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Tool

Personas field work For a new project, don’t recycle a persona from a previous project. Interview and create a new persona every new project.

STEP 1 | Define the Problem Describe the problem that, through personas, needs to be solved as clearly as possible. It may be tempting, but try to avoid general statements.

STEP 2 | Define the Audience Identify the people you need to study in order to understand the problem you defined. To achieve a good persona practices development, it is important, when seasonable, spend some quality time with current or potentials customers. To plan this, market research audience can be derived from target market information that companies have. Costumer segmentation models can also help refine the selection process. When planing the audience, there should be at least one persona to represent each major segment of your users.

STEP 3 | Research the Audience The purpose of the research is to identify trends or patterns in user behaviors, expectations and motivations to form the basis of the personas. So, you must get into the field and meet real users that you identified previously. Conduct research interviews, observations and listening to groups of potential user and/or costumers. Observe the environment in which they would use your product or service. Get hold of as much knowledge of the users as possible. The data can originate from several sources: interviews, observations, second hand information, questionnaires, reports, cultural probes etc. According to Calabria (2004), there are three main ways to produce meaningful research interviews for personas: FIRST | Interview business stakeholders. These people have had hundreds if not thousands of interactions with end users and are already conscious of users’ behavioral patterns. Respect the wealth of knowledge your business stakeholders hold and get them involved early on in the persona research.

Design Thinking Tools by Joana Cerejo is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. Based on a work at http://creativityissues.com


SECOND | Review market research and interview your organization’s market research specialists. Once again these people have frequent interaction with end users and are trained to pick up patterns in attitudes and behaviors. They may not have created personas before, but if you ask the right questions you’ll gather useful information to add to your research data.

*Initially eliminate or minimise the amount of personal details about a persona − leave that to the market segmentation − Yet, you can introduce these later on when your team starts to warm up the concept.

post field work

THIRD | Survey users and business stakeholders using quantitative methods. This is a good way to gather large amounts of demographic data and to identify trends. However it cannot replace direct interaction and observation with interview subjects as there is no way to tap into the users’ subconscious beliefs and attitudes.

STEP 4 | Identify Behavioral Patterns from the Data Review all the research data and look for patterns in attitudes and behaviors Most variables can be represented as ranges with two ends. In a coffee shop, for example, you might have variables such as coffee drink frequency, degree of enjoyment, and price vs. service enjoy. There may also be demographic variables that seem to affect behavior, such as age or profession. Be wary of focusing on demographics during persona creation*, since behavioral variables will have far more impact on the design.

STEP 1 To getting started with Personas you should assemble a small team of 3 - 5 members (it is positive to choose an odd team, whenever it is possible). The team should not exceed 5 persons because the ideal number of personas, are a set of small group. 3 or 5 personas work as effective design tools. Preferably, you should look after for a group with different professional backgrounds with the purpose of getting a strong understanding of the end costumers by the multidisciplinary and holistic point of view of the team.

STEP 2 Supported by Creativity Issues Persona Template, distribute one copy to each member of the group and start the process by giving to them 15 or 20 minutes to compose the persona. Try to build a believable archetype in order for the design team to accept it as a credible persona. In the first field of the template, give the persona an attributive title; with the purpose of introducing to the team later as a possible stereotype persona. Don’t use someone you actually know as a persona. Inserted, create a composite based on interviews and research data previously collected. Start writing the personas by adding details around the behavioral traits. Select details from your research, such as working environment, frustrations, relationships with others, skill level, and some demographics.

Design Thinking Tools by Joana Cerejo is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. Based on a work at http://creativityissues.com


Try to field out the template with a synthetic and objective list of bullet points rather than a narrative. Keep the bullet points to short statements about the user’s goals, behaviors, likes and dislikes. In each field, identify workflow and daily behavioral patterns, using specific details, not generalities.

STEP 3 Personas is build to look for an engaging profile in order to capture a person’s nature. But more importantly, this tool captures a person’s motivations and/ or intentions. Keep in mind: - Who do you think are the users of the new product? - What are their main characteristics and their needs? - Add personal details but don’t go overboard. - Include goals for each persona. This can include experience goals as well as end goals. In no time you will come up with preliminary personas: fictional users and customers.

STEP 4 Supported by the Personality Map Template, you can define a group of behavioral scales with ranges. For example, coffee drinkers vs decaf drinkers, service orientation vs price orientation. Map the findings of each participants on it. Each participant matches with a circle.

FINAL STEP Each member of the team introduces their persona to the group. Identify the primary persona and rank the others accordingly. The ranking should be linked to the issues and goals that personas is addressing. By defining primary and secondary personas you can also work out the design goals according to personas data. This will help direct design priorities. If two personas seem close in behaviors and goals, see if you can merge them into one persona.

Design Thinking Tools by Joana Cerejo is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. Based on a work at http://creativityissues.com


Design Thinking

Personas Hypothetical End-user

Attributive title What type of persona is it. Describe the most prominent differentiator.

Behavior -

Interests -

What does she or he do? What is the point of view? What is the expectation, perception of the service, company or brand? What motivates the persona to go to the website, into the shop, or use the service?

Decisions made on facts or emotion. Which Trends, mindstyles or other indicators are applicable for this persona? How important are functional, emotional, expressive benefits?

Expectations -

Observations

What is the supreme motivator? What are (latent) needs and desires? Which are their goals?

Design Thinking Tools by Joana Cerejo is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercialNoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. Based on a work at http://creativityissues.com


Design Thinking

Personas Hypothetical End-user

Attributive title

Behavior

Interests

Expectations

Observations

Design Thinking Tools by Joana Cerejo is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercialNoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. Based on a work at http://creativityissues.com


In each opposite field insert a paradoxical adjective that best suits the behavior of the previous persona template conclusions. Together, in the same diagram, one should pick a different color and point out the variations of his/her perceptions about the end customer feature.

COFFEE DRINKERS

PRICE

SERVICE

Personality Map

The next diagram has four adjectives as an example.

DECAF DRINKERS

Design Thinking Tools by Joana Cerejo is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercialNoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. Based on a work at http://creativityissues.com

Personas  

This publication is a pratical guide, provided with templates, to learn who to implement Personas in a project.

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