salt 채ng en skap
SaltĂ¤ngen NorrkĂśping, Sweden Jan-Hendrik Mohr Sarah Nelsen Chris Riggert
Methodology and Scope
use district in Norrköping Sweden. It uses a regional
methods, which were used during the project work, will
This document profiles a proposal for an active mixed
perspective in order to provide a competitive edge to the city of Norrköping, Sweden. By partnering with other
regional entities, the region will grow symbiotically as opposed to competitively. To guide development, this proposal considers all three modes of sustainability:
• Economic • Social • Environmental
This plan is a document of strategic planning executed in development guidelines and an urban design proposal. It is
strategic because it connects visions with implementation strategies and it concentrates on focus points rather than zoning the area in whole. It was created collaboratively
in the course Urban Development and Planning in spring 2012 at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm.
After considering the urban and regional context of
In the following the scope of this report and different be presented. The scope of the report is finding strategic
project ideas and creating an urban design proposal for the Saltängen site in Norrköping. To reach this target of the report following three methods were used:
• field trip with photo exercise • expert talks • internet and literature research
During the field trip we visited the city of Norrköping and
the old industrial site of Saltängen next to the inner city. We conducted visual analysis from our on-site photos to
refine our understanding of Saltängen. We spoke with many experts in charge of the project such as the head
of the city’s planning council, the overseeing planners in the administration and with researchers of Linköping’s
University. In addition we researched and read texts written on issues concerning our project.
Norrköping, a vision for Saltängen is broken into five
Because this report was assembled over the course of
different strategies and projects which achieve sustainable
strategic vision for Saltängen and not as a complete,
focus points. These points are explored and supported by
development on the site, in the city and in the region. An urban design proposal for the future development of the
site is given through above mentioned strategies and
one month and one site visit, it should be seen as a brief
overall planning of the site. Thus, it embraces the ideas of Strategic Planning.
projects while important consideration was also given to the implementation of this design and its guidelines.
Urban and Regional Context Norrköping
Norrköping is located in the region of Östergötland in the south of Sweden. It is well integrated into the transport network of North and Eastern Europe (Baltic region) which encourages international trading contacts. Because
of its remarkable national connectivity, Norrköping is an appealing site in central Sweden: Norrköping acts as a
hub by linking several cities like Malmö, Gothenburg and Stockholm.
• • • • • •
Proximity to the city center / sight axes (church) Next to the river / waterside
Industrial history / industrial character Existing businesses
Underground culture (sprayed images) Some existing green space
Together with Linköping, Norrköping is part of the Twin cities of Sweden – a region which offers excellent
opportunities for development and growth. Linköping with its university and research centers and Norrköping with its
industrial history and a “diversified business community” (ESDA n.d.), together create a positive atmosphere for
knowledge transfer between academia and economy. Today Norrköping’s main industries are paper and
packaging as well as electronics. In addition, important companies within the field of information technology have
also settled in Norrköping. Employees and their families
• • • • • • •
Inaccessibility of the riverside (fences / laws) No public transport / cars / parking lots Industrial emissions
Inconsistent density Much truck traffic
Large street separates it from the inner city Pollution of the ground
• Making the riverside accessible • Establishing public transport / proximity to the city • • • •
Establish connections in general
Creating park structures out of the existing Preserving the industrial history
• • • • •
1.1 Building adjacent Arbetemuseet
Existing businesses Pollution
Ownership of the ground Flooding
1.3 Architectural detail in Norrköping
find attractive housing possibilities and enjoy the cultural
values of Norrköping. Working and living in the city but being also close to the sea and the country-side creates high living quality. Saltängen
Saltängen, which is located north-east of the city center of Norrköping, has a high potential for being reused in a sustainable way. The site’s proximity to the city center and
train station make it a desirable site for redevelopment. The site is located directly adjacent the Motala Strömmen,
1.4 Looking east on Saltängensgatan
which is viewed as a large asset for the site. This proximity
does present the risk for future flooding as water level continue to rise due to climate change.
The current use is mainly large-parcel single story industrial. This provides much space for redevelopment.
The site also provides some historical structures which
reveal the past uses of the site. These uses do present the challenge of soil pollution.
The site is currently connected to existing Norrköping
1.5 Looking south to Motala Strömmen
transit through primarily car infrastructure. Sidewalks exist yet are not necessarily connected. Packhusgatan acts as the western edge of the site. It is heavily trafficked
by cars and acts as a pedestrian barrier between the city center and the Saltängen site.
1.6 Interesting industrial detail with graffiti
A Vision for Future Saltängen
lroad g Rai n n i t s i Ex Statio with
Connection Node Pedestrian/Cycle Connection
mR g Tra n i t s i Ex
Saltängen will become Saltängenskap, a vibrant
cultural and economic hub for the city of Norrköping. Norrköping has been left in perpetual economic transition
This vision can be broken down into five major points. Saltängenskap is:
• Further integrated into the regional economy of Norrköping
Linköping University campus in Norrköping has brought
• A celebration of cultural and historical traditions • Dynamic and innovative buildings in which to live,
life to promote a new addition to the city.
• A network of green and blue public systems, creating
The goal of this proposal is to attract students and new
• An addition to Norrköping’s transportation network
innovative business, residential and cultural district. This
This proposal was formulated under the assumption that
of appliances and textiles to one of production of forward
Motala Strömmen. In the resolving stages of this plan, it
after the textile industry closed in the 1970’s. A new vibrance to the city. The following guidelines utilize this
businesses to Saltängenskap and foster a new and will change Norrköping’s industry from one of production
thinking and creative businesses and individuals. Thus, this development will contribute to the progress of the city by fostering development of the post-industrial economy.
work and play
lively public places
redevelopment of industrial areas would continue across wall act as a catalyst to encourage adjacent development. This plan supplies strategies and implementation projects
to guide development in Saltängenskap. These are explored through a series of case studies.
P ack atan
SaltĂ¤ngenskap is... 7
...Further integrated into the regional economy of Norrköping Attract Creative Industries
necessary to allure creative people. Moreover, the ability
site is one strategy to create regional interest in the
Drawing innovative and creative businesses to the Saltängen site. According to Richard Florida there is a
to integrate new people in the city can be a competitive
relationship between the economic strength of a region
Once artists and creative people live in a city, they
creative class is defined as a group of people who work
encouraged. Nevertheless, it is not enough to boost
and the presence of the so called creative class. The independently and create new things. Artists, musicians,
designer, architects are counted among the creative class as well as layers, professors, managers, consultants,
software developer, engineers and even hairdressers. By attracting these parties to the site, it will create a solid
economic base for Saltängen. The growth of cities and regions depends on attracting and retaining the creative
class. The three most important attractors are technology, talent and tolerance. (Hettler 2005)
Technology and innovation as well as talent are things
will attract other artists to come and the economy is culture and art. The special requirements of the creative class must be tended to. Creative people have no static
work schedule; they often work in the night or on the weekends. Therefore cultural opportunities must adjust to
the special needs of the creative class by being available at any time and located near the working place.
Inviting living conditions – as Norrköping offers them - and the lifestyle of creative people make a place an interesting and attractive site for companies to settle down.
which are offered by the Twin cities Linköping-Norrköping:
Linköping with its research centers and graduates offers talent and Norrköping with its Science Park and about
9,000 companies in a broad field of technology and industries. This makes Saltängen ideally suited for use
as working space for creative industries (Norrköping’s
kommun n.d.). Cheap (e.g. subsidized) working space will
attract start-ups which benefit from experienced
specialist. New graduates from Linköping and Norrköping
can find employment in Saltängen. Tolerance and
openness towards new, different and unknown things are
2.1 Linköping campus in Norrköping
With 27,000 national and international students Linköping University is an important institution for highly educated
people. It is known for being multidisciplinary and creative
and its graduates have high competencies. Moreover, Linköping University interacts with the local community, industry and government. It focuses on applied research and programs for professional degrees. Therefore, it is an interesting and important resource of graduates who
want to start working in Saltängenskap / Norrköping. (ESDA n.d.) 2.2 Age Forecast for Norrköping
Fostering the cooperation between Linköping University
and the broad based business community located in Norrköping is Growing These diagrams show not only the projected growth of Norrköping, but the shifting age. Saltängenskap utilizes these projections to supply the housing and employment this age group will need.
Norrköping encourages the contact between students and companies as possible future employers. Also the
companies benefit from the contact to leading researchers. The close collaboration between the university and industry offers easy access to the working life and can
even contribute to more positive study conditions (e.g. external investment by interested parties).
To support these initiatives, Saltängenskap will offer
high living quality as a perfect location to settle down
with or without a family. All tasks that make Saltängen a
dynamic place to work and live will attract graduates. This attractiveness also has to be extended to other urban quarters in Norrköping.
2.3 Projected Population for Norrköping
...A celebration of cultural and historic traditions Respond to the Cultural Landscape
Norrköping has a very rich architectural and environmental tradition. For this reason, it is important that new
construction is in conversation with the existing context
of Norrköping. Any plant material should be native to the Swedish landscape, which can be seen in figure 4.1. Architectural details should be modeled after the wide array of architectural details which already exist in the city
center. Building materials will be covered under the next point of the vision.
3.1 Swedish landscape
Reuse of Structures and Public Education
An important way to celebrate Saltängenskap’s past
is not only to reuse old structures but to animate them
and provide education about them. A case study of IBA Emscher Park provides good insight into a project which shares similar site and situation.
The IBA Emscher Park was built in the wake of economical
change in a former industrial region of Germany. It improved the quality of life in the Ruhr area by developing
3.2 Zeche Zolverein
new ideas and projects in urbanistic, social, cultural and
ecological fields. New residences were built, existing
landmarked habitations were renovated, green spaces were redeveloped and new technology centers were created. To reach a high acceptance, inhabitants were
involved in several projects of the IBA Emscher Park. (IBA Emscher Park n.d.)
Similar to our proposal and its goals, the industrial site
turned old facilities into future offices for founders of new
3.3 Structures reused for recreation in IBA Emscher Park
businesses and expanding companies. Special centers were created to encourage the exchange between
research and companies. In addition, there was a focus on support housing for people with lower incomes.
3.4 IBA Emscher Park is a post-industrial recreation-scape
Many of the structures on the Saltängen site hold architectural and historical importance. These are
identified in the diagram below. These structures will be reused as public buildings to showcase Saltängenskap’s past uses, while also providing space for current uses. Possible uses include:
• • • •
Exhibition space Library
3.6 E.ON reserve energy plant
3.7 Old structures remain on site
3.5 Old Crane located adjacent textile factory
Retain Existing Structures The existing structures will provide a jumping- off point for development, with initial developer investment taking place adjacent these refurbished public structures.
...Dynamic buildings in which to live, work and play Creating Interesting and Innovative Buildings
standards in many fields. They must be energy efficient
Saltängenskap is the breaking up of the traditional block
New structures built in Saltängenskap must fulfill high and durable, functional but also aesthetic pleasing, high quality and still affordable. They should respond to the environment in a sustainable way.
Some of the industrial buildings on the site will be reused and will be evidence of Saltängenskap’s industrial past. Using materials which respond to the industrial charm
(e.g. steel or concrete) will help to preserve the identity of Saltängenskap. But also wooden houses have a long tradition in Sweden and could be a good contrast to the
Another important way to embrace such dynamism in structure. By doing this, the private space in the yard is transformed into a semi-public space, so that one can
look into the yards from the street. The appearance of the street is then less uniform but more dynamic. Varying
the building type and height offers some positive effects. A maximum of sunlight can be used as solar energy
gain which supports energy efficiency. Furthermore, the diversified block structure makes the appearance of the site more interesting and the streets brighter.
cool industrial features. Wood as a local material and renewable resource is ecological and because of its good
thermal insulation also energy efficient. Furthermore, wood provides a comfortable and healthy indoor climate.
In addition to materials used, the architecture must be interesting and innovative. Mixed use within the buildings
calls for special architecture which regards all demands and combines them in an effective way. Moreover, modern architecture considers space for children and allows for
special needs of handicapped persons. When putting the focus on housing for people with fewer incomes (to ensure mixed neighborhoods), simplified designs and floor plans
make it possible to save money without deteriorating the
4.1 A building in HafenCity, Hamburg, with a gross floor space of 3,700 square meter containing residential, office and service space.
quality of the residences.
Traditional Block Structure
Broken Block Structure This proposal breaks up the solid streetwall of the traditional block structure.
Diversified Block Structure Buildings are raised or lowered to create a diversified block and to allow maximum amounts of sunlight to penetrate the new block structure
Mixed Use Within Buildings
The buildings in Saltängenskap site will contain many
different uses to create a diverse and lively neighborhood.
These are residential, commercial, recreational and
cultural usages. Not every building will contain every use but more than one. For example it is important not to have
purely residential areas because there is a heightened
opportunity for dead periods during work hours. This idea
is strongly connected to the idea of encouraging the use
Coffee with friends
Lunch with a coworker
of the site at all hours.
It should be considered that mixing particular uses can lead to conflicts. For instance noisy night clubs should
not be located in close proximity to residential areas. But
each of the four different uses contains unique conflicts,
Dinner out/ Nightlife
thus such conflicts will have to be examined in each special case.
Encourage Site Use at All Hours
The dynamism at the block and building scale is also accommodated on a social scale. Successful development of such a mixed use district will result in a usable site at all hours. The diagram to the right displays
such a concept. Creative people will attract these types of
There’s Always Something to do in Saltängenskap The above diagram displays the kind of activities and lifestyle that residents of Saltängenskap could live. It relies heavily on attraction of the right types of businesses and people.
businesses, and in return these types of businesses will
attract creative people. Because of this feedback loop, it is imperative that this effort is successful initially, which may also prove to be the biggest challenge.
Vary Building Heights Varied building height will create an interesting and diverse development.
...A network of blue and green systems, creating lively public places Blue and Green Spaces for Social Benefit
integrates best management practices into the urban
two ways: to be engaging and lively places to support
this integration, and the stages are as follows:
New parks and waterways should be designed to act in
public life, and to detain and filter rainwater during storm events.
A newly cut waterway will be developed through the site affording residents opportunities for walking, biking,
running, small boating and ice skating during the winter. It will act as an active public vein that runs through the
site, with many nice views from adjacent buildings. This waterway will also act as a filtration mechanism for pollutants like salt, oil, sediment and litter.
infrastructure. The diagram to the below demonstrates 1. Green roofs
• • • •
Absorb rainwater, release at a controlled rate
Absorb heat in summer and release heat in winter Reduce solar albedo
Evaporation of some rainwater
2. Bioretention areas / Stormwater planters
• • • •
Releases at controlled rate
Usable for recreational activities when it’s not storming Heightened opportunity for evaporation
3. Canal to river
used for ice skating in the winter and swimming during the
• Absorbs stormwater from previous stages • Usable for recreational activities • Heightened opportunity for evaporation
and watch music, creating an interesting new experience.
In each stage of this process, water is utilized for social
Blue and Green Spaces for Environmental Benefit
create comfortable streets and public gathering /
A basin will also be cut to act as public space, as can be seen in the diagram to the bottom right. This can be
summer. Also, a stage can be floated so people can swim
To achieve a high level of sustainability, this proposal
and economical purposes - to create rooftop spaces, recreation spaces.
1. Green Roof Integrated stormwater management. This diagram demonstrates how managing stormwater can turn into social benefit.
1. Green Roof
3. Canal to River
2. Bioretention area
2. Stormwater street planter
Space for Urban Agriculture
Since we are approaching the end of the fossil-fueled
Like in an example from Berlin, the Prinzessinnengärten,
year (and the effects of the climate change becoming
transportable containments for the plants can be placed.
age and transportation gets more expensive every
stronger), the idea of producing food next to the place where it is consumed should be taken in consideration
in Saltängenskap. Thus, the site will include places for urban agriculture. There should be different forms of urban gardens in backyards and on centrally located grounds.
According to Dalhousie University, some advantages of
there should be a ground site centrally located on which The beds have to be transportable to protect them during
the winter by bringing them into a hall or some other shelter. In winter the site can be used in another way,
for example as an ice skating field or for something else. (Nomadisch Grün gemeinnützige GmbH 2012)
urban agriculture are:
The idea of Urban Agriculture on the site not only
produced food, but it also creates a social cohesion in the
• Saving energy for transport and thus, protecting the • Consumption of fresh food increases health of the population
• Improving the climate of the site by
absorbing green house gases
area, if many people are working together to grow food.
In order to do so inhabitants of different social heritage get to know each other and are learning to understand each other. This will finally result in a more integrated and
responds to a growing demand for ecologically and locally
stronger interconnected neighborhood. (Nomadisch Grün recycling
• Greening the city by creating more (agricultural) green spaces
• Helping to protect the biodiversity • Creating and strengthening a feeling of community
gemeinnützige GmbH 2012)
To further utilize the social and environmental benefits of urban agriculture, farmers markets should be organized
often. This could include farmer’s from the immediate region as well as produce from Saltängenskap.
• Preventing erosion and contributing to the storage of storm runoff
Network of Blue and Green Spaces This diagram shows that both blue and green spaces are woven through the site. Though block courtyards are open, they still retain a character of semi-private to private.
...An addition to Norrköping’s transportation network Cycling as a Primary Mode of Transportation
Cycling for transportation as opposed to the car is more
ecological responsible and saves money that would be
spent on fuel. Another advantage is the healthful benefit of cycling for sport. Lastly, cycling can save time. Possibilities
to shorten the ride time according to Breitinger (2012) can be:
• Reducing the space for cars in support of creating more space for bikes
• Reducing the speed limit of cars • Change traffic light circuit for the benefit of bikes
5.1 Painted bike lanes
It is important to create a safe environment for cycling in order to encourage people to use this mode of
transportation as much as possible. This can be achieved through:
• Connected bike infrastructure • Separate or clearly marked cycling lanes • Many cycling amenities, such as covered bike parking and air pumps
• Larger bikes rentable from Grocery stores for transport
5.2 Bicycle rentals
Bicycling should be utilized in Saltängenskap as an easy, cheap, healthful and responsible alternative to the car. In order to respond to uneven topography, public
transportation (bus/tram) should have accommodations for bikes (bike racks). When done properly, bicycling will help contribute to the social sustainability of Saltängenskap.
For Saltängenskap, the link to the city center is crucial. A good net of bike lanes connecting Saltängenskap with its surroundings should be established and also encouraged
5.3 Covered bicycle parking
in all of Norrköping. This supports encourages citizens to ride recreationally to Saltängenskap to have an ice cream and enjoy the riverside. Especially important for ensuring
a good cycling connection is to create a new bridge over the heavy used streets Packhusgatan and Hamnbron.
5.4 Public bicycle pump
Ensure Public Transportation Connections
However, further development should be considered.
Since Norrköping is very well connected to the region by
to be redeveloped in the future. Construction of a new
throughout Site to Norrköping
different means of transportation, it is also important to ensure the infrastructural link between Saltängen and Norrköping.
The areas east and south of Saltängen have potential bridge across the Motala River affords the opportunity to
continue a tram route to the area south of Motala River, shown on page 4.
In addition to encourage cycling through the whole city,
tram routes connect the station with the city center and
pedestrian connections between all parts of the new
the tram routes should also be extended. The existing
follow partly the esplanades around the city core. Part of the development should be to create a tram line to
Saltängenskap to ensure that even people without bike or car can go to the site easily. Thus, one proposal could be to continue the current route on Norra Promenaden
up to Packhusrondellen and then follow the existing
It is very important to create active sidewalks and development. This will make the area livelier and socially sustainable. By ensuring residents make walking a part of their daily routine, it will ensure better health of
Norrköping’s citizenry. The diagram below profiles what should be included in a typical sidewalk section.
industrial railroad, as can be seen on page 4. This route
To overcome the border street of Packhusgatan, a new
able to reach a tram station from everywhere on the site.
to Saltängenskap to ensure a solid pedestrian and
forms a diagonal axis across Saltängen, so that one is
Furthermore, a well developed tram network helps to reduce car traffic on the site and in the city.
bridge should be constructed connecting the city center
bicycle connection. This will be discussed further in the implementation phases.
Larger windows with views to the street
Street amenities • light poles • trashcans • benches
Custom storefront canopies Outdoor seating
Extra wide sidewalks
Implementation To implement our vision on the site there should be
Since it is not – at least from an economic perspective
be completed in four phases with the possibility to
have to be secured from floods by raising it (old, industrial
a phased approach toward development. It should
develop the adjacent eastern and southern sites next to
Saltängenskap. The proposed four development stages are (see map on right page):
Phase 0 – Preparation of the site Phase 1 – Western Basin
Phase 2 – Harbor Expansion
Phase 3 – Eastern and Southern Connection Phase 0 – Preparation of the site
An important question in the beginning of the site development is, how to relocate existing industrial companies: Triggered by the planned future development
of the site the real estate values will increase. This will imply development limitations for the existing industrial
companies on the site since they will not be able to get cheap land next to their location any longer. Moreover the planned development of residential buildings on
the site will also constrain for example an increase of
production (emissions) by the companies. To overcome the development constraints of the companies as well as
– possible to raise the historic houses, the ground floors
buildings with high ceilings), putting resilient usages there or adding flood protection gates. The costs of these essential measures should be born by a public-private
partnership because the interest of making the site attractive for new inhabitants exists on behalf of the city
as well as on the side of, for example, a housing company. Phase 1 – Western Basin
After raising the land and cutting down the water structures
on the site the new buildings could be built and the historic structures could be reused. Possible new users
of the historic buildings are creative start-up companies,
cultural projects or the University of Linköping. The rents
for these buildings should be subsidized by the city of Norrköping to keep them relatively cheap. New people
will create an attraction pole for other companies which want to finance the new, mixed-use buildings next to the historical structures and for people who want to live in this new growing quarter of the city.
being able to develop Saltängenskap, Norrköping should
To make a proper connection to the city available a bus line
of the town.
(see Ensure Walkability and Cycling as Primary Mode
offer the companies new, attractive areas in other parts
To prepare the development the water basin and the
channel are cut. The polluted soil which is excavated should be treated in two different ways: The heavily
polluted soil should be brought away and purified. The lightly/non polluted soil should be used in the green
should be redirected to the site and the above mentioned
of Transportation) walking and cycling link to the inner
city must be ready when the first phase is completed. A floating stage on the basin should offer a big cultural draw to the site in its initial phase as well as attract and interest prospective inhabitants.
spaces and will be cleaned by special plants which absorb
the problematic substances in a longer time period. This saves money and protects the environment because not so much soil has to be transported. All soil is used to raise the land to be resilient to possible future flooding events.
6.1 BP Pedestrian Bridge by Frank Gehry
tens m Ex
2 1 Pedestrian/Cycle Connection
Phase 2 – Harbor Expansion
new inhabitants with different social background. The
phase east and north of the basin – including the waterfront
important hub for the site and for neighboring quarters
When the first development stage is completed the second – should be developed. This should be done to satisfy the
high demand for residential, commercial, recreational and
cultural space. In the second phase there will be enough
private housing and development companies to further
develop the site (upscale waterfront development). But to avoid a development with respect to only well-off people
square on the south-eastern corner of the site will be an yet to be developed. The University of Linköping could
for example transfer some facilities to buildings around the square to make it livelier. Furthermore, the increased
connection afforded by the transit square could attract public administration uses on-site.
(high rents and, hence, bigger gainings) the city has to
When the third and last part of the site is completed one can
determined amount of flats with lower rents to create a
or southern sites. Having finished the construction of the
contract with the housing companies. There should be a
social mixture on the site and these residential spaces for lower income people should not be clustered in only one, marginal part of Saltängenskap.
Phase 3 – Eastern and Southern Connection
After the second development phase, a bridge to the southern part of the city and a new tram line will be built
think about further develop the city to the adjacent eastern site and having attracted more inhabitants to this lively
and vibrant place the tram line can adjust to the increased
demand by simply intensifying the traveling frequency or by extending the length of the vehicles. Depending on the ideas of the city the tram line can also easily be extended to the two above mentioned development sites.
to push the further development of the site and to attract
Saltängen’s transformation into Saltängenskap will be
realization of this proposal and its guidelines, context-
social experiences. By focusing on five major topics this
document even more strategic.
marked by diverse business opportunities and unique report proposes a broad vision for the future of Saltängen,
sensitive phasing has been supplied, making the
the city of Norrköping and the region. Because each
In conclusion, this report presents an exciting vision for
strategies and implementation projects, it is strategic and
in Norrköping to a vibrant, mixed use and creative quarter
point of the vision is investigated through a series of responds to the needs of the Norrköping community. It embraces the three modes of sustainability (ecological,
social, economic). Intertwined with this strategic planning document is the urban design, which embraces the
progressive nature of Norrköping. To ensure proper
the conversion of a run-of-the-mill derelict industrial site
of the inner city. This vision will be a starting point for
an ongoing sustainable development of the city and the region.
3.2 - Zeche Zollverein (UNESCO World Heritage site) M:AI
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3.3 Landschaftspark Duisburg-Nord / IBA Wikimedia
Foundation (2006): Landschaftspark Duisburg-Nord.
Landschaftspark_Duisburg-Nord_green-lights.jpg>, access on March 7th, 2012.
3.4 Landschaftspark Duisburg-Nord / IBA Wikimedia
Foundation (2010): Panorama mit zirka 140° Sichtweite vom Landschaftspark Duisburg-Nord von Westen aus gesehen. <http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b0/
LaPaDu_Panorama_2010-10-03.jpg>, access on March 7th, 2012.
3.5 - 3.7 Taken by group 4.1 - HafenCity Hamburg GmbH (2012): Quartiere – Kleinteilig und lebendig: Das erste Quartier der Hafencity. <http://www.
hafencity.com/de/am-sandtorkai-dalmannkai.html>, access on February 29th 2012.
5.1 - Painted bike lanes. Digital image. Streetsblog. Web. 2
Mar. 2012. <http://sf.streetsblog.org/2010/08/03/eyes-on-thestreet-sfmta-installs-green-bike-lane-on-fell-street/>.
5.2 - Maury, Erin G. Bicycle rentals in London. Digital image. Nileguide. 8 Dec. 2010. Web. 2 Mar. 2012. <http://www.
5.3 - Covered bike parking. Digital image. Directions and How to Get Here. Web. 08 Mar. 2012. <http://www.zoo.org/page. aspx?pid=290>.
5.4 - A bike rack with a pump. Digital image.
Bicycletasmaniablog. Web. 08 Mar. 2012. <http://
6.1 - Bp Bridge. Digital image. Wikipedia. Web. 2 Mar. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bp_bridge.JPG>.
3.1 - Flickr. Yahoo! Web. 08 Mar. 2012. <http://www.flickr.com/ photos/mnmoutdoor/4311655991/sizes/l/in/photostream/>.