing tactful disagreement, avoiding personalities, and speaking clearly and forcefully. Situations: Situations should be natural ones growing out of the organized activities of the children, including class, student council, and club meetings. Need and desire for improved handling of the activities provide the motives for the language lesson. Processes : The general procedure for directing oral communication experiences applies vary well to the handling of meetings. The occasion, of course, is provided by some school activity. Participation follows immediately; or if the teacher feels that it is necessary, he leads in a preliminary consideration of organization and procedure. If the meeting proceeds in an effective, orderly manner, the pupils are allowed to continue without interruption. Otherwise, time is taken out for providing the needed instruction and guidance. Children should be thoroughly conscious of the immediate purpose-which is to secure well-planned, reasoned action-and of the value of learning useful parliamentary procedures. They should experience the satisfaction of and gain confidence from, noting and checking progress in both areas. They should bear responsibility in proportion to their maturity and capabilities. A third grade organized a book club and then nominated and elected the following officers: president, vice-president, and secretary. The pupils decided that the duty of the secretary was to write down the title of each book reported, its author, and the name of the child reporting it. This information was later on printed on a litrger chart which hung on the wall and was used by the group as


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reference when the pupils wanted to draw books from the library. The club met every Tuesday for one-half hour. The following is a stenographic report of a part of the fourth meeting: President: (After taking her place at the front of the room): The Book Club will now open. How many have books to report? Neil, do you want to report first? Neil

(Coming to front of room) : I read a book. Cinder the Cat. The author is Miriam Blanton Huber. There are

seven chapters. The story's quit good. I think. It's about a cat. President: Are there any questions? Child

Is it real interesting?

Neil

I thought so.

Child

Are the pictures coloured?

Neil

Yes, black and yellow. They're quite good.

Child

Is it a true story?

Neil

No.

Child

Is it easy to read?

Neil

Yes.

President: How many would like this book on our list? (The majority votes for it and the secretary records it.)

President: Who else has a book to report? Jack! Jack

(Coming to front of room): I read a story about Tenny Weeny Town. I can't remember the name of the author, but I'll bring it tomorrow. It's about what they make their stuff out of.

Child

What stuff?

Jack

Well, the top of the ketchup bottle was used for a washtub. The characters are dunce, a policeman, a Chinaman-

Child (Interrupting): Awa that comes in the paper. It's a comic. President: Ahy questions? Child

: Did you get it at the public library?


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155

Jack

Yes, It's not a comic.

Child

Are the pictures coloured?

Jack Child

Some of them.

Jack

Yes, for me. May be some of you could read it better. (Class votes this book on the list.)

Is it hard to read?

President: Grant, do you want to report? Grant

I read two books. One was Old Mother West Wmd. It's about Old Mother West Wind and all her peopleReddy Fox, Johnny Chuck, Jimmy Skunk, Billy Mink, and all of them. They all get into mischief. They're all the little people of the forest. Jimmy Skunk steals eggs (chuckles) and that's funny. The author is Thornton W. Burgess. It's very exciting at the end.

President: Are there any questions? Child

Is it hard to read?

Grant

No.

Child

Did you get it from the shelf?

Grant

Yes.

Child

Are there pictures?

Grant

Yes, black and white, and they're on slippery paper.

President: How many want that book on the list? (Majority votes for it.) Grant

My other book was Our Farm Babies by a man named Hamer. It tells all about farm animals and their babies. Tells how they're first born and about them. The boy's name is Johnny. He lives at the farm too.

President: Questions? Child

Is it true?

Grant

It could be.

Child

Are there pictures?

Grant

Yes

Child

Is it hard to read?


Essential Skills of Speech Making

156 Grant

No, not very.

President: Do you want that book on the list? (Majority wants it.) There reports were, of course, very immature, but the children were struggling with the problem of telling something about the story without telling the story itself, which is something of problem even for adults. Their experience with chapter books had been very limited. They had only a few stock questions, and replies in some cases were given without much thought. There were few inquiries about content. It was, however, the children's own club, and they were very serious about it. They ran it them selves, and even the slowest readers were interested and reported easy books from time to time. Usually the question "Is it hard to read?" Came from some slow reader, and the reply was given in terms of the reporting child's capacity. The teacher felt that she could see progress from week to week in interest, in the number of children who wanted to report, and in the quality of the reports. She saw definite improvement and interest in reading. The day before the weekly book club meeting children were so anxious to finish a book to report that it was not unusual for some pupils to prefer to read during the art or game period. It was felt for this reason alone that the project was worthwhile. Other goals and accomplishments of pupils included greater ease and poise before the class when reporting; speaking distinctly; speaking in sentences; vocabulary growth; ability to answer questions and take criticism; and, of course, greater discrimination in the choice of books and increased enjoyment of goods books. In addition to all these points, the project afforded excellent training in sticking to the point, being a good listener, not repeating a question, not wasting time, and participating in simple parliamentary procedures. Listening: Listening as an art is not new in the history of man's cultural development. Long before he learned written forms, man communicated his thoughts orally to someone who listened and who handed them on to someone else. Throughout history masses of people have been swayed by listening.


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The importance of listening as language ability, however, is a very recent discovery; so recent, in fact, that it has not yet materially affected classroom practices. The ability has ijeen taken for granted, apparently under an assumption that as the ~hild matures mentally he acquires without conscious effort facility in listening, or that listening facility is acquired as a by-product of other language experiences. It is now apparent that the child does not learn to listen well either by growing up or through casual experiences. The child does not necessarily learn how to listen by listening. The teacher now proposes to do something about it.

Listening in Life: A strong case can be made for the changed emphasis on listening by observing the place it has in the development of the child and in life today. They child's first language is a listening experience. He gains his first ordered knowledge of the world through the spoken word, and the spoken word provides channels for his thinking and patterns of expression. Learning by hearing continues to be the chief means of learning in the preschool and early school years. Parents use oral communication to give children information about food, dress, manners, and playmates. Inspirational talks on moral values constitute a large part of religious education. Play activities in peer groups are carried on largely by means of conversation and discussion. Thousands of words a day are poured into children's ears by radio and television. In sum, the dominance of oral communication is paralleled by the companion activity of listening. Listening in School: As teachers we have too readily assumed that children naturally learn to listen just as they learn to walk and talk. Now, bombarded as we are by radio and television, which have shifted interest and emphasis away from reading to a considerable extent, we suddenly realize that a large percentage of our children do not listen with comprehension, or discrimination, nor are they above to appreciate or evaluate what they hear. Listening habits are important. Listening is as much an intake skill as reading. Both require active participation. Listening comprehension is very closely related to reading comprehension, usage, and other language abilities.


158

Essential Skills of Speech Making Kinds of Listening: Several kinds of listening can be identifies:

(1) simple listening-telephone conversation, chatting with friends; (2) discrinlinative listening-animal and traffic sounds, identifying birds by songs, changes in the teacher's voice to express mood; (3) listening for relaxation--poetry, stories, records; (4) listening for information-announcements, answers to questions, listing of ideas; (5) listening to organize ideas-putting together material from several sources, discussing findings, summarizing, distinguishing points made in a speech, illustrating a point; (6) critical listeninganalysing the purpose of a speaker in discussion, controversy, talk or sermon, and recognizing bias, emotion, exaggeration, propaganda, perplexity, irritation, etc.; (7) creative listening in the enjoyment of music, picture, drama-listening to and dramatizing stories, expressing thoughts or feeling in own words, getting from a movie an idea for creative writing.

Teaching Listening : The question arises, How can young children be taught to listen intelligently? Without realizing it, many teachers have a habit of repeating every directive as often as the children ask for it. This may be due to nervousness on the part of the teacher, lack of concentration poor preparation, lack of materialjust putting in time; but whatever the reason, it is a careless habit and it leads to inattention on the part of the children. Why listen the first time if the teacher is going to repeat? Many teachers also are careless about enunciation and tone quality. This puts a strain on listening, and under the strain young children soon become tired and inattentive. Why listen if you cannot understand anyway? Good listening can be taught. First, a pleasant atmosphere should be established. The class should be comfortable and free from strain. There must be something to listen to, something worthwhile. For small children the teacher can tell a story, then, without repeating any part of it, ask the children to recall the important events in the order of their occurrence. The important events can be listed on the board or depicted in a series of pictures drawn by the children, or the principal characters can be listed or drawn in the order of their appearance.

In pronouncing spelling words a good rule is to pronounce a word once, use it in a sentences or phrase, and then pronounce it


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LssentJal Skllls 01 ~peech Making

once more, but not again. If this rule is adhered to steadfastly, practically no child will ask for a repetition or be confused; children will actively listen. Games can be used to further develop the skill of listening. In the Riddle game the teacher takes a pair of scissors from a box, some coins from his pocket, and an eraser from the blackboard, cuts paper, lets water run into a jar, etc., and the children, who have had their heads on their desks, tell what he did. Children love sound riddles. Lists of certain kinds of sounds can be made to help children identify and become conscious of certain sounds. The following list was given by a third grade: Sounds We Hear in the Spring: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Birds singing Rain on the roof Children roller skating A skip rope hitting the sidewalk Water roaring over the dam The grating sound of sand on bare sidewalks The laughing of the brook Flies buzzing Frogs peeping in a pond Baby chicks chirping.

Good remembering goes hand in hand with good listening, and it is equally important. Ability to remember is largely a matter of organizing thought and associating ideas, and it can be taught. Association of ideas, recall, recognition, and retention important in the development of a good memory. These abilities should be taught, not as separate undertaking, but as a part of daily work. Several means of cultivating memory are noted:

are

The teacher can discuss with the children vivid word pictures or sen:;ory impressions. A list of colourful and dramatically descriptive words can be listed and the children asked to repeat and use them. Vocabulary building is important here because one must have words with which to describe what one remembers. In a talk about a hard windstorm, the third-grade children listed words


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that describe (1) the kinds of winds they heard: breeze, hurricane, cyclone, tornado; (2) sounds the winds made: howling, whistling, rearing, bumming, singing, moaning, screeching; and (3) what the wind does: break traces, makes static on radio, blows hats off, blows clouds, makes windows chatter, makes waves in the river, rattles shutters, makes dust storms, shakes the house piles snow in drifts. There is also the old familiar game of having children enumerate all the articles on a table. Several articles relate to clothing-pins, caps, etc.; several represent food: several show building materials. The children are shown how to organize the articles into groups. Training in organization can be provided also by having children select related words from a list of miscellaneous words on the blackboard.

In the Directions game, the teacher gives children three simple directions to follow such as, "Go to the cupboard; take a piece of yellow chalk, and hop to your seat." Directions should be given slowly but should not be repeated. In the music period, the teacher asks the class listening to a record to hold up one, two, or three fingers to show the number of instruments or voices they here. At the end they tell the kinds of instruments they heard. In music also, children can be taught to hear music in the rhythm of working machinery-a steam shovel, bulldozer, vacuum cleaner, motor idling, washing machine. They can make up tunes for the sounds they hear. The teacher can give a simple message to a child and see whether he can deliver the message correctly to someone else in the class. Pupils should understand that we spend more time listening than we do talking, and we gain more information that way than any other. If we do not listen carefully we do not get accurate information and repeating information incorrectly often makes trouble for ourselves and for others.

DOD


CHAPTER

SIX

MODERN METHODS THOUGHT OF LANGUAGE

Thought Units and Sentences: Language is the basic factor in communication. To be communicative is to be understood. The degree to which the audience understands your thought is dependent, initially, upon the words you use and their arrangement into thought units. The thoughts of a speaker become clear as they are translated into words in meaningful combinations. Hence, adequacy in the use of language is based upon the arrangement of words in sentences. You should construct your sentences carefully so that each idea is received by your audience as you intend it to be received. Construct your sentences so as to give your audience the complete and exact idea in an emphatic way. Use periodic sentences in which the important idea comes at the end. They provide opportunities for vocal emphasis and create suspense. Whenever it is possible, the words, phrases, or clauses that make up your sentence should be arranged climactically. When you can, use balanced sentences, in which similar or opposite ideas are" set off" against one another. Secure emphasis by separating an especially important idea from others and placing it in a sentence by itself. Do not place an important idea in a subordinate clause. Vary the construction of your sentences by using declarative, imperative, and interrogative sentences. Use the rhetorical question,


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Modern Methods Thollgi1t of Language

in which the answer is implied, with your audience supplying it mentally, if not actually. Use the direct question, the answer to which must be introduced by you. Use variety in the length and complexity of your sentences. Use short sentences more frequently than long ones. Too many consecutive short sentences, however, make for a broken, choppy effect. Use simply constructed sentences more frequently than compound or complex ones. Too many simple sentences. However, may be offensive to some types of audiences. You should use acceptable grammar in the formation of your sentences. Acceptable grammar is that used by the majority of educated people. You should try to avoid certain errors of sentence structure, such as incomplete sentenc" (fragments); stringy sentences (sentences which need to be broken up into smaller units); choppy sentences (short sentences which need to be combined). You should avoid excessive coordination of sentences. Do not string thought units together with "and," "for," "because," "but." Eliminate these connectives. You should avoid long and involved sentences. You should also avoid unusual sequence, order, and arrangement in sentence structure. You should avoid using verbs which do not agree with the subject-"They was (were) going home." Avoid using the incorrect verb form in relation to the tense (past, present, future)-"Themail has come" (come). Avoid using incorrect sequence of tenses-"I planned to have stopped" (to stop). Avoid using pronouns incorrectly-lilt is him" (he). Avoid using incorrect contractions-" He don't" (doesn't). Avoid using adjectives for adverbs-" He did goods (will) as an athlete." Avoid mixed constructions-"I am not going nowhere" (I am not going anywhere), "They are as following:" (They are as follows :). Vocabulary : The more skilfully your words are selected the clearer the translation of your thought is likely to be. You should choose words for the expression of your ideas which are instan1.ly intelligible to your audience to insure comprehension and prevent misunderstanding. Choose words with specific and exact meanings


Modern Methods Thought ot Language

163

to insure correct and clear understanding by your listeners. Specific words stimulate the listener's imagination to a full realization of your meaning more quickly than general and abstract words do. You should choose vivid, colourful words in stating your thought, which will instantly stimulate the imagination of your audience and help them to visualize your idea in complete detail. You should choose a variety of words. Avoid using the same word over and over again. Do not appear to have a limited and narrow vocabulary. You should feel free to use personal pronouns (I, you, we), thus placing yourself in a more personal, direct relationship with your audience. You should avoid annoying your audience by your word choice. For example, you should avoid unfamiliar words. You should not use words and phrases that exaggerate your ideas in an unwarranted maImer, such as "absolutely" or "beyond a shadow of a doubt." You should avoid using common, hackneyed, meaningless expression-"that thing," "and every thing else," " and something else," "and so forth," "what-you-may-call-it," "day in and day out," "wheels of time"-lest you be dull, trite, unclear, and possibly misunderstood. Consider well whether you will use obscenities, crude slang, or ill-bred colloquialisms in your language. You want audience approval. How easily do you think they would be offended? Be sure you know the meaning of the words you use. Keep a dictionary and a thesaurus close at hand for frequent reference. You should avoid using too many words and inserting needless words. Finally, you should avoid the omission of words necessary to the complete expression of your idea. You might be more interested in developing your sensitivity toward better use of language. Here is an exercise which proVides practice in the use of a thesaurus to choose more appropriate words. You will need a thesaurus and a dictionary. Projection to the Audience The term projection to the audience refers to the process by which the speaker sends forth his thoughts and feelings to the listener. It involves the initiation by the speaker, through the use of his voice and bodily activity, of the sound and light waves which


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carry his meanings to that listener. Effectiveness in projection is dependent upon the degree with which these sound and light waves vibrate with the full meaning and vigor of the speaker's thought and feeling. To project well, your bodily mechanism must function as a dynamic whole. Effective projection to the audience will influence the reaction of the audience individually and as a group to the speaker and the speech as whole. For the response of the audience to be adequate, good will toward the speaker and general of the audience to be adequate, good will toward the speaker and general appreciation and understanding of his speech, its content, and purpose must be evidenced at its conclusion. The speech itself must be sufficiently stimulating to get attention quickly and hold that attention easily. The personal qualities of the speaker, as well as his thought and his manner of speaking, must have a pleasing effect on his listeners. The audience must be favourably disposed toward him. Know Your Speech: Be thoroughly prepared! You should know your material, what it means, and what its implications are. If you do, you will speak with spontaneity and abandon. You will not be troubled with having to think of what to say next. You cannot be uncertain about the plan and content of your speech and project well. You Attitude is Vital: You should have wholesome, positive, dynamic attitude that can be characterized as follows: 1. You should be confident of yourself and of your success. This is not egotism. 2. You should appear interested in your subject, your audience, and the task before you. Audiences like the confident, interested speaker. 3. You should strongly desire to stimulate the thinking and reactions of your audience. 4. You should be intent upon accomplishing the goal you have chosen for your speech and eager to share your thoughts and experiences with your listeners. 5. You should be active, full of life and vigor-not passive, inhibited, or unwilling to "let yourself go."


Modem Methods Thought of Language 6.

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You should be friendly, pleasant, and courteous.

Personal Characteristics and Behaviour: Your personal characteristics must be attractive to the audience. They like to see you well groomed, wearing clothes appropriate for the occasion. If you are Sincerely speaking to project to your classmates, dress as you choose. How will you choose? The audience likes your conduct on the platform to be in good taste, friendly, courteous, and well mannered. They like to see you poised and dignified, exhibiting mastery of yourself and of the situation and showing confidence in your success, but not giving impressions of overconfidence, smugness, or conceit. Audiences like a speaker who is actively interested, energetic, and excitedly alive, but not tense and nervous; who is rather relaxed and comfortable, but not unconcerned or careless. They want to hear and understand easily. They will, if your voice is pleasing and sufficiently loud, but not so loud as to call attention to itself. They want your prolongation to be sufficiently correct to be acceptable and sufficiently distinct to be easily understood; your language, in addition to expressing your ideas clearly, in good taste; your bodily activity integrated with the thought and feeling as you express it and appropriate to the situation, not full of distracting random movements. Audience gain impressions from the moment you first appear until your retire. Hence, when you are seated on the platform, they prefer to see you sit straight, usually with your legs uncrossed. When you are introduced by the chairman, rise, acknowledge the chairman with a nod and a smile perhaps, and proceed to the speaker's stand or near the centre of the platform. Take a position before beginning to speak, pause, address the chairman and audience, and look directly at your audience as you speak your first sentence rather slowly, distinctly, and loudly enough to be heard easily. At the conclusion of your speech pause, take a step backward, walk to your seat, stop, face the front, pause, and sit down. Do not fall or slump into your seat. Keep your eyes on the chairman and audience for a moment, then relax, but sit erect and be inconspicuous.


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Communicate with Energy and Enthusiasm: You should be communicative. Speak with "a lively sense of communication," that is, with: 1. an eagerness that is exhilarating, 2. a natural enjoyment that is charming and catching, 3. an evident but spontaneous muscular energy that is enlivening, 4. a released inherent enthusiasm that is contagious, 5. a sincerity and earnestness that are unquestionably convincing, 6. a depth of belief that is persuasive, 7. an emphasis and force that are irresistible, and 8. a warmth that is personal. Amplified Conversation: To be communicative, you must be conversational, but let your speaking manner be that of amplified conversation. In one sense, it should be loud conversation. Whatever constitutes polite conversation when amplified to fit the situation is the basis of communicativeness. Remember that when you make speech, it is to a number of people as an audience. Hence, the conversational manner suited to the "drawing room" simply will not do on the public platform. You are warned therefore that you cannot project well if you are too conversational, too quiet, or too easy. Your speaking manner must be sufficiently intense to stimulate the listener's complete attention. Make it a point to talk to your audience, not at them. Speak each idea directly to them as if it were a personal matter. Look at them. Face them. Keep direct eye contact with them. Avoid a constant "looking-about" from side to side, to floor, to ceiling, to speaker's stand while you are speaking. Not only will this mannerism annoy the audience, but it will also cause you to lose their attention. Adapting to Changing Conditions in the Situation: To please your audience, you would do well to adapt your speech (as it develops), your style of presenting it, your behaviour,


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and your manner to changing conditions in the situation. Your audience will respond with their attention in spite of distracting and disturbing factors which may occur. Sometimes their attention will lag. If it does, you must regain it. Sometimes you can do this by being more intense in projection. Sometimes it is necessary to introduce more and perhaps different but related illustrations, anecdotes, instances, and circumstances that you had originally planned to use. They must be especially interesting and stimulating to the immediate audience. If the audience is uncomfortable, what can you do? If the ventilation of the room is bad, have doors and windows opened. If the audience appears to be suffering from the cold and windows are open, have them closed, if convenient. If the program has already been long and the members of the audience seem tired and restless, some speakers have them rise, stretch, and relax, or they use some other method to accomplish the same result where the situation will permit it. If persons are standing in the room and seats are available, you might ask them to be seated before you begin vour speech. Speak loudly enough so that all may hear easily. If the audience is extremely fatigued, listless, or uncomfortable, shorten your speech rather than continue at length under such circumstances.

Audiences are affected by disturbing factors-When things happen your audience will respond favourably to you if you give evidence that you have complete control of the situation, that you are not irritated or upset. If a sudden humorous incident occurs, laugh with the audience. Allow them to respond to the incident occurs, laugh with the audience. Allow them to respond to the incident fully, then turn the incident to your advantage, if possible. If sudden noises occur, such as train whistles, a passing fire engine, shouting, and the like, pause for a time, perhaps comment upon the disturbance, repeat your last sentence or two, then continue. If certain members of the audience "heckle" or interrupt you, respond with sincerity, good nature, and good taste, turning the incident to your advantage and thereby increasing the sympathy of the audience toward you. If your audience evidences coldness, prejudice, or enmity toward you, win them, if possible, by a direct appeal for fair play and open-mindedness. Sometimes you may effectively use an indirect approach in which you present inherently interesting facts,


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anecdotes, or comments which are in themselves absorbing and stimulating and which capture attention. If you make errors or incorrect statements or have trouble in getting under way or in saying what you mean, make the correction that should be made, perhaps beg the pardon of the audience or make some other appropriate comment, and proceed. Do not allow yourself to be disturbed such things occur. The audience will like it if you give the impression that what you do and the way you do it arises naturally out of the situation, your idea, your feelings, and their reactions. Speak Up! Speak Up! Speak Up! This is the key to effective communication with an audience. It takes energy. It is characteristic of enthusiasm. It gets and holds attention. It is one of the first and most important speaking habits for you to acquire. Control of Body Language Body Language While Speaking is a Natural Occurrence: It is not an artificial technique to be acquired, to be used only by flowery orators. It is an inherent skill that you yourself possess. Bodily action while speaking, both gross and refined, occurs as you project your thoughts and feelings to your listeners. It arises from those thoughts and feelings, as well as from the reactions of your immediate audience. Under normal conditions, in simple speaking situations where ordinary conversation occurs, bodily activity is natural in the act of speaking and is adequate. In public speaking situations, however, it must be kept under constant control and used objectively and purposefull y. Though bodily action is naturally involved in projection to the audience, it is importance in speech making warrants its emphasis as separate technique in the total process of stimulating an adequate audience response. Hence, control of bodily activity is treated here separately as an essential of speech making. Importance of Experience: Use bodily activity freely from the very beginning of your practice in speech making. Use it with abandon. Have little concern, for a


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time, about "how you look" or whether the action is appropriatejust use it. Lose all of your inhibitions and self-consciousness as soon as possible. The first step is to release the bodily action that is natural for you and that you hesitate to use because of lack of experience. The second step is to learn to control that action and make it purposive. In other words, your first job is to become able to use your own natural gestures comfortably when you want to use them before an audience, rather than to be concerned about when, how, or how well you use them. You will discover that if you follow this advice you will receive very little criticism and that you will need very little instruction in bodily action. Suggestions from your speech teacher may be helpful to you, but they cannot substitute for extended experience in making gestures while making speeches. It should be very clear to you that effective bodily action is more a product of wide and varied experience as a speaker than of specific instruction or drill.

The Whole Body: The human body is whole. It functions as a whole. It functions best as a whole. Its nature and condition not only influence, but may actually determine its behaviour continuously or at a given moment. For example, the type and extent of action used by men while speaking is quite different from that used by women. Men customarily use more action and broader and more forceful action than women. Bodily activity includes posture, movement, gesture, and facial expression. All are simultaneously related to the thought and feeling of the speaker at the moment. Each is dependent upon the other. Though they may be studied separately, they must, nevertheless, be considered as a whole. Movements of the parts of the body-the arms, hands, legs, head, face, eyes-arise from, individuate out of, and are a refinement of total or gross bodily movement. A program of individual training in control of bodily activity might best proceed, therefore, as follows: 1. development of appropriate posture; 2. control of gross bodily movement-walking, broad gesturing;


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3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

techniques of platform movement-controlling bodily weight, use of legs and feet; techniques in the use of the arms and hands to stimulate the listener and the audience to respond most completely; control of head movements; control of facial expression; and control of eye movements.

Control Posture; You should have a good posture. The position of your body, standing or sitting, should allow your mascles to function normally and with ease. There is no single posture suited to all speakers but you should be guided by the following: Your posture should be comfortable. The muscles of your body should not be stiff or tense while speaking. They should instead be comfortably relaxed. Your posture should aid you in looking your best. Good posture is the basis of poise. It is an important factor in the impression that you make on your audience. Your posture should facilitate a free and easy functioning of your breathing mechanism and facilitate free and easy bodily movements in walking about the platform and in gesturing. Experiment with the following developing your best possible platform speaking posture: 1.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Stand tall! Stand on both feet with your weight equally balanced between them. Keep your legs straight but not stiff, your knees relaxed. Keep your shoulder, back, and neck muscles relaxed-free from strain and tenseness. Allow your arms and hands to hang naturally at your sides. Have your head up and your chin in, with no tenseness.

You should avoid the following: 1. standing with too wide a base, your feet wide apart. 2. throwing your weight completely on one leg, thereby appearing unbalanced. 3. leaning from your waist toward the audience. 4. leaning backward with your weight on your heels.


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folding your arms across your chest. holding your arms tightly behind your back. placing your hands on your hips. keeping your hands in your pockets continuously.

Control Bodily Movement: You should control your bodily movement. You may wish to move about the platform. Such movement is probably wise if occasioned by the situation. You may desire to change your position so as to relax, rest yourself, rest your audience, and increase the attention of your audience. You may desire to change your position to indicate transition of thought atthe completion of the development of a portion of your speech. You may wish to move toward the audience in order to be more emphatic. If you move, you should do it gracefully but naturally. You should step first with the leg toward the direction in which you are moving. Your weight before you move should be carried by the other leg. Make your movements decisive. Do not creep or side-step when you want to walk about the platform. Take natural, positive steps. Avoid unmotivated movement about the platform, movement that is not occasioned by the situation. Avoid mechanical movements that appear to be planned-so many steps one way, so many steps another. When in doubt, stand still.

Control Gestures: You may wish to use gestures. Effective gestures will aid you in projecting your ideas. Gestures help to get and hold attention. Since the arms and hands are the principal agents of gesture, you should note the following: 1.

Your gestures should be in harmony with the thoughts and feelings that you express. They should vary in nature, duration, and intensity as your thoughts and feelings vary.

2.

Your gestures should supplement adequately the vocal expression of your thoughts and feelings. They should not be overdone, neither should they be slighted. Each gesture should be a full gesture, completed and finished. Your hand and arm should not be just held up, then dropped. Let your gesture actually aid you in expressing your thought and feeling.


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Begin your gesture" of the moment" as you begin speaking the thought to which it is related. Let it develop as that thought and the feeling associated with it develops. Let the gesture actually help to focus and hold the attention of the listener. This will aid you in being clear, being emphatic and in bringing the expression of your thought and feeling to a climax.

4.

Your hand and arm gestures should be natural, graceful, free, and easy. They should be smooth and rhythmical rather than abrupt and jerky. Each gesture should seem to flow into the next. When your gestures are natural, the whole arm should be used and should be used as a whole. That is, as the speaker uses his whole arm, the listener should not notice movements of the shoulder, elbow, writs, or fingers separately. Although the whole arm is used, it should not be completely extended in gesturing. Some restraint should always be used. The shoulder, elbow, wrist, and fingers should be relaxed and flexible, not tense or stiff. Movements of the hand and arm should proceed away from the center of the body. Hand and arm movements should follow curved lines-the wrist should lead the hand. Practice the use of the basic types of "hands" in gesturing.

The Pointing Hand: The index finger is straight and strong; the rest of the hand is clenched somewhat tightly. This "hand" is used for directing attention to ideas as well as things. It is used to identify, to indicate location, and to give a sense of direction. It is used to "point up" as well as to emphasize. This type of gesture is usually an active one, often vigorous. The finger and hand should not just be held up and then dropped. Both hands are not used simultaneously. The Giving Hand: The "hand" is open, palm up. The fingers are fully extended. This "hand" is used in giving and receiving symbolically as well as actually. You give or take an idea as you give or take an object. This "hand" may accompany generalizations, appeals, interrogations, requests for consideration, attitudes of agreement, or the making of admissions. It is sometimes used to suggest enclosing, encircling, or encompassing. Both hands, right and left, are used in coordination, sometimes simultaneously. This "hand" is not usually a vigorous gesture, but it is an active one.


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The Covering Hand : Like the giving hand, this "hand" is open and the fingers are fully extended, but the palm is down. The speaker may use this "hand" to indicate covering, quieting, subduing, pressing down, putting down, things beneath, encompassing, or saying "no, no." It is not usually a vigorous gesture. Both hands may be used coordir,ately and simultaneously. The Repelling Hand: This "hand" is open and bent up at the wrist, with fingers fully extended and the palm toward the audience. It pushes away, repels, gets rid of, denies, forbids, nullifies, abrogates, cuts off or cuts down, abhors, protects, or protests. It is an active gesture, vigorous at times, with either hand used occasionally and sometimes both simultaneously. The Clenched Hand : This "hand" is a closed fist. It is the most vigorous of gestures and expresses the strongest feelings. It pounds for emphasis, exhibits strength and force, and indicates opposition. It may symbolize courage, determination, anger, h~tred, or revenge. One or both hands are used. It is an active gesture. You may use your hands in gesturing in ways other than those described above, but for the most part your "hands" will be of these specific types or will be variations closely identified with one or more of them. If you rehearse these types of "hands" appropriately, improved habits of gesturing can result. Your gestures may thus become less random and careless. Mannerisms, if you have them, will tend to be minimized or eliminated. With improved habits in the use of the basic types of "hands," your gestures will tend to be more objective and meaningful. You, as a person, will appear more coordinated, more poised, and more refined. The danger is that in rehearsing these "hand" improperly your gesturing habits may come to be mechanical. You can avoid the mechanical by using a practice method which permits you to grow into the new habit instead of trying to acquire it all at once. In such a method, you practice first the gross or general form of the gesture. Then, through criticism and further practice accordingly, you refine the particular gesture into natural behaviour for you. Control Head Movements and Facial Expression: Head movements and facial expression are inherent in the act of speaking. They are spontaneous, natural, and adequate when


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the speaker is uninhibited. During speech making they may need to be controlled. Head Movements: Your head movements (front to back, side to side, rotating) in speech making, to be effective, must be used selectively and purposefully. They should not be random movements. They should be coordinated with your bodily movements and your hand and arm gestures. Your head movements can aid you in focusing attention, in expressing meaning, and in being emphatic. As in the case of your hand and arm gestures, your head movements must be timed just right. Facial Expression: Your facial expression can be a major factor in your effectiveness. If you do not have a mobile face, if you are habitually "dead-pan," you should develop facial flexibility to the extent that it readily reflects in a natural way your thoughts and feelings and supplements strongly their vocal expression. To be effective, your facial expressions must be clearly and completely meaningful but not conspicuous in themselves. They must be purposeful, spontaneous, natural, and suited to your face and personality. They must not be random, meaningless, or out of harmony with what you are saying. Controlled facial expression helps to focus and hold the listener's attention. It adds depth, richness, and personal intensity and vitality to the vocal and bodily expression of your thought and feeling.

Although facial expression should be developed as a whole, you should give specific attention to the use of your eyes, your brows, and your lips. You should be certain that they are responsive to the mood, feeling, and emotional aspects of what you say as you say it. If not, practice to make them so. Also, be certain that you have no mannerisms of facial movement that will prevent them from responding freely to your thought and feeling as you experience it. Sometimes it is a good idea to practice in front of a mirror, to study and experiment with your facial movements as you speak. Practice a smile now and then. Audiences like to look at speakers who seem to be pleased to be speaking. It is best to have your face as well lighted as possible while you are speaking in order that you facial expressions can be easily seen by the audience as well as appropriately highlighted to insure full effectiveness.


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Adapt to the Speaking Situation: You should adapt your bodily activity to the speaking situation and control it accordingly. The more informal the situation, the more informal your behaviour should be, but always within the requirements of good taste. The more formal the situation, the more formal your behaviour should be, but avoid being too formal. The kind of action needed will vary with your audience and the auditorium. Broad action is required for large mixed audiences and more refined action for smaller, more select audiences. The amount of action needed will vary with your audience, its size, its physical condition (fatigued, fidgety, and so forth), its emotional state (sympathetic, prejudiced, and so forth), and your own emotional state. Use more action for large, fatigued, or prejudiced audiences or on festive occasions. But use less action for small, alert audiences or for audiences gathered on solemn occasions. Usually, as tension increases, you use a greater amount of action and use it with more intensity. Use neither too much ne. too little in any case. Keep yourself under control and use gestures selectively. Common Faults: You should beware of certain common faults in using bodily action: You should avoid unmotivated action-action that has no reason or purpose. Unmotivated action detracts from your effectiveness. Action should aid you in projection of thought and feeling or be omitted. You should as a rule, avoid extreme or unusual action. Keep some reserve. You should avoid gesturing with the forearm only or with the elbows close to the body. You should avoid indefinite, continuous movement and gesture, such as flipping your hands or pawing the air. Make your gestures specific, clear-cut, and decisive or omit them. You should avoid giving the appearance of gesturing at stated intervals, of using a gesture because it is in a good place and because you think you ought to use it there or because you rehearsed it there. You should avoid gesturing across your body. Use your right hand for gestures to the right, your left for gestures to the left. You should avoid certain annoying mannerisms which may detract from your effectiveness: playing with your clothes-pockets, buttons, necklace, necktie, handkerchief; playing with objectsnotecards, pencils, rings, watch, chains, pens, keys, money, the chair,


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the speaker's stand, the desk; playing with your hands or your fingers; stumbling, shuffling your feet as you walk, bumping into furniture; looking out the window, at the ceiling, or at the floor (semiprofile positions); pacing the floor. Don't appear restless by rising on your toes or heels continuously or swaying back and forth. Do not stereotyped gestures and never use the same gestures over and over again. Rhythm Rhythm in speech making refers to the flow of the speaker's thought and language through vocal presentation. A speaker who is superior in rhythm speaks fluently, smoothly, and effortlessly; there is a "forward-moving" continuity in his thought and language. At the other extreme is the one who speaks with effort and, regardless of how hard he tries, is unable to make his speech mechanism function with a "forward-moving" continuity. He lacks the timing necessary for the integration of its parts. Inadequacies : Listeners become award of and are disturbed by the following inadequacies : jerky, irregular speaking characterized by the repetition of sounds, syllables, words, and even whole phrases; unusual pauses and hesitation inappropriate as to place, frequency, and length of occurrence; vocalizing of pauses in which the sound "uh-uh-uh" or "ah-ah-ah," "for-uh voice patterns of pitch, intensity, and rate in which identical voice inflections are repeated regardless of the thought being formulated; sudden utterance of phrases, words, syllables, or sounds that are unnatural and inappropriate at the movement. U

};

If your speaking is characterized by any of these inadequacies, your effectiveness cannot help but be noticeably impaired. Your awareness of them is necessary for the most rapid improvement. It is important to recognize that you can improve the effect of your speaking by making it more fluent.

DOD


CHAPTER SEVEN

APPROACHES METHODS IN LANGUAGE COMMUNICATION

The language teacher needs to arrive at an understanding of the basic principles underlying his practice. Basic principles concern the place that language occupies in the life of the child and the adult, the nature of language, the growth and development of the child and the processes by which growth and development are facilitated, the significant factors that contribute to language development, the general curricular program of work, the differentiation of work to meet individual differences, and the techniques and procedures essential to the implementation of the program. Because philosophy and psychology inherently relate to every practical problem of curriculum and teaching, they are best considered in the situations to which they naturally apply. The basic principles are summarized here, however, for emphasis and review and to help raise teaching above the level of mere pattern follOWing. The study and practice of teaching are threatened at two extremes. At one, the student teacher is occupied with abstract generalizations which, because of his inexperience, he vaguely conceives and indifferently applies. Knowledge of this kind has little effect on what the teacher actually does. At the other extreme, the student teacher is primarily occupied with acquiring a set of fixed patterns and with using them more or less mechanically. If the


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pattprns are adaptable to the particular situation, he may do a good job for a time. But situations vary and times change; inflexibility results in inefficiency, helplessness, and stagnation. If a teacher makes a choice, perhaps the second evil is to be preferred to the first. But choice may not be necessary; it may be entirely possible for the student teacher to gain a command of practical techniques and, at the same time, an understanding of the basic principles upon which the techniques are based. This double grasp results in teaching on a high level.

Importance and Significance : The primary functions of language are communication, self-expression and thinking. These functions appear early in the life of the child as inarticulate cries and gross bodily movements expressing demands for attention and feelings of satisfaction and dissatisfaction. As the child matures, gestures, facial expressions, and sounds become more specialized. The expression of feeling and meaning becomes more exact: words express and communicate more accurately and economically than cries an gestures. The command of words and groups of words grows with practice and with the complexity of ideas and reactions to be expressed. The communication function is obvious. The use of language as a means of clarifying ideas and feelings is equally real, if not so obvious. Language is a means of clarifying perception, of discovering likenesses and differences in thing observed, of forming general ideas, and of discovering relationships. One deals with symbols rather than concrete experiences. The operation of the communication and thinking functions is observable in the preschool year and throughout the school life of the child. These function lay a broad foundation on which to base of language program having far-reaching implications as to contact and procedure. Collateral to thinking and the expression of ideas are two other functions, related and implied. In the first place, it is to be observed that communication and thinking, as do most other personal activities, necessarily concern other people. Language is a social act, a means of adjustment to and control over other people. The entire process of socialization is largely a process of language development. In the second place, command of language is an


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important factor in the development of the total personality of the child. Command of language gives a feeling of confidence, satisfaction, and security in meeting many life situations. Such mastery is a wholesome influence that affects the whole life of the child.

Nature of Language: The teaching of language is primarily conditioned by the nature of the subject. Language is, concisely, the manipulation of experience by the use of symbols. It may be observed that the involved symbolism is purely arbitrary, as shown by the existence of different words in different language to express the same idea; that words stand for certain concepts based on the direct or vicarious experience of the speaker or writer; that words have meaning to recipients only to the extent that they recall or are interpreted by similar experiences; and that growth in language is at once growth in experiences and grow~ in control of the symbols which stand for experiences. Other significant factors in the nature of language concern the interrelation and the interdependence of language functions (thought, self-expression, communication) and of language experiences (speaking, writing, listening, and reading). A language experience, such as conversation, may include storytelling, discussion, explanations, directions, asking and answering questions, and introductions. In writing a letter, one is concerned with describing incidents, telling anecdotes, giving information, or asking for facts. Particularly significant is the fact that in schoolwork, oral and written experiences are combined and discussion often proceeds writing, in the primary grades, the oral telling of a story precedes its writing. Significant also is the complexity of the learning situation as it embraces the various attitudes abilities, and skills which are consciously or unconsciously employed in carrying on language experiences. In a given experience such as storytelling a child selects content, builds to a climax by relating a series of incidents in a logical or psychological order, chooses appropriate words and phrases, uses a variety of sentence patterns for interest and force, cultivates voice quality, pitch, and modulation, practices pronunciation and enunciation, and acquires a favourable or an


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unfavourable attitude toward oral participation. All these important elements of language experience a:'e progressively strengthened or weakened according to the concrete situations involved. Attitudes, such as a desire to be effective and a willingness to work on particular weaknesses, are essential to growth in language skills and abilities. Vividness and force are directly affected by variety of words and sentences. Content is conditioned largely by choice of subject. Organization depends on content. The concept of language as a learning task, then, is a complex of interrelated and interdependent experiences and elements, in which growth proceeds simultaneously but in varying degrees, dependent on points or particular emphasis and interest. If the various elements could be isolated and developed separately, teaching would be relatively simple. Isolated treatment results in improvement in specific elements but frequently makes little change in total performance. The teacher's job in handling elements is to direct growth in a single element or ability while keeping it in its proper relationship to other abilities and to the total language situation of which it is a part.

Growth in Language: Complexity characterizes language in early stages of development, as well as at mature levels. Complexity appears in the evolution of kinds of language experiences and in their component elements. The order of development of language experiences and in their component elements. The order of development of language experiences is in part vague, but it is obvious that the first experience to appear is oral communication as the infant attempts to make known his needs through cries, gestures, grimaces, and words. The first language efforts are practical and utilitarian in purpose, relating to food, comfort, and pain. When immediate physical needs have been met and a degree of maturity reached, the child becomes absorbed with the intriguing task of making the acquaintance of a great variety of things. What's dat? is asked frequently. Inquiries concern animals, cars, people, houses, trains-all sorts of novel objects and experiences. Asking questions is the characteristic type of language activity at this stage.


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"The three-year-old asked 376 questions and the four-year-old 397 questions during the day." In inquiry, the emphasis shifts from use of language for communication to the use of language for thinking. The child is struggling to identify the various objects in his environment, to bring order into a confusing world of sight, sound, smell and feeling. In this explanatory-naming stage, which continues for some years, the child's vocabulary is composed largely of nouns. "At two years there is a high proportion of nouns (50 to 60 percent)." Gradually, with increasing maturity and wider experiences, the child's concepts become more clearly defined, and ideas of re~ationship take shape. Thus, as the dog, horse, and cow are distinguished and identified, the bow-wow ceases to be any four-legged animal; the train says too-too; the dog runs : flowers are pretty. Correspondingly, language changes. Other parts of speech appear: descriptive words (adjectives and adverbs), action words (verbs), connectives, and pronouns. Growth in the uses of these various parts of speech goes on simultaneously. Anderson says, All phases of language development proceed at a fairly uniform rate. This indicates that language is learned by wholes, rather than by isolated and individual response, and that the relative proportion of parts of speech is fixed by one general language pattern." Words in phrases soon follow the use of single words, as in Tommy cold. The verb is finally added and the sentence form takes shape: Tommy is cold, The dog barks. At first, sentences are predominantly simple : declarative, interrogative, and finally imperative; but the complex and compound sentences are used early. II

It would seem that another kind of language experience which begins to take shape early is dramatic play. The first manipulating of objects is probably purely mechanical in nature; but soon the use

of materials with a purpose seems to appear, as in loading a truck, I:\oving blocks, or constructing an airport. Words accompany actions. Dramatic play becomes more complex and social when several children play together. Children express in action and words ideas about phases of life which interest them: preparing food, taking cared of a baby, storekeeping. Further differentiation in kinds of experience performed appears with increasing maturity and the response to the demands of life in and outside the school.


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It is also apparent that growth in performing an increasing variety of language experiences is paralleled by growth in the component abilities and skills, as was shown above in the development of vocabulary and in the use of sentences. This growth is likewise true of the mechanics of oral speaking: articulation, voice management, and pronunciation; the general abilities of having something to say and speaking to the point; and later the mechanics of writing.

Factors in growth are maturation and stimulation by environment. Maturation concern the natural development of speech functions and processes of thinking. For example, the utterance of sounds follows a natural order, beginning with vowels and the consonant m. But maturation is also directly affected by language patterns set by other people and by the stimulation to though and action of rich, varied experiences. From this brief sketch of growth in language there appear certain basic principles significant for teaching. It has been observed in the first place that language is a vital part of the growth process. It is a vital part of the process of adjusting to life, physical and social; a means of gaining control of people and thought; and a means of bringing order into a bewildering world. Training children in language is training in living, in understanding, and in getting along with people. In the second place, it has been observed that, although native equipment provides potentialities of growth, actual growth is conditioned very largely by the stimulation and direction provided by parents and teachers. A rich environment of varied experiences is essential to good language development. A third implication is that language is purposeful, not a mechanical or perfunctory act. The purpose is largely utilitarian~onununicating and extending experience-but not exclusively so, because there is a place for the development of creative, artistic impulses. A fourth significant principle is that language develops as a whole-a whole made up of many complex, interrelated elements. A fifth principle relates to grading and sequence. The teacher attempts to set up a program of work that is consistent with natural order in the development of experiences, abilities, ann skills. Goals are adjusted to capacity. Problems are recognized as characteristic of particular


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age grade or maturity level, such as articulartory difficulties in the lower grades.

Individual Differences: The teacher is no less concerned with individual difference than with the general course of language development in children. Individual differences are marked in the experience phases of the work, oral and written. Some children participate freely in oral work, make worthy contributions, and shoe marked ability in thinking and expression; others do not. In written work, differences are much more apparent, appearing in both quantity and quality. Betzner points out that children in the five-to-eight age group write cOI!'-positions varying from 9 to 1,0,74 words with a median length of 66.6 words, and that there is a similar wide range in thought units of 1 to 69. Reed points out that the quality of compositions of pupils in grade 7 varied from 1.0 to 8.2 on the Hudelson scale. While there is progress in average achievement from grade to grade, there is great overlapping among grades. Extreme variations in total achievement are to be expected in composition work; they are, of course, no less wide and no less significant in specific abilities and skills. These difference appear as the teacher makes a check list analysis of oral and written experiences; some can be measured objectively, using standard tests. For example, Reed gave the Modem School Language Usage Test to pupils in grades 4 to 8 with results shown in the following table:

Table 1 : Distribution of Scores in Modern School Language Usage Tests, Grades 4 to 8 Grade

Grade

Grade

Grade

Grade

Score

4

5

6

7

8

55

....

50

.. "

45

•• 0.

1

40

....

35

3

.

. .. ,

2

•• 0.

2

10

.

4

19

3

13

23

49

14

28

50

63

0

•••

0

•••

'"

'"


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77

58

68

49

66 31

48

18

12

6

11

2

2

.. , .

3

27.44

30.74

30 25

12 53

34 47

65 91

20

80

15

83

67 74

10 5 0

53 19

32 9

3

6

19.70

21.68

Median ....

35.39

This table shows data similar to that obtained by Reed with the Huderson scale, which measured children's compositions, in that there is gradual improvement foml grade to grade but a tremendous amount of overlapping. It may be assumed that what is true of composition work and usage is true of other general language abilities and of specific skills, oral and written. Statistics give a reliable estimate of the range of individual differences that may be expected in any class or age group, but they do not give a clear, detailed picture of the individual children with whom the teacher must deal. General facts of variability are interpreted in terms of concrete realities as the teacher works with individual children from day to day in the varied intimate situations that arise in the a classroom. Gradually each child emerges as a person, a complex of specific attitudes, abilities, and skills and of general powers. Each element appears as a clearly identifiable entity, but its significance is revealed only when it is considered in relation to other factors that combine to form an organic whole. The teacher must deal with each child as a person, as well as make general adjustments by instruction for children with varying levels of ability. The child is an individual, not a statistic.

Participation as a Factor in Growth: Language has been found upon examination to consist of a variety of experiences through which the child carries on the business of living and learning and by which he exercises and gains control of specific'" attitudes, abilities, and skills. Normal growth in language takes place through participation and the simultaneous exercise of a number of


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component elements. It follows that the school, to be realistic and lifelike, must base its program on actual participation. The school must recognize the common language experiences of children and adults, and it must train children in carrying on these experiences. Situations in which language experiences serve an immediate purpose must be provided by the school. Emphasis must be placed on the whole learning situation; interest must be secured: insight and understanding achieved; and specifics-attitudes, skills, and abilities-learned as related, integrated components of the whole. This emphi\sis on complete learning experience is an application of the familiar gestalt theory, a principle of psychology that underlies many modern education trends and has wide application in various areas of the curriculum.

Attitudes as Factors in Learning: The whole, organic theory of learning is not inconsistent with concentration on specific elements as factors in the learning process. The teacher must recognize that it may be necessary at times to separate from the total learning situation specific elements for emphasis in order to bring about improvement in total performance. However, practice and training exercises should be handled so that their usefulness is clearly evident. The purpose of practice and its relation to a whole language experience must be recognized by the learner; and practice must be motivated by desire for improvement. Of all the basic factors, attitudes are at once the most fundamental and the most elusive. Attitudes constitute the dynamics of learning, the drives to participate in experiences and to improve abilities and skills. Although real life provides adequate stimulation for certain kinds of experiences, the teacher may find that children in school are verbally inactive and unresponsive. The solution is to make schoolwork lifelike and to set up conditions that encourage free participation. Even more difficult is creating a desire for improvement in the quality of performance; children may be satisfied with low level performance. Some leverage for improving quality may be fow1d in purposeful experiences, but good form is to some extent a matter of good taste or convention. The teacher may show the high social value of maintaining certain standards and may cite worthy


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examples and authorities. He represents, for the time, adult judgment and authority, and expressions of approval carry weight. Setting up specific goals and recording accomplishments are other effective means of motivation.

Repetition as a Factor in Leaming : There is, in the new psychology, no magic which eliminates the need for repetition and drill; "that practice makes perfect is more than a half-truth," says Reed. But that practice alone may fail to assure competency in language is amply proved by the results of traditional teaching. Making practice effective involves certain basis considerations. In the first place, it is recognized that practice must be purposeful to the learner. Purpose derives from the recognition by the individual of his shortcoming and from the situation-an immediate one-in which the need for the skill or ability is felt. Implied are some form or standard with which a pupil can compare his work and some means of diagnosis. Need is often revealed by failure to make meaning clear or to convey a message adequately. Thus, a child who mumbles is not heard, and the class protests; and a child who combines his sentences interminably with ands is a bore. Going from obvious effect to cause is the most convincing evidence of need for improvement that the teacher can present. However, at times the teacher must resort to the appeal of convention or authority, such as: "We show the end of a sentence by a period .... The word get is pronounced get, not git .... Running is spelled with two n's." Diagnosis is achieved by having a child compare his performance or product with a given standard and by testing; but often it is necessary for the teacher to call attention to a specific difficulty of which the child is not aware. Thus, a pupil through long use becomes accustomed to certain faulty language patterns and to the common mispronunciation of various words, and the teacher must take positive steps to have the pupil hear and get a feeling for the correct forms. Implied in the consideration of purpose is the basic principle that a pupil should be required to practice only forms needed by him individually and that practice should be applied at the point of error. The frequent assignment of class exercises, except for testing purposes, results in a waste of time and lowered class morale.


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A second basic principle of repetition states that practice should approximate as closely as possible the situation in which the form is normally used. According to this idea, strong reliance on the traditional language game is faulty. Some children profit from hearing the correct form repeated many times; but, in the main, learning is limited to learning to play the game and does not result in use of the correct form in real situations. Another point of error is the reliance upon written blank-filling exercises for drill in correct usage. The guide should primarily be sound. A third basic principle emphasizes that repetition drill should follow clear ideas of correct form. Live examples should be set by the teacher and the textbook; incorrect forms should be analysed as to the nature of difficulty and the cause of error, and incorrect forms should be compared with correct forms in the remedial phases of the work. More than passive attention to explanations is here required. The pupil should shoe recognition of correct form by choosing correct forms, by reprodUCing them, and by using them in original examples. The repetition following recognition is at first deliberate, attentive, and consciously directed; later it is used in connection with larger language units; and finally it is practiced in total language situations with marginal attention given to the specific skill or ability. The situations in which a given form is practiced should be varied. Multiple use in a variety of situations increases the range of applicability and tends to maintain a high level of interest. The checking of progress toward the mastery of a specific skill or ability may be recognized as a fourth basic principle. Lists and record sheets used in the diagnostic phase of the work are useful for recording progress. If pOSSible, the evaluation should be the pupil's own, and he should keep his own record of progress. The teacher should check and confirm the pupil's judgments. Repeated checking in tests and actual use, as well as restudy and practice, are constantly required until mastery is confidently achieved. Adequate repetition, carried to the point of mastery, requires time, but effort should be concentrated on a short list of basic skills and abilities determined by cruciality and by the needs of particular pupils. Extensive treatment is necessarily sacrificed to concentration on relatively few key language elements.


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Understanding as a Factor in Leaming: Traditionally, primary emphasis in learning has been placed on seeing, doing, hearing, and saying. Language is still largely learned by imitation, and good language is largely judged by its sound. However, understanding is recognized as an important factor in learning situations in which generalizations, rules, and principles can be formulated and applied. The traditional skill subjects are now being approached in part from the point of view of meanings. It is too early to say how far we may go in making the mechanics of language meaningful to elementary pupils, but some good examples of what may be done are offered in recent literature. For example, Smith points out that growth in the skills of punctuation and capitalization must mean growth in sensing relationships between ideas and gaining force through modification. The significance of the period and question mark are made clear by recalling what one does with the voice in oral reading. Specifically in regard to commas, she says, "Commas are used to clarify meaning when sentence elements are out of their usual order, to separate interrupters from the main idea, and to make clear the members of an enumeration." The growth of general abilities relates mainly to developing ideas and meanings, i.e., understanding. Grammar is an attempt to develop concepts, principles and rules relating to usage and to the structure of language. Grammar provides a stock of ideas and understandings that help to make language intelligible, to give some insight into its structure, and to supply some, help in the use of language forms and in the correction of errors. Differentiation of Instruction: A differentiation of work suited to the needs of individuals in the class is necessary. This differentiation concerns all phases of work. In handling the experience phases, the teacher assists pupils in identifying and setting up general standards but allows each pupil to select a specific standard as he gives his talk and engages in conversation or dramatization. Moreover, the teacher judges each pupil in terms of this ability, not in terms of what other children do. For example, in handling a lesson on reporting at the fifth-grade level, the teacher may develop with the class the following standards:

1.

Give facts that relate to the topic.


Approaches Methods in Language CornrnLmication 2.

Tell the facts in order.

3.

Use words that tell exactly what you want to say.

4.

Speak clearly.

5.

Show interest in your topic.

189

All the pupils are engaging in a common experience-reporting; the reports may be on the same or different topics. The standards set up are those which the teacher and pupils feel have some significance for the class as a whole at its current stage of language development, but it is not assumed that all the pupils have the same specific needs. Each child is encouraged to discover his weakness and to pick a specific language goal on which he needs to work and to concentrate on that goal during the preparation and delivering of the report. The pupil is judged by how well he does what he sets out to do, not in terms of the total list of standards. Thus, differentiation and specific, individualized training are provided within an experience that superficially has the appearance of traditional whole-class work. In the practice or corrective phases, differentiation is of the essence. The teacher makes an inventory of specific individual needs, groups children having the same needs, and provides the necessary instruction and practice exercises. Pooley says, "Usage instruction should be as highly individualized as it is possible to make it. Only those errors lease acceptable in the speech and writing of a majority of the class should be given class instruction and drill; those occurring in the work of a few should be handled in small groups or individually as the need arises." It is desirable for the children, as well as the teacher, to know what their specific needs are; and therefore each child should have an inventory of his own skills and abilities. The inventory serves as a note sheet, and the child refers to it in preparation, in evaluation, and in recording progress. Provision is made for extreme variants in the form of individualized self-help materials.

Significance of Unit Organization : The organization of learning experiences around lifelike situations contrasts sharply with the traditional emphasis on small, isolated language elements,


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chiefly skills. Through unit organization children are trained not only for practical experiences but in them; the ultimate goals become the immediate goals. Also, the larger unit of learning preserves the integrity of the learning experience; the varied and complex elements of language are combined and to a large extent learned as they function in purposeful expression; the learning experience is an organic whole. Practice on specific, component abilities and skills is related to some experience and has an obvious, immediate purpose. The significance of unit organization is apparent whether the language program is developed independently or as a part of larger curriculum units based on the social studies and nature study. The trend toward large unit organization in language gains additional respect when it is observed that the same trend prevails in other areas of the curriculum.

Processes: It must now be obvious that not one but a battery of procedures is required to handle the various phases of the language program. Three, or possibly four, basic procedures will be used at various times, according to the nature of the learning situation and the learning outcome. Handling an Experiences Unit: The first step in handling an experience unit is to set up or utilize a situation which creates definite reason for carrying on the work. The situation may be one that requires the writing of a thank-you note after the appearance of a guest speaker, writing a letter to a sick friend, keeping the minutes of a school council meeting, writing a playas a culmination of a unit in the social studies, or summarizing information gained in a nature-study field trip. The situation presents a real motive and imposes requirements for worthy performances. Alert teachers readily find occasions calling for the various experiences in both the school and the out-of-school experiences of children. A second step is to develop ideas of good performance. From past work or from trail performances in the experience, initiated for that purpose, the class and teacher presumably discover the need for further training. What is good letter writing, reporting, storytelling, outlining, and the like? Good models may be secured


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and studies. It is relatively simple to secure good models of written work. Textbooks provide them; the teacher may accumulate a file from children's previous work; or children may supply examples in the form of letters from home (with the help and permission of parents). It is less easy to provide study examples of oral work. Live examples of good performance in the class provide the best material; recordings are invaluable. The material should approximate the level of work normally expected of the grade. Having pupils study examples of varying degrees of merit and choose the best is a procedure of considerable value. Study should be directed first to content and general effect and then to the specific literary devices employed by the author to produce the effect. Some attention must be given to mechanics, oral or written. Analysis of models reveals key points which should be listed as goals or standards to aim at, to imitate, and to use in evaluation. Goals should be set with due regard to the normal expectancies for the class and should be varied enough to give every child something to work for. Generally, a few key goals are better than many; the list may be extended as the class grows in ability. Too many goals lead to scattering of attention and effort. Thus, for a second-grade class giving talks, it may be sufficient to set as immediate goals willing participation, having something to say, and sticking to the point. As these goals are reached or approximated by a considerable number of the pupils, the teacher may add to the list others such as the use of complete sentences and apt, vivid words and phrases, a clear, pleasing, well-modulated voice, good pronunciation and enunciation, and interest-catching beginning sentences. A third basic phase of the work is one commonly neglected or poorly handled-the setting up of individual goals. Too often this is postponed until after the child has completed his recitation or written exercise, and setting individual goals then assumes the form of a post-mortem. This method violates the sound psychological principle that the learner should fix his attention on the skill to be performed before practice, not after, except as a check on performance. Individual goals, therefore, should be set up early, before recitation and even before preparation for recitation.


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The fourth phase, following the setting up of individual goals, is preparation. The child prepares his assignment with both the over-all purpose and his specific, individual goal in mind. The fifth phase is participation, such as giving a talk, writing a letter, or taking part in a dramatization. There should be evidence in the child's work that he has kept in mind his individual goal as well as the general purpose of the assignment. Evaluation by the pupil, class or teacher follows as the sixth phase. This should be in terms of the pupil's individual goals and should always be friendly and constructive, with full recognition of differences in individual capacity. Self-criticism is usually worth more than class and teacher criticism, although a pupil is also often stimulated by the approval of the class and teacher. The initial lesson or series of lessons is followed by other similar lessons or series in which gains are preserved and further improvement is sought. Records of accomplishments in specific skills and abilities may be kept on the pupil's individual goal sheet and on the teacher's class record sheet. Opportunities will arise for the individual correction of mistakes without the pupil's losing sight of the major purpose of the experience. Handling a General-ability Lesson: A general-ability lesson is a definite practice exercise designed to bring about improvement in some specific ability, such as selecting an appropriate subject, choosing pertinent content, dealing with a sufficiently small and manipulable aspect of a topic, organizing effectively, or composing a good beginning and ending. The emphasis is on knowledge, understanding, and judgment rather then on specific skills. An understanding of what constitutes a good subject, for example, evolves from a study and comparison of specific examples, such as "The Fish I Didn't Catch," "Hired, Tired, and Fired," and "Taking Home My Report Card," and from an analysis of key qualities, such as personal approach, definiteness, and brevity. The procedure is that which is characteristic of all knowledge getting-the solution of problems; it is never that of drill, as in the pronunciation of get. The need for the lesson appears, of course, in an experience phase of the work, and it results from an analytical evaluation of


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the experience in terms of the specific factors that condition performance. The training lesson presumes inadequate performance and need for improvement. The need may appear as a result of pupil, class, or teacher evaluation; but it is important that the learner recognize the need. The second step, logically, is to gain some understanding of what constitutes good performance. In the selection of subjects, for instance, the teacher may present to the class example, good and bad, taken from current or previous work, from textbooks, or from reading. The examples are studied and the pupils are led to feel the difference between good and poor subjects. The teacher may present such subjects as the following and have the pupils discuss them: Poor

Good

Where I Went

Catching a Rat

What I Heard

False Alarm

What I Did

Too Sure

Sunday

A Bad Shot

An Adventure

An Unexpected Ducking

My Trip

A Hasty Reply

Work

A Wet Seat

My Friend

The Battle of Chicken Run

What My Aunt Has

No Pie

Titles in the first list are found to be vague and weak. Titles in the second list arouse curiosity and a desire to hear more; they tap sources of personal experience and feeling; and they set specific limits on a composition. From the study of examples the children proceed to a consideration of their own experiences, searching for phases that are interesting to others and worth writing or talking about, avoiding commonplace and sensational events. Then they formulate good subject titles. Tentative lists of these titles are profitably presented to the class for evaluation and discussion. Approved subjects are then chosen, and compositions are prepared and delivered. The value of the subject is proved in the composition.


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When some assurance as to competency has been gained, the children use their improved ability in selecting subjects for all oral and written work.

Handling Specific-skill Lessons: The third type of lesson or exercise with which the teacher is necessarily concerned involves the development of a specific language skill, such as the pronunciation of words (often, going, athletic), use of the comma in a series, and capitalization of I. Standards of usage are set by convention. The primary emphasis in learning is on hearing or seeing and doing; understanding enters into the learning process to the extent that it is possible to show reasons for certain conventions and to develop rules or principles. Understanding naturally adds to ease of learning in this as in other phases of language work. The point of departure for a training lesson on a specific skill is an immediate need, revealed usually by performance in an experience. For example, in giving a talk a child may say I seen for I saw; or in written work he may fail to indicate clearly the persons attending a party by the omission of commas in a series of names, as in JoAnn Caryl and Tommy came to the party. The pupil may be led to discover his difficulty by skilful questioning. The next step is to show the correct form to the child by explanation and demonstration or by directing the study of example, correct and incorrect. Recognition of the correct form and, if possible, the reason for it is followed by deliberate practice in selected example. Finally, consistent use in exercises and in related speaking or writing is provided. Work of this type is largely remedial, and involves breaking old habits as well as forming new ones. The work should be individualized, concentrated on a few of the most important skills, and followed up consistently and persistently until definite progress is made. The use of individual record sheets is helpful in making a diagnosis and later in recording progress. There are many ways of handling directed training lessons on specific skills and at the same time employing good principles of learning. Specific procedures vary somewhat in oral and in written work, although the basic principles are the same. One procedure, making use of original sentences as a means of drill, is illustrated in the following quotation from Brown and Butterfield:


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Another common drill is having children give original sentences in which difficult forms are used correctly. For example, the words seen and saw are put on the blackboard. The children are told to make sentences using each word correctly. The results may be something like the following: I saw a cat. I saw a dog. I saw a horse. Isawa bird. This kind of drill may be oral or written, but the temptation will be to have the children write the sentences because (from the teacher's point of view) this makes good busywork. To improve a drill of this sort and to make it mean something to the children, the procedure can be changed somewhat. The teacher, to begin with, asks the children to tell, in their sentences, about something that they really did see. John gives the first sentence, "I saw a cat." The teacher remarks that this sentence is correct but that it would be more interesting to the class if he could tell a little more so that everyone could see the cat that he saw. With a suggestion or two, John changes his sentence to something like the following, "I saw a big black cat with green eyes." The class likes this sentences much better than the first one; others may try to imitate it. Then the teacher will suggest that there are many, many kinds of sentences using saw and seen. She will give an example or two: "When the boys went to the circus, they saw an elephant doing tricks," or "If Mary had not seen the funnly little puppy, she would have gone right home." This will encourage the children to think out original sentences also. It is remarkable how much a few suggestions add to the vitality of a simple drill. The more intelligent children, instead of being bored by meaningless repetition, will be stimulated by the opportunity for creative expression.

Relation to Work in Other Subjects: The teacher recognizes that only a small part of his pupils' total experience in language takes place in the language class. Language is used throughout the day in all phases of work and play, and the use of language in other subjects and in all extracurricular work obviously helps set patterns , and habits of expression. Language, therefore, is a service subject


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and as such involves two key points worthy of attention. In the first place, the immediate needs for particular language experiences appear in other phases of work. Various subjects require discussion, reports, explanations, and directions. Class meetings and pupil councils involve discussions, reports, and keeping minutes. When parents visit the school, as on school visiting days, opportunities arise for making introductions and explanations. In the second place, it is necessary to maintain reasonable standards in all language work in school if good habits of speaking and writing are to be established. In the social studies, in arithmetic, and in the school assembly some attention must be given to good speaking and writing. If properly handled this attention adds to the effectiveness of work under way, and it is not necessarily a distraction. The whole school should become language-conscious.

Language Programs: The language program, as we have said, should consist of real, lifelike experiences and training experiences as needed to develop the essential abilities and skills. The program is a functional one. Language experiences at once provide the chief immediate and remote goals, the chief medium of learning, and the basis for organizing the program into units of work. Training lessons grow out of and are motivated by immediate needs for particular skills and abilities revealed in the experience phases of the work. These skills are learned as far as possible in use-incidentally; but to the extent that further specific training is necessary, separate exercises or lessons are provided. The minimum essentials of a m~dern language program, then, include (1) primary emphasis on and training in language experiences and (2) provision for the systematic development of essential language abilities and skills. Within the limits set by these minimum requirements there is opportunity for a variety of programs providing combinations of experience work and training experiences, and for programs offering opportunities to combine experiences and relate them to other phases of the curriculum. At one extreme must be recognized the very liberal or informal teacher who handles language mainly as an integral part of the work in other subjects and school activities and who provides only occasional directed practice or remedial lessons as needed by


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individuals and groups. Such a program can be excellent and may be regarded as the ultimate goal of language teachers. But the attempt to carryon the extreme type of informal program often results in gross neglect of training in language. Without sacrificing the essentials of a vital, functional program to traditional formality, it is possible to set a middle course consisting of a definite series of basic language experiences and supplementary systematic work on essential abilities and skills. This middle course makes possible the ready use of available instructional materials; and it seems to be consistent with the position taken by the Commission on the English Curriculum of the National Council of Teachers of English. Use of Textbooks: In considering the wealth of live opportunities for using language in curricular and school-life experiences, several questions arise: What place does the textbook have in the language program? What does it contain? How can it be used effectively?

In the first place, a textbook provides a basic program of unit work in experiences and related abilities and skills generally appropriate to the grade, and it gives emphasis to the several experiences according to their importance. The sequence is timedin part, at least-to meet the progressive needs of children throughout the year. Instruction and drill in specific abilities and skills are introduced as needed to carry on the various experiences. The textbook is the product of the study and thinking of specialists who are qualified by research and experience to write in their fields. In using the textbook, the teacher is taking advantage of this specialized, technical knowledge and competence. In addition to a general plan of organization, the textbook offers certain other resources which the teacher must understand and use effectively. Among these resources are models of stories, reports, outlines, and the like. If wisely chosen, they suggest reasonable standards. However, for any particular class, such standards may be too high or too low. The teacher, therefore should collect from time to time samples of his pupils' work to serve as supplementary models. In addition to their easier adaptability to a particular class, the local samples are more interesting than textbook models.


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Another common feature of textbooks is list of key pointsstandards-for particular experiences. Any such list may be well devised; the important question, however, is, What use should be made of it? In the authors' opinion, it is better to let children derive their standards from a study of samples and to use the textbook lists mainly for checking their own items than to have pupils begin by studying the standards of the textbook. The textbook lists of standards usually contain many items, and the implication here is that all children are to work on all of them simultaneously. Again, in the authors judgment, such a precedure presents and impossible task to the children; if a long list is used, and it should be, each child should select one or two items for emphasis in giving a story or report. Such selectioI1 and concentration provide opportunities for individualizing work within a common experience. Textbooks also provide practice and remedial exercises. Usually in this connection some kind of pretest or diagnostic test is suggested so that only the children who need the practice get it. This is common-sense procedure. It is possible that some of the exercises will not be needed by any child. It is also likely that common difficulties will be found that are not covered in the test and practice exercises. In this case the teacher should devise tests suited to the particular needs of the children, possible using the textbook exercises as models. It may be found that the practice exercises in textbooks are largely devoted to the mechanics of speaking, writing, and usage. Little provision is commonly made for exercises in the development of ability to select suitable topics, to limit the scope of topics, to stick to the point, to follow a clear sequence of ideas, and to introduce interesting details and apt illustrations. Yet these language abilities are regarded as primarily important in the language program. If training exercises in this latter group of abilities are needed, as they may well be, the teacher will be obliged to supply them.

A further common textbook provision is the statement of principles and rules relating to concepts, usages, and mechanics .. Rules and principles, it is generally agreed, should not be memorized from the textbook but should be arrived at inductively by pupils


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through a study of live examples. The textbook statements can then serve as checks on the children',s own generalizations. There are several general ways in which a book can be used. One is, obviously, to follow it chapter by chapter and exercise by exercise. It is unlikely, however, that a textbook prepared for use in different sections of the country and for different types of schools will be found perfectly adapted to the needs of a particular class. Such use is tolerable only in the hands of a teacher who lacks confidence or through training. At the other extreme, the textbook is used only as a referenceexercise source. In this case, the basic p.rogram is developed from purposeful experiences, largely arising in connection with other curricular and extracurricular activities, and units and exercises are selected from the textbook as they are needed for training in particular abilities and skills. Mature, well-trained, progressive teachers are inclined to favour such use of the textbook because in this method the functional concept of language work is emphasized. The textbook work is also made vital and purposeful. However, this procedure may lost the planned continuity and sequence of training in essential skills which the textbook provides, and the teacher thus undertakes the responsible task of not only selecting the experiences but also working out a systematic, sequential, developmental program. This is certainly not impossible to do, but the teacher must recognize his responsibility and accept the amount of work involved. There is a third plan, which combines adjustment to present needs and the systematic treatment of technical content. The teacher follows the order of experiences set by the textbook, but instead of using the exact topics for oral and written work given in the text, he draws them from the current lives of the children. This procedure is thoroughly consistent with the purpose and specific recommendations of many textbook authors. For example, as the basis of studying outlining and reporting a certain textbook sets up an experience in science in which children are told the following: "Stir into half a cup of water as much salt as the water will dissolve. Pour the water into a saucer. Let it stand until the water is all gone.


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What happens? What does this show?" Although a particular class may not be performing this experiment at the time when the language unit is taken up in the text, it may be performing other science experiments or doing a similar type of work in another subject that will provide materials for outlining and reporting. The textbook, then, may serve as a general guide and model in programming language experiences and is using other curricular activities for developing language abilities; its particular subject-matter content need not be followed slavishly. The exercises for developing technical skills may be used, if needed, or similar exercises may be devised by the teacher to provide specific training. This third plan conserves the general plan of organization and the systematic program for Ll)e development and maintenance of technical aspects of language training as provided by the textbook, but it makes the work functional and relates it to current needs.

Supplementary Practice Material: Teachers often feel a need for more and different types of practice material than is provided in the text. Authors commonly provide supplementary practice exercises in workbooks designed to accompany a parallel work in the texts. Workbooks provide a convenient and inexpensive source of supplementary practice material and save the teacher's time. They are an additional expense to the school district or to the children, however, and often not avai~able. If workbooks cannot be purchases for each pupil, the teacher can devise a reasonably satisfactory supply of permanent material by securing several copies of one or more workbooks. Selected exercises are then tom out and mounted on stiff paper. The material is filed in a convenient place, accessible to pupils, possible in a standard vertical file. The topics for filing are the particular abilities and skills, mainly written, in which rractice material is needed, e.g., content and organization, usage, capitalization, and punctuation. The teacher naturally selects the exercises that serve his purposes in meeting the individual needs of a particular group of pupils. This material cannot be used for whole-class assignments, but it serves very well for individual and small-group assignments. Old textbooks also can be used to proyide supplementary practice material. If the material is not completely indexed by type


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of difficulty-and it probably is not-it is necessary for the teacher to prepare such an index. The index should be duplicated and given to the pupils for filing in their language notebooks. Supplementary practice work should be individualizeddirected at the point of difficulty. It is inevitable that children will be working on many difficulties at one time. The teacher will have little time for making assignments, giving oral explanations, and checking. It follows that the material should be housed so that the children can get it with a minimum of teacher effort and that the material should be self instructional and self-checking. The answer key may be placed on the back of the practice exercise. Cheating will be discouraged if the teacher always gives tests on the work and checks it as completed only on the basis of satisfactory test results.

Evaluation: It must be apparent to the student in the field of language instruction, and even to the casual reader, that evaluation is an essential part of a modern language arts program and that such evaluation is continuous and cumulative, serving various purposes and taking various form throughout the term. These purposes and forms, appearing as integral phases of the language program in preceding chapters, are summarized here. The teacher's first purpose is an evaluation survey to determine early in the school year levels of achievement of the class and individual pupils, in terms of performance in language experiences and related abilities and skills. Preliminary surveys are made to provide a basis for laying out general plans and determining points of departure and to provide means for measuring improvement during the term. In the case of handwriting and spelling, for example, surveys make possible an organization for group instruction. The teacher should always be aware of the fact that he is dealing with several different kinds of language experiences and a multiplicity of skills, oral and written. Evaluation forms and procedures are therefore adapted to the experiences and to the nature of the learning elements. The teacher's subjective judgment must be the chief evaluation factor in most phases of oral experiences, abilities and skills. However, the accuracy of his judgment is improved by listing


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and evaluating specific points; thus in judging a report, the teacher may concentrate on content, organization, and effective delivery. (In general, the check lists suggested throughout the book pf'ovide itemized bases for evaluation.) In appraisal of written activities, the teacher's judgment is similarly important; but the nature of written work makes objective evaluation more practicable through the use of suitable models. Standard scales, though, offer teachers little help in evaluating quality in written compositions. Only the mechanics of written work-capitalization, punctuation, spelling, handwriting, and usage-have been adequately covered in standard tests, which may be profitably used early in the year to compare the achievement of a class with that of other classes and to locate deficiencies of individuals students. These survey tests are not truly diagnostic, although their results may be symptomatic. Many such tests dealing with various phases of mechanics are available. The Unit Scales of Attainment in Language cover capitalization, punctuation, and usage. The Ayres scale for measuring the quality of hand writing is widely used. The Morrison-MeCall Spelling Scale provides a number of tests for use in grades 2 to 8. Taking samples of handwriting early in the term and using them as a means of measuring class and individual progress is a sound, practical procedure. An informal preliminary test in spelling, made up of words taken at random from the term's work, gives the teacher valuable information on class achievement and individual differences. A second purpose of the teacher is to make a diagnosis of individual accomplishments and needs in the performance of various experiences and in general abilities and specific skills. This diagnosis serves the all-important purpose of directing attention to specific deficiencies both in experiences and specific remedial exercises. Here, as in the preliminary surveys, the teacher's judgment, as well as the pupils', must serve. In written usage, handwriting, and spelling, more objective treatment is possible. Many standard tests are available, covering a large percentage of usage crudities. One such is Charters' Diagnostic Test for verbs, pronouns, and miscellaneous words, which is a proofreading test designed for use in grades 3 to 12. Covering the work of all grades,


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standard tests of usage do not exactly fit the work of any particular grade. The teacher will therefore find it extremely profitable to devise an objective test including the key usage problems of his grade and of preceding grades. The form may follow that of the Charters tests and utilize proofreading or multiple-choice techniques. Tests also may be taken from the textbook or teacher's manual. Since the primary purpose of the diagnostic test is determination of individual needs, not measurement of achievement, the teacher-made test is as serviceable as the standard test. In diagnosing handwriting, the chief task is to determine the particular faults in letter formation, slant, alignment, spacing, and colour of line. The teacher' casual judgments may be refined, as suggested, by the use of patterns and diagnostic sheets provided by good handwriting books. Additional standard resources are Gray's A Score Card for Measuring Handwriting and Freeman's Diagnostic Chart. Diagnosis in spelling is mainly a matter of locating particular words causing difficulty and noting the nature of the difficulties. The customary weekly protest serves as a basis for such diagnosis. The third evaluative purpose of the teacher is to measure the achievement of children during short periods of time, from unit to unit or from difficulty to difficulty. Here again the teacher must rely on his judgment of achievement in most phases of the language program. Records of progress on specific items should be kept on goal sheets. The objective phases of the work-usage, capitalization, punctuation, spelling, and handwriting-can be measured in large part by informal objective tests prepared by the teacher or selected from the textbook to cover the specific items involved. These types of informal objective tests are similar to those used in diagnosis. The final purpose of evaluation is to measure progress at the end of the term. The forms and procedures for the survey are similar to those used in the preliminary evaluation at the beginning of the term. Judgments of general abilities and improvement in oral and written experiences are made by the teacher, using check lists of specific items for increased validity. Samples of written work, as in the case of handwriting and composition, are compared with the samples taken early in the term. Improvement in handwriting may be determined by scores on the Ayres scale. A final teacher-made


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test in spelling, covering the term's work, shows the progress of individuals and of the class; a Morrison-McCall spelling test may also be given again, but the results should not be taken too seriously. Informal objective tests covering essentials of usage, capitalization, and punctuation may be given and compared with scores on similar tests given early in the term; or standard tests may be repeated. Scores on tests of mechanics should be supplemented by observation of what children do in actual writing. Mechanics are mastered only when they are used habitually in purposeful expression.

Dictionary: A good children's dictionary should be available to pupils in the intermediate and upper grades. Training in habits and techniques of dictionary use should be gradual and cumulative, adjusted to maturity and needs at succeeding grade levels. Practice in alphabetizing is the first step, which is provided interestingly through the making of work and picture dictionaries in the first grades and through the preparing of alphabetical word lists in the second and third grades. Alphabetical order is used in finding words, first by the initial letter and finally by the second and third letters. One of the early uses of the dictionary is for checking spelling, and this can begin in the third grade. Checking pronunciation can begin in the fourth grade, where attention is also called to syllabication and marks for accent and the long and short sounds of vowels. The use of key pronunciation words and of the other common marks of vowel sounds is taught in the fifth grade. The checking of meanings and the use of synonyms and antonyms to gain variety of expression may well be emphasized in the sixth grade.

DOD


CHAPTER

EIGHT

NATURE AND IDEA OF WRITING

The basic types of programs are recognized as adequately providing for the growth and d~velopment of children in language. One, designated as the functional program, provides for closely relating language to work in other areas of study but sets aside some particular periods for systematic work in language. The other type is an integrated program; language work does not appear as a separate subject, but is very closely tied into other areas of study. The two program are recognized, in a sense, as both functional in that they center in real language experiences, designed to meet the needs of everyday living; integrated in that what children talk and write about is derived largely from work in other study areas, which provide motivation for and practice in language abilities and skills. The difference between the two program lies in the degree of integration-a variable depending on the skill of the teacher-and is primarily a matter of scheduling. There is little difference in philosophy and in actual teaching techniques. The program may be completely integrated around a single area, as shown in the first example that follows; or partially integrated around short units of work, as shown in the second example. The functional program, or some other type of systematic program, is familiar to most students from personal experience. The integrated program may not be so well known. A completely


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integrated program demands teaching ability of a high order. Before proceeding further with the discussion, it may be helpful to get a close-up view of two types of integrated program. Nature Study: Plants, Third Grade: The following description of a completely integrated program is based on work carried on by Miss Butterfield, in the third of the Potsdam Campus School. It shows how closely interwoven are different school subjects and how many vicarious experiences may radiate from one basic theme. A center of interest-in this case nature study-will, if granted freedom, reach out and enter almost every phase of the school curriculum. By bringing together the various skills, knowledges, and appreciation of these different areas, both pupils and teacher may increase their understanding of the function of language. In the present account of procedures and in the accompanying samples of children's work, the reader will find concrete illustrations of many points made elsewhe.e in this volume.

How the Study Originated: At the beginning of the school term when the children would like to study about flowers was one of the topics mentioned. The teacher felt that this was probably suggested by the time of year and by the fact that many garden flowers were in their bloom just then. She doubted that the subject would be of long term interest. Plants for the Schoolroom : The first objective seemed to be was make the schoolroom attractive, and to this end many fall flowers were brought and arranged by the children, Simple rules regarding colour and arrangement were discussed. It was decided that the flowers should be of different heights, of an uneven number, and so grouped that there should be balance and colour variation. Holders and vases appropriate for particular flowers were selected. A library block containing illustration of flowers and of simple flowers arrangements was located, and the children tried to imitate the suggestion and examples. Names of common flowers-zinnia, bachelor's-button, aster, cosmos, etc.-were mentioned and listed on the board. The children took pride in their ability to recognize these flowers, to pronounce their names, and to spell them correctly.


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As the supply of garden flowers dwindled, wild flowers were gathered. Children brought goldenroad, wild asters, and Queen Anne's lace, and they arranged the bouquets attractively. One section of the blackboard was reserved for names of new flowers. If any child thought of an unusually vivid descriptive word, he wrote it opposite the flower name on the board. These words invited class criticism, both favourable and adverse; and some children developed remarkably in their ability to describe accurately the appearance, colour, and other qualities of certain flowers. An interest in wild flowers led naturally to the study of seed dispersal; a chart was made, picturing methods of dispersal and showing samples of each kind of seed. This project entailed considerable organization, labelling, lettering, and measuring. Words involved were listed and used in spelling lessor~: Dispersal Cannier

winged posted

traveler sticktight

A Trip to Get Plants: Plans were next made for supplying the schoolroom with winter plants. A retired teacher offered the contents of her large and lovely window box and garden. The children went one fine autumn afternoon just before the first frost to the home of Miss F, where they saw so many beautiful plants that they scarcely knew which they liked best. In anticipation of this dilemma, there had been a discussion among the pupils before they left school; they selected spots in room which needed or could accommodate plants and had accordingly taken just enough pots. At last all agreed upon a large begonia full of bloom, a coleus, and a pink ruffled petunia, which one little boy simply could not give up. The children put bits of stone over the drainage hole in each pot and added sand, fertilizer, and loan form a bed; then the plants were lifted tenderly so as not disturb the roots. More good soil was added and firmed about the plants. They were then watered and placed in Miss F's garage to become accustomed gradually to being indoors. The children understood that, if brought suddenly into a warm room, a plant might wither and lose some of its leaves. Since Miss F had not been at home when the children made their visit, some doubts were expressed as to whether or not she


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would understand where the plants in her garage had come from. Reassured, the children suggested that they thank her for the plants, and the following letter was written: Potsdam N. Y. September 17,2006 DearMissF, We want to thank you letting us dig up your plants and for leaving trowels and fertilizer for us to use. We enjoyed digging the plants and potting them, and we are anxious now to get them in our room. Sincerely yours, Grade Three Room 25 This letter was composed by group and copied from the board by three children who considered themselves good penmen; then a committee chose the letter they considered the best of the three written. The class elected a messenger who, on his way home from school, delivered the letter to Miss F's door.

Water Plants: About this time the children brought a small goldfish to school, and suitable accommodations had to be provided for it. By referring to library materials the class learned that plants should be grown in the water in order to keep it in good condition for fish. Pond weed was obtained, and the pupils learned that while some plants grow only in dirt, others grow only in water. The pond weed was planted in sand in the aquarium, and the children enjoyed watching it grow. Snails were brought to keep the aquarium clean. Others varieties of local water plants were discussed, and common names listed. Slips: In a short time it was noted that the branches of ivy had some tiny roots, and the term slip was introduced. The children learned that some plants could be started from slips, while others grow from seeds, roots, or bulbs; lis.ted were made of plants reproduced in each manner. About this time the children had fun plying a game of flower riddles, which they made up and asked each other, there was,


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naturally, wide variation in quality, but all the children seemed anxious to include as many good descriptive words as possible without telling what their plant or flower was. The following are samples: I grow in the ground. I have stems. I am red or blue. Who amI? The old-fashioned ladies Are trooping to town With their bright yellow dresses All trimmed with down I grow from seeds. My stems are slender, tall, And says in the breeze. My graceful flowers are pink, White, or sometimes almost red. But my delicate leaves Are always green. After two or three weeks it was time to bring the plants from garage. A committee was appointed to go with the teacher in her car to get them. The children were delighted to find their plants so large and beautiful. Since Miss F had given the pupils permission to take any other plants in the garage, they decided to take a geranium, which had a pink blossom, and a large shamrock plants with a car full of plants, pupils and teacher went back to the school. Several children brought plants from home, and in order to make space for them all, two bookstands were put together to make a comer around the reading table, on top of these low cases the plants seemed to thrive. Children took turns watering and caring for them.


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Winter Beuquets : When, at last, the garden flowers were frozen and withered, the class talked of seed pod beuquets for the winter, and one warm morning late in autumn the class took a walk to see what could be found that might be useful. Along a hedge, at the edge of a garden, and in a vacant lot were found many stalks of weed seed pods, which were carried back to the school. The children quick! y became conscious of the variety of size, colour, and shape of seed pods; and the collection continued to grow as children found leaves, stalks, grasses, and berries in their own or neighbours' back yards and along the way to school. A tall vase was filled with bright bittersweet berries attractively arranged. Milkweed pods, brown sorrel stalks, Queen Anne's lace (much dried but still delicate), and others grasses were arranged in a tall black vase by a group of children and placed on a low filing cabinet in a shadowed corner of the room because these plants did not need light. Some of the weeds were carefully packed in a carton and stored in the school basement. At Christmas time, when the question of gifts for parents arose, they thought of several uses of these dried weed. Some of the delicate grasses furnished designs for spatterwork. Some child~en made small, flat, clay flower bowls which were painted and fired in the school kiln. With a clay trong in the center and an arrangement of dried weed pods, these bowls made individualized gifts. Some children experimented with colouring the weeds. Painted milkweed pods were considered especially attractive.

Plant Care: During the winter, the plants were routinely cared for, and they also occasioned sporadic outbursts of conversation and discussion. The wandering Jew in the hanging basket grew so long that it was dangerously near the radiator. Therefore, after pupil consultation, a bit was pinched off, rooted, and stuck back into the container. When along in January, all the plants looked a bit sickly, liquid fertilizer was mixed and administered. The coleus grew so tall that some branches had to be snipped off and rooted in water. Various new plants were started from slips. One especially vigorous plant was potted and sent to a sick member of the class with the following letter:


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Dear Gail, We thought you might like to see some of the coleus you helped pot last fall. The plant grew so big we had to break some off. We put the piece in water and made a little plant for you from the slip. We hope you will like it. The plants have all grown so you know them. Pat is watering them this week. Come back soon. With love, Grade Three Planning the year's Work. During the developments just described it had become apparent to the teacher that the study flowers had progressed into a study of plants and that the whole subject had become one of more than passing interest. She discussed with the children the many different kinds of plants and their uses for other than decorative purposes. Working together, teacher and children listed four large major topics they wanted to explore during the year : Plants for the schoolroom Plants for Food Plants We Wear Other Plants We Use These question were listed on the blackboard: 1. Why do different plants live in different parts of the country? 2. Where do fresh vegetables come from in the winter? 3. What is fertilizer made from? 4. What do plants need for growth besides water? 5. How are different colours of the same flower secured? 6. 7. 8.

How are different varieties fruit, etc., produced? What makes different kinds of soil? How is enough flour for all the bread obtained?

Since there had to be some order to the study, it was decided to begin with the unit on "Plants for Food," topic 2, as early in the


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autumn as possible and allow it to run simultaneously with topic-I. Familiar vegetables and fruits were listed separately on the board; the children brought samples; and finally there was a large exhibit. Each article was labelled, a poster was made and the following invitation was issued to the children of another grade: We would like to have you come to see our Harvest Collection of fruit and vegetable Tuesday between 2 and 30'clock. Grade Three Room 25 Ways of cooking the various vegetables were discussed. Children brought recipes from home. Measurements and simple abbreviation, such as tsp., tub., c., pt., 1h and 1,4, were discussed, and rules of cooking to preserve all the good food values were pointed out. There were conversations about favourite dishes and such remarks as "I like potatoes cream much better than fried" and "This noon my mother cooked some carrots with meat. I like them that way." Several children reported having sampled a vegetable hitherto untested: "Last night we had parsnips and I ate some. Boy! They' are good." Several mothers expressed delight over their children's willingness to try new foods. Dates, figs, and dried apricots were sampled at school and described as seedy, sticky, sweet, tart, etc. Some children had never before heard of these fruits. Methods of preserving were also studied-canning, drying, and quick freezing; and many new words were thus added to vocabularies. The library was a constant source of information; and in connection with the harvesting and preserving of fruit and vegetables, considerable interest was generated about Indians and other primitive peoples, as well as about picneer methods of preparing for the winter. In October the children were asked to find out from their mothers' grocers where the fruit and vegetable in their stores had been grown. From these respect a chart was made, and it was quickly noticed that the majority of the green goods in the stores at that time of year had been grown locally, or at least in the state.


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Just before Christmas another canvass of the grocery stores revealed the fact that, while cabbage, apples, potatoes, squash, and a few other items were state-grown, most of the fresh foods were by now coming to us from a distance. This entailed simple map study. California, Florida, Texas, and Arizona were located. Tie tags from bunches of carrots, broccoli, etc., were collected and brought to school, and the children took great interest in location Phoenix, Arizona, and Salinas, California of a map and noting the distances travelled by lettuce and other vegetables. A world map became of interest when someone reported finding grapes from Chile. Two other entries were made on the chart, one in March and one in June. Each time new states were located; and when it was understood that all the lettuce, celery, and carrots in the stores had to travel hundreds of miles to reach us, it made quite an impression. Slides and films were shown depicting citrus groves, market gardens. And packing house in distant parts of the country. Methods of transportation were investigated, and many words added to the pupils' vocabularies: Budding Soil Irrigation Pollination Drainage

transportation labor graft harvest select

cultivation rotation (of crops) marketing grading pest

Distances and the amount of required handling were roughly estimated: and thus the children came to some little realization of the amount of work necessary and the number of people involved in getting a load of fresh lettuce from California to New York. The effect of climate on crops, people, and customs was also discussed. At school, a potato placed in a warm cupboard soon showed sprouts coming from its eyes, and it was learned that potato growers plant pieces of potatoes instead of seeds. The terms sprout and eyes were thus learned. A bushel of potatoes was traced from a nearby farm to New York City, and an estimate was made of the number of people who handled it-each person earning his living by his work. The children understood why potatoes must increase in price between the farm and the home. One child wrote a letter to his


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cousin in New York City to ascertain how much was being paid for potatoes there, and the class was much interested in the reply. Class letter asking for information were also written to the Farm Bureau and the potato Grovers' Association. Several children were taken by their parents to visit large potato farms in the vicinity, and these visits were reported to the class. Machines, such as potato planters, potato diggers, and spraying machines, were pictured. Words such as insect, insecticide, and poison were added to the pupils' vocabularies. A carrot in water spouted green leaves, and a tomato ball (moss implanted with tomato seeds) placed in a dish of water soon had tiny plants protruding from it. Beans resting on damp cotton further illustrated the sprouting process, there were also simple experiments to show the effect of moisture and different kinds of soil and fertilizer on plant growth. All these activities entailed keeping, discussion, reporting, writing of dates, spelling, reading for information, and vocabulary growth. The child who attempted to report without knowing what he was going to say was soon "shushed" by the class; but because there was such a wide variety of activities, everyone had a deep interest in something or other, and even the poorest members of the groups had their innings. In February a child brought some pussy willow branches to school. They were arranged in water, and the children watched the buds come out and change to hairy green catkins. Pictures were drawn of them, designs were made using the pussy willow motif, and descriptive words were listed : fuzzy, dangling, hairy, soft, furry. Several children wrote individual poems about pussy willows. Gardening: Sometime in February a child reported that his father was ordering garden seeds. They discussed the need for seeds and the reason why most people did not save seeds but preferred to buy tested ones. The words pollination and hybrid mentioned. Variety in fruits and vegetables was recalled, and the children described different strains of apples, with their characteristic appearances and flavors. Mcintosh Red, Greening, Snow, Tollman Sweet, Early Harvest, and Northern Spy were listed. It was also learned that, by cross pollinating and grafting, new varieties of


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fruits, vegetables, and flowers were created. Some of the children wanted to make a garden and raise something. An old window box was brought from the school basement, painted, and placed near a window. The following letter was to sent to seed companies: Campus School Potsdam, N.Y. February 23, 2006

Gentlemen: Please send us your 2006 catalogue of flower and vegetable seeds. Thank you. Yours truly Grade Three Room 25 Garden Helpers. Someone reported that bees are helpful in pollination and, in many cases, necessary. A committee was appointed to find out every possible thing about bees and their work. A classroom bee house was found, but to the children's disappointment no live bee were obtainable. From reading it was learned that insects are influential in plant life, and some were listed: Garden Friends

Garden Pests

Control

toads birds ants earthworms bees ladybugs

potato bugs grasshoppers bean beetles tomato worms moles, mice, rats corn borers

spray dust pull stubble

An ant house was obtained and stocked. For weeks these interesting creatures were watched, cared for, and fed honey and water. The queen, easily recognized by her size, was a never-failing source of interest. When the children came to school in the morning, they gathered immediately around the ant house to see where the tiny busybodies were and what they were doing. The children watched the ants moving gravel bit by bit from one room to another;


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and they saw them stroke and care for their queen and carry food to the nest. From this observation it was easy to understand how, by their industry, the ants helped keep the soil porous beneath plants. Many pictures were drawn at different times illustrating the ants, their work, their home, and their habits. These pictures were the result of individual interests and were spontaneous. Whenever a child saw something interesting which he wanted to illustrate, he did so and placed his picture, when finished, on the chalk tray, where it usually occasioned criticism, either favourable or unfavourable, and sometimes downright challenge of he had misrepresented some phase of ant life. A magnifying glass, which aided in the study of ants, proved valuable in examining other objects about the room. Many new words and meanings were added to the pupils' vocabularies. Praise was given to children who used new words often and naturally, and the children themselves registered displeasure and quickly supplied the needed word someone spoke of a "thing" or a "jigger." A Daffodil Bulb. Early in the winter a daffodil bulb was planted in peat moss, and the pot was anxiously watched for signs of the plant's growth. When the first pale-looking shoot became visible there was great excitement and the best of care tendered the young plant. During the day the pot was placed in a sunny spot near a window, but not on the sill since that was too near a radiator. At night it was placed well away from the window lest it become chilled. When the blossom finally appeared and broke from its covering, everyone thought it lovely and marveled that such a large bloom could have been hidden in such a small, drab, hard bulb. Words were listed which accurately described the blossom: Creamy white Trumpetlike Lovely

soft lemon yellow graceful sweet-scented

pale green beautiful fragile

Some children wanted to write stories or poems about the flower, but felt handicapped by spelling difficulties. A spelling lesson was accordingly made up of the most commonly needed world, while other words probably needed were written on a side board and left


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there for reference. The children were told to write their stories, spelling as best they could. Spelling "wouldn't count"; good stories were wanted, and spelling could be corrected later. Following are five stories or poems, each one written individually. Often words were so poorly spelled that the teacher could not read them; but with the children to interpret, the stories were soon corrected: I am a daffodil in the ground, and they call me brown. I am a daffodil siting on a hill. I am a flower. I'm pretty as can be And a woman picks me off my "feed." Once I had a sleepy little bulb which I thought would never wake up. But at last, one day popped a tiny hand and then another. Last of all up popped the head, and there was a trumpet daffodil. The Lonely Little Bulb Once upon a time there was a little bulb. He was very lonely in the ground until one day the sun came out very bright and he said, "I'd better grow now, or they'll be worrying about me." So every day he grew an inch. And one day he had four great big leaves on him. He said, "It's about time I poke my head out." Then he had mere things to see in the whole world than in the dark ground, and he lived happily ever after. There was a little bulb in the ground. One day the sun came out. The bulb popped its head up and looked all around. He looked at trees and than he looked to see where he was growing. He didn't know his name, but he was sure he must be very beautiful. Finally a lady picked him and took him into the house. How happy and proud he felt! After the blossom had withered, the bulb was taken out of the moss, the mass of roots was examined, and the bulb was laid on the window sill to dry. Later a child took it home to plant in the garden, where it would bloom again the next year. The talk about bulb spending the winter under the ground led to pictures depicting garden of spring glowers and to some pictures


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representing bulb beneath the earth-the bulbs having "baby faces" smiling as the sun shone from above. One day in March after one of the heaviest snowfalls of the season, someone mentioned the brown bulbs awaiting the coming of spring and the warmth of the sunshine. Looking out of the window, one child said he had the beginning sentences for a poem, and he repeated slowly: On top of the ground The snow lay deep. To this another child almost immediately added: Down under the ground Brown bulbs were asleep. Then, working together, the group soon had the following lines: Then came the spring With rain and sun. Whispered the bulbs, "Our work has begun. Come, stretch up your leaves, And sand out buds For springtime has come And the garden is ours." After the poem had been repeated a few times, a child suggested that, since we had used the word spring earlier in the poem, it might be better if we changed the next to the last sentences to read. For winter has gone. Then ground in the third line was changed to earth, buds in the third from the last line was changed to flowers, and the poem now read: On top to the ground

The snow lay deep. Down under the earth Brown bulbs were asleep. Then came the spring With rain and sun. Whispered a bulb, "Our work has begun. Come, stretch up your leaves And sent out flowers,


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For winter has gone And the garden is ours." So much satisfaction was expressed in the finished product that each child wanted a copy of the poem to keep. It was pointed out to the children that authors and poets wrote and rewrote their stories many times before they were finally published and that the rearranging of words showed that the class was improving and growing. The poem was given as a choral-speaking piece, with a small group as the second voice doing the part said by the bulb. Before long, someone suggested writing a tune for the poem, and so music was composed for it by the group. A Window-box Garden : The arrival of the seed catalogues occasioned great interest and much conversation. The pictures were studies, and hard words were sounded. In a few days catalogues had been worn to a pulp as the children pored over them trying to decide what they wanted. Abbreviations such as pkt., oz., lb., ft., and words such as dwarf, giant, and mixture, especially as applied to seed, were studied. Prices were noted and compared.

After much discussion it was decided that some of everything listed in the catalogues really could not be planted, that probably dwarf varieties would be more suitable than giant, and that varieties which matured early were desirable for results before school closed in June. It was finally voted to plant lettuce, radishes, and petunias; and a committee was appointed to choose the seed and fill out the order blank. According to the catalogue, head lettuce took much longer to mature than the leaf variety, so the latter was ordered. One little boy held out for Giant White radishes, but he was outvoted in favour of a variety called Cherry Belle, which looked especially attractive Belle, which looked especially attractive in the picture and was said to be a quick grower. A package of dwarf petuniasmixed colours -was also chosen. The total cost the amount each child had to contribute was computed, and the order was mailed.

Now the windows box was measured, and the terms length, width, and depth were learned in connection with the problem of


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determining the amount of soil needed to fill the box. Since there was still frost in the ground and good earth would be hard to get, the teacher bought two large begs of well-fertilizer soil at a agricultural college. Children lugged sizable rocks to school to provide drainage in the bottom of the box. The soil was added and patted into place. Though the pupils had been reared in a small village where everyone had plenty of out- of -door experience, this soft soil seemed to have a peculiar fascination for the children, and in odd moments here was always a child or two standing beside the box, just letting dirt trickie through his fingers. When the seeds arrived there was more excitement. As planned, lettuce was to be planted in one end of the box, radishes in the other end, and the petunias as a border around the edge. The seeds were examined and the differences noted. Each child had seeds to sow. Water was sprinkled over all. Great satisfaction was t:Apressed by all the pupils. Never were seed more carefully tended nor more closely watched than those in the window box. A few radish seed had not been completely covered, and one of these produced a sprout sometime between 11:20 A.M. and 12:45 P.M. The sprout was the cause of wild excitement when noticed by the child to enter the room after lunch. Other spring Activities. With the coming of spring it could be seen that the winter's study of plants had been truly effective. Never in her long experience had the teacher known of children so observing and so interested in all growing things. The earliest swelling of tree buds was noted and watched. Crocus daffodil, and tulip plants were reported as soon as they showed a spear. Early in March a section of the board was given over to "Signs of Spring." And some of the entries were as follows: March 8. Jimmy crows. March 8. Eddie thought he saw two robins. March 9. Lce on the river is thawing-David says. March 9. Tulip sprouts at Susan's house. March 11. Alice's mother tapped trees.


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The ester season occasioned the writing of numerous individual stories and poems in which the flowers vied with the Waster Bunny as theme. An Easter basket was packed for a sick classmate; in addition to the jellies, fruit, puzzles, and games in the basket, each child made a picture, wrote a note, or sent an Easter message. All winter it had been noted at the regular weekly meeting of the book Club that an unusually large number of the books reported by the children had been informational books-books read to "find out something." Now wild flower and bird guides were in constant demand. Names of spring flowers were listed on the board and used in spelling. Small bouquets were soon gathered and brought to school, and the conservation of these wild plants was discussed. Careless pulling of plants was condemned. On a walk one spring morning. The class saw various kinds of fruits tree in bloom or just leafing out. Peach, plum, and apple trees were noticed, the shape and size of trees were compared, and their leaves and flowers were examined and described. Large sprays of apple tree were brought into the classroom while still in bud, and the beauty of the opening flowers appreciated. The community's one and only magnolia was visited, and the beauty of the opening flowers appreciated. It served to emphasize the fact that people in other parts of our country have, due to climate, different plants. Pictures of fruit orchards in bloom, azalea gardens, and hibiscus hedges were brought by the children, and slides and films helped give an idea of flowers grown in other climates. Spring stories and poems were written by the children and left on the teacher's desk for reading. Some stories were read in the original, while some were worked over by the children; but each child had a chance to read his story to the class. Spring

The flowers are blooming, And the birds are coming back.


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The grass blades are all peeping From their long winter's nap. The squirrels are running up the tree And having lots of fun. I'll tell you a little secretSpring has come. In Spring

My mother bought me a pair of roller skates one spring day, so I went skating. I saw a robin singing in a tree and a woodpecker. There were lots of buds on the tree. The boys and girls were playing hop-scotch, picking pussy willows and flowers. Some were playing basebalJ or jumping rope. They were all glad spring had come at last. Micky I have a cat. He has a little house in the rose bushes. He and the other cats go in to get away from the dogs, sometimes to get out of the rain and sometimes just to play in it. One warm, lovely morning in May the group working together wrote a poem, which seemed to describe what they had seen and felt as they came to school;

Spring Morning I like to see the sun Shine on houses On a spring morning And the dancing shadows Of leaves. Birds sing gay songs, Sweet scents fill the air, Bright flowers bloom in the garden, And fresh and beautiful. Is fresh and beautiful. During odd moments in school and without help Or suggestion, a little girl wrote a story which she called "Wind and Fairies." When the story was completed she read it to the class and WaS complemented:


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Wind and Fairies The fairies live in a little yellow buttercup near the meadow. They work hard all day. In early morning some spread dew while others open the flowers. They dance on the little yellow dandelions in the afternoon, and at night they close the flowers. After their work is done they dance by the light of the fireflies. One day, while they were playing in the meadow, a big wind came and blew down all the buttercups, even their house. The fairies started to cry because it was such a nice house. "Where can we find a new house?" said one of the fairies. "In the woods would be a good place," said another fairly. So they started out to the deep woods. They walked and walked tmtil they came to a gurgling stream where they saw a beautiful white water lily. Here would be a good place to live. They could get water easily and also go swimming.

"Oh! We will have lots of room in here. " "It will be strange living in a bigger house. We lived in such a little one before!"

"Then they all decided to go swimming. They splashed water on each other and got their curly hair all wet." "But what will happen to us when the water lily dies," said the oldest and smartest fairy. "We will surely get seasick if we stay here too long. I wonder if there are any fairy hospitals near here." "In the winter we can live in a bird's nest and go back to our buttercup in the spring. By that time it should be grown up."

In the spring they returned to their old home and lived happily even after. Judged by adult standards the above story leaves much to be desired. The young author seems to have run out of plot about midway in the story. Her beginning is good, however; and by taking the fairies back home again, she provides a satisfactory ending. The children liked the tale, and there was a sort of pride in the fact that a member of the group had written such a long story unaided.


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Spurred by these individual stories, someone suggested that the class write a story. Beginning sentences were submitted, and Dorothy's was voted the best: One warm moonlight night all the fairies gathered together and made a little brown bulb which they planted in Jeanie's garden. For several days the story was worked on. Sometimes there were so many ideas for words or phrases that a vote had to be taken; and much rearranging was done, including the adding of descriptive words and the improvement of sentence. Finally the story was completed, copied by each child, and included in the individual story booklets: The Fairy Flower

One warm moonlight night all the fairies gathered together and made a little brown vulb which they planted in Jeanie's garden.

"Next spring we will have a beautiful flower," said the queen. "it will be different from any other flower in the garden." Winter came. Cold winds howled. The flowers in Jeanie's garden withered and turned brown. Soft white snow fell and covered all the land with a fleecy white blanket. But down under the earth while all this was happening, the little brown bulb was sound asleep. While it took its long winter rest, something was forming inside its shiny jacket which would make a lovely flower by and by. At last winter passed. Bright sun melted the snow and wanned the earth. South wind blew and wann rain pattered down on the ground. In its dark bed the little bulb began to feel restless. Ob, hum! "it sighed sleepily." "My jacket is getting tight. I must

be pushing up. " Mean while, above the earth, the fairies were wa tching closely for the first sign of their bulb.

Lightwing, the tiniest fairy of all, saw the wee tip of green sprout first and flew excitedly to the Queen. "Your Highness!" she gasped. "Our flower! It is growing! I saw it."


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Off fluttered the fairies after Lightwing, and in no time at all they were grouped around their wee paint, pointing and all talking at once. The queen Starbright spoke, "We must care for our plants and protect it from danger. We must keep the dirt loose around it and see that it gets water." Days went by. The plant grew and grew. First came two dainty green leaves Then, one warm sunny afternoon, Twinkletoes spied a chubby green bud just peeping up between the leaves. There was great excitement when the fairies gathered around. "Oh!" they chorused, "It will be a blossom." "I hope it will be pure white," said Queen Starbright. Several days went by. The fairies never left their bud alone for a minute. In the daytime they danced and played happily about it. At night Twinkletoes slept under a nearby clover leaf so that if the bud should open, she could hurry to tell the Queen. One night when Twinkletoes was just ready to drop off to sleep, she heard a faint "pop". Looking up she saw the bud gradually opening.

Off raced Twinkletoes to tell the other fairies the good news. Soon all were gathered around in a circle breathlessly as their bud slowly, very slowly opened into a beautiful pure white flower. Its delicate drooping petals were as soft as velvet and it swayed gracefully on a long slender stem. NOh," gasped the fairies, "Oh, isn't it beautiful?" For a moment they gazed silently at the wonder blossom. Then Lightwing spoke. "Your Majesty! You must have your palace here," she said. "If it will please you, me subjects, I will be glad to live here in our flower," replied Queen Starbright.

The fairies were very happy as they danced sang around their flower. NAt last our Queen has found a place lovelier then any dream," they said.


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Not content with having written a story, children wanted to do something with it; so it was decided to try to give it as a play. A song was composed as a finale: All day we dance around our flower. At last our queen has found her bower. Tra la la la la la la lao Our queen has found her bower. Since there was little conversation in the story, it was decided to have a reader, with the various characters speaking only occasionally. Additional conversation was ads-libbed; but the reader carried most of the part, pausing to allow time for dances. To provide a part for the boys, a group of elves was introduced. They danced and sang with the fairies. Simple crepe-paper costumes consisting of skirts for the main characters, capes for the fairies, capes for the elves, and green mitts plus live white petals for the bulb served to make the children feel important and took little time to construct. The bulb slept under a brown paper-covered carton and rose the reform at the proper moment. For a background, the children cut large, conventionalized flower shapes, which they coloured brightly with chalk. These and a few paper leaves were taped to the wall at the back of the stage. A large, paper clover leaf mounted on a piece of wallboard, which was turned against the wall, provide a place for Twinkletoes to sleep. Everything was kept extremely simple, and there was only one rehearsal in the auditorium. It was the children's story. They had chosen the characters and done the planning. Every child had a part and a bit 路of costume, and his name was on the program, which was read by the announcer. The list of characters the announcer added a brief explanation of the story and study: This we've been studying about plants and flowers. During the winter we had a bulb which blossomed. The blossom was so pretty that we wrote a story about it. Then we decided to make a play of the story. This is what you will see. We made a song for it too. The play was given at the regular assembly period. Individual invitations had been taken to mothers, and several group invitations had been written and delivered to other grades. The play was well


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attended, and both actors and audience seemed to enjoy the performance and feel that it was worthwhile.

A Picnic: A few days before the end of school, a visit to Miss F was arranged. One pleasant morning each child, carrying a plant, a rooted slip, a marigold plant raised from seed, a bulb, a vine, walked the short distance to Miss F's house. She welcomed the class warmly with exclamations of "Oh!" and" Ah!" for the beauty of the plants, was duly appreciative of the slips all ready for her to put into her window box, and made the children feel that they had a real in her garden. Fresh, fat, molasses cooking with plump raisins in their centers were served from an old-fashioned earthenware cooky jar, and all the children were happy. They thanked Miss F told how much they had enjoyed the plants during the winter. Instead of the customary end-of-year picnic, the children suggested a vegetable lunch in the room school. The radishes had lustily but had failed to "radish"; they were all tops. Not to be cheated, however, the children brought radishes from home gardens, as well as cucumbers, lettuce, carrots, and tomatoes. Desks were arranged to from a long table, own sandwich. A cool fruit drink was made, two or three children brought home made cookies, and one farm boy brought fresh strawberries. To the children this lunch seemed replete, and the teacher was gratified to find so much satisfaction the simple fare. Social Studies: America in Song and Story, Fifth Grade: Following is a description of a year-long unit of work in which language plays an integral part. It was taught by Mrs. Ragnhild Stillman, fifth-grade teacher in the Campus School, State University Teachers College, Potsdam, New York. Because the teacher is a trained musician, the study was rich in music and folklore. However, other areas were not neglected. It is necessity to present in brief summary. Mrs. Stillman believed that her fifth-grade children should have a knowledge of the beginnings of their country. They should understand what is meant by a republican form of government, its origins and composition. They should know how the myriad nationalities, religion, ideologies, racial backgrounds, language, customs, and political division have molded together to form a


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wonderful nation. They should know that such a melding of necessity be slow, that errors of judgment are bound to occur, and that only by the honest and constant watchfulness of all citizens can errors be avoided. With these lofty aims in mind, Mrs. Stillman developed the program with the children. The United States was divided into five areas for study: New England, Middle Atlantic states, Southeastern states, Middle West including Southwest, and Western and Mountain states. Beginning with New England, Committees of children began research on the historical background and settlement of the country. Questions were asked and topics noted for study, such as the background of the Pilgrims and reasons for coming to America, treatment of the Indians, form of government, development of the town meeting, religion, growth of the colony and the area, witchcraft, development of seafaring, whaling and fishing industries, sea chanteys, folk songs and dances, effects of topography on New England life, legendary characters and heroes, hero literature, language of the people, products and industries, modem cities and population, rivers, and present-day New England. Finding information on these topics required endless reading and research by individuals and committees. Letters were written to chambers of commerce, government agencies, travel bureaus, and individuals asking for information and conveying appreciation for favours received. Information was checked and rechecked for accuracy. Posters were made illustrating certain facts. Slides were shown, pictures collected, a museum visited, and costumes of the different periods were studied. Records were played, and sea chanteys were sung with much gusto. Models of log cabins were constructed. A study was made of the foods of the Indians and of white settlers. Poets and novelists of New England were studied. The Middle Atlantic states were treated in the same way. Each bit of information led to more questions, and these in tum required more answers. Here, such tales as Rip Van Winkle and other Washington living stories were tied with the Hudson River Valley and the Catskill Mountain area. Products and natural resources of the different areas were studies. It was found that the beginnings of the great steel industries and the need for labor brought together people of different nationalities with their various tongues, customs,


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songs, and dances. Street-vender song of early Philadelphia and Baltimore were learned. Comparison were made between the early settlers of Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, and New England; and their influences upon the development of work, play, customs, literature, and music of each area were noted. Language differences were noted. The Southeastern states brought a study of still different peoples. The Spanish of Florida, the French of Louisiana, Negroes and slavery, cotton, tobacco, and plantation life were introduced along with such characters as Daniel Boone. Children were fascinated by legendary heroes like John Henry, and they never tired of the ballads, spirituals, and song of Stephen Forester, Folk stories of mountaineers and Negroes were collected and studies with reference to origins and similarities to the folk tales of other areas. Dialects were tried and dances learned. Present day trends were noted: industrial changes, growth of cities, population adjustments, and changes in products. Into the study of the Middle West came many Characters, some real and some fictional: Johnny Appleseed and Mark Twin, to mention only two; and their contributions to our great American melting pot were noted. There were choral speaking, Dramatization, map study, extensive reading and research. Spelling, art and writing were all involved. Plains Indians were studied and the white man's mistreatment of them was noted, Cowboy dances and songs were learned. The long wagon trains and reasons for the westward movement were studied along with the growth of cities, population, and products. Contrasts of language with that of the South and New England were noted. For a study of the Mountain and Western states, the class was divided into three parts representing the Oregon, California, and Santa Fe Trails. Questions were set up on a teacher-pupil basis, and each group studied a particular trail. The land, people, customs, history, products, songs, foods, etc., were investigated and then reported to the other groups. For instance, travellers on the California Trail reported on the Forty-niners, the Mormons, and such songs as "Clementine"; while the followers of the Santa Fe Trail showed picture of Pueblo Indians and demonstrated some of the ceremonial dances. The Oregon Trail reporters told about Kit Carson, the Whitman family, and Buffalo Bill.


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The study culminated in an operetta, the scene laid at a railroad station. A group of greeters entered singing "She'll Be Comin' Round the Mountain." Travelers arrived form many parts of the United States, exchanging news. There were songs and dances from the whole country: "Rip Van Winkle." "Down in the Coal Mine." "Cape Cod Chanty," "Old Storm-along," "Night herding Songs," "Dixie," "The 4gers," and others. Such characters as Jesse James. Johnny appleseed. And Rip Van Winkle were introduced as travelers. A narrator wrote his own script but improvised freely. A station-master called the stations as the imaginary trip progressed across the country. An original song for Paul Bunyan was written by the group, and a poem for Johnny Appleseed was given as choral speaking. Everyone helped with the simple stage setting and props. The children who were not actual characters on the stage were grouped around the piano as a chorus. The operetta ended with "This Is My Country," sung twice by the whole group. Invitations were written to parents and to other rooms in the school. Poster were made advertising the operetta. A report was prepared for the school paper. Arithmetic was involved in computing time, distances, population, costs, and dates, in measuring and construction work for the stage props, and in many other ways. Had time permitted science could have been strengthened by studying more of the industries and products of the areas, such as cars in Detroit, copper in Montana, oil in Texa, power production at great dam sites. Irrigation, atomic energy Nevada; and the study of weather, climate, soil erosion and fertility. The possibilities are endless, worthwhile, and thrilling. In the study there was doubtless much which fifth graders could not fully appreciate, but the teacher felt that these children grew amazingly in learning how to search for information, sift facts from conjecture, weigh opinions, keep records, and make reports. Most important, perhaps, they had grown in an understanding of our nation and its people, and in understanding the influence of racial backgrounds upon our customs, industries, and speech, They learned that through our mixed heritage we are related to many


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peoples of the world; that working together requires understanding and acceptance; and that, as Americans, we must take an active, intelligent interest and do our part toward maintaining sound government and a stable social order. Handling an Integrated Program: It must be apparent to the thoughtful reader of the preceding description that an integrated program is a program of positive instruction, not a program of indifference and neglect. The teacher actually teaches language. An integrated program does not offer an escape from the responsibility of definitely working to improve children's language ability. Preparation and planning must be consistent and thorough. Because language work is not laid out in orderly blocks of time and treated separately, the teacher must constantly keep in mind all important aspects of language, and must recognize and take advantage of opportunities for providing specific training as they arise.

Instruction procedures developed in the preceding chapters apply as well to an integrated program as to a functional program. Situations arise for writing a letter, for conversation, for extending vocabulary, and for improving speech; and time out is taken. If ad visable, to provide specific help on a particular phase of language work. Some teachers feel that to interrupt a social studies or a science lesson with How can we improve that report? How could we say it more clearly? Or Let's think of some words that describe this colour more accurately, is to steal time from science; and they feel guilty. Actually attention is not being diverted from science but is rather focused upon it, for by repeating a bit of information and expressing it more clearly and more exactly one is adding to understanding and retention. In handling an integrated program the teacher needs a clear understanding of the important goals of language and of the course of the normal development of children. He must know what may be reasonably expected of children at the grade level and must recognize good work. It is helpful to keep a continuous inventory of individual and group needs as they arise in science and social studies. He may plan lessons or discussions in such a way as to provide practice in


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language work-letter writing, reporting, note taking, critical thinking, etc. The children are led to recognize their needs and to share in the responsibility of meeting them. There is continuous checking on language goals, and records of progress are noted on prepared check lists. If a teacher is required to follow a rigid course of study, he may not be able to manage a fully integrated program. However, If alert, he can from time to time find opportunities to combine language with social studies, reading, science, and all other subjects. If a teacher has some freedom, imagination, and alertness, he will be able to quickly snatch at opportunities, often not too clear-cut. Integration will take place regardless of what name is given to it. It is not so much a matter of experiences as of enthusiasm, good judgment, courage, and above all an exploring sprit. Too many teachers are afraid to venture, lacking confidence in their judgement and ability. They lean too heavily on the printed word and want directions for every move. They feel they must have a syllabus, a course of study, or at least a workbook to guide them; and lacking such a crutch, they revert to their own school experience in which their teachers were probably following a book.

Within the limits of a basic framework of course of study, the teacher may maintain an open mind. He may set forth an initial aim as a sort of feeler, and may almost immediately discover leads going off in many directions. It is his responsibility to determine which of the many possibilities are most worthwhile and to skilfully lead the children to explore. To outline too definitely and to set up a detailed plan of study at the begirming may be as restricting as a workbook or syllabus, and the effect may be to destroy immediately his freedom to explore.

DOD


CHAPTER

NINE

RADIO NEWS, AND ADVERTISEMENTING COMMUNICATION No program in the language arts can fail to recognize the impact of the mass modes of communication upon life. All of them bear direct relationship to the development of power in speech and of power to evaluate the effects of speech. According to the English Language Arts, each of the modes of mass communication may be approached from three points of view: (1) as an institution in life with clearly defined techniques for influencing the public; (2) as a source of entertainment and personal enrichment during leisure time; and (3) as an aestheic medium with art forms peculiar to itself. Discussion of Films: Group discussion of a specific motion picture is a common activity in the speech class. Students may be led to sense both the actual and potential power of the motion picture, to view it as an art form and as an educational force. They may develop standards of evaluation such as those prepared by Donal K. Smith of the Department of Speech at the University of Minnesota illustrate their use with high school seniors of the state: Standards for Judging Films A. Story and Script: 1. Does it distort life?


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2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Does it glorify unworthy goals or acts of living? Is it a stereotyped predictable plot? Does it give any insight into truth? Is it worth telling? Worth seeing? Are the lines clever, striking, or in any ways distinctive?

B. Casting and Acting: 1.

Do the actors develop interesting characters or simply exploit their own public personalities?

2.

Do they heighten and sharpen all possible meanings in the story?

C. Music and Sound: 1.

Do sound and music support and heighten the story or call attention, to themselves?

2.

Is there evidence of imaginative taste in the selection of sound and music?

D. Photography: 1.

Does it suggest story rather than call attention to itself?

2.

Is there evidence of imagination and taste in the selection of camera angles, effects, and scenes?

The film, Understanding Movies, prepared by a committee of the National Council of Teachers of English in co-operation with Teaching Film Custodians, Inc., is especially useful for this kind of discussion. Special reports can deal with the characteristics of types of films such as documentary, historical, animated, musical, and the like. Others may delve into the influence of propaganda on films, the relation of attendance to film production and selection, and sources of review of films. Radio and Television: The wide range in radio and television offerings suggests as wide a range in the tastes and of the listeners and viewers. Student profit from a discussion of the reasons for their likes and dislikes and of the influence of different kinds of programs on American life.


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Most closely allied to the problems of speaking, however, are analysis of speech and voice techniques of noted speaker on radio and television. Those programs which aim to influence thought or to inform are most useful. "Who is speaking?" Students learn to ask. "Why? Under what sponsorship?" and lion what authority?" Ability to detect bias in point of view, unsubstantiated generalizations, or inferences inadequately drawn is particularly important in a land where freedom of speech gives equal right to the informed and to the uninformed, to the straight and to the crooked thinker, to the sincere and to the insincere. Critical examination of what is hard is vital in today's world. Some understanding of the meaning of lithe cold war" and its power over the mind of men should be given to older high school students in these times. Speech and The Teaching of Literature ProfiCiency in speech adds zest, insight, and a heightened sense of appreciation to the study of literature. Poetry invites oral interpretation and takes on new colour and life when read aloud. Witness the oral interpretation of Benet's liThe Mountain Whippoorwill" in the unit on back-Country America described. As for the lyric, many a student for first time full meaning of some passage from "II Penseroso" or "Ode to the West Wind" as he practices in preparation for reading it to the class. The search for meanings before reading aloud develops ability to understand unusual word relationships and to recognize the pattern of many of the involved sentences common to poetry. Choral Speaking: A teacher in Champaign, Illinois, describes how choral reading came to her aid when she approached the study of poetry with a lively group of sophomores in a required English class-a group who had not just a mild distaste but a pronounced dislike for poetry in any form: Deep within the heart of the instructor was the feeling that the best of all rewards from the study of poetry is the personal enjoyment that comes from living a great poem and wanting to share the experience with others.... How was the instructor to break down this sense of determined opposition and lead her pupils to a


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realization of the richness experience which a unit in poetry has to offer? The backgrounds of individuals in the class show great differences of preparation. One boy during his ten years of schooling had attended seventeen schools jn ten different states. His intense dislike for poetry stemmed from the fact that he was poorly prepared in the fundamentals of reading, yet he expressed his distaste in his own way by saying he "just didn't get poetry." To ask such a boy to read verse aloud to the group would increase his aversion ... Sharing a common indifference to school in general, a majority of the class had no desire for individual distinction and craved only the satisfaction of being one of the "gang." Any activity that was going to win approval would necessarily be one in which they participated as a group. The teacher chose to introduce the study of poetry by means of choral speaking. Through reading aloud in unison, she hoped to offset personal limitations and dislike and to release the beginnings of appreciation and enjoyment of poetry. Principles of interpretatio::.1 were discussed. As the class read aloud, each individual fOlmd pleasure in an expression of himself that was submerged in the performance of the group. Opportunities for socialization, for developing a sense of belonging, for erasing the marks of previous unsatisfactory experiences were provided by this technique of group speaking. Poems were studied by the class for personal enjoyment. The author's thoughts and meanings were discussed. The class searched for logical and emotional details that would reveal the spirit of the poem. Structure was considered, and its bearing on interpretation. Rhythmical appreciation was developed. Prosody was learned as pupils clapped out the rhythms of ballads. Sensory appreciation was heightened as the group became aware to the onomatopoetic language in such a poem as "By the Turret Stair." Responding to the images of "A Winter Twilight" by Angelina W. Grimke, "Deserted" by Madison Cawein, and" A Wanderer's Song" by johan Masefield, many pupils began to realize the possibilities of poetry. Metrical patterns of timing and phasing were discovered in


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pieces like "The Sky Scraper" by Carl Sandburg and "Kit carson's Ride" by Joaquin-Miller. If results may be judged by a group request for a second unit of poetry, then the choral speaking techniques awakened intellectual curiosity and aesthetic appreciation among the sophomores. They found pleasure for themselves in "loving a good thing" and wanting to share the experience with others.

A Similar shift in attitude accompanied the use of choral speaking in the brookline, Massachusetts, High School where a dissatisfied group had announced its dislike of poetry: We discussed informally the rhythms of various objectsmachines, airplanes, walking, dancing, heartbeats, the seasons,-all we could think of. Then we listened to music in various rhythm. The class listened to several poems, tapped out the rhythm as I read, noted variations in it discussed why the rhythm was chosen and why it varied. We moved aCfOSS to the music room and played and sang as many lyrics from Shakespeare through the nineteenth century as I could find. A number of poems were memorized almost painlessly, the music of them was so thoroughly known. The boys and girls began to discuss narrative poems as possible subjects for musical settings. Finally, we had a panel on the theme, "We are the music makers. We are the dreamers of dreams." A rewarding experience also came to a group of boys in the Boston Latin School: Much to my surprise the class was enthusiastic about choral reading. The timed, who feared a group, joined in wholeheartedly, for they felt more anonymous. Often I would select the more timorous to do solo parts in a longer selection. We practiced on such selections as "0 Captain! My Captain!", "The Highwayman," and especially the Psalms. The boys loved to chant the verses like the monks at choir. They became keenly aware of mispronunciations and other mechanical faults of oral Reading, absorbed the cadences and phrasing of the selections, and developed a deeper insight into the beauties of the spoken word. The class not only derived enjoyment but also advanced rapidly in oral delivery.


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Sharing Reading: Buzz sessions, panel discussion, and dramatized interviews helped an average group of students in a bi-racial section of Oakland, California, to share the insight gained through the reading of biography; The low ten's agreed that they wanted success. They had just made a study of occupations. Over and again they wondered if they would be successful secretaries, mechanics, teachers, nurses, electricians. But what was success? Did you get it by hard work? What better place to seek ingredients of success than in the lives of men and women as recorded in biographies? To find out what a successful person was like, each student chose with the teacher's help the biography of a one who interested him, a book, in each case on his own level of reading ability; A girl who found reading difficult became absorbed in a simply written biography of Queen Elizabeth II, which first attracted her because of its brevity. A boy who would read only animal stories had one standard for choice; the man had to live out-of-doors. He chose to read about Cochise, the Indian chief. Whatever the reason for choice, each student was searching for the qualities which made the person successful. Groups of students who had read about successful athletes, scientists, statesmen, teachers, writers, and so on, met together in buzz sessions to talk over the lives of these people. One class had five people who had read the life of George Washington Carver, and so there was a special Carver committee. Each group planned a discussion to present to the class, which identified the ingredients of success in their particular occupation. Some used a panel. In general, each student presented a different person about whom he had read, illustrating his qualities by specific actions or accomplishment recounted in the book. The chairman was then responsible for summarizing the main points made by all members of the group. Oral report and oral presentation of projects comparing what people did in the days of Homeric Greece with what they do today followed the reading of the Odyssey in the high school in New Rochelle, New York;


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The best of these were illustrated with maps, designs, fashion, drawings, miniature stage sets and properties, even puppets. Plans and maps of cruises were offered, large collection of things parents had acquired on such travels, and reports of routes followed by relatives in World Wars I and II. Fashion reports showed styles of the earlier period which influence us even now. Frequently, tapeand wire-recorded reports were prepared by the group in the home of member. One group spent long hours working out a puppet performance. All in all, the early question of "How modern in the Odyssey?" "led to rich rewards. Not only did the prejudice against the Odyssey evaporate to some the book became a good blood-and-thunder tale, to others a delightful tale of adventure. And the study led to extensive individual reading of the wave of" odyssey books coming from the press. There was variety, and to spare, for several interesting class session. A number of extremely shy youngsters were able to lose their self-consciousness and develop the security they needed. In their evaluation of each other's reporting, the pupils laid real stress on historical accuracy they had become research-conscious and research-conscious and research-proud. At the same time they developed standards of voice, action, presentation, and audience contact witch led to more vigorous and effective speaking. Play-Marking: An experience witch utilized several language arts skills in combination comes from a ninth-grade class at the University high School at the University of Iowa. It is reported by M. Agnella Gunn, now of Boston University : While my class discussing and reading aloud some short stories by Saki [H.H. Munro], they commented that in many ways short stories and plays were very much alike. They decided to try to convert some of the stories into plays and produce one.

The class members divided themselves into groups according to the story they chose to work on, and began to plan. We discussed together the neces;:.ary changes: What could be retained as it stood?


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What had to be changed? How? What could be dropped? What must be added? Narrative was re-evaluated and converted into dialogue or dropped. Such problems a inventing a new character or carrying information and description by the device of a narrator handled before those of the casting or directing were met. The changing of one form into another resulted in a growing and healthy respect for the skills both of the short story writer and the playwright. Seeing how a clever phrase could lose its lustier when it was tampered with resulted in an increasing respect for form of expression. Finally, the composite classwork on a one-act production of "Quail Seed" brought about an increased understanding of the techniques underlying both forms of expression, increased ability to share responsibility in committee work, and increased skill in oral interpretation. The mysterious action of the artist and his model gave ample opportunity for dramatic action. The guesses of the customers as to who the strange man was who daily sought the boy ordering pomegranates and quail seed furnished leads for the interpretation of character. And the unique descriptive power of Saki [H.H. Munro gave hints for costumes and background which aroused the admiration of all concerned. Other outgrowths which paid dividends in keener selfappraisal and in increased interest in further experience were the discovery that memorizing lines was almost effortless when it was based on real familiarity with the material and that naturalness of oral interpretation, conversational quality of voice, and ease of manner are best when they grow out of real understanding. Interpretation and Appreciation of Drama: One of the major contributions of speech to the language arts program is the interpretation and appreciation of drama. In an elective course in Advanced Speech for the twelfth grade, a group of highly selected high school seniors did a unit on Shakespeare following the study of ancient and me dieval drama. The purpose of the unit was to give these mature students an understanding of the elements which combined to make


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Shakespeare a major playwright, an appreciation of the place of his plays in the history of dramatic presentation, criteria by which to judge modem dramas, and a recognition of the universal quality of great art. The class considered the ideas which Shakespeare explored, the human values he dramatize, the language forces he employed to create major poetic expression, and the story outline he used to communicate these ideas and values effectively. Having done a unit on classic drama and having been alerted by their teacher to the modem theatre, the students were in a position to compare and contrast the "classic greatness" of plays like Oedipus Rex and the neo-classic formality of the Cid with Shakespeare's techniques, which led to easily recognized influences upon the modem stagein both melodrama and such serious plays as Winterset. In developing standards for judging the theatre of today, students were in a position to use measure derived from the past as well as presentday considerations. During the course of the three-or four-week unit, each student read at least one play, most of them read tow, and several read ten or twelve. The teacher tried to match the plays with the known interests of individuals. Those read are represented in general by the recordings listed below, which proved exceedingly useful: Hamlet-Olivier .................................. -Gielgud .................................. Henry VIII.......................................... Julius Caesar ..................................... Macbeth ............................................. Midsummer Night's Dream .......... .. Othello ............ ~ ................................. . Richard II ........................................ .. Richard III (Varrymore) .................. .. Romeo and juliest ............................ . The Tempest .................................... ..

10" Victor LCT 5298 2-12" Victor LM6007 12" London LL578 2-12" Columbia EL 52 2-12" Victor LM 6010 3-12" Victor LM 6115 3-12" Columbia SL 153 12" Allegro 8001 12" Audio Rarities 2203 3-12" Victor LM 6110 12" Roya11440

Before letting the students settle down to reading in class for the better part of a feek, the teacher read aloud three or four typical scenes, each from a different play. He did this to give a concrete


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example of how to interpret drama, how to read character soliloquies, how to pursue hints for future action and how to relate each scene to what has gone before. Sometimes recording were used to illustrate the voicing of lines by different actors, or such varied interpretation of character as exist between Sir Laurence Olivier's Hamlet and that of Arthur Hohn Gielgud. Often the unit is timed to coincide with a Shakespearean play which is on campus or is coming to a town theatre. Sometimes a television performance is available like Macbeth or Hamlet. Frequently preview film are used, like Hollywood's (MGM) Julies Caesar, Sir Laurence Olivier's Henry v or Hamlet, Max Reinhardt's (MGM) Midsummer Night's Dream, the new Italian film with English dialogue for Romeo and Juliet or the older film from MGM, starring Norma Shearer and Leslie Howard. Often a very poor film like Orson Welles's Macbeth, which can be used along with - condemnatory reviews by professional critics, makes a good jumping-off place for the development of critical judgment. Activities carried on during the unit are many and varied. Small group of students who have read the same play produce illustrative , scenes from it. Panel discussions compare, for example, the Shakespearean tragic hero with the Sophoclean tragic hero, or 'Shakespeare's renascence view of man with the medieval view as personified in Everyman. Sometimes individual students give oral interpretations of famous soliloquies. For the intellectually alert, a stimulating project is to investigate those criticisms which have been completely adverse to Shakespeare, like Voltaire's, and those which have been enthusiastic like Lessing's. Inasmuch as the colourful Minnesotan, Ignatius Donnelly, wrote voluminously on the subject of the Bacon-Shakespeare conflict, the whole controversy that still surround the actual authorship of the plays is a research subject of great interest to Minnesota students. Again, individual pupils sometimes pursue research into the changes that have been wrought on Shakespeare's plays quite literally (as by Garrick and CollyCibber) and by way of interpretation, a study of how the healthy Elizabethan action, for example, has been currently watered down into psychopathic mind-action after the influence of Freud.


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Students who are more manual-minded and less interpretative engage in a wide variety of activities: the construction of models of Eliza bethan stage accompanied by demonstration speeches illustrating how they were operated in relation to some specific play, the construction of Elizabethan costumes, a study of Elizabethan music, examination of Elizabethan foods, a search for present-day colloquialisms derived from Shakespeare ("Something is rotten in Denmark," for example), or a similar investigation of descriptive passages made necessary by the absence of scenery from Shakespeare's stage. Interest runs high in this unit, and the level of performance is mature. The objectives stated in the beginning are largely reali_zed. Above all superior students work up to capacity and like it. Criteria for a Sound Speech Program Increasing recognition is being to the importance of speech in the high schools of today. The emphasis upon the arts of communication places speech and listening on an equal footing with reading and writing. Training in speaking and listening begins at least five years earlier than training in reading and writing and continues for numbers of students throughout college. Some high schools have set up separate departments of speech in the belief that work can function most efficiently if relatively autonomous. The Commission on the English Curriculum envisions a program in which speech takes its place among the offerings of the total program in the English language arts, Hopping to bring about in this way a close interrelationship among the various aspects of the program in communicative arts. Because of the effort toward integration, it is especially important to guard the place of speech in the program and to see that its claims are not ignored in a traditional emphasis upon reading and writing; for in the school of a democracy the ability to think clearly and honestly, to speak with vigour, and to examine critically what is said by others is of paramount importance. It is well, therefore, to set up certain criteria of a sound program in speech which must be observed whether it is taught in relation to or in segregation from the other arts of language:


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It should provide for all students-those with defective speech, poor speech, average speech, or superior speech,

2.

It should be inclusive in scope and substantial and varied in offerings in the regular required courses in the language arts, in special elective courses, and in extracurricular activities.

3.

It should be taught by teachers whose program of

preparation includes specific training in the arts and science of speech. Provision for All of the Students: In too many instances the students already competent in speaking are the ones who receive the lion's share of available training. They are the window dressing with which the teacher impresses the school and the school impresses the public. The situation is natural; up to a point it is desirable. Youngsters capable of responding brilliantly to special instruction deserves the opportunity to develop their talents. Fellow student are stimulated by example, and society has need of their accomplishments. But society has need also of the contributions of their less able schoolmates. At the same time, the school should be teaching the inarticulate to speak, making the poor speakers average and the average speakers good. Remedial services for the handicapped are imperative, a speech clinic, for example, and wherever possible a specialist in general speech and speech correction, to assist classroom teacher throughout the school system. There should be instruction in the fundamentals of voice and diction and there should be application of these fundamentals to the speech activities of everyday life for all pupils in the regular language arts courses. In addition there should be special opportunities in the speech arts for advanced student on elective courses and in the extracurricular activities. The well-rounded speech program is commonly concerned with providing experiences and rendering services in three areas: (1) applied speech, lending to proficiency in the kinds of daily speech


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activities speech improvement, with emphasis upon speech fundamentals landing to refinement in the individual's mode of speaking; and (3) speech rehabilitation or speech correction, leading to the removal of defects. These areas extend to the activities of oral interpretation and those of social and business communication, such as conversation, interviewing, discussion and conference, public speaking, and debate. In all of these, social etiquette and parliamentary procedure offer indispensable codes of conduct. As already demonstrated, radio, television, telephone, recorder, and record player are media which stimulate interest and vitalize instruction. Some of the activities mentioned under applied speech are more important than others. Many teachers, for example, feel discussion to be a more valuable social medium than debate and less likely to develop contentious habits of thought and manner. Declamation offers less, according to the thanking of some teachers, than informal oral interpretation and dramatics. Speech Electives: Speech electives serve two groups of student. There are those who, recognizing their need for guided speech experiences beyond those available in the regular required courses, wish advanced work in public speaking or additioral practice in oral interpretation. On the other hand, there are those gifted young people who seek the satisfaction of using and developing superior ability in such areas as dramatics and radio productioTl. The latter tend to outnumber the former. Deterred by heavy curricular requirements or vague fears of not being able to "make the grade" in specialized speech activities, many boys and girls who would profit from these electives fail to avail themselves of their benefits. To the superior student, the school's obligation is heavy in proportion to his abilities. Especially through work with dramatics and public performance will this talented gain experience in teamwork and group responsibility factors tending to improve citizenship and social behaviour. It should be noted here that it is a disservice to the student to permit him to look upon such studies as career training. The school makes no pretence of turning out actors, radio announcers, and other professional performers. Emphasis should be placed upon development of skill and deepening of understandings and appreciations. In most small schools, a single


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elective course combines practice in all the fields which engage the interest of advanced speech students. Extracurricular activities in speech. Extracurricular activities . supplement the credit-yielding courses, provide further special opportunities for able students, and facilitate the production of plays and radio programs and the development of verse-speaking choirs and discussion teams. In many schools these activities are handled largely through clubs. The device gives continuity and organization to the work. Care must be taken to keep membership accessible to all interested students. As with the electives, the purpose of these activities is to help produce an effective and well-rounded person rather than a professional performer. Speech and drama teachers themselves are the first to say that some of the finest training in their field is enjoyed as a by-product of extra-class or extracurricular activity programs, the latter sometimes called co-curricular, or conceived of as part of the curriculum itself. Where these are developed for the sake of student growth and not for the personal glory of director on individual performer, excellent result obtain. Here again, a nice balance is not easy to achieve; but it is certainly worth the effort it requires.

Speech Therapy: Therapy is a science rather than an art. Without it many boys and girls not only fail to succeed in the speech arts, but, because they are socially frustrated, develop serious maladjustment in personality. The mission of the program of speech correction is to save the defective student from defeat. Here the boy barred from dramatics by lisp received help; the girl whose foreign accent cost her a good. job has fault corrected. Improvement of speech is accelerated by raised hopes and better mental health. It is obvious that the correctionists in any school system cannot shoulder the remedial program alone. If the school is large and therapists are few, many students in need of corrective help will be neglected unless the entire faculty participates in the program, especially the teachers of the language arts courses. They may assist in these ways: 1.

By helping to make a screening survey of the speech of the student body as early in the school year as possible. Once


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the program is in operation, all but seniors may be surveyed in Mayor June for the following year, leaving only the incoming freshmen to be considered in the fall. A logical group to conduct this survey is the English or language arts faculty, who meet every student in the school and have responsibility for both oral and written expression. The director of speech therapy, at a meeting of the department of English or language arts, may suggest testing materials and procedures and ask that the teachers list all students who give evidence of needing speech help. 2.

By helping with remedial measures when the therapist confers with the student listed. Using appropriate diagnostic procedures, the specialist finds cases where the teacher can, with guidance, render effective assistance. It is often desirable to request the presence of the teacher at a later conference between correctionsist and student. On . such an occasion, the teacher has opportunity to observe the procedures used to aid the pupil and can, after the departure of the boy or girl, discuss plans with the consultant for giving further help in the classroom. Certain cases of faulty speech may be satisfactorily handled in this manner with only occasional checking by the therapist. With other types of defects the classroom teacher will deal only indirectly. To correct stuttering, for example, classroom procedures can be recommended that will produce conditions in which the student can be expected to experience a maximum of success. Actual treatment of such case will, however, be confined to the clinic.

Some students require the continuous attention of the therapist. Where possible, a schedule of speech correction classes should be set up whereby small, homogeneous group can meet one more times a week. Student may be groped according to types of difficulties: problems of rate (stuttering), problems of voice (inaudibility, nasality) nasality-in-clouding cleft palate speech, hoarseness) problems of sound (foreign accent, sound substitution, lisping, lalling).


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in programming are inevitable. High school schedules tend to be tight rigid. Here again the whole school faculty can co-operate. Nothing that the school offers the speech defective is so vital to his future as the removal of his handicap. When this fact is recognized by a staff, program troubles disappear. The sympathetic teacher relieves the students of worry caused by missing class work while in clinic, for apprehension of incurring the disgrace of low marks may seriously retard the work of correction. To the speech correctionist falls the duty of enlisting the aid of all the agencies promoting the physical and mental well-being of the pupil. He should utilize the services of the health and guidance departments. In addition to a substantial background in speech pathology and therapy, he should have sufficient acquaintance with the work of other specialists-such as the physician, the psychologist, the psychiatrist, or the oculist-to know when to seek their help and how to interpret their findings. Unfortunately, many teacher function in small school systems where the services of a speech correctionist are not available. In conjunction with a selected member of the staff, probably the school nurse or guidance officer, they should become familiar with the speech services available through the state teachers colleges, and the state department of education or welfare, so that they may help handicapped student to avail themselves of whatever clinical assistance is provided through these agencies. Furnishing Teacher with Training in Speech : It is obvious that no teacher can hope to handle even the general aspects of a broad program in the language arts without specific training in speech. Preparation confined to college English, which too frequently excludes speech, can never be sufficient for teaching the program envisioned in this volume. Preparation in college speech without strong supporting work in literature, reading skills, and composition would be equally ineffective.

In recording of this twofold fact, there is a definite trend in program of teacher education to combine work in the two fields in the training of teacher in 1953, according to figures in the United


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States office of Education, the number of English teacher graduated was, roughly, equal to the demand for them. The colleges and universities of this country, however, trained three times as many teacher of speech as there were positions available in speech alone. It is important that the two fields come together to meet the needs of the schools. Major universities like those of Syracuse, Kansas, Utah, and Minnesota now have extensive majors in the language arts, which by uniting the old major and minor requirements maintain the same level of scholarship formerly required in each subject separately. The major may be in speech with a strong supporting minor in English, or in English with a strong supporting minor in speech. _ With this kind of background, teachers are in a position to do justice to the speech program outlined in this chaptt:!r. For speech correction and clinical services, they must add considerable work in the science of speech and in related sciences, into which they may move with increased confidence which comes from classroom experience. High schools which have more than one teacher in the language arts commonly select them with the various aspects the program in mind-someone with major interest and specialized training in speech, someone in reading, someone in writing, and someone in literature. In department of even moderate size there should be at least one speech specialist. In situations where the department chairman is lacking speech training, he should ask advice of the department member who knows most about speech. In service training in the speech arts is recommended where teachers' preservice preparation has not included the fundamentals of speech. In addition, certain consultants will be required for remedial reading and speech correction. It should be possible for teachers to secure broad training in speech without undue specialization. Completely differentiated requirements for "general speech" and "theatre arts" in some instances split college speech departments beyond the point of usefulness to the small school, in which, according to the figures, more than half the country's tea'chers are at work. A sensible program of co-operation could greatly enhance the possibilities for achieving, in the average American secondary school, the program for which criteria have just been given. -""


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Administrative Responsibility for the Speech Program : The success of any educational program depends upon the understanding and support of the school administration. This seems particularly true of the program of speech, which makes its best contribution only if the vital nature of its of fering is appreciated and protected. The good administration promotes interdepartmental and interdepartmental co-operation. Responsibility for the improvement of language competence should be accepted by all teachers in all departments. The success of an ail-faculty effort to promote linguistic proficiency depends to some extent upon the staff's sharing a realistic philosophy of language founded on common understandings. Insofar as possible, the student should meet with consistent attitudes to ward the impO'rtance of effective English expression on the part of all teachers as he moves from class to class. Only through the school administration can this favourable climate be produced. A useful approach would be for the administrator to request that the department dealing most directly with reading and expression undertake, in one or move faculty meeting, to lead the staff in discussion of the problems most readily discernible in all classrooms of the school and make available to them current materials and thinking in the field. Another method would be for the administrator to appoint an interdepartmental committee on communication under the chairmanship of an interested and trained teacher. The administrator should be sensitive to the teaching load of individual members of the staff. There is a tendency to treat certain speech activities as extras which may be added to a teaching load without recognition of their time- consuming nature. A dramatic production, for instance, requires uncounted hours of patient and creative effort. Yet a teacher may be asked to direct extracurricular plays with no thought of modifying the responsibilities he already carries. The same may be said of the oratorical contest, the speech choir, the student form, and the radio club. An alert administrator recognizes the importance of these activities and adjust the programs of teachers working with them.

DOD

Advanced english grammar and communication  
Advanced english grammar and communication  
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