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National Museum of Natural History Annual Report 2007–2008


THE OCEAN IS A GLOBAL SYSTEM ESSENTIAL TO ALL LIFE, INCLUDING YOURS.

National Museum of Natural History ANNUAL REPORT 2007–2008 As a complement to the opening of the Museum’s Sant Ocean Hall, Nature’s Best Photography: Ocean Views presented an exciting photographic exhibit where photographers of all levels shared their connections with the sea. These stories provided insight into ocean life and invited visitors to celebrate, embrace, and protect this fragile world. The exhibition was a result of the partnership between the Museum and the Smithsonian’s Nature’s Best Photography program. Cover: Hasksbill Turtle, Turks and Caicos by Christopher Guglielmo Left: Jellyfish, Raja Ampat by Yeang Ch’ng


THE OCEAN IS A GLOBAL SYSTEM ESSENTIAL TO ALL LIFE, INCLUDING YOURS.

National Museum of Natural History ANNUAL REPORT 2007–2008 As a complement to the opening of the Museum’s Sant Ocean Hall, Nature’s Best Photography: Ocean Views presented an exciting photographic exhibit where photographers of all levels shared their connections with the sea. These stories provided insight into ocean life and invited visitors to celebrate, embrace, and protect this fragile world. The exhibition was a result of the partnership between the Museum and the Smithsonian’s Nature’s Best Photography program. Cover: Hasksbill Turtle, Turks and Caicos by Christopher Guglielmo Left: Jellyfish, Raja Ampat by Yeang Ch’ng


Message from the Director

Ocean Science at the Museum THE OCEAN IS A GLOBAL SYSTEM ESSENTIAL TO ALL LIFE, INCLUDING YOURS.

Chip Clark

The spectacular Sant Ocean Hall opened in September 2008, explaining the diversity and importance of the ocean for our lives. It is a model for what a 21st-century museum science presentation can

In March 2007 I was asked to become the Smithsonian’s Acting Secretary. It was an exciting experience and I was honored to have served the greater mission of the Smithsonian, but it is nice to be back as Director of the Museum full time. I wish to thank Dr. Paul Risser for his leadership of the Museum during this transition. I also wish to recognize Roger Sant’s distinguished term as Chair of the Museum’s Board. I am pleased that Dr. Risser will serve as our new Board Chair, and look forward to working closely with Paul to build on the foundation that Roger has established. With more than six million visitors a year, 126 million specimens in our collections, and an experienced and committed staff, we are recognized as one of the world’s preeminent science research institutions. To our many supporters, we thank you for all you have done to help make this possible. Cristián Samper Director

T

The Board’s commitment to the work of this Museum is steadfast and we are in good hands under the guidance of our new Board Chair, Dr. Paul Risser, who served as the Acting Director of the Museum at a critical time. 2

ANNUAL REPORT 2007–2008

An incredible 70 percent of the world’s population lives in coastal

The Smithsonian Institution is uniquely positioned to bring the message of ocean literacy to new audiences and have a positive impact on how we manage ocean resources.

areas and 3.5 billion people rely on the ocean as their primary source of food. But most people don’t realize the profound impact that humans are having on the ocean throughout the world.

THE MUSEUM’S OCEAN INITIATIVE

—ROGER SANT

The Smithsonian’s longstanding tradition of leadership in ocean research, unparalleled collections of marine life, and dedicated scientists are at the center of the Ocean Initiative, a multidisciplinary program designed to bring international attention to the complexity and importance of the ocean. The showcase for the Ocean Initiative is the Museum’s spectacular new Sant Ocean Hall, which explores this magnificent ocean world in all its diversity, complexity, and constant evolution. The Ocean

Message from the Board Chair he National Museum of Natural History continues to play a vital role in interpreting and communicating science to the public. With the addition of two new permanent exhibitions, Butterflies + Plants: Partners in Evolution and the Ocean Hall, and our support of the online database Encyclopedia of Life, the Museum remains committed to reaching not only scientists, but students, teachers, families, and anyone with the desire to learn more about the Earth’s species.

T

he ocean covers almost three-quarters of the Earth’s surface, shaping and sustaining all aspects of life on Earth—including our own—from the air we breathe to the food we eat and the water we drink. Yet, the vast majority of the marine world—the richest ecosystem on the planet—remains unexplored.

Initiative’s research component is the Museum’s Marine Science Program, providing the strategic insight into the ocean that is urgently

On behalf of the Board, I wish to recognize Dr. Cristián Samper for the contributions he has made over the past two years both as Acting Secretary of the Smithsonian and now back as our Director. He is an exceptional leader and it has been my pleasure and privilege to work with him. His dedication to this Museum and the Smithsonian is an inspiration to us all. And to the Museum’s staff, thank you for all you do to encourage people everywhere to appreciate, understand, and protect the wonders of the natural world. Roger Sant Board Chair

needed to help understand and protect this wonderful resource. The Sant Chair for Marine Science, the Museum’s first endowed chair in the marine sciences, was created to provide intellectual leadership to the Ocean Initiative. The first person appointed to the Sant Chair is Dr. Nancy Knowlton, an eminent marine biologist whose research focuses on the ecology and evolution of coral reef organisms. The Ocean Hall and Chair are named in recognition of Roger and Victoria Sant, whose generous gifts support the endowed chair, the hall, related programs, and outreach activities.

Tom and Pat Leeson

Cristián Samper

achieve. The hall is named in honor of Roger and Victoria Sant in recognition of their leadership in marine science and in gratitude for their generous gifts to the Museum—gifts which will advance research and support the Sant Ocean Hall for decades to come.

Chip Clark

W

e are celebrating the 200th anniversary of Charles Darwin’s birth, as well as the 150th anniversary of the publication of his book On the Origin of Species. The theory of evolution by natural selection has inspired the work of scientists and educators across the world for generations and has served as a foundation for our research. Scientific advances in Roger Sant fields like molecular genetics, developmental biology, and plate tectonics have given us a much better understanding of the mechanisms behind the extraordinary diversity of life on Earth.

National Museum of Natural History • www.mnh.si.edu

3


Message from the Director

Ocean Science at the Museum THE OCEAN IS A GLOBAL SYSTEM ESSENTIAL TO ALL LIFE, INCLUDING YOURS.

Chip Clark

The spectacular Sant Ocean Hall opened in September 2008, explaining the diversity and importance of the ocean for our lives. It is a model for what a 21st-century museum science presentation can

In March 2007 I was asked to become the Smithsonian’s Acting Secretary. It was an exciting experience and I was honored to have served the greater mission of the Smithsonian, but it is nice to be back as Director of the Museum full time. I wish to thank Dr. Paul Risser for his leadership of the Museum during this transition. I also wish to recognize Roger Sant’s distinguished term as Chair of the Museum’s Board. I am pleased that Dr. Risser will serve as our new Board Chair, and look forward to working closely with Paul to build on the foundation that Roger has established. With more than six million visitors a year, 126 million specimens in our collections, and an experienced and committed staff, we are recognized as one of the world’s preeminent science research institutions. To our many supporters, we thank you for all you have done to help make this possible. Cristián Samper Director

T

The Board’s commitment to the work of this Museum is steadfast and we are in good hands under the guidance of our new Board Chair, Dr. Paul Risser, who served as the Acting Director of the Museum at a critical time. 2

ANNUAL REPORT 2007–2008

An incredible 70 percent of the world’s population lives in coastal

The Smithsonian Institution is uniquely positioned to bring the message of ocean literacy to new audiences and have a positive impact on how we manage ocean resources.

areas and 3.5 billion people rely on the ocean as their primary source of food. But most people don’t realize the profound impact that humans are having on the ocean throughout the world.

THE MUSEUM’S OCEAN INITIATIVE

—ROGER SANT

The Smithsonian’s longstanding tradition of leadership in ocean research, unparalleled collections of marine life, and dedicated scientists are at the center of the Ocean Initiative, a multidisciplinary program designed to bring international attention to the complexity and importance of the ocean. The showcase for the Ocean Initiative is the Museum’s spectacular new Sant Ocean Hall, which explores this magnificent ocean world in all its diversity, complexity, and constant evolution. The Ocean

Message from the Board Chair he National Museum of Natural History continues to play a vital role in interpreting and communicating science to the public. With the addition of two new permanent exhibitions, Butterflies + Plants: Partners in Evolution and the Ocean Hall, and our support of the online database Encyclopedia of Life, the Museum remains committed to reaching not only scientists, but students, teachers, families, and anyone with the desire to learn more about the Earth’s species.

T

he ocean covers almost three-quarters of the Earth’s surface, shaping and sustaining all aspects of life on Earth—including our own—from the air we breathe to the food we eat and the water we drink. Yet, the vast majority of the marine world—the richest ecosystem on the planet—remains unexplored.

Initiative’s research component is the Museum’s Marine Science Program, providing the strategic insight into the ocean that is urgently

On behalf of the Board, I wish to recognize Dr. Cristián Samper for the contributions he has made over the past two years both as Acting Secretary of the Smithsonian and now back as our Director. He is an exceptional leader and it has been my pleasure and privilege to work with him. His dedication to this Museum and the Smithsonian is an inspiration to us all. And to the Museum’s staff, thank you for all you do to encourage people everywhere to appreciate, understand, and protect the wonders of the natural world. Roger Sant Board Chair

needed to help understand and protect this wonderful resource. The Sant Chair for Marine Science, the Museum’s first endowed chair in the marine sciences, was created to provide intellectual leadership to the Ocean Initiative. The first person appointed to the Sant Chair is Dr. Nancy Knowlton, an eminent marine biologist whose research focuses on the ecology and evolution of coral reef organisms. The Ocean Hall and Chair are named in recognition of Roger and Victoria Sant, whose generous gifts support the endowed chair, the hall, related programs, and outreach activities.

Tom and Pat Leeson

Cristián Samper

achieve. The hall is named in honor of Roger and Victoria Sant in recognition of their leadership in marine science and in gratitude for their generous gifts to the Museum—gifts which will advance research and support the Sant Ocean Hall for decades to come.

Chip Clark

W

e are celebrating the 200th anniversary of Charles Darwin’s birth, as well as the 150th anniversary of the publication of his book On the Origin of Species. The theory of evolution by natural selection has inspired the work of scientists and educators across the world for generations and has served as a foundation for our research. Scientific advances in Roger Sant fields like molecular genetics, developmental biology, and plate tectonics have given us a much better understanding of the mechanisms behind the extraordinary diversity of life on Earth.

National Museum of Natural History • www.mnh.si.edu

3


Museum Marine Collections and Ocean Research

T

Chip Clark

Chip Clark

Barratt Brooks, Department of Botany

At right, the Carrie Bow Marine Field Station, Belize

4

ANNUAL REPORT 2007–2008

The Marine Science Program’s 31 marine scientists and more than 100 other researchers draw from and add to these Museum collections—and undertake investigations all over the world—to deepen our understanding of the ocean. Scientific discoveries from this program will inform content in the Sant Ocean Hall and the Ocean Web Portal (launching late 2009) and provide critical information about creatures to be protected and ecosystems to be preserved.

The Museum operates two marine field stations that play an important role in the Marine Science Program. At the Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce, Florida—directed by Dr. Valerie Paul—scientists specialize in the study of biodiversity and ecology of marine life of the Indian River Lagoon estuary and the Florida coast (www.sms.si.edu) and educate a broad audience about Florida’s marine life through the Smithsonian Marine Ecosystems Exhibit (www.sms.si.edu/smee). At the Carrie Bow Marine Field Station in Belize, scientists in the Caribbean Coral Reef Ecosystems Program (CCRE)—led by Dr. Klaus Ruetzler—study the organisms and geological development of that part of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef and its associated mangrove islands. CCRE is also helping the government and local organizations promote good ocean stewardship and coastal preservation (www.invertebrates.si.edu/ccre.htm).

The marine field stations are a vital part of the Smithsonian’s Marine Science Network, which includes state-of-the-art coastal laboratories in the western Atlantic. The Network’s mission is to understand the rich biodiversity and complex ecosystem dynamics that sustain coastal processes and productivity.

THE MOOREA BIOCODE PROJECT In an example of the international scope of the Museum’s research, the Moorea Biocode Project is a U.S.-French effort to create DNA barcodes for the entire tropical ecosystem of the South Pacific island of Moorea. Dr. Christopher Meyer of the Department of Invertebrate Zoology is a lead investigator on the team that will create a

Chip Clark

Chip Clark

he National Museum of Natural History is the largest collections-based research institution in the world, with more than 33 million specimens of marine life. Dating back more than 160 years, the collections are especially useful in assessing changes in populations and distributions of species over time. The Museum also holds historic specimens from some of the world’s most fragile marine ecosystems, making these collections an invaluable international resource.

comprehensive inventory of life on the island, from the bottom of the ocean to the mountain tops. DNA barcoding is emerging as a global standard for assigning biological specimens to the correct species, improving our understanding of biodiversity and enabling non-scientists to identify species. With such a tool scientists can reconstruct the entire food web, allowing ecologists to develop a wholesystem approach to understanding how island food webs respond to disturbances like the introduction of invasive species or a rise in sea temperatures. The Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation funded the three-year project. www.mooreabiocode.org

Karen Reed (left) and Rose Gulledge at the Smithsonian Marine Station at Ft. Pierce, Florida

To learn more about marine science at the Museum, visit www.ocean.si.edu. National Museum of Natural History • www.mnh.si.edu

5


Museum Marine Collections and Ocean Research

T

Chip Clark

Chip Clark

Barratt Brooks, Department of Botany

At right, the Carrie Bow Marine Field Station, Belize

4

ANNUAL REPORT 2007–2008

The Marine Science Program’s 31 marine scientists and more than 100 other researchers draw from and add to these Museum collections—and undertake investigations all over the world—to deepen our understanding of the ocean. Scientific discoveries from this program will inform content in the Sant Ocean Hall and the Ocean Web Portal (launching late 2009) and provide critical information about creatures to be protected and ecosystems to be preserved.

The Museum operates two marine field stations that play an important role in the Marine Science Program. At the Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce, Florida—directed by Dr. Valerie Paul—scientists specialize in the study of biodiversity and ecology of marine life of the Indian River Lagoon estuary and the Florida coast (www.sms.si.edu) and educate a broad audience about Florida’s marine life through the Smithsonian Marine Ecosystems Exhibit (www.sms.si.edu/smee). At the Carrie Bow Marine Field Station in Belize, scientists in the Caribbean Coral Reef Ecosystems Program (CCRE)—led by Dr. Klaus Ruetzler—study the organisms and geological development of that part of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef and its associated mangrove islands. CCRE is also helping the government and local organizations promote good ocean stewardship and coastal preservation (www.invertebrates.si.edu/ccre.htm).

The marine field stations are a vital part of the Smithsonian’s Marine Science Network, which includes state-of-the-art coastal laboratories in the western Atlantic. The Network’s mission is to understand the rich biodiversity and complex ecosystem dynamics that sustain coastal processes and productivity.

THE MOOREA BIOCODE PROJECT In an example of the international scope of the Museum’s research, the Moorea Biocode Project is a U.S.-French effort to create DNA barcodes for the entire tropical ecosystem of the South Pacific island of Moorea. Dr. Christopher Meyer of the Department of Invertebrate Zoology is a lead investigator on the team that will create a

Chip Clark

Chip Clark

he National Museum of Natural History is the largest collections-based research institution in the world, with more than 33 million specimens of marine life. Dating back more than 160 years, the collections are especially useful in assessing changes in populations and distributions of species over time. The Museum also holds historic specimens from some of the world’s most fragile marine ecosystems, making these collections an invaluable international resource.

comprehensive inventory of life on the island, from the bottom of the ocean to the mountain tops. DNA barcoding is emerging as a global standard for assigning biological specimens to the correct species, improving our understanding of biodiversity and enabling non-scientists to identify species. With such a tool scientists can reconstruct the entire food web, allowing ecologists to develop a wholesystem approach to understanding how island food webs respond to disturbances like the introduction of invasive species or a rise in sea temperatures. The Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation funded the three-year project. www.mooreabiocode.org

Karen Reed (left) and Rose Gulledge at the Smithsonian Marine Station at Ft. Pierce, Florida

To learn more about marine science at the Museum, visit www.ocean.si.edu. National Museum of Natural History • www.mnh.si.edu

5


ENTERING THE OCEAN REALM

he Museum’s extraordinary Sant Ocean Hall debuted on September 27, 2008. Created in partnership with the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the hall uses marine specimens and models, highdefinition video experiences, one-of-a kind exhibits, and the newest technology to reveal the ocean as a global system essential to all life on Earth.

A unique underwater-like immersive experience is created on the walls above the exhibit space by the high definition film Ocean Odyssey and the precise replica of a North Atlantic right whale suspended from the ceiling. Rare specimens include two giant squids and an adult coelacanth and its pup, and a 1,500-gallon Indo-Pacific coral reef tank with more than 70 live species. Journey through Time uses fossils to look into the ocean’s past, while the video Deep Ocean Explorers takes visitors on a dive aboard the submersible Alvin. In partnership with the History Channel, The Ocean as a Laboratory introduces the exciting work of marine scientists around the world.

The exhibition development team included curators Dr. Carole

TELLING THE STORY WITH TECHNOLOGY

Baldwin of the Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Dr. Brian Huber

Science on a Sphere—created with technology developed by NOAA— uses computers and projectors to display global information on a sixfoot-wide rotating sphere, giving visitors an astronaut’s-eye view of the planet. Four programs designed specifically for the Ocean Hall use data and imaging to explain how the ocean interacts with the land, atmosphere, sea floor—and even humans—to produce food and oxygen for the Earth’s population, drive the weather and climate, and continuously change the face of the planet by the slow movement of Earth’s tectonic plates. www.ocean.si.edu

T

of the Department of Paleobiology, and Dr. Michael Vecchione of NOAA’s National Systematics Lab; Jill Johnson, exhibit developer; and Elizabeth Musteen, project manager; and involved more than 300 collaborators.

THE OCEAN AND HUMANS The connection between humans and the ocean is emphasized in

Chip Clark

The Sant Ocean Hall

human life—and how human life impacts the ocean—and examine

The Sant Ocean Hall will raise awareness of the importance of the ocean and the impact of human activities on marine life.

the long-standing relationships between indigenous peoples and

DR. CRISTIÁN SAMPER

the Living on an Ocean Planet gallery. High-tech interactive elements allow visitors to explore this vital and delicate relationship by making important decisions about critical ocean issues and seeing the ramifications of their choices. The Ocean as a Laboratory exhibit features current ocean research in a video and photographic format that will be updated annually with contributions from marine science organizations around the globe. Thirty Human Connections stories found throughout the hall highlight the many ways the ocean impacts

their marine ecosystems.

SALMON & NATIVE CULTURES OF THE NORTH PACIFIC The northwest Pacific Coast became the most heavily populated Native American region in part due to the availability of many different species of salmon. Exhibits explore the cultures rimming the North Pacific, salmonrelated crafts and ceremonies, and ancient and modern methods to catch and prepare salmon, symbolized by the striking 26-foot

6

ANNUAL REPORT 2007–2008

John Steiner

Chip Clark

log canoe carved and donated by the Tlingit Nation in Alaska. Although the salmon fishery has drastically declined over the past 100 years, Native American communities are working with local and regional governments to save this resource.

National Museum of Natural History • www.mnh.si.edu

7


ENTERING THE OCEAN REALM

he Museum’s extraordinary Sant Ocean Hall debuted on September 27, 2008. Created in partnership with the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the hall uses marine specimens and models, highdefinition video experiences, one-of-a kind exhibits, and the newest technology to reveal the ocean as a global system essential to all life on Earth.

A unique underwater-like immersive experience is created on the walls above the exhibit space by the high definition film Ocean Odyssey and the precise replica of a North Atlantic right whale suspended from the ceiling. Rare specimens include two giant squids and an adult coelacanth and its pup, and a 1,500-gallon Indo-Pacific coral reef tank with more than 70 live species. Journey through Time uses fossils to look into the ocean’s past, while the video Deep Ocean Explorers takes visitors on a dive aboard the submersible Alvin. In partnership with the History Channel, The Ocean as a Laboratory introduces the exciting work of marine scientists around the world.

The exhibition development team included curators Dr. Carole

TELLING THE STORY WITH TECHNOLOGY

Baldwin of the Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Dr. Brian Huber

Science on a Sphere—created with technology developed by NOAA— uses computers and projectors to display global information on a sixfoot-wide rotating sphere, giving visitors an astronaut’s-eye view of the planet. Four programs designed specifically for the Ocean Hall use data and imaging to explain how the ocean interacts with the land, atmosphere, sea floor—and even humans—to produce food and oxygen for the Earth’s population, drive the weather and climate, and continuously change the face of the planet by the slow movement of Earth’s tectonic plates. www.ocean.si.edu

T

of the Department of Paleobiology, and Dr. Michael Vecchione of NOAA’s National Systematics Lab; Jill Johnson, exhibit developer; and Elizabeth Musteen, project manager; and involved more than 300 collaborators.

THE OCEAN AND HUMANS The connection between humans and the ocean is emphasized in

Chip Clark

The Sant Ocean Hall

human life—and how human life impacts the ocean—and examine

The Sant Ocean Hall will raise awareness of the importance of the ocean and the impact of human activities on marine life.

the long-standing relationships between indigenous peoples and

DR. CRISTIÁN SAMPER

the Living on an Ocean Planet gallery. High-tech interactive elements allow visitors to explore this vital and delicate relationship by making important decisions about critical ocean issues and seeing the ramifications of their choices. The Ocean as a Laboratory exhibit features current ocean research in a video and photographic format that will be updated annually with contributions from marine science organizations around the globe. Thirty Human Connections stories found throughout the hall highlight the many ways the ocean impacts

their marine ecosystems.

SALMON & NATIVE CULTURES OF THE NORTH PACIFIC The northwest Pacific Coast became the most heavily populated Native American region in part due to the availability of many different species of salmon. Exhibits explore the cultures rimming the North Pacific, salmonrelated crafts and ceremonies, and ancient and modern methods to catch and prepare salmon, symbolized by the striking 26-foot

6

ANNUAL REPORT 2007–2008

John Steiner

Chip Clark

log canoe carved and donated by the Tlingit Nation in Alaska. Although the salmon fishery has drastically declined over the past 100 years, Native American communities are working with local and regional governments to save this resource.

National Museum of Natural History • www.mnh.si.edu

7


EDUCATIONAL INITIATIVES

Sant Ocean Hall Opening Festivities and Public Outreach

O

n September 25, 2008, the Museum’s Rotunda was transformed into an undersea wonderland for the gala opening of the Sant Ocean Hall. Giant jellyfish, fish mobiles, and fabric seaweed were suspended from the ceiling, while colored lights made the Rotunda swim with glowing sea creatures. After the speaking program, 1,200 friends of the Museum were treated to a sound and light show before a curtain dropped to reveal the Sant Ocean Hall. For the rest of the evening, guests toured the hall and other areas of the Museum while enjoying sustainable seafood. Endowment Fund, encourages everyone to take the Ocean Friend Challenge and continue learning about the ocean and its connection to our daily lives.

PUBLIC PROGRAMMING The Museum’s Public Programs for autumn 2008 celebrated the Sant Ocean Hall with ocean-related films, lectures, book signings, art exhibitions, and other fun and educational activities.

In other inaugural activities, visitors witnessed a panel discussion on the making of the Sant Ocean Hall, enjoyed an illustrated lecture on Tracking Ocean Giants by Stanford University Professor Barbara Block, and attended a book signing with Deborah Cramer, author of the hall’s companion volume, Smithsonian Ocean.

Margery Gordon

The public opening occurred on September 27, with Native Hawaiian music by the Aloha Boys, a performance by the Halau O’Aulani Dancers, and an Alaskan Native drum ceremony in the Rotunda. Eager visitors entered the hall, guided by 150 volunteer “Navigators” who received extensive training on the exhibition and its science in order to help guests plot their course through the hall’s fascinating content. Visitors can also use The Sant Ocean Hall Family Guide to navigate their way through the exhibition. The guide, made possible by the Sant Ocean Hall

8

ANNUAL REPORT 2007–2008

James Di Loreto

James Di Loreto

Jerry Bernstein

With the opening of the Sant Ocean Hall, the Museum announced a ground-breaking partnership with the Centers for Ocean Science Education Excellence (COSEE). To promote ocean literacy and education nationwide, Elizabeth Ban, a full-time ocean science educator, will coordinate the resources of the Sant Ocean Hall and the COSEE Network of regional centers to offer professional development for educators and develop exhibits, public programs, webbased resources, and other activities. Funding for this program is provided by the Museum, the NOAA Office of Exploration, and the National Marine Sanctuaries Foundation.

October 2008 marked the beginning of the free program The Scientist Is In. Every Wednesday from 1 pm to 3 pm, a scientist from the Museum or NOAA is hosting visiting hours at the Sant Ocean Hall, showing specimens and artifacts and talking with visitors.

SMITHSONIAN OCEAN: OUR WATER, OUR WORLD

During the ongoing Second Saturday Arts and the Ocean program, children and adults created “creatures of the sea” artworks, made ocean pop-up books, and listened to chanteys, a musical tradition of sailors at sea.

ways the sea is essential to all

Our lives depend on the sea. Smithsonian Ocean, the Smithsonian

Books

companion

volume to the Sant Ocean Hall, uses stunning photography and eloquent narrative—with a forward by Dr. Cristián Samper—to reveal the myriad of us, wherever we live. Author Deborah Cramer’s compelling writing explores the sea’s seemingly boundless diversity and shows how the ocean connects the Earth’s entire ecosystem. Seas that have come and gone created our world—and anticipate our future—making it imperative that we understand the ocean and its history.

National Museum of Natural History • www.mnh.si.edu

9


EDUCATIONAL INITIATIVES

Sant Ocean Hall Opening Festivities and Public Outreach

O

n September 25, 2008, the Museum’s Rotunda was transformed into an undersea wonderland for the gala opening of the Sant Ocean Hall. Giant jellyfish, fish mobiles, and fabric seaweed were suspended from the ceiling, while colored lights made the Rotunda swim with glowing sea creatures. After the speaking program, 1,200 friends of the Museum were treated to a sound and light show before a curtain dropped to reveal the Sant Ocean Hall. For the rest of the evening, guests toured the hall and other areas of the Museum while enjoying sustainable seafood. Endowment Fund, encourages everyone to take the Ocean Friend Challenge and continue learning about the ocean and its connection to our daily lives.

PUBLIC PROGRAMMING The Museum’s Public Programs for autumn 2008 celebrated the Sant Ocean Hall with ocean-related films, lectures, book signings, art exhibitions, and other fun and educational activities.

In other inaugural activities, visitors witnessed a panel discussion on the making of the Sant Ocean Hall, enjoyed an illustrated lecture on Tracking Ocean Giants by Stanford University Professor Barbara Block, and attended a book signing with Deborah Cramer, author of the hall’s companion volume, Smithsonian Ocean.

Margery Gordon

The public opening occurred on September 27, with Native Hawaiian music by the Aloha Boys, a performance by the Halau O’Aulani Dancers, and an Alaskan Native drum ceremony in the Rotunda. Eager visitors entered the hall, guided by 150 volunteer “Navigators” who received extensive training on the exhibition and its science in order to help guests plot their course through the hall’s fascinating content. Visitors can also use The Sant Ocean Hall Family Guide to navigate their way through the exhibition. The guide, made possible by the Sant Ocean Hall

8

ANNUAL REPORT 2007–2008

James Di Loreto

James Di Loreto

Jerry Bernstein

With the opening of the Sant Ocean Hall, the Museum announced a ground-breaking partnership with the Centers for Ocean Science Education Excellence (COSEE). To promote ocean literacy and education nationwide, Elizabeth Ban, a full-time ocean science educator, will coordinate the resources of the Sant Ocean Hall and the COSEE Network of regional centers to offer professional development for educators and develop exhibits, public programs, webbased resources, and other activities. Funding for this program is provided by the Museum, the NOAA Office of Exploration, and the National Marine Sanctuaries Foundation.

October 2008 marked the beginning of the free program The Scientist Is In. Every Wednesday from 1 pm to 3 pm, a scientist from the Museum or NOAA is hosting visiting hours at the Sant Ocean Hall, showing specimens and artifacts and talking with visitors.

SMITHSONIAN OCEAN: OUR WATER, OUR WORLD

During the ongoing Second Saturday Arts and the Ocean program, children and adults created “creatures of the sea” artworks, made ocean pop-up books, and listened to chanteys, a musical tradition of sailors at sea.

ways the sea is essential to all

Our lives depend on the sea. Smithsonian Ocean, the Smithsonian

Books

companion

volume to the Sant Ocean Hall, uses stunning photography and eloquent narrative—with a forward by Dr. Cristián Samper—to reveal the myriad of us, wherever we live. Author Deborah Cramer’s compelling writing explores the sea’s seemingly boundless diversity and shows how the ocean connects the Earth’s entire ecosystem. Seas that have come and gone created our world—and anticipate our future—making it imperative that we understand the ocean and its history.

National Museum of Natural History • www.mnh.si.edu

9


Feel the Flutter preparation for the move to Pod 5’s eighteen state-

more than 126 million natural history specimens,

of-the-art, climate-controlled rooms. In addition to

and a large number of these collections are housed

the new storage areas, the adjacent labs and

at the Museum Support Center in Suitland,

offices provide bright and spacious work areas for

Maryland. Completed in 1983, the original building

approximately 35 collections management staff

planned for growth. The newest space, Pod 5, was

and the visiting researchers from around the world.

completed in April 2007 and the massive collections move began.

The success of the collection move, which will be Michelle Brown

complete in early 2009, is due to the dedication

About the size of a football field, Pod 5 rises to 28 feet in height

and hard work of the Museum’s Collection Support Services staff

and adds more than 125,000 square feet of space. Pod 5 will house

who worked with Collection Management staff throughout the

all of the Museum’s biological collections stored in fluid—

planning, preparation and actual move.

approximately 25 million specimens—primarily marine collections

Sandra Raredon

from the Departments of Invertebrate Zoology and Vertebrate Zoology. The fish collection, for example, is the largest in the world— 4 million specimens—and includes 24,000 species of fishes.

During the multi-year project, the Pod 5 Executive Committee included Dr. Lynne Parenti, Chair; Susan Jewett, Dr. Robert Reynolds, and Dr. Jeff Williams from the Department of Vertebrate Zoology; Cheryl Bright from the Department of Invertebrate

Specimen identifications were updated to match the current

Zoology; and Liz Dietrich, Management Officer at the Museum

taxonomy and storage containers were significantly upgraded in

Support Center.

The Collections Management Training Program The Collections Management

context of their home institution’s mission, resources, and environmen-

Training Program for Latin Amer-

tal conditions. The six-week program of lectures, discussions, and

ican and Caribbean Museum

hands-on demonstrations is designed to strengthen participants’ skills

Professionals trains colleagues

so they return home with a renewed sense of purpose and an expanded

from public museums and non-

frame of reference.

Donald E. Hurlbert

profit research centers in effective practices and techniques for management, preservation, and use of natural history collections. From February 11 to March 21, 2008, eleven participants—each from different countries—worked with Museum staff to identify techniques, practices, and materials that can be applied within the 10 ANNUAL REPORT 2007–2008

Financial support for the program was provided by the InterAmerican Development Bank and the Mellon Foundation. Front row: Diana Munn, Coordinator of the Museum’s Latino Program; Quintin Arias; Srishti Mohais; Marian Tanuz; Museum Director Cristián Samper; Sofia Núñez; AnaLu de MacVean; Mercedes Delgado; Carol Butler, Co-Coordinator. Back Row: Katie Ahlfeld; Pier Cacciali; Michael Mincarone; Jorge Valenzuela; Adriana Gracia; Diego Garcia.

Butterflies + Plants: Partners in Evolution—one of the Museum’s immersive educational exhibitions—opened February 2008. This new permanent exhibition combines traditional and experiential learning to provide visitors a rare, up-close look at how butterflies and plants have evolved and diversified together for millions of years. Designed by Smithsonian scientists and educators, the award-winning Butterflies + Plants provides two distinct offerings: the Exhibition Hall and the Live Butterfly Pavilion. Courtesy of Dawn Abate

The Museum has an unparalleled collection of

The Exhibition Hall takes visitors on a 180-million-year journey through the co-evolution of butterflies and plants. An array of specimens, colorful murals, timelines, videos, and photographs support the exhibition’s underlying themes of survival and evolution. The Live Butterfly Pavilion sets a new standard for museum biology halls in both content and design. Walking into the 1,200-square-foot tropical aromatic garden, visitors are met with warm, humid air and bright lights that simulate the species’ native climate. This sensation is enhanced by more than 300 live butterflies interacting with a variety of plant species. New butterfly species from around the world are introduced to the Pavilion weekly, offering visitors a wide and changing variety of butterflies to discover and enjoy. Based on the study of co-evolution, Butterflies + Plants examines how organisms interact with one another and how they change because of those interactions. Although butterflies and plants are the central focus of the exhibition, a variety of organisms—from bats to beetles—and their interactions with plants are also featured. “A better understanding of the process of co-evolution of plants and animals will help us deal with environmental problems such as

pollinator decline,” said exhibit manager Nathan Erwin. “With the knowledge that 99 percent of all species that inhabited the Earth are now extinct, it is important that we all gain a better understanding of nature’s complexity in order to conserve life as we know it today.” In addition to Erwin, the exhibition development team included Dr. W. John Kress and Dr. Kenneth Wurdack, Department of Botany; Dr. Conrad Labandeira, Department of Paleobiology; Sally Love Connell, exhibition developer; and Dr. Ted Schultz and Dr. Robert Robbins, Department of Entomology.

Chip Clark

Museum Collections on the Move

An innovative visitor’s guide to the exhibition is available, free of charge, through the generous support of HSBC Bank USA, N.A. www.butterflies.si.edu National Museum of Natural History • www.mnh.si.edu 11


Feel the Flutter preparation for the move to Pod 5’s eighteen state-

more than 126 million natural history specimens,

of-the-art, climate-controlled rooms. In addition to

and a large number of these collections are housed

the new storage areas, the adjacent labs and

at the Museum Support Center in Suitland,

offices provide bright and spacious work areas for

Maryland. Completed in 1983, the original building

approximately 35 collections management staff

planned for growth. The newest space, Pod 5, was

and the visiting researchers from around the world.

completed in April 2007 and the massive collections move began.

The success of the collection move, which will be Michelle Brown

complete in early 2009, is due to the dedication

About the size of a football field, Pod 5 rises to 28 feet in height

and hard work of the Museum’s Collection Support Services staff

and adds more than 125,000 square feet of space. Pod 5 will house

who worked with Collection Management staff throughout the

all of the Museum’s biological collections stored in fluid—

planning, preparation and actual move.

approximately 25 million specimens—primarily marine collections

Sandra Raredon

from the Departments of Invertebrate Zoology and Vertebrate Zoology. The fish collection, for example, is the largest in the world— 4 million specimens—and includes 24,000 species of fishes.

During the multi-year project, the Pod 5 Executive Committee included Dr. Lynne Parenti, Chair; Susan Jewett, Dr. Robert Reynolds, and Dr. Jeff Williams from the Department of Vertebrate Zoology; Cheryl Bright from the Department of Invertebrate

Specimen identifications were updated to match the current

Zoology; and Liz Dietrich, Management Officer at the Museum

taxonomy and storage containers were significantly upgraded in

Support Center.

The Collections Management Training Program The Collections Management

context of their home institution’s mission, resources, and environmen-

Training Program for Latin Amer-

tal conditions. The six-week program of lectures, discussions, and

ican and Caribbean Museum

hands-on demonstrations is designed to strengthen participants’ skills

Professionals trains colleagues

so they return home with a renewed sense of purpose and an expanded

from public museums and non-

frame of reference.

Donald E. Hurlbert

profit research centers in effective practices and techniques for management, preservation, and use of natural history collections. From February 11 to March 21, 2008, eleven participants—each from different countries—worked with Museum staff to identify techniques, practices, and materials that can be applied within the 10 ANNUAL REPORT 2007–2008

Financial support for the program was provided by the InterAmerican Development Bank and the Mellon Foundation. Front row: Diana Munn, Coordinator of the Museum’s Latino Program; Quintin Arias; Srishti Mohais; Marian Tanuz; Museum Director Cristián Samper; Sofia Núñez; AnaLu de MacVean; Mercedes Delgado; Carol Butler, Co-Coordinator. Back Row: Katie Ahlfeld; Pier Cacciali; Michael Mincarone; Jorge Valenzuela; Adriana Gracia; Diego Garcia.

Butterflies + Plants: Partners in Evolution—one of the Museum’s immersive educational exhibitions—opened February 2008. This new permanent exhibition combines traditional and experiential learning to provide visitors a rare, up-close look at how butterflies and plants have evolved and diversified together for millions of years. Designed by Smithsonian scientists and educators, the award-winning Butterflies + Plants provides two distinct offerings: the Exhibition Hall and the Live Butterfly Pavilion. Courtesy of Dawn Abate

The Museum has an unparalleled collection of

The Exhibition Hall takes visitors on a 180-million-year journey through the co-evolution of butterflies and plants. An array of specimens, colorful murals, timelines, videos, and photographs support the exhibition’s underlying themes of survival and evolution. The Live Butterfly Pavilion sets a new standard for museum biology halls in both content and design. Walking into the 1,200-square-foot tropical aromatic garden, visitors are met with warm, humid air and bright lights that simulate the species’ native climate. This sensation is enhanced by more than 300 live butterflies interacting with a variety of plant species. New butterfly species from around the world are introduced to the Pavilion weekly, offering visitors a wide and changing variety of butterflies to discover and enjoy. Based on the study of co-evolution, Butterflies + Plants examines how organisms interact with one another and how they change because of those interactions. Although butterflies and plants are the central focus of the exhibition, a variety of organisms—from bats to beetles—and their interactions with plants are also featured. “A better understanding of the process of co-evolution of plants and animals will help us deal with environmental problems such as

pollinator decline,” said exhibit manager Nathan Erwin. “With the knowledge that 99 percent of all species that inhabited the Earth are now extinct, it is important that we all gain a better understanding of nature’s complexity in order to conserve life as we know it today.” In addition to Erwin, the exhibition development team included Dr. W. John Kress and Dr. Kenneth Wurdack, Department of Botany; Dr. Conrad Labandeira, Department of Paleobiology; Sally Love Connell, exhibition developer; and Dr. Ted Schultz and Dr. Robert Robbins, Department of Entomology.

Chip Clark

Museum Collections on the Move

An innovative visitor’s guide to the exhibition is available, free of charge, through the generous support of HSBC Bank USA, N.A. www.butterflies.si.edu National Museum of Natural History • www.mnh.si.edu 11


The Hope Diamond’s Glowing Milestone for the National Gem Collection, immediately becoming an icon and making the Museum a major national destination.” Notably, the Hope Diamond also emits a minute-long fiery red glow when exposed to ultraviolet light. This red phosphorescence was thought to be a unique characteristic of the diamond, although no comprehensive studies had been conducted. Dr. Post and his collaborators— seizing an invaluable opportunity to study a large number of natural blue diamonds—measured the phosphorescence of 67 stones, including the Hope Diamond and the National Gem Collection’s 30.62-carat Blue Heart Diamond. As reported in Geology, researchers found that all the blue diamonds had phosphorescence with components of blue and red light. The red color dominates in the Hope Diamond, but for most other diamonds, the blue color dominates. The specific characteristics of the phosphorescence— such as the relative intensities of the blue and red components and how quickly it fades—were specific to each diamond and provide a “fingerprint” to individually identify natural blue diamonds and determine the origins of artificially created and treated blue diamond gemstones.

John Hatelberg

Chip Clark

The Hope Diamond under natural light and glowing after exposure to ultraviolet light

On November 10, 2008, the Museum observed the 50th anniversary of the donation of the Hope Diamond by noted jeweler Harry Winston. The spectacular 45.52-carat Hope Diamond—the world’s largest deep-blue diamond—is viewed by millions of visitors each year. According to Dr. Jeffrey Post, mineralogist and curator of the National Gem Collection, “The Hope Diamond laid the foundation

EOL: Imagine a Website for Every Species... Headquartered at the Museum,

allow EOL to expand the Fellows Program internationally.

the Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) is

The program will utilize the Museum’s strengths as a leader

a collaborative effort between the

in mentoring the next generation of scientists and

Smithsonian

communicating that science to the world.

Institution

and

several of the world’s leading science libraries and research centers—Biodiversity

Heritage

Library consortium, the Field Museum of Natural History, the Museum of Comparative Zoology

knowledge and expertise of hundreds of scientists in a way that benefits both Museum visitors and EOL users. www.eol.org

Missouri Botanical Garden—all with the common goal of transforming the science of biology and our understanding of life on Earth. EOL works to make all existing knowledge about all the world’s known plants, animals, and microorganisms freely available through the Internet to anyone, anywhere, at any time.

EOL will offer

multimedia, infinitely expandable web pages for each species—a “one-stop knowledge shop” for information on every living thing,

From April to September 2007, the Museum hosted the spectacular Tiffany Diamond in celebration of the partnership between The Tiffany & Co. Foundation and the Museum. Two rare gemstones— a purple 40.1-carat elbaite (a member of the tourmaline family) and a 15.93-carat green tsavorite garnet— were also on view for the first time. The gems were purchased for the National Gem Collection through an endowment created in 2006 by The Tiffany & Co. Foundation.

forward. In February 2008, the EOL portal went live with 30,000

Johansen Krause

collaborating with the Museum, EOL will be able to harness the

Biological Laboratory, and the

Spotlight on a Sparkling Partnership

For more information on the Hope Diamond and the National Gem Collection, visit www.mnh.si.edu/earth.

marine species pages in celebration of the Sant Ocean Hall. By

at Harvard University, Marine

suitable for the general public as well as more specialized users.

Among the world’s most famous diamonds, the Tiffany Diamond is one of the largest fancy yellow diamonds, weighing 287.42 carats when it was discovered in South Africa in 1877. Upon its acquisition, Tiffany & Co. cut the diamond into the 128.54-carat cushion shape with 82 facets for maximum brilliance. It now appears in the “Bird on a Rock” setting designed by Jean Schlumberger in the early 1960s.

In addition, EOL will focus on creating and enhancing thousands of

Since its launch in February 2007, EOL has taken huge steps species pages populated with detailed data, 24 highly developed multimedia exemplar pages, and one million placeholder pages. This version of the portal served as a pilot project to test EOL ideas and technology. During its first day, the site received in excess of 300,000 page views as users logged on from more than 150 countries around the globe. By the end of 2008, the number of vetted species pages had more than doubled to 80,000 pages. In 2008, the EOL Fellows Program, a pilot project at the Museum, was announced. When the first fellows are hosted in 2009, they will use innovative software developed by the EOL team to prepare species pages. A generous gift from David M. Rubenstein will

12 ANNUAL REPORT 2007–2008

National Museum of Natural History • www.mnh.si.edu 13


The Hope Diamond’s Glowing Milestone for the National Gem Collection, immediately becoming an icon and making the Museum a major national destination.” Notably, the Hope Diamond also emits a minute-long fiery red glow when exposed to ultraviolet light. This red phosphorescence was thought to be a unique characteristic of the diamond, although no comprehensive studies had been conducted. Dr. Post and his collaborators— seizing an invaluable opportunity to study a large number of natural blue diamonds—measured the phosphorescence of 67 stones, including the Hope Diamond and the National Gem Collection’s 30.62-carat Blue Heart Diamond. As reported in Geology, researchers found that all the blue diamonds had phosphorescence with components of blue and red light. The red color dominates in the Hope Diamond, but for most other diamonds, the blue color dominates. The specific characteristics of the phosphorescence— such as the relative intensities of the blue and red components and how quickly it fades—were specific to each diamond and provide a “fingerprint” to individually identify natural blue diamonds and determine the origins of artificially created and treated blue diamond gemstones.

John Hatelberg

Chip Clark

The Hope Diamond under natural light and glowing after exposure to ultraviolet light

On November 10, 2008, the Museum observed the 50th anniversary of the donation of the Hope Diamond by noted jeweler Harry Winston. The spectacular 45.52-carat Hope Diamond—the world’s largest deep-blue diamond—is viewed by millions of visitors each year. According to Dr. Jeffrey Post, mineralogist and curator of the National Gem Collection, “The Hope Diamond laid the foundation

EOL: Imagine a Website for Every Species... Headquartered at the Museum,

allow EOL to expand the Fellows Program internationally.

the Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) is

The program will utilize the Museum’s strengths as a leader

a collaborative effort between the

in mentoring the next generation of scientists and

Smithsonian

communicating that science to the world.

Institution

and

several of the world’s leading science libraries and research centers—Biodiversity

Heritage

Library consortium, the Field Museum of Natural History, the Museum of Comparative Zoology

knowledge and expertise of hundreds of scientists in a way that benefits both Museum visitors and EOL users. www.eol.org

Missouri Botanical Garden—all with the common goal of transforming the science of biology and our understanding of life on Earth. EOL works to make all existing knowledge about all the world’s known plants, animals, and microorganisms freely available through the Internet to anyone, anywhere, at any time.

EOL will offer

multimedia, infinitely expandable web pages for each species—a “one-stop knowledge shop” for information on every living thing,

From April to September 2007, the Museum hosted the spectacular Tiffany Diamond in celebration of the partnership between The Tiffany & Co. Foundation and the Museum. Two rare gemstones— a purple 40.1-carat elbaite (a member of the tourmaline family) and a 15.93-carat green tsavorite garnet— were also on view for the first time. The gems were purchased for the National Gem Collection through an endowment created in 2006 by The Tiffany & Co. Foundation.

forward. In February 2008, the EOL portal went live with 30,000

Johansen Krause

collaborating with the Museum, EOL will be able to harness the

Biological Laboratory, and the

Spotlight on a Sparkling Partnership

For more information on the Hope Diamond and the National Gem Collection, visit www.mnh.si.edu/earth.

marine species pages in celebration of the Sant Ocean Hall. By

at Harvard University, Marine

suitable for the general public as well as more specialized users.

Among the world’s most famous diamonds, the Tiffany Diamond is one of the largest fancy yellow diamonds, weighing 287.42 carats when it was discovered in South Africa in 1877. Upon its acquisition, Tiffany & Co. cut the diamond into the 128.54-carat cushion shape with 82 facets for maximum brilliance. It now appears in the “Bird on a Rock” setting designed by Jean Schlumberger in the early 1960s.

In addition, EOL will focus on creating and enhancing thousands of

Since its launch in February 2007, EOL has taken huge steps species pages populated with detailed data, 24 highly developed multimedia exemplar pages, and one million placeholder pages. This version of the portal served as a pilot project to test EOL ideas and technology. During its first day, the site received in excess of 300,000 page views as users logged on from more than 150 countries around the globe. By the end of 2008, the number of vetted species pages had more than doubled to 80,000 pages. In 2008, the EOL Fellows Program, a pilot project at the Museum, was announced. When the first fellows are hosted in 2009, they will use innovative software developed by the EOL team to prepare species pages. A generous gift from David M. Rubenstein will

12 ANNUAL REPORT 2007–2008

National Museum of Natural History • www.mnh.si.edu 13


The Late Paleozoic Ice Age, the most widespread and long-lived ice age of the last half-billion years, ended in a series of alternating global warming and cooling events spread over 40 million years. This period, 305 to 265 million years before present, is the vegetated

Earth’s only recorded transition from icehouse to greenhouse. Understanding these ancient climate dynamics could help explain how the global climate system responds to natural global warming and consequently affects living organisms.

Although birds are among the best known of all living organisms, the evolutionary relationships among their major lineages have been elusive. A massive study of bird genetics is challenging some existing classifications and redrawing the “avian tree of life.”

A paper in Science by Dr. William DiMichele and colleagues presents strong correlations between atmospheric carbon dioxide, climate, and ice volume during the final stages of this ancient episode of glaciation, consistent with the concept that high concentrations of carbon dioxide have strongly amplified Earth’s past climates. Notably, the fossil record of plants indicates repeated ecosystem restructuring in step with shifts in climate and atmospheric greenhouse gases.

Under the leadership of Dr. Michael Braun, a research team from the Museum joined teams from four other institutions to conduct “Early Bird,” a five-year project sponsored by the National Science Foundation. The teams collected large DNA sequence data sets from 169 bird species representing all major living groups to determine their phylogenetic, or evolutionary, relationships. The complete data set includes 19 genes and five million base pairs of aligned DNA sequence.

With present-day levels of carbon dioxide increasing due to the burning of fossil fuels, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere could reach more than 2,000 parts per million per volume. The study suggests such changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide content could lead to substantial climatic change and drive ecological restructuring of tropical vegetation in near-synchrony with, and thus on the same time scales as, changes in atmospheric greenhouse gas composition.

As reported in Science, the new “avian tree of life” reveals some relationships for the first time. Among the new findings is strong evidence for a “super group” of land birds that includes all songbirds, woodpeckers, kingfishers, parrots, trogons, and all raptors. The Early

Dolores Piperno

Chili peppers, members of the genus Capsicum, are widely cultivated food plants that arose in the Americas and are now incorporated into cuisines worldwide. However, the lack of a comprehensive archaeological record has hampered accurate reconstruction of the origins, domestications, and dispersals of these plants.

Chili starch grain isolated from a 5,000-year-old Panamanian stone tool

14 ANNUAL REPORT 2007–2008

In an article in Science, lead author Dr. Linda Perry, her colleague Dr. Dolores Piperno, and associates reported a genus-specific starch microfossil that provides a means to archeologically identify chili peppers and trace both their domestication and dispersal. These starch

microfossils have been found at seven sites ranging from the Bahamas to southern Peru beginning 6,000 years ago. The presence of domesticated plants used as condiments indicates that sophisticated agriculture and complex cuisines arose early throughout the Americas and that the exploitation of maize, root crops, and chili peppers spread before the introduction of pottery. The research also demonstrates that maize and chilies occurred together, representing an ancient neotropical plant food complex. The findings attracted widespread international news coverage.

The diversity of the “super group” of land birds is exhibited by the Steller’s Jay, Prarie Falcon, and Resplendent Quetzal.

The Mystery of Extinction Why does one species become extinct and another survive? The factors leading to extinction—such as habitat loss, predation, disease, competition from invasive species, and climate change—usually act over a long period of time, so research into the causes requires deep chronological records. In Diversity and Distributions, Dr. Helen James and former Smithsonian Postdoctoral Fellow Dr. Jonathan Price present an integrative approach to the extinction problem by using Hawaiian koa-finches as a case study. Described by ornithological collectors in the 1890s, these birds vanished in the same decade.

Drs. James and Price studied the decline of koafinches by integrating chronological data from fossil bones, museum specimens, historical records, and studies of local paleoecology, archaeology, and ethnography. They also modeled changes in the distribution of koa-finch habitat through time using GIS software.

The authors concluded that koa-finches became extinct largely because of the loss of their lowland habitat, an unexpected answer considering that the birds were observed as living only on high mountain slopes. While it is too late to save koa-finches, their history could help protect other endangered species.

Deborah Ward

The Ageless Popularity of Chili Peppers

Bird tree can be used as a framework to help organize and interpret the large amount of evolutionary, ecological, behavioral, and other comparative data for birds.

John Anderton

Illustration of an ancient peat swamp

J. McKean/VIREO

Bird Genetics Shakes Tree of Life

Mary Parrish

Understanding Ancient Global Warming

Dr. Helen James collecting fossils

National Museum of Natural History • www.mnh.si.edu 15


The Late Paleozoic Ice Age, the most widespread and long-lived ice age of the last half-billion years, ended in a series of alternating global warming and cooling events spread over 40 million years. This period, 305 to 265 million years before present, is the vegetated

Earth’s only recorded transition from icehouse to greenhouse. Understanding these ancient climate dynamics could help explain how the global climate system responds to natural global warming and consequently affects living organisms.

Although birds are among the best known of all living organisms, the evolutionary relationships among their major lineages have been elusive. A massive study of bird genetics is challenging some existing classifications and redrawing the “avian tree of life.”

A paper in Science by Dr. William DiMichele and colleagues presents strong correlations between atmospheric carbon dioxide, climate, and ice volume during the final stages of this ancient episode of glaciation, consistent with the concept that high concentrations of carbon dioxide have strongly amplified Earth’s past climates. Notably, the fossil record of plants indicates repeated ecosystem restructuring in step with shifts in climate and atmospheric greenhouse gases.

Under the leadership of Dr. Michael Braun, a research team from the Museum joined teams from four other institutions to conduct “Early Bird,” a five-year project sponsored by the National Science Foundation. The teams collected large DNA sequence data sets from 169 bird species representing all major living groups to determine their phylogenetic, or evolutionary, relationships. The complete data set includes 19 genes and five million base pairs of aligned DNA sequence.

With present-day levels of carbon dioxide increasing due to the burning of fossil fuels, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere could reach more than 2,000 parts per million per volume. The study suggests such changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide content could lead to substantial climatic change and drive ecological restructuring of tropical vegetation in near-synchrony with, and thus on the same time scales as, changes in atmospheric greenhouse gas composition.

As reported in Science, the new “avian tree of life” reveals some relationships for the first time. Among the new findings is strong evidence for a “super group” of land birds that includes all songbirds, woodpeckers, kingfishers, parrots, trogons, and all raptors. The Early

Dolores Piperno

Chili peppers, members of the genus Capsicum, are widely cultivated food plants that arose in the Americas and are now incorporated into cuisines worldwide. However, the lack of a comprehensive archaeological record has hampered accurate reconstruction of the origins, domestications, and dispersals of these plants.

Chili starch grain isolated from a 5,000-year-old Panamanian stone tool

14 ANNUAL REPORT 2007–2008

In an article in Science, lead author Dr. Linda Perry, her colleague Dr. Dolores Piperno, and associates reported a genus-specific starch microfossil that provides a means to archeologically identify chili peppers and trace both their domestication and dispersal. These starch

microfossils have been found at seven sites ranging from the Bahamas to southern Peru beginning 6,000 years ago. The presence of domesticated plants used as condiments indicates that sophisticated agriculture and complex cuisines arose early throughout the Americas and that the exploitation of maize, root crops, and chili peppers spread before the introduction of pottery. The research also demonstrates that maize and chilies occurred together, representing an ancient neotropical plant food complex. The findings attracted widespread international news coverage.

The diversity of the “super group” of land birds is exhibited by the Steller’s Jay, Prarie Falcon, and Resplendent Quetzal.

The Mystery of Extinction Why does one species become extinct and another survive? The factors leading to extinction—such as habitat loss, predation, disease, competition from invasive species, and climate change—usually act over a long period of time, so research into the causes requires deep chronological records. In Diversity and Distributions, Dr. Helen James and former Smithsonian Postdoctoral Fellow Dr. Jonathan Price present an integrative approach to the extinction problem by using Hawaiian koa-finches as a case study. Described by ornithological collectors in the 1890s, these birds vanished in the same decade.

Drs. James and Price studied the decline of koafinches by integrating chronological data from fossil bones, museum specimens, historical records, and studies of local paleoecology, archaeology, and ethnography. They also modeled changes in the distribution of koa-finch habitat through time using GIS software.

The authors concluded that koa-finches became extinct largely because of the loss of their lowland habitat, an unexpected answer considering that the birds were observed as living only on high mountain slopes. While it is too late to save koa-finches, their history could help protect other endangered species.

Deborah Ward

The Ageless Popularity of Chili Peppers

Bird tree can be used as a framework to help organize and interpret the large amount of evolutionary, ecological, behavioral, and other comparative data for birds.

John Anderton

Illustration of an ancient peat swamp

J. McKean/VIREO

Bird Genetics Shakes Tree of Life

Mary Parrish

Understanding Ancient Global Warming

Dr. Helen James collecting fossils

National Museum of Natural History • www.mnh.si.edu 15


Revealing the Secrets of Soil

The Mars Exploration Rovers have been on the dry, desolate surface of Mars for more than three years, sending back clues about the planet’s wetter, more active geologic history. For the past year, the Spirit rover has been investigating the possible volcanic origins of Home Plate, a 90-meter-wide platform of rock.

There are more living creatures in

Evidence for a volcanic origin of Home Plate include its composition of basalt, a dense, fine grained lava, as well as a “bomb sag”—a deformation from a large object impacting wet sediments. Observations suggest that Home Plate is composed of debris deposited from an explosive volcanic eruption caused by interaction with groundwater.

Panoramic view from Home Plate taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit (false color)

For the past decade, NASA’s Mars Exploration Program has pursued a program of “Follow the Water,” typically a search for ground ice, sediments deposited by water, or ancient channels carved by water. This work suggests that water played a much larger role in the formation and evolution of the Red Planet, including fundamentally influencing volcanic eruptions.

beings on the planet, yet more is known about the dark side of the moon than about soil. These are among the fascinating facts John Steiner/Joseph Talman

The first report on Home Plate was published by Dr. Timothy McCoy, Postdoctoral Fellow Dr. Mariek Schmidt, and colleagues in Science. Drs. McCoy and Schmidt have been working with the chemical and textural data from Spirit to understand the role that volatiles, such as water and chlorine dissolved in magma or as groundwater, play in explosive eruptions on Mars.

a shovel-full of soil than human NASA/JPL-Caltech/Cornell University

NASA/JPL-Caltech/Cornell University

Mars Exploration Rover

Evidence of a Wetter, Volcanic Martian Past

visitors can learn from Dig It! The Secrets of Soil. The 5,000-square-foot exhibition reveals the complex world of soil and how this hidden ecosystem supports life on Earth. Curious visitors get the scoop through audiovisual and interactive components—from a

Smithsonian Environmental Research Center,

set of interactive, spinning soil profiles to a crime

is the exhibition’s curator.

scene investigation video about microbes that

exhibition developer, and Siobhan Starrs, project

recycle nutrients through decay.

manager, were also key members of the exhibi-

Barbara Stauffer,

tion’s development team. After closing at the

Revelations in the South China Sea

16 ANNUAL REPORT 2007–2008

wide through 2013 (visit www.sites.si.edu/soils

touchable soil models from around the world. After

for information). www.forces.si.edu/soils

examining soils closely, the “big picture” section

The expedition was co-organized by the National Museum of Natural History; Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, France; Republic of the Philippines, Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources; and the University of San Carlos, Philippines.

Christopher Meyer

Christopher Meyer

Dr. Stephen Cairns works on the sorting line after a late-night trawl

Museum, Dig It! will travel to 10 museums nation-

soil samples and a computer kiosk, and explore

water stony coral Lophelia pertusa and the precious coral Corallium. Also notable was a particular haul from more than 2,000 meters consisting of nothing but lightweight plastic trash. All the participants were sobered by the revealing glimpse of human influence on this remote habitat.

Drs. Stephen Cairns, Ellen Strong and Christopher Meyer participated in LUMIWAN 2008, an expedition to explore the deep-sea benthic (sea bottom) fauna around the Philippines. The expedition retraced a portion of the famous USS Albatross cruise to the Philippines in 1907–1910. Overall, 68 stations were sampled at depths of 100 to 2,200 meters using a variety of methods, including both dredges and trawls. Like the previous Albatross exhibition, the LUMIWAN 2008 expedition recovered thousands of lots for study by Museum researchers, but in this case most were preserved to take advantage of new molecular techniques. Highlights were a large, rare solemyid bivalve (Acharax bartschi) collected alive for the first time, a dog skull from 1,000 meters carrying rare deep water snails that are usually attached to whale bones, and the first Philippine records of the deep-

Visitors can learn about their state soil through real

Samples taken with care to preserve their molecular (DNA) data

presents evocative video that explains why we conserve soils. Two scale models illustrate the importance of soils in a typical suburban home and an urban community, and a video highlights soil’s role as a “secret ingredient” in medicines, food, wine, textiles, paint, cosmetics, and pottery.

SOILS FAMILY DAY On July 19, 2008, the Museum hosted thousands of families at the Soils Family Day to commemorate the opening of Dig It! Visitors participated in hands-on activities at seven stations around the exhibition— such as making unique “soils” to take home—while

Open from July 2008 to January 2010, the exhibi-

scientists led enrichment activities and gave

tion is sponsored by the Soil Science Society of

private tours to visitors. The event was made

America and the Nutrients for Life Foundation,

possible by support from the Soil and Water

which is underwritten by The Fertilizer Institute.

Conservation Service, USDA.

Dr. Patrick Megonigal, soil scientist for the National Museum of Natural History • www.mnh.si.edu 17


Revealing the Secrets of Soil

The Mars Exploration Rovers have been on the dry, desolate surface of Mars for more than three years, sending back clues about the planet’s wetter, more active geologic history. For the past year, the Spirit rover has been investigating the possible volcanic origins of Home Plate, a 90-meter-wide platform of rock.

There are more living creatures in

Evidence for a volcanic origin of Home Plate include its composition of basalt, a dense, fine grained lava, as well as a “bomb sag”—a deformation from a large object impacting wet sediments. Observations suggest that Home Plate is composed of debris deposited from an explosive volcanic eruption caused by interaction with groundwater.

Panoramic view from Home Plate taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit (false color)

For the past decade, NASA’s Mars Exploration Program has pursued a program of “Follow the Water,” typically a search for ground ice, sediments deposited by water, or ancient channels carved by water. This work suggests that water played a much larger role in the formation and evolution of the Red Planet, including fundamentally influencing volcanic eruptions.

beings on the planet, yet more is known about the dark side of the moon than about soil. These are among the fascinating facts John Steiner/Joseph Talman

The first report on Home Plate was published by Dr. Timothy McCoy, Postdoctoral Fellow Dr. Mariek Schmidt, and colleagues in Science. Drs. McCoy and Schmidt have been working with the chemical and textural data from Spirit to understand the role that volatiles, such as water and chlorine dissolved in magma or as groundwater, play in explosive eruptions on Mars.

a shovel-full of soil than human NASA/JPL-Caltech/Cornell University

NASA/JPL-Caltech/Cornell University

Mars Exploration Rover

Evidence of a Wetter, Volcanic Martian Past

visitors can learn from Dig It! The Secrets of Soil. The 5,000-square-foot exhibition reveals the complex world of soil and how this hidden ecosystem supports life on Earth. Curious visitors get the scoop through audiovisual and interactive components—from a

Smithsonian Environmental Research Center,

set of interactive, spinning soil profiles to a crime

is the exhibition’s curator.

scene investigation video about microbes that

exhibition developer, and Siobhan Starrs, project

recycle nutrients through decay.

manager, were also key members of the exhibi-

Barbara Stauffer,

tion’s development team. After closing at the

Revelations in the South China Sea

16 ANNUAL REPORT 2007–2008

wide through 2013 (visit www.sites.si.edu/soils

touchable soil models from around the world. After

for information). www.forces.si.edu/soils

examining soils closely, the “big picture” section

The expedition was co-organized by the National Museum of Natural History; Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, France; Republic of the Philippines, Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources; and the University of San Carlos, Philippines.

Christopher Meyer

Christopher Meyer

Dr. Stephen Cairns works on the sorting line after a late-night trawl

Museum, Dig It! will travel to 10 museums nation-

soil samples and a computer kiosk, and explore

water stony coral Lophelia pertusa and the precious coral Corallium. Also notable was a particular haul from more than 2,000 meters consisting of nothing but lightweight plastic trash. All the participants were sobered by the revealing glimpse of human influence on this remote habitat.

Drs. Stephen Cairns, Ellen Strong and Christopher Meyer participated in LUMIWAN 2008, an expedition to explore the deep-sea benthic (sea bottom) fauna around the Philippines. The expedition retraced a portion of the famous USS Albatross cruise to the Philippines in 1907–1910. Overall, 68 stations were sampled at depths of 100 to 2,200 meters using a variety of methods, including both dredges and trawls. Like the previous Albatross exhibition, the LUMIWAN 2008 expedition recovered thousands of lots for study by Museum researchers, but in this case most were preserved to take advantage of new molecular techniques. Highlights were a large, rare solemyid bivalve (Acharax bartschi) collected alive for the first time, a dog skull from 1,000 meters carrying rare deep water snails that are usually attached to whale bones, and the first Philippine records of the deep-

Visitors can learn about their state soil through real

Samples taken with care to preserve their molecular (DNA) data

presents evocative video that explains why we conserve soils. Two scale models illustrate the importance of soils in a typical suburban home and an urban community, and a video highlights soil’s role as a “secret ingredient” in medicines, food, wine, textiles, paint, cosmetics, and pottery.

SOILS FAMILY DAY On July 19, 2008, the Museum hosted thousands of families at the Soils Family Day to commemorate the opening of Dig It! Visitors participated in hands-on activities at seven stations around the exhibition— such as making unique “soils” to take home—while

Open from July 2008 to January 2010, the exhibi-

scientists led enrichment activities and gave

tion is sponsored by the Soil Science Society of

private tours to visitors. The event was made

America and the Nutrients for Life Foundation,

possible by support from the Soil and Water

which is underwritten by The Fertilizer Institute.

Conservation Service, USDA.

Dr. Patrick Megonigal, soil scientist for the National Museum of Natural History • www.mnh.si.edu 17


The Korea Gallery, a new exhibition that opened June 2007, celebrates the distinctive art, history, and culture of Korea. The gallery is an initiative of the Korean Heritage Project, founded in 1985 within the Museum’s Asian Cultural History Program.

Botanist Dr. W. John Kress curated the exhibition with guest curators Wade Davis, National Geographic Society Explorer-inResidence, and Chris Murray, founder and director of Govinda Gallery, Washington, D.C. The exhibition was made possible by Banco de la República (Columbia), The Embassy of Colombia, and the Latino Initiatives Pool administered by the Smithsonian Latino Center. Photographs were printed by Adamson Editions. www.mnh.si.edu/exhibits/Lost Amazon

18 ANNUAL REPORT 2007–2008

cance of the contemporary movement. The exhibition’s success can be attributed to the unprecedented involvement of the Rastafari Advisory Group brought together by Dr. Homiak and his late research partner, Professor Carole Yawney. On February 23, 2008, crafts, films, and music were presented in conjunction with the exhibition. Visitors enjoyed a Rastafari marketplace featuring sculpture, painting, crafts, music, graphics, and jewelry-making. A concert by the local reggae group Proverbs and documentary films were also part of the festival.

Mexican Cycles: Festival Images by George O. Jackson de Llano ran from September 2007 to February 2008. Organized by the Mexico-North Research Network, the bilingual (English-Spanish) exhibition explored Mexico’s cultural diversity through the religious festivals of its indigenous communities, captured in 150 stunning color photographs by Mexican-American photographer George O. Jackson de Llano. The images, produced in a variety of formats and media, document the extraordinary, fleeting worlds of special dances, music, costumes, decorations, and cuisine of these societies.

George O. Jackson de Llano

Jake Homiak

Rastafari visitors at the exhibition entrance

The Korea Gallery display is the result of more than 120 years of active Smithsonian collecting, study, and preservation, as well as positive relations with the Korean government, dignitaries, and museums. The Korea Gallery has been made possible by the generous sponsorship of The Korea Foundation, with additional support from Korean Air and other donors.

Mexico’s Indigenous Peoples in Celebration

Discovering Rastafari! From November 2007 to November 2009, Discovering Rastafari!— the first exhibition on Rastafari culture ever presented by a major museum—charts the origins of Rastafari culture in colonial Jamaica to its development into a transnational and multilingual movement. Exhibition curator Dr. Jake Homiak goes beyond popular Jamaican reggae music to explore the deeper roots of the Rastafari culture using artifacts, rare photographs, and ephemera. Utilizing the Museum’s unique Rastafari archives and an extensive collection of ritual objects, art, clothing, drums, recorded sound and video, banners, and material culture, the exhibition presents the origins, spread, and signifi-

The 1,800-square-foot exhibition illustrates Korea’s rich history and unique culture using 85 artifacts and artworks from the Museum’s collection and other sources. The exhibition is organized into seven thematic sections. Korean Ceramics: A Tradition of Excellence features a historical timeline with a display of ceramic pieces ranging from 1,500 years ago to the 21st century. Other sections include Hangeul: Symbol of Pride focusing on calligraphy and Hangeul script, the Korean writing system; Honoring Family; The Korean Wedding; Landscapes of Korea; Korea Beyond Borders addressing identity among millions of Koreans and their descendants living outside of Korea; and a section on contemporary Korean art. Dr. Paul Michael Taylor and Chang-su Cho Houchins served as co-curators of the exhibition.

James DiLoreto

From April through October 2008, The Lost Amazon: The Photographic Journey of Legendary Botanist Richard Evans Schultes presented 36 black-and-white photographs taken by Schultes in the field in Columbia.

Based on the book The Lost Amazon by Wade Davis and Chris Murray, the exhibition also included Schultes’ Rolleiflex camera, herbarium sheets from the Museum’s collections, and personal items from the Schultes family.

Donald E. Hurlbert

Harvard botanist Richard Evans Schultes (1915-2001) was the world’s botanical authority on natural rubber and medicinal, toxic, and hallucinogenic plants. Regarded as the father of ethnobiology, he spent twelve years in the Colombian Amazon in the 1940s and early 1950s exploring for new species of rubber (the genus Hevea), mapping uncharted rivers, living among two dozen Indian tribes, and collecting some 25,000 botanical specimens—including 300 new species and more than 2,000 medicinal plants.

Richard Evans Schultes

Finding Inspiration in Rich Traditions

Chip Clark

Richard Evans Schultes

A Legendary Botanist’s Amazon

On October 13, 2007, the Museum’s Latino Program presented MexicoFest, the Museum’s 2007 Hispanic Heritage Month feature event, drawing at least 1,000 people. Visitors to the all-day festival made toys with dried fruits and cornhusks, painted with insect-based dye, and enjoyed traditional Mexican dances. Anthropologist Dr. William Merrill and other scientists presented a wide range of Museum activities, including research projects on Mexican spiders, insects, mammals, plants, volcanoes, archeological specimens, indigenous languages, and the digitization of the Museum’s collections from Mexico. www.mnh.si.edu/exhibits/cycles National Museum of Natural History • www.mnh.si.edu 19


The Korea Gallery, a new exhibition that opened June 2007, celebrates the distinctive art, history, and culture of Korea. The gallery is an initiative of the Korean Heritage Project, founded in 1985 within the Museum’s Asian Cultural History Program.

Botanist Dr. W. John Kress curated the exhibition with guest curators Wade Davis, National Geographic Society Explorer-inResidence, and Chris Murray, founder and director of Govinda Gallery, Washington, D.C. The exhibition was made possible by Banco de la República (Columbia), The Embassy of Colombia, and the Latino Initiatives Pool administered by the Smithsonian Latino Center. Photographs were printed by Adamson Editions. www.mnh.si.edu/exhibits/Lost Amazon

18 ANNUAL REPORT 2007–2008

cance of the contemporary movement. The exhibition’s success can be attributed to the unprecedented involvement of the Rastafari Advisory Group brought together by Dr. Homiak and his late research partner, Professor Carole Yawney. On February 23, 2008, crafts, films, and music were presented in conjunction with the exhibition. Visitors enjoyed a Rastafari marketplace featuring sculpture, painting, crafts, music, graphics, and jewelry-making. A concert by the local reggae group Proverbs and documentary films were also part of the festival.

Mexican Cycles: Festival Images by George O. Jackson de Llano ran from September 2007 to February 2008. Organized by the Mexico-North Research Network, the bilingual (English-Spanish) exhibition explored Mexico’s cultural diversity through the religious festivals of its indigenous communities, captured in 150 stunning color photographs by Mexican-American photographer George O. Jackson de Llano. The images, produced in a variety of formats and media, document the extraordinary, fleeting worlds of special dances, music, costumes, decorations, and cuisine of these societies.

George O. Jackson de Llano

Jake Homiak

Rastafari visitors at the exhibition entrance

The Korea Gallery display is the result of more than 120 years of active Smithsonian collecting, study, and preservation, as well as positive relations with the Korean government, dignitaries, and museums. The Korea Gallery has been made possible by the generous sponsorship of The Korea Foundation, with additional support from Korean Air and other donors.

Mexico’s Indigenous Peoples in Celebration

Discovering Rastafari! From November 2007 to November 2009, Discovering Rastafari!— the first exhibition on Rastafari culture ever presented by a major museum—charts the origins of Rastafari culture in colonial Jamaica to its development into a transnational and multilingual movement. Exhibition curator Dr. Jake Homiak goes beyond popular Jamaican reggae music to explore the deeper roots of the Rastafari culture using artifacts, rare photographs, and ephemera. Utilizing the Museum’s unique Rastafari archives and an extensive collection of ritual objects, art, clothing, drums, recorded sound and video, banners, and material culture, the exhibition presents the origins, spread, and signifi-

The 1,800-square-foot exhibition illustrates Korea’s rich history and unique culture using 85 artifacts and artworks from the Museum’s collection and other sources. The exhibition is organized into seven thematic sections. Korean Ceramics: A Tradition of Excellence features a historical timeline with a display of ceramic pieces ranging from 1,500 years ago to the 21st century. Other sections include Hangeul: Symbol of Pride focusing on calligraphy and Hangeul script, the Korean writing system; Honoring Family; The Korean Wedding; Landscapes of Korea; Korea Beyond Borders addressing identity among millions of Koreans and their descendants living outside of Korea; and a section on contemporary Korean art. Dr. Paul Michael Taylor and Chang-su Cho Houchins served as co-curators of the exhibition.

James DiLoreto

From April through October 2008, The Lost Amazon: The Photographic Journey of Legendary Botanist Richard Evans Schultes presented 36 black-and-white photographs taken by Schultes in the field in Columbia.

Based on the book The Lost Amazon by Wade Davis and Chris Murray, the exhibition also included Schultes’ Rolleiflex camera, herbarium sheets from the Museum’s collections, and personal items from the Schultes family.

Donald E. Hurlbert

Harvard botanist Richard Evans Schultes (1915-2001) was the world’s botanical authority on natural rubber and medicinal, toxic, and hallucinogenic plants. Regarded as the father of ethnobiology, he spent twelve years in the Colombian Amazon in the 1940s and early 1950s exploring for new species of rubber (the genus Hevea), mapping uncharted rivers, living among two dozen Indian tribes, and collecting some 25,000 botanical specimens—including 300 new species and more than 2,000 medicinal plants.

Richard Evans Schultes

Finding Inspiration in Rich Traditions

Chip Clark

Richard Evans Schultes

A Legendary Botanist’s Amazon

On October 13, 2007, the Museum’s Latino Program presented MexicoFest, the Museum’s 2007 Hispanic Heritage Month feature event, drawing at least 1,000 people. Visitors to the all-day festival made toys with dried fruits and cornhusks, painted with insect-based dye, and enjoyed traditional Mexican dances. Anthropologist Dr. William Merrill and other scientists presented a wide range of Museum activities, including research projects on Mexican spiders, insects, mammals, plants, volcanoes, archeological specimens, indigenous languages, and the digitization of the Museum’s collections from Mexico. www.mnh.si.edu/exhibits/cycles National Museum of Natural History • www.mnh.si.edu 19


Public Programs A TRIBUTE TO CARL LINNAEUS

CELEBRATING THE “RAVEN SPIRIT” CANOE

On November 13 and 14, 2008,

Associate Director Elizabeth Duggal hosted the naming ceremony and launch of a new Tlingit canoe on the Potomac River in Washington, D.C., on June 19, 2008. The old growth red cedar log from which the canoe was fashioned was donated by Sealaska Heritage Institute in Juneau, Alaska. The resulting 26-foot-long canoe destined for the Sant Ocean Hall was constructed using traditional tools and techniques.

Tribute to Carl Linnaeus: 17071778—to celebrate the 300th anniversary of the birth of the Swedish naturalist.

Linnaeus

transformed the classification of life by creating the binominal method for naming species that is still in use today.

Carl Linnaeus

The exhibition included an extremely rare author’s proof—Linnaeus’s Chip Clark

own copy—of Systema Naturae, published in 1735. This book was his first attempt at using a system he developed to classify and organize all animals, plants, and minerals. Also on view are eight animal and plant specimens that were either named in part by Linnaeus or

FOSSIL FEST: DINOSAURS AND MORE

named for him. Systema Naturae

Fossil Fest: Dinosaurs and More welcomed more than 20,000

was loaned by the Hagströmer

enthusiastic visitors to the Museum’s Paleobiology exhibit halls on

Medico-Historical

February 10, 2007. The family festival included 35 separate activities spread throughout the Museum, including Seeing a Billion Years

in

one-week traveling tour to

(making a timeline); Big Bugs, Ancient Swamps (fossils from 350

museums, libraries, and botanic

million-year-old swamps); Natural Selection in Lima Bean Land (playing an evolution game); Behind-the-Scene Tours; Paint a Time

Library

Karolinska, Sweden, for a brief,

Systema Naturae, 1735

gardens in the United States.

Mural; Identify Your Fossil; Rising Seas (talk to a scientist); The Big

Accompanying the exhibit, Dr. James Edwards of the Encyclopedia

Dig (excavate fossils); and Drawing Fossils.

of Life, Dr. W. John Kress, and Dr. Hans-Dieter Sues organized the

The hugely popular festival was made possible by Dr. Scott Wing and his colleagues from the Department of Paleobiologyand the Offices of Education and Exhibitions. Additional support was provided by the Museum’s Latino Program, the Smithsonian Latino Center, and the

symposium Three Hundred Years of Linnaean Taxonomy that

Master Tlingit carver Douglas “Kevin” Chilton and other Alaska Native artists spent nearly 10 months carving and finishing the canoe that received the name Yèil Yeik—Raven Spirit—at the Potomac River launch. On the bow of the canoe stands a carved figurehead of a raven with a copper sun in its beak, a reference to the traditional story of Raven stealing the sun to bring it to the world of human beings. An afternoon program at the Museum continued the celebration. Speakers included Dr. Stephen Loring, curator of the anthropology section of the Sant Ocean Hall; Anthropology Department Chair Dr. Daniel Rogers; Chris McNeil, President and CEO of Sealaska Corporation; Rosita Worl, President Sealaska Heritage Institute; and Clarence Jackson, Clan Leader of the Tsaagweidí Clan of Kake. Presentations were given by Dr. Stephen Loring, who spoke on The Voyage to Washington: Great Canoes from the Northwest Coast at the Smithsonian Institution, and Drs. Eric Hollinger and Aron Crowell, who gave a talk on From the Ancestors to the Present Day: Smithsonian Consultation and Collaboration with the Tlingit Community of Southeast Alaska.

The carved figurehead of a raven with a copper sun in its beak is a reference to the traditional story of Raven stealing the sun to bring it to the world of human beings.

featured an overview of Linnaeus’s life and times by Gunnar Broberg of Lund University and talks on current issues of systematic biology by leading international experts.

Master Tlingit carver Douglas “Kevin” Chilton stands next to “Raven Spirit,” the 26-foot-long ocean-going dugout canoe he and his team carved for the Museum’s Sant Ocean Hall.

Donald E. Hurlbert

the Embassy of Sweden—A

Brian Wallace

exhibition in partnership with

James DiLoreto

the Museum hosted a two-day

Guild of Natural Science Illustrators. 20 ANNUAL REPORT 2007–2008

National Museum of Natural History • www.mnh.si.edu 21


Public Programs A TRIBUTE TO CARL LINNAEUS

CELEBRATING THE “RAVEN SPIRIT” CANOE

On November 13 and 14, 2008,

Associate Director Elizabeth Duggal hosted the naming ceremony and launch of a new Tlingit canoe on the Potomac River in Washington, D.C., on June 19, 2008. The old growth red cedar log from which the canoe was fashioned was donated by Sealaska Heritage Institute in Juneau, Alaska. The resulting 26-foot-long canoe destined for the Sant Ocean Hall was constructed using traditional tools and techniques.

Tribute to Carl Linnaeus: 17071778—to celebrate the 300th anniversary of the birth of the Swedish naturalist.

Linnaeus

transformed the classification of life by creating the binominal method for naming species that is still in use today.

Carl Linnaeus

The exhibition included an extremely rare author’s proof—Linnaeus’s Chip Clark

own copy—of Systema Naturae, published in 1735. This book was his first attempt at using a system he developed to classify and organize all animals, plants, and minerals. Also on view are eight animal and plant specimens that were either named in part by Linnaeus or

FOSSIL FEST: DINOSAURS AND MORE

named for him. Systema Naturae

Fossil Fest: Dinosaurs and More welcomed more than 20,000

was loaned by the Hagströmer

enthusiastic visitors to the Museum’s Paleobiology exhibit halls on

Medico-Historical

February 10, 2007. The family festival included 35 separate activities spread throughout the Museum, including Seeing a Billion Years

in

one-week traveling tour to

(making a timeline); Big Bugs, Ancient Swamps (fossils from 350

museums, libraries, and botanic

million-year-old swamps); Natural Selection in Lima Bean Land (playing an evolution game); Behind-the-Scene Tours; Paint a Time

Library

Karolinska, Sweden, for a brief,

Systema Naturae, 1735

gardens in the United States.

Mural; Identify Your Fossil; Rising Seas (talk to a scientist); The Big

Accompanying the exhibit, Dr. James Edwards of the Encyclopedia

Dig (excavate fossils); and Drawing Fossils.

of Life, Dr. W. John Kress, and Dr. Hans-Dieter Sues organized the

The hugely popular festival was made possible by Dr. Scott Wing and his colleagues from the Department of Paleobiologyand the Offices of Education and Exhibitions. Additional support was provided by the Museum’s Latino Program, the Smithsonian Latino Center, and the

symposium Three Hundred Years of Linnaean Taxonomy that

Master Tlingit carver Douglas “Kevin” Chilton and other Alaska Native artists spent nearly 10 months carving and finishing the canoe that received the name Yèil Yeik—Raven Spirit—at the Potomac River launch. On the bow of the canoe stands a carved figurehead of a raven with a copper sun in its beak, a reference to the traditional story of Raven stealing the sun to bring it to the world of human beings. An afternoon program at the Museum continued the celebration. Speakers included Dr. Stephen Loring, curator of the anthropology section of the Sant Ocean Hall; Anthropology Department Chair Dr. Daniel Rogers; Chris McNeil, President and CEO of Sealaska Corporation; Rosita Worl, President Sealaska Heritage Institute; and Clarence Jackson, Clan Leader of the Tsaagweidí Clan of Kake. Presentations were given by Dr. Stephen Loring, who spoke on The Voyage to Washington: Great Canoes from the Northwest Coast at the Smithsonian Institution, and Drs. Eric Hollinger and Aron Crowell, who gave a talk on From the Ancestors to the Present Day: Smithsonian Consultation and Collaboration with the Tlingit Community of Southeast Alaska.

The carved figurehead of a raven with a copper sun in its beak is a reference to the traditional story of Raven stealing the sun to bring it to the world of human beings.

featured an overview of Linnaeus’s life and times by Gunnar Broberg of Lund University and talks on current issues of systematic biology by leading international experts.

Master Tlingit carver Douglas “Kevin” Chilton stands next to “Raven Spirit,” the 26-foot-long ocean-going dugout canoe he and his team carved for the Museum’s Sant Ocean Hall.

Donald E. Hurlbert

the Embassy of Sweden—A

Brian Wallace

exhibition in partnership with

James DiLoreto

the Museum hosted a two-day

Guild of Natural Science Illustrators. 20 ANNUAL REPORT 2007–2008

National Museum of Natural History • www.mnh.si.edu 21


Museum Science in the Media

The Museum Has Gone Social!

THE TRUTH ABOUT CRYSTAL SKULLS

TELLING THE STORY OF THE SANT OCEAN HALL

Museum anthropologist Dr. Jane Walsh received considerable media attention in light of the cover story she wrote for Archaeology magazine on crystal skulls, published shortly before the May 2008 release of the Hollywood film Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull. The Associated Press published two stories about Dr. Walsh and her research on crystal skulls that reached more than 350 news media outlets around the world. Additional coverage included interviews with Dr. Walsh on NPR’s Science Friday and All Things Considered.

The opening of the Sant Ocean Hall captured the interest of people around the world with news stories in a wide range of local, national, and international media outlets. These stories have reached 19.8 million readers in print and 392.4 million visitors online, while broadcast media coverage has reached an additional 5.1 million viewers.

The emergence of new media is rapidly changing the way we communicate. Online forums for information exchange are making it easier and faster to transmit information about anything and everything that interests us.

The July 2008 opening of the Museum’s exhibition, The Truth About Crystal Skulls, generated stories in more than 190 news media outlets including The Associated Press, The Washington Post, FOX 5, WTOP radio, and Smithsonian magazine. The Museum timed the exhibit’s opening to coincide with the broadcast premiere of the Smithsonian Channel’s documentary film, The Legend of the Crystal Skulls, which featured Dr. Walsh.

On the national front, the Sant Ocean Hall was featured in stories by The New York Times, The Associated Press, USA Today Online, Smithsonian magazine, Voice of America, and a FOX News Sunday “Power Player of the Week” piece with Museum director Dr. Cristián Samper. Extensive coverage occurred in the Washington, D.C., area, including The Washington Post, Washingtonian, Washington Times, Washington Business Journal, Roll Call, Washington Examiner, and all the local television affiliates.

James DiLoreto

The Sant Ocean Hall was also an online item in some of the most widelyread D.C.-based blogs, including DailyCandy D.C., About.com, DCist, We Love DC, Washingtonian’s After Hours Blog, and The Washington Post’s Going Out Gurus.

22 ANNUAL REPORT 2007–2008

A variety of science and ocean-related media outlets highlighted the Sant Ocean Hall, including Planet Green, Science magazine, Deep Sea News blog, Dive News, and Nature magazine. The Sant Ocean Hall also appeared in travel publications such as US Airways magazine, MSN Travel online, and the pop culture travel blog Jaunted. Dr. Cristián Samper at the media preview for the Sant Ocean Hall

The Museum is part of this global interaction phenomenon. The Offices of Public Affairs, Education, and Information Technology have joined together to utilize social networks to engage in the conversation and share knowledge with people worldwide.

YOUTUBE YouTube enables people to post, watch, and share videos online. The National Museum of Natural History has its own channel with videos of lectures, programs, exhibitions, and events. Viewers can subscribe to the free channel, receiving updates when new videos are posted so they’ll never miss what’s happening at the Museum. www.youtube.com/user/smithsonianNMNH

FLICKR Flickr is a photo-sharing website that allows users to view photos and upload their own. The Museum has posted numerous images of exhibitions, programs, events, objects, and scientists at work and encourages visitors to add photos of their experiences at the Museum to share with family and friends. www.flickr.com/photos/nmnh

FACEBOOK Facebook is a social networking site that allows members to keep track of friends and favorite organizations. Find the Museum under the “Pages” section and become a fan to get access to general information, photos, videos, program and event listings, discussion boards, and the wall. Fans will receive updates and be linked directly to the Museum’s YouTube, Flickr, and Twitter pages. www.facebook.com

TWITTER Twitter allows users to “tweet” short updates (much like instant or text messages) to anyone who requests them. Users can sign up to receive tweets from the Museum on their computer or phone, providing the most current information about events, exhibitions, and programming. www.twitter.com/nmnh

PODCASTS Visit the Museum’s podcast page to download and listen to podcasts on a variety of topics, like first-hand reports from scientists about their research and discoveries. While some podcasts are audio-only, others will include images to illustrate the content of the recording. www.mnh.si.edu/about/podcastArchive.cfm National Museum of Natural History • www.mnh.si.edu 23


Museum Science in the Media

The Museum Has Gone Social!

THE TRUTH ABOUT CRYSTAL SKULLS

TELLING THE STORY OF THE SANT OCEAN HALL

Museum anthropologist Dr. Jane Walsh received considerable media attention in light of the cover story she wrote for Archaeology magazine on crystal skulls, published shortly before the May 2008 release of the Hollywood film Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull. The Associated Press published two stories about Dr. Walsh and her research on crystal skulls that reached more than 350 news media outlets around the world. Additional coverage included interviews with Dr. Walsh on NPR’s Science Friday and All Things Considered.

The opening of the Sant Ocean Hall captured the interest of people around the world with news stories in a wide range of local, national, and international media outlets. These stories have reached 19.8 million readers in print and 392.4 million visitors online, while broadcast media coverage has reached an additional 5.1 million viewers.

The emergence of new media is rapidly changing the way we communicate. Online forums for information exchange are making it easier and faster to transmit information about anything and everything that interests us.

The July 2008 opening of the Museum’s exhibition, The Truth About Crystal Skulls, generated stories in more than 190 news media outlets including The Associated Press, The Washington Post, FOX 5, WTOP radio, and Smithsonian magazine. The Museum timed the exhibit’s opening to coincide with the broadcast premiere of the Smithsonian Channel’s documentary film, The Legend of the Crystal Skulls, which featured Dr. Walsh.

On the national front, the Sant Ocean Hall was featured in stories by The New York Times, The Associated Press, USA Today Online, Smithsonian magazine, Voice of America, and a FOX News Sunday “Power Player of the Week” piece with Museum director Dr. Cristián Samper. Extensive coverage occurred in the Washington, D.C., area, including The Washington Post, Washingtonian, Washington Times, Washington Business Journal, Roll Call, Washington Examiner, and all the local television affiliates.

James DiLoreto

The Sant Ocean Hall was also an online item in some of the most widelyread D.C.-based blogs, including DailyCandy D.C., About.com, DCist, We Love DC, Washingtonian’s After Hours Blog, and The Washington Post’s Going Out Gurus.

22 ANNUAL REPORT 2007–2008

A variety of science and ocean-related media outlets highlighted the Sant Ocean Hall, including Planet Green, Science magazine, Deep Sea News blog, Dive News, and Nature magazine. The Sant Ocean Hall also appeared in travel publications such as US Airways magazine, MSN Travel online, and the pop culture travel blog Jaunted. Dr. Cristián Samper at the media preview for the Sant Ocean Hall

The Museum is part of this global interaction phenomenon. The Offices of Public Affairs, Education, and Information Technology have joined together to utilize social networks to engage in the conversation and share knowledge with people worldwide.

YOUTUBE YouTube enables people to post, watch, and share videos online. The National Museum of Natural History has its own channel with videos of lectures, programs, exhibitions, and events. Viewers can subscribe to the free channel, receiving updates when new videos are posted so they’ll never miss what’s happening at the Museum. www.youtube.com/user/smithsonianNMNH

FLICKR Flickr is a photo-sharing website that allows users to view photos and upload their own. The Museum has posted numerous images of exhibitions, programs, events, objects, and scientists at work and encourages visitors to add photos of their experiences at the Museum to share with family and friends. www.flickr.com/photos/nmnh

FACEBOOK Facebook is a social networking site that allows members to keep track of friends and favorite organizations. Find the Museum under the “Pages” section and become a fan to get access to general information, photos, videos, program and event listings, discussion boards, and the wall. Fans will receive updates and be linked directly to the Museum’s YouTube, Flickr, and Twitter pages. www.facebook.com

TWITTER Twitter allows users to “tweet” short updates (much like instant or text messages) to anyone who requests them. Users can sign up to receive tweets from the Museum on their computer or phone, providing the most current information about events, exhibitions, and programming. www.twitter.com/nmnh

PODCASTS Visit the Museum’s podcast page to download and listen to podcasts on a variety of topics, like first-hand reports from scientists about their research and discoveries. While some podcasts are audio-only, others will include images to illustrate the content of the recording. www.mnh.si.edu/about/podcastArchive.cfm National Museum of Natural History • www.mnh.si.edu 23


New Scientific/Curatorial Hires

Publications

O

THE PACIFIC ARTS OF POLYNESIA AND MICRONESIA

MAJOR TRANSITIONS IN VERTEBRATE EVOLUTION

Dr. Adrienne Kaeppler’s book The Pacific Arts of Polynesia and Micronesia, published in the Oxford History of Art series, provides a richly illustrated, comprehensive introduction to the artistic traditions of the many cultural groups of Polynesia and Micronesia, focusing on the artistic types, styles, and concepts and featuring both historic and contemporary works of art. It sheds light on religious and sacred rituals and objects, carving, architecture, tattooing, personal ornaments, basket-making, clothing, textiles, fashion, the oral arts, dance, music and musical instruments, and canoe construction.

Published by Indiana University Press, Major Transitions in Vertebrate Evolution—edited by Dr. Hans-Dieter Sues and Dr. Jason Anderson of the University of Calgary—provides an overview of some of the major events in the evolution of vertebrates. A renaissance in understanding these evolutionary transitions is in progress, and even seemingly intractable mysteries can now be examined using a wealth of new fossil discoveries as well as new data from developmental biology, especially the exciting new research on regulatory developmental genes. The ten chapters bring together some of the leading vertebrate paleontologists working on major evolutionary transitions to present new data from ongoing, cutting-edge research on the emergence of key vertebrate groups.

Dr. Seán G. Brady

Dr. Seán G. Brady, Research Scientist/Curator of Hymenoptera in the Department of Entomology, graduated summa cum laude from California Polytechnic University in 1990 and received his Ph.D. from the University of California at Davis in 2002. Most recently a Postdoctoral Fellow in Dr. Ted Schultz’s lab in the Department of Entomology, he is interested in the evolution and diversity of ants and bees and brings outstanding expertise in molecular and genomic approaches to his research.

Art Medeiros

Dr. Helen F. James, Research Scientist/Curator of Birds in the Department of Vertebrate Zoology, received her B.A. from the University of Arkansas in 1977 and her Ph.D. from the University of Oxford in 2000. Most recently a Museum Specialist in the Department of Vertebrate Zoology, she is interested in the evolutionary history of birds, especially those living on islands, and has an impressive record of publication on the history of island bird faunas, especially the subfossil birds of Hawai’i. Dr. Helen F. James

24 ANNUAL REPORT 2007–2008

Dr. Kristofer M. Helgen, Research Scientist/Curator of Mammals in the Department of Vertebrate Zoology, received his A.B. cum laude from Harvard University in 2001 and his Ph.D. from the University of Adelaide in 2007. Most recently a Postdoctoral Fellow with Dr. Don Dr. Kristofer M. Helgen Wilson in the Division of Mammals, he is interested in the evolution, diversity, and biogeography of mammals and has an impressive record of scientific publication. He has discovered scores of new mammalian species and has an active program of fieldwork in many regions of the world, with special emphasis on the Australo-Papuan and Indo-Malayan regions. Dr. Torben C. Rick, Research Scientist/Curator in the area of Human-Environmental Interactions in the Department of Anthropology, received his B.A. from the University of California at Santa Barbara in 1999 and his Ph.D. from the University of Oregon in 2004. Most recently Dr. Torben C. Rick Assistant Professor of Anthropology at Southern Methodist University, he is interested in ancient human impacts on marine environments and has done important research in the Channel Islands. He has an impressive record of scientific publication, including a major co-edited volume on ancient human impacts on marine environments.

Todd Braje

Stephanie Johnson

Dr. Joshua A. Bell (left) with Avae Vai’i, elder of Kararua village, Papua New Guinea

Dr. Joshua A. Bell, Research Scientist/Curator in the area of Globalization in the Department of Anthropology, received his A.B. magna cum laude from Brown University in 1996 and his M.Phil in 1998 and D.Phil from the University of Oxford in 2006. Most recently a Lecturer in the Arts of the Pacific at the Sainsbury Research Unit in the University of East Anglia, he is interested in the shifting local and global network of relationships between persons, artifacts, and the environment. Combining ethnographic fieldwork with research in museums and archives, he has conducted important research in New Guinea and Hawai’i and his diverse publications have dealt with cultural property, resource extraction, materiality, and history.

Bruce M. Beehler

Kaia Rove

ne of the Museum’s strategic initiatives is to strengthen its current capabilities by hiring key new research scientists, and is pleased to announce the addition of these outstanding scientists to our staff.

EDWARD SHERIFF CURTIS

OXYGEN IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM

Edward Sheriff Curtis by Emeritus Anthropologist Joanna Cohan Scherer, published by Phaidon Press, traces Curtis’s renowned career from his earliest photographs taken in the 1890s to his last photographs taken in the late 1920s. Most of the 62 images are of Native Americans, a subject that became Curtis’s passion for more than 30 years, but the selection also includes other portraits that he made in his portrait studio in Seattle. Each image is treated as a historical record and, for many of the figures, Scherer was able to identify the specific individuals pictured.

Dr. Glenn MacPherson is the Chief Science Editor of a major new book, Oxygen in the Solar System, in the series Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry. The nearly 600-page book contains 20 chapters contributed by almost 70 authors, including one co-authored by Dr. Timothy McCoy. The book covers a wide range of topics centered on the element oxygen, from its nuclear origin inside of stars to its galactic abundance and distribution, its major role in the formation of our solar system, oxygen in comets and gas giant planets, the oxygen cycle in terrestrial planets and the evolution of atmospheres, and the effects of oxidation state on the formation and physical behavior of magmas. National Museum of Natural History • www.mnh.si.edu 25


New Scientific/Curatorial Hires

Publications

O

THE PACIFIC ARTS OF POLYNESIA AND MICRONESIA

MAJOR TRANSITIONS IN VERTEBRATE EVOLUTION

Dr. Adrienne Kaeppler’s book The Pacific Arts of Polynesia and Micronesia, published in the Oxford History of Art series, provides a richly illustrated, comprehensive introduction to the artistic traditions of the many cultural groups of Polynesia and Micronesia, focusing on the artistic types, styles, and concepts and featuring both historic and contemporary works of art. It sheds light on religious and sacred rituals and objects, carving, architecture, tattooing, personal ornaments, basket-making, clothing, textiles, fashion, the oral arts, dance, music and musical instruments, and canoe construction.

Published by Indiana University Press, Major Transitions in Vertebrate Evolution—edited by Dr. Hans-Dieter Sues and Dr. Jason Anderson of the University of Calgary—provides an overview of some of the major events in the evolution of vertebrates. A renaissance in understanding these evolutionary transitions is in progress, and even seemingly intractable mysteries can now be examined using a wealth of new fossil discoveries as well as new data from developmental biology, especially the exciting new research on regulatory developmental genes. The ten chapters bring together some of the leading vertebrate paleontologists working on major evolutionary transitions to present new data from ongoing, cutting-edge research on the emergence of key vertebrate groups.

Dr. Seán G. Brady

Dr. Seán G. Brady, Research Scientist/Curator of Hymenoptera in the Department of Entomology, graduated summa cum laude from California Polytechnic University in 1990 and received his Ph.D. from the University of California at Davis in 2002. Most recently a Postdoctoral Fellow in Dr. Ted Schultz’s lab in the Department of Entomology, he is interested in the evolution and diversity of ants and bees and brings outstanding expertise in molecular and genomic approaches to his research.

Art Medeiros

Dr. Helen F. James, Research Scientist/Curator of Birds in the Department of Vertebrate Zoology, received her B.A. from the University of Arkansas in 1977 and her Ph.D. from the University of Oxford in 2000. Most recently a Museum Specialist in the Department of Vertebrate Zoology, she is interested in the evolutionary history of birds, especially those living on islands, and has an impressive record of publication on the history of island bird faunas, especially the subfossil birds of Hawai’i. Dr. Helen F. James

24 ANNUAL REPORT 2007–2008

Dr. Kristofer M. Helgen, Research Scientist/Curator of Mammals in the Department of Vertebrate Zoology, received his A.B. cum laude from Harvard University in 2001 and his Ph.D. from the University of Adelaide in 2007. Most recently a Postdoctoral Fellow with Dr. Don Dr. Kristofer M. Helgen Wilson in the Division of Mammals, he is interested in the evolution, diversity, and biogeography of mammals and has an impressive record of scientific publication. He has discovered scores of new mammalian species and has an active program of fieldwork in many regions of the world, with special emphasis on the Australo-Papuan and Indo-Malayan regions. Dr. Torben C. Rick, Research Scientist/Curator in the area of Human-Environmental Interactions in the Department of Anthropology, received his B.A. from the University of California at Santa Barbara in 1999 and his Ph.D. from the University of Oregon in 2004. Most recently Dr. Torben C. Rick Assistant Professor of Anthropology at Southern Methodist University, he is interested in ancient human impacts on marine environments and has done important research in the Channel Islands. He has an impressive record of scientific publication, including a major co-edited volume on ancient human impacts on marine environments.

Todd Braje

Stephanie Johnson

Dr. Joshua A. Bell (left) with Avae Vai’i, elder of Kararua village, Papua New Guinea

Dr. Joshua A. Bell, Research Scientist/Curator in the area of Globalization in the Department of Anthropology, received his A.B. magna cum laude from Brown University in 1996 and his M.Phil in 1998 and D.Phil from the University of Oxford in 2006. Most recently a Lecturer in the Arts of the Pacific at the Sainsbury Research Unit in the University of East Anglia, he is interested in the shifting local and global network of relationships between persons, artifacts, and the environment. Combining ethnographic fieldwork with research in museums and archives, he has conducted important research in New Guinea and Hawai’i and his diverse publications have dealt with cultural property, resource extraction, materiality, and history.

Bruce M. Beehler

Kaia Rove

ne of the Museum’s strategic initiatives is to strengthen its current capabilities by hiring key new research scientists, and is pleased to announce the addition of these outstanding scientists to our staff.

EDWARD SHERIFF CURTIS

OXYGEN IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM

Edward Sheriff Curtis by Emeritus Anthropologist Joanna Cohan Scherer, published by Phaidon Press, traces Curtis’s renowned career from his earliest photographs taken in the 1890s to his last photographs taken in the late 1920s. Most of the 62 images are of Native Americans, a subject that became Curtis’s passion for more than 30 years, but the selection also includes other portraits that he made in his portrait studio in Seattle. Each image is treated as a historical record and, for many of the figures, Scherer was able to identify the specific individuals pictured.

Dr. Glenn MacPherson is the Chief Science Editor of a major new book, Oxygen in the Solar System, in the series Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry. The nearly 600-page book contains 20 chapters contributed by almost 70 authors, including one co-authored by Dr. Timothy McCoy. The book covers a wide range of topics centered on the element oxygen, from its nuclear origin inside of stars to its galactic abundance and distribution, its major role in the formation of our solar system, oxygen in comets and gas giant planets, the oxygen cycle in terrestrial planets and the evolution of atmospheres, and the effects of oxidation state on the formation and physical behavior of magmas. National Museum of Natural History • www.mnh.si.edu 25


Awards & Achievements

9,600 10,500 10,500 10,500 10,500 9,600 9,000

Chip Clark

9,000 9,000

GOATS 11,000 9,000

9,000

10,000

9,500 9,000 9,000

Mariek Schmidt

26 ANNUAL REPORT 2007–2008

Dr. Timothy McCoy received a 2008 NASA Group Achievement Award for his work on the Mars Rovers during their third and fourth extended missions. His research has focused on understanding the interactions between water and volcanic rocks during the history of Mars and his primary contributions have been in working with the cameras and chemical and mineralogical sensors on the rover Spirit, which has now spent five years exploring the volcanic landscape of Gusev Crater.

Ali Khawaja

Richard Redding

Dr. Melinda Zeder, currently director of the Museum’s Archaeobiology Program, was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2008. Her research focuses on the domestication of plants and animals, the impact of early agriculture, and the development of specialized subsistence economies in the Old World. She has established new standards for documenting animal domestication, resulting in reconsideration of agricultural origins in the Middle East.

Dr. Richard Vari was honored by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists at the 2008 Annual Meeting in Montréal. He received the Robert H. Gibbs Jr. Memorial Award for Excellence in Systematic Ichthyology in recognition of his outstanding body of published work. His research centers on the diversity and evolution of freshwater fishes in the tropics of South America and Africa. In recent years, he has highlighted the previously unknown diversity of fishes in habitats such as deep river channels and rapids and explored the adaptations that allow species radiations in those settings.

The family of the late Mr. Richard M. Kurz donated a portion of his extraordinary shell collection to the Museum. Mr. Kurz, a dealer of specimen sea shells and natural history objects, was a generous contributor of type series of many newly discovered mollusks to the National Museum of Natural History and other museums. During his career, he assembled several collections of personal interest. One collection contains more than 400 species of the Common Bat Volute, including may rare specimens such as the five sinstral mutants shown, in which the direction of coiling is to the left. Mr. Kurz’s collection also includes several shells that are the largest known specimens of their respective species. Many of the specimens will be cataloged into the research collections, while numerous others will be available for display and educational purposes throughout the Museum.

METEORITE COLLECTION FROM THE SAHARA DESERT During the past 20 or more years, large numbers of important meteorites have been recovered from the Sahara desert in Algeria and Libya and from the desert in Oman, but specimens from these countries were virtually unrepresented in the Museum’s collections. At the 2006 annual meeting of the Meteoritical Society, curators were approached by a principal collector of Saharan meteorites who was interested selling a representative portion of his collection to make it available to the scientific community. Using funds from the Henderson Endowment, the Museum acquired this significant collection of 921 specimens, including a rare lunar breccia and a remarkable carbonaceous chondrite, as well as samples of some of the most important meteorites from the Sahara or anywhere else. The new collection complements the Museum’s existing collection and ensures that these important specimens are available for research.

Jerry Harasewych

CATTLE 10,000

THE TRILOBITE COLLECTION OF DR. ROBERT HAZEN Dr. Robert Hazen, an earth science professor at George Mason University, donated his extraordinary collection of 2,000 trilobites to the Museum. In assembling his collection over the years, Dr. Hazen gathered examples from all eight trilobite orders and almost all families and subfamilies. He wanted to put together as complete a picture as possible of trilobite diversity through time and space. Today his collection contains specimens from six continents and 75 countries. About 50 of his specimens are on display in the Museum’s Sant Ocean Hall. Chip Clark

PIGS 10,500

THE SHELL COLLECTION OF RICHARD M. KURZ

Chip Clark

SHEEP 11,000

Dr. Richard Thorington, Jr., was elected Honorary Member of the American Society of Mammalogists at the 2007 Annual Meeting in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Dr. Thorington studies the biology of squirrels, Sciuridae, which is the second largest family of rodents with 278 species. He has published papers on their paleontology, anatomy, behavior, aerodynamics, ecology, systematics, and nomenclature.

Jim Mead

10,000 10,000 8,500 8,500

Acquisition Highlights

National Museum of Natural History • www.mnh.si.edu 27


Awards & Achievements

9,600 10,500 10,500 10,500 10,500 9,600 9,000

Chip Clark

9,000 9,000

GOATS 11,000 9,000

9,000

10,000

9,500 9,000 9,000

Mariek Schmidt

26 ANNUAL REPORT 2007–2008

Dr. Timothy McCoy received a 2008 NASA Group Achievement Award for his work on the Mars Rovers during their third and fourth extended missions. His research has focused on understanding the interactions between water and volcanic rocks during the history of Mars and his primary contributions have been in working with the cameras and chemical and mineralogical sensors on the rover Spirit, which has now spent five years exploring the volcanic landscape of Gusev Crater.

Ali Khawaja

Richard Redding

Dr. Melinda Zeder, currently director of the Museum’s Archaeobiology Program, was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2008. Her research focuses on the domestication of plants and animals, the impact of early agriculture, and the development of specialized subsistence economies in the Old World. She has established new standards for documenting animal domestication, resulting in reconsideration of agricultural origins in the Middle East.

Dr. Richard Vari was honored by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists at the 2008 Annual Meeting in Montréal. He received the Robert H. Gibbs Jr. Memorial Award for Excellence in Systematic Ichthyology in recognition of his outstanding body of published work. His research centers on the diversity and evolution of freshwater fishes in the tropics of South America and Africa. In recent years, he has highlighted the previously unknown diversity of fishes in habitats such as deep river channels and rapids and explored the adaptations that allow species radiations in those settings.

The family of the late Mr. Richard M. Kurz donated a portion of his extraordinary shell collection to the Museum. Mr. Kurz, a dealer of specimen sea shells and natural history objects, was a generous contributor of type series of many newly discovered mollusks to the National Museum of Natural History and other museums. During his career, he assembled several collections of personal interest. One collection contains more than 400 species of the Common Bat Volute, including may rare specimens such as the five sinstral mutants shown, in which the direction of coiling is to the left. Mr. Kurz’s collection also includes several shells that are the largest known specimens of their respective species. Many of the specimens will be cataloged into the research collections, while numerous others will be available for display and educational purposes throughout the Museum.

METEORITE COLLECTION FROM THE SAHARA DESERT During the past 20 or more years, large numbers of important meteorites have been recovered from the Sahara desert in Algeria and Libya and from the desert in Oman, but specimens from these countries were virtually unrepresented in the Museum’s collections. At the 2006 annual meeting of the Meteoritical Society, curators were approached by a principal collector of Saharan meteorites who was interested selling a representative portion of his collection to make it available to the scientific community. Using funds from the Henderson Endowment, the Museum acquired this significant collection of 921 specimens, including a rare lunar breccia and a remarkable carbonaceous chondrite, as well as samples of some of the most important meteorites from the Sahara or anywhere else. The new collection complements the Museum’s existing collection and ensures that these important specimens are available for research.

Jerry Harasewych

CATTLE 10,000

THE TRILOBITE COLLECTION OF DR. ROBERT HAZEN Dr. Robert Hazen, an earth science professor at George Mason University, donated his extraordinary collection of 2,000 trilobites to the Museum. In assembling his collection over the years, Dr. Hazen gathered examples from all eight trilobite orders and almost all families and subfamilies. He wanted to put together as complete a picture as possible of trilobite diversity through time and space. Today his collection contains specimens from six continents and 75 countries. About 50 of his specimens are on display in the Museum’s Sant Ocean Hall. Chip Clark

PIGS 10,500

THE SHELL COLLECTION OF RICHARD M. KURZ

Chip Clark

SHEEP 11,000

Dr. Richard Thorington, Jr., was elected Honorary Member of the American Society of Mammalogists at the 2007 Annual Meeting in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Dr. Thorington studies the biology of squirrels, Sciuridae, which is the second largest family of rodents with 278 species. He has published papers on their paleontology, anatomy, behavior, aerodynamics, ecology, systematics, and nomenclature.

Jim Mead

10,000 10,000 8,500 8,500

Acquisition Highlights

National Museum of Natural History • www.mnh.si.edu 27


Leadership Gifts

T

THE JOHN D. AND CATHERINE T. MACARTHUR FOUNDATION The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation is a longstanding contributor to Smithsonian museums and research centers. Among

Chip Clark

these is a $10 million grant that provides funding for the Encyclopedia

ROGER AND VICTORIA SANT/THE SUMMIT FUND OF WASHINGTON

of Life, whose Secretariat is hosted by the National Museum of Natural

Roger and Vicki Sant continue their support of the Museum’s

create an electronic sourcebook with 1.8 million web pages, one for

Ocean Initiative with a $16.25 million gift from the Roger and

every known species on Earth. The grant also helps fund the

Victoria Sant Founders’ Fund of The Summit Fund of Washington.

Biodiversity Heritage Library, a consortium of ten of the world’s largest

The support underscores the commitment of Roger and Vicki Sant,

natural history libraries, including the Smithsonian Institution Libraries.

chairman and president of the Fund respectively, to the initiative.

BHL is making the world’s biodiversity print literature freely available

Ocean Initiative education programs and aspects of the hall

and to date has digitized more than 10 million pages.

History. This unprecedented global initiative over the next decade will

exhibition are funded by $1.25 million of the gift, and $15 million created an endowment to ensure continued ocean education and

EDWARD P. AND REBECCA R. HENDERSON

outreach programs and future enhancements, updates, and

Through their charitable remainder unitrusts, the late Edward P. and

maintenance of the Sant Ocean Hall. Roger Sant is a member of

Rebecca R. Henderson gave $2.4 million to the Museum. The gifts

the National Museum of Natural History Board, as well as the

benefit the Edward P. and Rebecca R. Henderson Meteorite Fund and

Smithsonian Board of Regents. Vicki Sant is a former member

the Edward P. Henderson and Rebecca Rogers

of the executive committee of the Smithsonian Washington

Henderson Mineral Fund, endowments that help

Council and current President

ensure the care of the National Meteorite

and Trustee of the National

Collection and the National Gem and Mineral

Gallery of Art.

Collection. Dr. Edward P. Henderson, who died in 1992, was for many years a curator

THE ALFRED P. SLOAN FOUNDATION A grant of $2.25 million continued the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation’s support of the Barcode of Life, an international initiative to advance rapid, accurate identification of animal and plant species using DNA sequences. The Consortium for the Barcode of Life, the initiative’s organizing body, is hosted by the Museum. With its grant, the Foundation is helping hundreds of scientists to build a global reference library of DNA barcodes. This work accelerates efforts to create the Encyclopedia of Life and the Biodiversity Heritage Library, projects the foundation also supports.

DAVID M. RUBENSTEIN David M. Rubenstein, a Board Member at the National Museum of Natural History and the National Museum of American History, has pledged $2 million to the Encyclopedia of Life, the free, online resource that will make available to anyone, anywhere, anytime,

Courtesy of David M. Rubenstein

he National Museum of Natural History is deeply grateful for the generous new gifts and pledges of $1 million or more during 2007 and 2008 from the following valued donors, whose thoughtful and wide-ranging support has been essential to advancing the Museum’s research and public learning initiatives.

information about each of Earth’s 1.8 million known species. Mr. Rubenstein's gift will support a global program of EOL Fellows who will assemble information for EOL species pages and assist in building the robust network that is critical to bringing this important work to the public.

Chip Clark

James DiLoreto

of the Museum’s meteorite collection.

David M. Rubenstein

Roger and Victoria Sant

28 ANNUAL REPORT 2007–2008

National Museum of Natural History • www.mnh.si.edu 29


Leadership Gifts

T

THE JOHN D. AND CATHERINE T. MACARTHUR FOUNDATION The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation is a longstanding contributor to Smithsonian museums and research centers. Among

Chip Clark

these is a $10 million grant that provides funding for the Encyclopedia

ROGER AND VICTORIA SANT/THE SUMMIT FUND OF WASHINGTON

of Life, whose Secretariat is hosted by the National Museum of Natural

Roger and Vicki Sant continue their support of the Museum’s

create an electronic sourcebook with 1.8 million web pages, one for

Ocean Initiative with a $16.25 million gift from the Roger and

every known species on Earth. The grant also helps fund the

Victoria Sant Founders’ Fund of The Summit Fund of Washington.

Biodiversity Heritage Library, a consortium of ten of the world’s largest

The support underscores the commitment of Roger and Vicki Sant,

natural history libraries, including the Smithsonian Institution Libraries.

chairman and president of the Fund respectively, to the initiative.

BHL is making the world’s biodiversity print literature freely available

Ocean Initiative education programs and aspects of the hall

and to date has digitized more than 10 million pages.

History. This unprecedented global initiative over the next decade will

exhibition are funded by $1.25 million of the gift, and $15 million created an endowment to ensure continued ocean education and

EDWARD P. AND REBECCA R. HENDERSON

outreach programs and future enhancements, updates, and

Through their charitable remainder unitrusts, the late Edward P. and

maintenance of the Sant Ocean Hall. Roger Sant is a member of

Rebecca R. Henderson gave $2.4 million to the Museum. The gifts

the National Museum of Natural History Board, as well as the

benefit the Edward P. and Rebecca R. Henderson Meteorite Fund and

Smithsonian Board of Regents. Vicki Sant is a former member

the Edward P. Henderson and Rebecca Rogers

of the executive committee of the Smithsonian Washington

Henderson Mineral Fund, endowments that help

Council and current President

ensure the care of the National Meteorite

and Trustee of the National

Collection and the National Gem and Mineral

Gallery of Art.

Collection. Dr. Edward P. Henderson, who died in 1992, was for many years a curator

THE ALFRED P. SLOAN FOUNDATION A grant of $2.25 million continued the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation’s support of the Barcode of Life, an international initiative to advance rapid, accurate identification of animal and plant species using DNA sequences. The Consortium for the Barcode of Life, the initiative’s organizing body, is hosted by the Museum. With its grant, the Foundation is helping hundreds of scientists to build a global reference library of DNA barcodes. This work accelerates efforts to create the Encyclopedia of Life and the Biodiversity Heritage Library, projects the foundation also supports.

DAVID M. RUBENSTEIN David M. Rubenstein, a Board Member at the National Museum of Natural History and the National Museum of American History, has pledged $2 million to the Encyclopedia of Life, the free, online resource that will make available to anyone, anywhere, anytime,

Courtesy of David M. Rubenstein

he National Museum of Natural History is deeply grateful for the generous new gifts and pledges of $1 million or more during 2007 and 2008 from the following valued donors, whose thoughtful and wide-ranging support has been essential to advancing the Museum’s research and public learning initiatives.

information about each of Earth’s 1.8 million known species. Mr. Rubenstein's gift will support a global program of EOL Fellows who will assemble information for EOL species pages and assist in building the robust network that is critical to bringing this important work to the public.

Chip Clark

James DiLoreto

of the Museum’s meteorite collection.

David M. Rubenstein

Roger and Victoria Sant

28 ANNUAL REPORT 2007–2008

National Museum of Natural History • www.mnh.si.edu 29


3M

SOIL SCIENCE SOCIETY OF AMERICA

The Museum’s Sant Ocean Hall benefits from a $1 million cash and in-kind gift from 3M and the 3M Foundation. The Sant Ocean Hall, which opened September 2008, educates visitors of all ages about the diversity of ocean habitats and undersea life and encourages stewardship of the ocean. The company donated products that include digital signage, touch screens, and patented nonflammable fluid that will allow the preservation and display of large marine specimens, including the hall’s male and female giant squid.

A new exhibition at the Museum is raising awareness of the soil beneath our feet and shows the many ways in which soils are essential to human life and our world. The Soil Science Society of America has provided sponsorship support for Dig It! The Secrets of Soil with a generous cash gift and in-kind contribution to develop materials related to the exhibition and a DVD. The Society’s mission is to advance the discipline and practice of soil science.

The Asian Cultural History Program in the Department of Anthropology received a $1.3 million grant from British Petroleum to conduct research and writing on the ethnography, ethnobiology, and archaeology of Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Turkey. The team will catalog data and present publications of research findings along the BTC and SCP pipelines, “transects” of the region that extend from Baku, Azerbaijan, through Tbilisi, Georgia, to Ceyhan, Turkey. Additional goals include conducting capacity building and staff training with the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography in Baku, and planning an international conference to interpret cultural heritage discoveries along the pipeline corridors.

THE FERTILIZER INSTITUTE In 2008, the Museum opened Dig It! The Secrets of Soil, an exhibition that is part of the Museum’s Forces of Change program, which addresses climate, ecological, and cultural change. With its $1 million sponsorship, The Fertilizer Institute and its Nutrients for Life Foundation helped make possible the 5,000-square-foot exhibition that is furthering visitors’ understanding of the importance of healthy soils to sustain life. The Institute is a trade association representing the fertilizer industry. Its Foundation supports education and research on the importance of crop nutrients.

30 ANNUAL REPORT 2007–2008

NATIONAL STONE, SAND & GRAVEL ASSOCIATION One of the Museum’s most popular exhibitions, the Rocks Gallery in the Geology, Gems and Minerals Hall, has again benefited from a generous gift from the members of the National Stone, Sand & Gravel Association. Made through the organization’s Rocks Build America Foundation, the $1.7 million donation established an endowment for the gallery and funds expanded gallery education programs and website improvements. Since 1989, the Association and its Foundation have provided support to the Museum to help ensure that this and future generations are inspired by geology.

OCEAN CONSERVANCY With its $1.6 million gift, Ocean Conservancy provided critical support to the Museum’s Sant Ocean Hall exhibition. Ocean Conservancy’s contribution made possible the hall’s Ocean Odyssey media experience, a high-definition video of undersea life. Through this feature, as well as a living coral reef, interactive displays of marine life, and other elements, the hall takes visitors on an underwater tour of the world’s oceans. Ocean Conservancy, established in 1972, is a not-for-profit organization dedicated to finding sustainable solutions that protect the ocean and improve the quality of life.

T

he National Museum of Natural History would like to recognize members of the Hope Diamond Society, Director’s Circle, and Benefactors Circle. Their generosity and continued support play a vital role in the success of the Museum’s outstanding research, collections, exhibitions, and education. In turn, Members are able to enhance their relationship with the Museum through behind-the-scenes access to our curators, collections, and exhibitions. HOPE DIAMOND SOCIETY

SONY ELECTRONICS, INC.

Giuseppe and Mercedes Cecchi Dr. Sylvia A. Earle

Sony Electronics, Inc. has supported the Museum’s Sant Ocean Hall from the early planning stages to the opening reception in September 2008. Sony’s in-kind technical support and equipment were instrumental in creating one of the most spectacular elements of the hall: Ocean Odyssey. Eight high-definition projections wrap the hall’s upper bay, presenting Museum visitors with a captivating, custom-made film of species and ecosystems from around the world.

Elizabeth Ballantine and Paul Leavitt Peder and Clarissa Bonde Alfred and Kathryn Checchi Robert and Jill Fri Virginia Fulton Norman and Margaret Kinsey Lt. Col. and Mrs. William K. Konze Victor and Ada Kugajevsky

CORALYN WRIGHT WHITNEY Each year, millions visit the National Museum of Natural History’s exhibition of rare and outstanding gems, making it one of the Smithsonian’s most popular destinations. A gift of $1.5 million from Dr. Coralyn Wright Whitney, a businesswoman and collector of fine jewelry and gemstones, enables the Museum to acquire a significant new gem for the national collection and establishes an endowment to support acquisitions, research, and outreach. This generous and foresighted gift helps ensure the collection’s continuing allure.

Dr. and Mrs. Jerold J. Principato Ann and Marshall Turner

DIRECTOR’S CIRCLE

Courtesy of Coralyn Wright Whitney

BRITISH PETROLEUM

Museum Members

Chip and Vicky Magid Jaylee Mead Edward and Nancy Rice Frances and Michael Seay Ruth O. Selig Jo Ann Storey Richard Thompson Russell and Aileen Train

BENEFACTORS CIRCLE Bonnie and Jere Broh-Kahn Dr. Cesar A. Caceres James and Janet Cobey Helen and Ray DuBois Joseph and Betty Dukert Dean Edmonds Gloria Hidalgo John Hoskinson and Ana Fábregas Patricia and David Jernigan

Jed and Blythe Lyons Hannah and Michael Mazer Joyce and Jerald Sachs Richard and Geane Schubert Simon and Nancy Sidamon-Eristoff Dwight Smith Patricia Swaney F. Christian and Betty Thompson Susan Wirths

National Museum of Natural History • www.mnh.si.edu 31


3M

SOIL SCIENCE SOCIETY OF AMERICA

The Museum’s Sant Ocean Hall benefits from a $1 million cash and in-kind gift from 3M and the 3M Foundation. The Sant Ocean Hall, which opened September 2008, educates visitors of all ages about the diversity of ocean habitats and undersea life and encourages stewardship of the ocean. The company donated products that include digital signage, touch screens, and patented nonflammable fluid that will allow the preservation and display of large marine specimens, including the hall’s male and female giant squid.

A new exhibition at the Museum is raising awareness of the soil beneath our feet and shows the many ways in which soils are essential to human life and our world. The Soil Science Society of America has provided sponsorship support for Dig It! The Secrets of Soil with a generous cash gift and in-kind contribution to develop materials related to the exhibition and a DVD. The Society’s mission is to advance the discipline and practice of soil science.

The Asian Cultural History Program in the Department of Anthropology received a $1.3 million grant from British Petroleum to conduct research and writing on the ethnography, ethnobiology, and archaeology of Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Turkey. The team will catalog data and present publications of research findings along the BTC and SCP pipelines, “transects” of the region that extend from Baku, Azerbaijan, through Tbilisi, Georgia, to Ceyhan, Turkey. Additional goals include conducting capacity building and staff training with the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography in Baku, and planning an international conference to interpret cultural heritage discoveries along the pipeline corridors.

THE FERTILIZER INSTITUTE In 2008, the Museum opened Dig It! The Secrets of Soil, an exhibition that is part of the Museum’s Forces of Change program, which addresses climate, ecological, and cultural change. With its $1 million sponsorship, The Fertilizer Institute and its Nutrients for Life Foundation helped make possible the 5,000-square-foot exhibition that is furthering visitors’ understanding of the importance of healthy soils to sustain life. The Institute is a trade association representing the fertilizer industry. Its Foundation supports education and research on the importance of crop nutrients.

30 ANNUAL REPORT 2007–2008

NATIONAL STONE, SAND & GRAVEL ASSOCIATION One of the Museum’s most popular exhibitions, the Rocks Gallery in the Geology, Gems and Minerals Hall, has again benefited from a generous gift from the members of the National Stone, Sand & Gravel Association. Made through the organization’s Rocks Build America Foundation, the $1.7 million donation established an endowment for the gallery and funds expanded gallery education programs and website improvements. Since 1989, the Association and its Foundation have provided support to the Museum to help ensure that this and future generations are inspired by geology.

OCEAN CONSERVANCY With its $1.6 million gift, Ocean Conservancy provided critical support to the Museum’s Sant Ocean Hall exhibition. Ocean Conservancy’s contribution made possible the hall’s Ocean Odyssey media experience, a high-definition video of undersea life. Through this feature, as well as a living coral reef, interactive displays of marine life, and other elements, the hall takes visitors on an underwater tour of the world’s oceans. Ocean Conservancy, established in 1972, is a not-for-profit organization dedicated to finding sustainable solutions that protect the ocean and improve the quality of life.

T

he National Museum of Natural History would like to recognize members of the Hope Diamond Society, Director’s Circle, and Benefactors Circle. Their generosity and continued support play a vital role in the success of the Museum’s outstanding research, collections, exhibitions, and education. In turn, Members are able to enhance their relationship with the Museum through behind-the-scenes access to our curators, collections, and exhibitions. HOPE DIAMOND SOCIETY

SONY ELECTRONICS, INC.

Giuseppe and Mercedes Cecchi Dr. Sylvia A. Earle

Sony Electronics, Inc. has supported the Museum’s Sant Ocean Hall from the early planning stages to the opening reception in September 2008. Sony’s in-kind technical support and equipment were instrumental in creating one of the most spectacular elements of the hall: Ocean Odyssey. Eight high-definition projections wrap the hall’s upper bay, presenting Museum visitors with a captivating, custom-made film of species and ecosystems from around the world.

Elizabeth Ballantine and Paul Leavitt Peder and Clarissa Bonde Alfred and Kathryn Checchi Robert and Jill Fri Virginia Fulton Norman and Margaret Kinsey Lt. Col. and Mrs. William K. Konze Victor and Ada Kugajevsky

CORALYN WRIGHT WHITNEY Each year, millions visit the National Museum of Natural History’s exhibition of rare and outstanding gems, making it one of the Smithsonian’s most popular destinations. A gift of $1.5 million from Dr. Coralyn Wright Whitney, a businesswoman and collector of fine jewelry and gemstones, enables the Museum to acquire a significant new gem for the national collection and establishes an endowment to support acquisitions, research, and outreach. This generous and foresighted gift helps ensure the collection’s continuing allure.

Dr. and Mrs. Jerold J. Principato Ann and Marshall Turner

DIRECTOR’S CIRCLE

Courtesy of Coralyn Wright Whitney

BRITISH PETROLEUM

Museum Members

Chip and Vicky Magid Jaylee Mead Edward and Nancy Rice Frances and Michael Seay Ruth O. Selig Jo Ann Storey Richard Thompson Russell and Aileen Train

BENEFACTORS CIRCLE Bonnie and Jere Broh-Kahn Dr. Cesar A. Caceres James and Janet Cobey Helen and Ray DuBois Joseph and Betty Dukert Dean Edmonds Gloria Hidalgo John Hoskinson and Ana Fábregas Patricia and David Jernigan

Jed and Blythe Lyons Hannah and Michael Mazer Joyce and Jerald Sachs Richard and Geane Schubert Simon and Nancy Sidamon-Eristoff Dwight Smith Patricia Swaney F. Christian and Betty Thompson Susan Wirths

National Museum of Natural History • www.mnh.si.edu 31


NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY SUPPORTERS The Museum gratefully acknowledges the generosity of the many individuals, foundations, and corporations whose support has been essential to advancing Museum initiatives in all fields. $1,000,000 AND OVER Anonymous 3M British Petroleum Dr. Peter Buck The Fertilizer Institute Estate of Edward P. and Rebecca R. Henderson David H. Koch The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Andrew W. Mellon Foundation National Science Foundation Ocean Conservancy National Stone, Sand & Gravel Association David M. Rubenstein Victoria and Roger Sant/Summit Fund of Washington Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Soil Science Society of America Sony Electronics, Inc. Coralyn Wright Whitney

$500,000 TO $999,999 Anonymous Abu Dhabi Authority for Culture and Heritage History Channel Feodor Pitcairn Productions, Ltd. Mr. and Mrs. Frederick W. Smith State of Florida U.S. Department of the Air Force U.S. Department of the Interior

$100,000 TO $499,999 Anonymous (3) Amherst College Anchorage Museum Foundation Bayer CropScience Booz Allen Hamilton

32 ANNUAL REPORT 2007–2008

Estate of John A. and Helen L. Burnham Carnegie Institution of Washington Code Blue Foundation Malcolm Collins, Miles Collins and Catherine Collins Masterson Michael and Sandy Collins Columbia University in the City of New York George Mason University Global Events Partners, Inc. The Henry Foundation Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology JPL-California Institute of Technology The Korea Foundation Jacqueline Badger Mars Margery and Edgar Masinter Mote Marine Laboratory National Aeronautics and Space Administration National Institutes of Health The David and Lucile Packard Foundation Estate of Edward B. and Phyllis E. Reed Edward and Nancy Rice and The Rice Family Foundation Rice University Richard T. Russell, Jr. Schlinger Foundation Sealaska Corporation Guenther and Siewchin Yong Sommer St. Johns River Water Management District State of California Summit Foundation Ruth and Vernon Taylor Foundation, MT University of Alabama University of California–Berkeley University of Florida University of Michigan

University of Utah U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service U.S. Department of Interior/ U.S. Geological Survey U.S. Department of Interior/ U.S. Geological Survey/BRD U.S. Department of Transportation The Widgeon Foundation, Inc.

$50,000 TO $99,999 Judy Hart Angelo and John M. Angelo Cabot Creamery Cooperative Capital City Events, Inc. Capitol Services, Inc. Estate of Fenner A. Chace Judith L. Cherwinka Global Biodiversity Information Facility Michael A., William O., and Kathryn N. Harrison Lisina M. Hoch Steven and Jane Hoch The Institute for Technology in Health Care Inter-American Development Bank Kansas State University Foundation LI-COR Inc. LMA, Inc. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Curtis & Edith Munson Foundation National Geographic Society National Museum of African American History and Culture Prudential Financial Smithsonian Women’s Committee Siemens Healthcare St. Lucie County Mosquito Control District Mr. and Mrs. James C. Taylor University of North Carolina University of Texas U.S. Department of Justice

U.S. Department of Agriculture U.S. Department of Commerce U.S. Department of Defense/Department of the Navy

$10,000 TO $49,999 Anonymous (5) David C. Aldrich The American Association for Thoracic Surgery American Center of Oriental Research Major General William A. Anders, USAF (Ret.), and Mrs. Valerie Anders Altria Group, Inc. Apollo Diamond, Inc. AREVA NP Elizabeth Ballantine and Paul Leavitt Max N. and Heidi L. Berry David C. Blackburn Count and Countess Peder Bonde The Boston Consulting Group Inc. Boston Life Sciences, Inc. C.R. Bard Inc. Giuseppe and Mercedes Cecchi The CIGNA Foundation Connecticut General Life Crescent Stonco Exceline Crest Photography Inc. David Butler Family Foundation D.C. Energy Holdings, LLC Defense Research Institute Sylvia A. Earle Earthwatch Institute Edelman Financial Services LLC EduNeering Holdings, Inc. Embassy of Colombia EMD Serono Inc. Envision EMI, LLC Steven E. Epstein (W.L. Lyons Brown, Jr. Charitable Foundation) Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Event Emissary, LLC The Field Museum Florida Institute of Technology

The Dorothy Cate & Thomas F. Frist Foundation Virginia Fulton GE Healthcare George Group Consulting, LLP Georgia State Society Richard and Rhoda Goldman Fund Roberta Lynn Hay Holcim Inc. Mr. William L. Hopkins and Mr. Richard B. Anderson Howard Ruby Photography HSBC Bank USA, N.A. Idaho Department of Fish and Game Indiana Young Presidents Organization Jenner & Block, LLP Johnson & Johnson JP Morgan Private Bank Rajinder Kaur Keith Mr. and Mrs. Norman V. Kinsey Lt. Col. and Mrs. William K. Konze Victor and Ada Kugajevsky Lancesoft, Inc. Ruth Landes Memorial Research Fund Launch, Inc. Link Foundation Elizabeth and Whitney MacMillan Mr. and Mrs. John W. Madigan (Madigan Family Foundation) Mr. and Mrs. Creighton R. Magid John and Adrienne Mars Mayer, Brown, Rowe & Maw LLP The Ralph H. and Ruth J. McCullough Foundation McDermott, Will & Emery LLP Medical Modeling Inc. Michigan State University Monterey Bay Aquarium National Association of Secondary School Principals National Film Preservation Foundation National Marine Sanctuary Foundation National Wildlife Federation

NOAA (The National Oceanic and Atmosphere Administration) Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics PADCO Advisors, Inc. The Paleontological Society Pomona College Price Waterhouse Coopers Princeton University Jerold J. Principato, M.D. Putnam Investments Reed Exhibitions Rollins, Inc. Rydex Investments Science Application International Corporation-Frederick, Inc Ruth O. Selig Shirley Sherwood South Florida Water Management District Mrs. William C. Storey Sumner Gerard Foundation Dr. and Mrs. F. Christian Thompson Richard E. Thompson Tiffany & Co. Toffler Associates Inc. Toyota Motor Corporation Trident Capital, Inc. Ann and Marshall Turner United Nations Foundation University of California–Davis University of Central Florida U.S. Department of Defense U.S. Environmental Protection Agency USLAW Network, Inc. Vulcan Materials Company Foundation Wakefern Food Corporation Washington Anthropological Society Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research Wesleyan University Estate of Marcia Ring Winslow Withers Bergman LLP

$5,000 TO $9,999 Anonymous Agri-Mark Cabot BAE Systems Banco de la Republica Subgerencia Thomas Bradlee Ralph and Peggy Burnet Capital One Alfred and Kathryn Checchi Katherine Clark Max W. Corzilius CTIA–The Wireless Association Death Valley Natural History Association Dorsey and Whitney Foundation Dean S. Edmonds Mr. and Mrs. John Fahey Kristian Fauchald The Ford Foundation Robert W. and Jean L. Fri Kathryn S. Fuller The Gem, Lapidary & Mineral Society of Montgomery County, Maryland W. Ronald and Miriam Heyer Historic St. Mary’s City Commission Richard A. Houghten Springfield Toyota Mr. Harinder Kohli Linder & Associates The Honorable Eugene A. Ludwig and Dr. Carol L. Ludwig Mr. Gurdip S. Malik Maj. Gen. and Mrs. Raymond E. Mason, Jr. (Raymond E. Mason Foundation) Mitotyping Technologies Dr. Yolanda T. Moses and Mr. James Bawek Mount Holyoke College National Cancer Institute, Frederick Cancer Research Center Navistar International Corp. Newlink Communications Group Inc. David and Doris Pawson

Mr. Paul L. Peck Mrs. Dorothy Rouse-Bottom Sandra K. Schlachtmeyer Science Applications International Corporation Serta Mattress Company David J. Simon Towson University Lillian Scheffres Turner and Stephen R. Turner Mr. and Mrs. Peter R. Tyson U.S. Department of Agriculture/ Forest Service

$2,000 TO $4,999 Anonymous (2) Aquatic Education Group Mr. and Mrs. Robert F. Bangert William M. Bass Bibliomania! Joe L. Bridger Bonnie and Jere Broh-Kahn Bushnell Sports Optics Worldwide Dr. Cesar A. Caceres California State University, Chico The Camp-Younts Foundation Amrik S. Chattha Dr. and Mrs. James C. Cobey The Coca-Cola Company Coleopterists Society Freeport-McMoRan Foundation Gem, Lapidary & Mineral Society of Washington, D.C., Inc. Estate of Bernice N. Hantman John K. Hoskinson and Ana Fábregas Mr. and Mrs. David S. Jernigan Michael and Diane Jones The Kochi Foundation Marilyn C. Link Mr. and Mrs. James E. Lyons Malott Family Foundation Hannah and Michael Mazer

Miranda and Robert Donnelley (The Donnelley Foundation) Mr. and Mrs. Wendell Mohr Emilio F. Moran NAS/IUSSI The Neiman Marcus Group, Inc. North Carolina State University Sandra Day O’Conner Charitable Fund Allen L. Norrbom Pomona College Cristián Samper and Adriana Casas Simon and Nancy Sidamon-Eristoff Ms. Patricia S. Swaney Ms. Virginia Tippie (Coastal America) University of Louisiana at Lafayette Susan R. Wirths

$500 TO $1,999 Anonymous American Entomological Society, Inc. Ms. Sonia C. S. Andrade Mr. Jerzy Asliwa The Association of General Counsel Elspeth G. Bobbs James A. Bridger, Jr. Mr. and Mrs. Winthrop N. Brown Caroline J. Carty Christine Coussens Eugene J. Detmer, Jr. Helen and Ray DuBois Elizabeth Duggal Taghipour and Alain Taghipour Dr. and Mrs. Joseph M. Dukert Charles Ewald ExxonMobil Foundation Jon and Gwendolyn Fichtelman Florida Association of Environmental Soil Scientists The Fowler Family Trust General Society of Colonial Wars Myles D. Gordon Gramp Foundation

Thomas J. Henry Ms. Laura Miriam Heyer and Ms. Sharon Hanger Gloria Hidalgo Barbara and William Hodsden Barbara S. Holden Trust Lee Houchins Richard and Lee Jantz Richard M. Kafka Myoung Won Kwon Nai Won Lee The Mad Bomber Company Jeanne E. Marsh Robin B. Martin Geoffrey C. Mason George and Linda O’Malley Grace Sunsook Park Valerie J. Paul Beverly A. Pierce F. Ashton de Peyster III Brent Reynolds John Daniel Rogers Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group Edward E. Ruppert Jerry and Joyce Sachs Richard and Jeane Schubert Eleanor G. Sexton Thackray W. Seznec Gary and Vicki Simon The Sims/Maes Foundation Dwight Smith Betsy G. Smith The Society of Colonial Wars in Virginia J. Bolling Sullivan III Tim Turner University of Pennsylvania Middle Atlantic Regional Advisory Virginia Historical Society The Honorable Timothy E. Wirth Myungja Yoo

National Museum of Natural History • www.mnh.si.edu 33


NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY SUPPORTERS The Museum gratefully acknowledges the generosity of the many individuals, foundations, and corporations whose support has been essential to advancing Museum initiatives in all fields. $1,000,000 AND OVER Anonymous 3M British Petroleum Dr. Peter Buck The Fertilizer Institute Estate of Edward P. and Rebecca R. Henderson David H. Koch The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Andrew W. Mellon Foundation National Science Foundation Ocean Conservancy National Stone, Sand & Gravel Association David M. Rubenstein Victoria and Roger Sant/Summit Fund of Washington Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Soil Science Society of America Sony Electronics, Inc. Coralyn Wright Whitney

$500,000 TO $999,999 Anonymous Abu Dhabi Authority for Culture and Heritage History Channel Feodor Pitcairn Productions, Ltd. Mr. and Mrs. Frederick W. Smith State of Florida U.S. Department of the Air Force U.S. Department of the Interior

$100,000 TO $499,999 Anonymous (3) Amherst College Anchorage Museum Foundation Bayer CropScience Booz Allen Hamilton

32 ANNUAL REPORT 2007–2008

Estate of John A. and Helen L. Burnham Carnegie Institution of Washington Code Blue Foundation Malcolm Collins, Miles Collins and Catherine Collins Masterson Michael and Sandy Collins Columbia University in the City of New York George Mason University Global Events Partners, Inc. The Henry Foundation Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology JPL-California Institute of Technology The Korea Foundation Jacqueline Badger Mars Margery and Edgar Masinter Mote Marine Laboratory National Aeronautics and Space Administration National Institutes of Health The David and Lucile Packard Foundation Estate of Edward B. and Phyllis E. Reed Edward and Nancy Rice and The Rice Family Foundation Rice University Richard T. Russell, Jr. Schlinger Foundation Sealaska Corporation Guenther and Siewchin Yong Sommer St. Johns River Water Management District State of California Summit Foundation Ruth and Vernon Taylor Foundation, MT University of Alabama University of California–Berkeley University of Florida University of Michigan

University of Utah U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service U.S. Department of Interior/ U.S. Geological Survey U.S. Department of Interior/ U.S. Geological Survey/BRD U.S. Department of Transportation The Widgeon Foundation, Inc.

$50,000 TO $99,999 Judy Hart Angelo and John M. Angelo Cabot Creamery Cooperative Capital City Events, Inc. Capitol Services, Inc. Estate of Fenner A. Chace Judith L. Cherwinka Global Biodiversity Information Facility Michael A., William O., and Kathryn N. Harrison Lisina M. Hoch Steven and Jane Hoch The Institute for Technology in Health Care Inter-American Development Bank Kansas State University Foundation LI-COR Inc. LMA, Inc. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Curtis & Edith Munson Foundation National Geographic Society National Museum of African American History and Culture Prudential Financial Smithsonian Women’s Committee Siemens Healthcare St. Lucie County Mosquito Control District Mr. and Mrs. James C. Taylor University of North Carolina University of Texas U.S. Department of Justice

U.S. Department of Agriculture U.S. Department of Commerce U.S. Department of Defense/Department of the Navy

$10,000 TO $49,999 Anonymous (5) David C. Aldrich The American Association for Thoracic Surgery American Center of Oriental Research Major General William A. Anders, USAF (Ret.), and Mrs. Valerie Anders Altria Group, Inc. Apollo Diamond, Inc. AREVA NP Elizabeth Ballantine and Paul Leavitt Max N. and Heidi L. Berry David C. Blackburn Count and Countess Peder Bonde The Boston Consulting Group Inc. Boston Life Sciences, Inc. C.R. Bard Inc. Giuseppe and Mercedes Cecchi The CIGNA Foundation Connecticut General Life Crescent Stonco Exceline Crest Photography Inc. David Butler Family Foundation D.C. Energy Holdings, LLC Defense Research Institute Sylvia A. Earle Earthwatch Institute Edelman Financial Services LLC EduNeering Holdings, Inc. Embassy of Colombia EMD Serono Inc. Envision EMI, LLC Steven E. Epstein (W.L. Lyons Brown, Jr. Charitable Foundation) Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Event Emissary, LLC The Field Museum Florida Institute of Technology

The Dorothy Cate & Thomas F. Frist Foundation Virginia Fulton GE Healthcare George Group Consulting, LLP Georgia State Society Richard and Rhoda Goldman Fund Roberta Lynn Hay Holcim Inc. Mr. William L. Hopkins and Mr. Richard B. Anderson Howard Ruby Photography HSBC Bank USA, N.A. Idaho Department of Fish and Game Indiana Young Presidents Organization Jenner & Block, LLP Johnson & Johnson JP Morgan Private Bank Rajinder Kaur Keith Mr. and Mrs. Norman V. Kinsey Lt. Col. and Mrs. William K. Konze Victor and Ada Kugajevsky Lancesoft, Inc. Ruth Landes Memorial Research Fund Launch, Inc. Link Foundation Elizabeth and Whitney MacMillan Mr. and Mrs. John W. Madigan (Madigan Family Foundation) Mr. and Mrs. Creighton R. Magid John and Adrienne Mars Mayer, Brown, Rowe & Maw LLP The Ralph H. and Ruth J. McCullough Foundation McDermott, Will & Emery LLP Medical Modeling Inc. Michigan State University Monterey Bay Aquarium National Association of Secondary School Principals National Film Preservation Foundation National Marine Sanctuary Foundation National Wildlife Federation

NOAA (The National Oceanic and Atmosphere Administration) Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics PADCO Advisors, Inc. The Paleontological Society Pomona College Price Waterhouse Coopers Princeton University Jerold J. Principato, M.D. Putnam Investments Reed Exhibitions Rollins, Inc. Rydex Investments Science Application International Corporation-Frederick, Inc Ruth O. Selig Shirley Sherwood South Florida Water Management District Mrs. William C. Storey Sumner Gerard Foundation Dr. and Mrs. F. Christian Thompson Richard E. Thompson Tiffany & Co. Toffler Associates Inc. Toyota Motor Corporation Trident Capital, Inc. Ann and Marshall Turner United Nations Foundation University of California–Davis University of Central Florida U.S. Department of Defense U.S. Environmental Protection Agency USLAW Network, Inc. Vulcan Materials Company Foundation Wakefern Food Corporation Washington Anthropological Society Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research Wesleyan University Estate of Marcia Ring Winslow Withers Bergman LLP

$5,000 TO $9,999 Anonymous Agri-Mark Cabot BAE Systems Banco de la Republica Subgerencia Thomas Bradlee Ralph and Peggy Burnet Capital One Alfred and Kathryn Checchi Katherine Clark Max W. Corzilius CTIA–The Wireless Association Death Valley Natural History Association Dorsey and Whitney Foundation Dean S. Edmonds Mr. and Mrs. John Fahey Kristian Fauchald The Ford Foundation Robert W. and Jean L. Fri Kathryn S. Fuller The Gem, Lapidary & Mineral Society of Montgomery County, Maryland W. Ronald and Miriam Heyer Historic St. Mary’s City Commission Richard A. Houghten Springfield Toyota Mr. Harinder Kohli Linder & Associates The Honorable Eugene A. Ludwig and Dr. Carol L. Ludwig Mr. Gurdip S. Malik Maj. Gen. and Mrs. Raymond E. Mason, Jr. (Raymond E. Mason Foundation) Mitotyping Technologies Dr. Yolanda T. Moses and Mr. James Bawek Mount Holyoke College National Cancer Institute, Frederick Cancer Research Center Navistar International Corp. Newlink Communications Group Inc. David and Doris Pawson

Mr. Paul L. Peck Mrs. Dorothy Rouse-Bottom Sandra K. Schlachtmeyer Science Applications International Corporation Serta Mattress Company David J. Simon Towson University Lillian Scheffres Turner and Stephen R. Turner Mr. and Mrs. Peter R. Tyson U.S. Department of Agriculture/ Forest Service

$2,000 TO $4,999 Anonymous (2) Aquatic Education Group Mr. and Mrs. Robert F. Bangert William M. Bass Bibliomania! Joe L. Bridger Bonnie and Jere Broh-Kahn Bushnell Sports Optics Worldwide Dr. Cesar A. Caceres California State University, Chico The Camp-Younts Foundation Amrik S. Chattha Dr. and Mrs. James C. Cobey The Coca-Cola Company Coleopterists Society Freeport-McMoRan Foundation Gem, Lapidary & Mineral Society of Washington, D.C., Inc. Estate of Bernice N. Hantman John K. Hoskinson and Ana Fábregas Mr. and Mrs. David S. Jernigan Michael and Diane Jones The Kochi Foundation Marilyn C. Link Mr. and Mrs. James E. Lyons Malott Family Foundation Hannah and Michael Mazer

Miranda and Robert Donnelley (The Donnelley Foundation) Mr. and Mrs. Wendell Mohr Emilio F. Moran NAS/IUSSI The Neiman Marcus Group, Inc. North Carolina State University Sandra Day O’Conner Charitable Fund Allen L. Norrbom Pomona College Cristián Samper and Adriana Casas Simon and Nancy Sidamon-Eristoff Ms. Patricia S. Swaney Ms. Virginia Tippie (Coastal America) University of Louisiana at Lafayette Susan R. Wirths

$500 TO $1,999 Anonymous American Entomological Society, Inc. Ms. Sonia C. S. Andrade Mr. Jerzy Asliwa The Association of General Counsel Elspeth G. Bobbs James A. Bridger, Jr. Mr. and Mrs. Winthrop N. Brown Caroline J. Carty Christine Coussens Eugene J. Detmer, Jr. Helen and Ray DuBois Elizabeth Duggal Taghipour and Alain Taghipour Dr. and Mrs. Joseph M. Dukert Charles Ewald ExxonMobil Foundation Jon and Gwendolyn Fichtelman Florida Association of Environmental Soil Scientists The Fowler Family Trust General Society of Colonial Wars Myles D. Gordon Gramp Foundation

Thomas J. Henry Ms. Laura Miriam Heyer and Ms. Sharon Hanger Gloria Hidalgo Barbara and William Hodsden Barbara S. Holden Trust Lee Houchins Richard and Lee Jantz Richard M. Kafka Myoung Won Kwon Nai Won Lee The Mad Bomber Company Jeanne E. Marsh Robin B. Martin Geoffrey C. Mason George and Linda O’Malley Grace Sunsook Park Valerie J. Paul Beverly A. Pierce F. Ashton de Peyster III Brent Reynolds John Daniel Rogers Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group Edward E. Ruppert Jerry and Joyce Sachs Richard and Jeane Schubert Eleanor G. Sexton Thackray W. Seznec Gary and Vicki Simon The Sims/Maes Foundation Dwight Smith Betsy G. Smith The Society of Colonial Wars in Virginia J. Bolling Sullivan III Tim Turner University of Pennsylvania Middle Atlantic Regional Advisory Virginia Historical Society The Honorable Timothy E. Wirth Myungja Yoo

National Museum of Natural History • www.mnh.si.edu 33


Board and Staff Members

T

BOARD MEMBERS

hese charts represent the National Museum of Natural History’s pre-audit sources and uses of funds in fiscal years 2007 and 2008, excluding some centrally provided support such as human resources, accounting, legal services, contracting, and business activities. Federal appropriations are the source of support for most ongoing efforts such as longterm research, collections management, exhibit maintenance, and safety programs. Income from private gifts, grants, and endowments supports some research projects and nearly half of the Museum’s public program activities, providing vital funds for special exhibitions and an ambitious schedule of exhibition renovation. Smithsonian business activities provide funds for short-term projects and some administrative support. Federal grants and contracts underwrite several research projects. Gifts, grants, and endowment income 9%

Government grants and other contracts 6% Unrestricted revenue 2%

Facilities, Scientific research, maintenance, collections, and and safety outreach 41% programs 43%

Gifts, grants, and endowment income 12%

Government grants and other contracts 12% Unrestricted revenue 2%

Facilities, maintenance, and safety programs 39%

Scientific research, collections, and outreach 35%

Mr. Roger W. Sant Board Chair (through November 6, 2008) Washington, D.C. Dr. Paul G. Risser Board Chair (as of November 6, 2008) Norman, Oklahoma Mr. Robin B. Martin Board Vice-Chair Washington, D.C (through May 2008) Dr. Charles Alcock* Washington, D.C. (as of April 2008) Ms. Paula Apsell Boston, Massachusetts (through May 2008) Dr. Paul B. Barton Reston, Virginia Mr. Kenneth Behring Danville, California (through February 2007)

Support from central Smithsonian Institution federal funds 42%

Federal appropriations 41%

Administration 7%

Public programs 9%

FISCAL YEAR 2007

Support from central Smithsonian Institution federal funds Gifts, grants, and endowment income

$45.7 $47.1 $10.3

Facilities, maintenance, and safety programs

Unrestricted revenue

$2.0 $111.3

Federal appropriations $47.9

Scientific research, collections, and outreach

$45.9

Public programs

$10.2

Administration $6.2

34 ANNUAL REPORT 2007–2008

SOURCES OF FUNDS

USES OF FUNDS

Government grants and other contracts Total (in millions)

Federal appropriations 35%

Administration 6%

Public programs 20%

FISCAL YEAR 2008

SOURCES OF FUNDS Federal appropriations

Support from central Smithsonian Institution federal funds 39%

Total (in millions)

$7.3 $111.3

Support from central Smithsonian Institution federal funds Gifts, grants, and endowment income Government grants and other contracts Unrestricted revenue Total (in millions)

USES OF FUNDS $45.4 $49.9 $15.4

Facilities, maintenance, and safety programs Scientific research, collections, and outreach

$44.9

Public programs

$25.5

Administration $15.5 $2.3 $128.5

$50.7

Total (in millions)

$7.4 $128.5

Ms. Kathryn S. Fuller Washington, D.C. Dr. Ira Rubinoff* Panama (March 2007–April 2008) Mr. David H. Koch New York, New York Senator Patrick Leahy Middlesex, Vermont Dr. Jane Lubchenco Corvallis, Oregon Ambassador William H. Luers New York, New York Mr. Whitney MacMillan Wayzata, Minnesota (as of September 2008) Dr. Emilio F. Moran Bloomington, Indiana Dr. Yolanda T. Moses Riverside, California Justice Sandra Day O’Connor Washington, D.C.

Dr. Peter Buck Danbury, Connecticut

Dr. Jerold J. Principato Bethesda, Maryland

Dr. G. Wayne Clough* Washington, D.C. (as of July 2008)

Mr. David M. Rubenstein Washington, D.C.

Mr. Michael J. Collins Coral Gables, Florida

Dr. Cristián Samper* Washington, D.C.

Dr. Rita R. Colwell College Park, Maryland

Dr. Shirley Sherwood London, England

Sir Peter R. Crane Chicago, Illinois

Honorable Timothy E. Wirth Washington, D.C. * Ex-officio members

Dr. David Evans* Arlington, Virginia (through March 2007)

EMERITUS MEMBERS

Mr. John Fahey Washington, D.C.

Mr. I. Michael Heyman Berkley, California

Ms. Gabrielda Febres-Cordero New York, New York

Mrs. Jean Lane Portola Valley, California

Honorable William H. Frist Nashville, Tennessee

Mr. Robert Malott Chicago, Illinois

DR. PAUL G. RISSER Acting Director April 2007–April 2008

SENIOR MANAGEMENT STAFF Dr. Cristián Samper Director

Susan Fruchter Associate Director for Operations

Dr. Paul G. Risser Acting Director (April 2007–April 2008)

Dr. Hans-Dieter Sues Associate Director for Research and Collections

Elizabeth Duggal Associate Director for External Affairs and Public Programs

DEPARTMENT CHAIRS & DIRECTORS Ted Anderson Special Events

Jerald Sachs Guest Services

Dr. Stephen Cairns Invertebrate Zoology

Dr. Ted Schultz Entomology (through September 2007)

Jerry Conlon Facilities Operations (through June 2008)

Rena Selim Exhibitions

Christine Elias Development

Dr. Sorena Sorensen Mineral Sciences

Dr. Terry Erwin Entomology

Dr. Jean-Daniel Stanley Paleobiology (through September 2007)

Randall Kremer Public Affairs Dr. Conrad Labandeira Paleobiology Dr. Rafael Lemaitre Invertebrate Zoology (through September 2008) Dr. Glenn J. MacPherson Mineral Sciences (through September 2007) Matt McDermott Information Technology Dr. Valerie Paul Smithsonian Marine Station Dr. J. Daniel Rogers Anthropology

Dr. Richard Vari Vertebrate Zoology (through September 2008) Dr. Warren Wagner Botany Shari Werb Education and Outreach (as of April 2008) Dr. Don Wilson Vertebrate Zoology Wendy Wiswall Science Programs Chun-Hsi Wong Facilities Operations (from October 2008)

Chip Clark

Financial Summary

During his tenure as Acting Director, Dr. Risser made significant contributions to the Museum. New curators were hired, temporary exhibitions opened, considerable progress occurred on the new permanent halls, and the significant collections move to Pod 5 was smoothly executed. Dr. Risser led the reorganization of the Museum’s entire educational program, ensuring its integration with Museum science. He developed a foundation and framework for strategic planning, and also established a system to enable the Museum to better evaluate its efforts. “I thoroughly enjoyed my time at the Museum,” said Dr. Risser. “I found the staff very welcoming and it was a pleasure to serve with them. They worked hard and well together, and clearly take great pride in their work.”

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This annual report was produced and published by the National Museum of Natural History’s Office of Public Affairs. Editors Randall Kremer Director of Public Affairs Michele Urie Senior Press Officer National Museum of Natural History • www.mnh.si.edu 35


Board and Staff Members

T

BOARD MEMBERS

hese charts represent the National Museum of Natural History’s pre-audit sources and uses of funds in fiscal years 2007 and 2008, excluding some centrally provided support such as human resources, accounting, legal services, contracting, and business activities. Federal appropriations are the source of support for most ongoing efforts such as longterm research, collections management, exhibit maintenance, and safety programs. Income from private gifts, grants, and endowments supports some research projects and nearly half of the Museum’s public program activities, providing vital funds for special exhibitions and an ambitious schedule of exhibition renovation. Smithsonian business activities provide funds for short-term projects and some administrative support. Federal grants and contracts underwrite several research projects. Gifts, grants, and endowment income 9%

Government grants and other contracts 6% Unrestricted revenue 2%

Facilities, Scientific research, maintenance, collections, and and safety outreach 41% programs 43%

Gifts, grants, and endowment income 12%

Government grants and other contracts 12% Unrestricted revenue 2%

Facilities, maintenance, and safety programs 39%

Scientific research, collections, and outreach 35%

Mr. Roger W. Sant Board Chair (through November 6, 2008) Washington, D.C. Dr. Paul G. Risser Board Chair (as of November 6, 2008) Norman, Oklahoma Mr. Robin B. Martin Board Vice-Chair Washington, D.C (through May 2008) Dr. Charles Alcock* Washington, D.C. (as of April 2008) Ms. Paula Apsell Boston, Massachusetts (through May 2008) Dr. Paul B. Barton Reston, Virginia Mr. Kenneth Behring Danville, California (through February 2007)

Support from central Smithsonian Institution federal funds 42%

Federal appropriations 41%

Administration 7%

Public programs 9%

FISCAL YEAR 2007

Support from central Smithsonian Institution federal funds Gifts, grants, and endowment income

$45.7 $47.1 $10.3

Facilities, maintenance, and safety programs

Unrestricted revenue

$2.0 $111.3

Federal appropriations $47.9

Scientific research, collections, and outreach

$45.9

Public programs

$10.2

Administration $6.2

34 ANNUAL REPORT 2007–2008

SOURCES OF FUNDS

USES OF FUNDS

Government grants and other contracts Total (in millions)

Federal appropriations 35%

Administration 6%

Public programs 20%

FISCAL YEAR 2008

SOURCES OF FUNDS Federal appropriations

Support from central Smithsonian Institution federal funds 39%

Total (in millions)

$7.3 $111.3

Support from central Smithsonian Institution federal funds Gifts, grants, and endowment income Government grants and other contracts Unrestricted revenue Total (in millions)

USES OF FUNDS $45.4 $49.9 $15.4

Facilities, maintenance, and safety programs Scientific research, collections, and outreach

$44.9

Public programs

$25.5

Administration $15.5 $2.3 $128.5

$50.7

Total (in millions)

$7.4 $128.5

Ms. Kathryn S. Fuller Washington, D.C. Dr. Ira Rubinoff* Panama (March 2007–April 2008) Mr. David H. Koch New York, New York Senator Patrick Leahy Middlesex, Vermont Dr. Jane Lubchenco Corvallis, Oregon Ambassador William H. Luers New York, New York Mr. Whitney MacMillan Wayzata, Minnesota (as of September 2008) Dr. Emilio F. Moran Bloomington, Indiana Dr. Yolanda T. Moses Riverside, California Justice Sandra Day O’Connor Washington, D.C.

Dr. Peter Buck Danbury, Connecticut

Dr. Jerold J. Principato Bethesda, Maryland

Dr. G. Wayne Clough* Washington, D.C. (as of July 2008)

Mr. David M. Rubenstein Washington, D.C.

Mr. Michael J. Collins Coral Gables, Florida

Dr. Cristián Samper* Washington, D.C.

Dr. Rita R. Colwell College Park, Maryland

Dr. Shirley Sherwood London, England

Sir Peter R. Crane Chicago, Illinois

Honorable Timothy E. Wirth Washington, D.C. * Ex-officio members

Dr. David Evans* Arlington, Virginia (through March 2007)

EMERITUS MEMBERS

Mr. John Fahey Washington, D.C.

Mr. I. Michael Heyman Berkley, California

Ms. Gabrielda Febres-Cordero New York, New York

Mrs. Jean Lane Portola Valley, California

Honorable William H. Frist Nashville, Tennessee

Mr. Robert Malott Chicago, Illinois

DR. PAUL G. RISSER Acting Director April 2007–April 2008

SENIOR MANAGEMENT STAFF Dr. Cristián Samper Director

Susan Fruchter Associate Director for Operations

Dr. Paul G. Risser Acting Director (April 2007–April 2008)

Dr. Hans-Dieter Sues Associate Director for Research and Collections

Elizabeth Duggal Associate Director for External Affairs and Public Programs

DEPARTMENT CHAIRS & DIRECTORS Ted Anderson Special Events

Jerald Sachs Guest Services

Dr. Stephen Cairns Invertebrate Zoology

Dr. Ted Schultz Entomology (through September 2007)

Jerry Conlon Facilities Operations (through June 2008)

Rena Selim Exhibitions

Christine Elias Development

Dr. Sorena Sorensen Mineral Sciences

Dr. Terry Erwin Entomology

Dr. Jean-Daniel Stanley Paleobiology (through September 2007)

Randall Kremer Public Affairs Dr. Conrad Labandeira Paleobiology Dr. Rafael Lemaitre Invertebrate Zoology (through September 2008) Dr. Glenn J. MacPherson Mineral Sciences (through September 2007) Matt McDermott Information Technology Dr. Valerie Paul Smithsonian Marine Station Dr. J. Daniel Rogers Anthropology

Dr. Richard Vari Vertebrate Zoology (through September 2008) Dr. Warren Wagner Botany Shari Werb Education and Outreach (as of April 2008) Dr. Don Wilson Vertebrate Zoology Wendy Wiswall Science Programs Chun-Hsi Wong Facilities Operations (from October 2008)

Chip Clark

Financial Summary

During his tenure as Acting Director, Dr. Risser made significant contributions to the Museum. New curators were hired, temporary exhibitions opened, considerable progress occurred on the new permanent halls, and the significant collections move to Pod 5 was smoothly executed. Dr. Risser led the reorganization of the Museum’s entire educational program, ensuring its integration with Museum science. He developed a foundation and framework for strategic planning, and also established a system to enable the Museum to better evaluate its efforts. “I thoroughly enjoyed my time at the Museum,” said Dr. Risser. “I found the staff very welcoming and it was a pleasure to serve with them. They worked hard and well together, and clearly take great pride in their work.”

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This annual report was produced and published by the National Museum of Natural History’s Office of Public Affairs. Editors Randall Kremer Director of Public Affairs Michele Urie Senior Press Officer National Museum of Natural History • www.mnh.si.edu 35


Looking Ahead WRITTEN IN BONE: FORENSIC FILES OF THE 17TH-CENTURY CHESAPEAKE

THE MUSEUM’S NEW LEARNING CENTER Scheduled to open by 2012, a

Written in Bone: Forensic Files of the 17th-Century Chesapeake will

new 14,000-square-foot Learning

employ modern forensic anthropology, archaeology, and historical

Center will act as a center for the

research to tell how the earliest English and African settlers in the

Museum’s onsite and outreach

Chesapeake region lived and died 400 years ago. The 4,800-square-

educational activities. Designed

foot exhibition will be open February 2009 through February 2011.

by the Museum’s education, exhibits, and science departments,

Highlights of the exhibition include skeletal remains and artifacts from

the center will provide a unique

five “Colonial Cold Cases” and an additional 600-square-foot

space to inspire new generations Donald E. Hurlbert

Forensic Anthropology Lab to enable visitors to experience forensic anthropology firsthand by searching for the biological clues used in

Chip Clark

forensic cases. Complementing the exhibition will be a companion book highlighting the work of curators Dr. Douglas Owsley and Kari Bruwelheide and their scientific team, a children’s book, and the exhibition website, writteninbone.si.edu.

of scientists to explore the natural world. In the Learning Center, Museum visitors will examine and compare

actual

specimens,

examine species data through the Encyclopedia of Life, manipulate digital collections, speak directly with research staff, and watch scientists in the field present their latest

THE DAVID H. KOCH HALL OF HUMAN ORIGINS

findings in real time. The Learning Center will offer visitors a new way

The new David H. Koch Hall of Human

to explore exhibitions and serve as a reference point for in-depth

Origins—scheduled to open in early 2010—

discovery afterwards.

will

present

an

innovative

permanent

exhibition that explores milestones in the 6million-year journey of human evolution and Chip Clark

presents scientific discoveries on our species’ ancient ancestry. Unique themes will include the drama of environmental change and the past several million years. It will feature three

Writing, Design, & Production

interactive snapshots of early human fossil

Creative Project Management, Inc. www.creativeprojectmgmt.com Cyndi Wood, President & Writer Michael Molanphy, Designer

sites, a central area devoted to the human family tree, and a theater presentation on the

emergence and worldwide spread of living humans. Highlights will include a recreation of the oldest known human footprints (3.6 million years old), the oldest known tool kit (2.6 million years old), plus fossil skeletons and life-like reconstructions of early human species. 36 ANNUAL REPORT 2007–2008

James Di Loreto

James Di Loreto

emergence of human characteristics over the

Printing: McArdle Printing Company

Special Events

T

he Museum’s unparalleled collections and monumental architecture provide an ideal setting for after-hours special events. Corporations and organizations making an unrestricted contribution to the Museum may co-sponsor a special event in celebration of their gift. Event guests

can enjoy cocktails or dinner in the grand four-story Rotunda and take advantage of the Museum’s many exhibition halls, like the Sant Ocean Hall, Kenneth E. Behring Family Hall of Mammals and the Janet Annenberg Hooker Hall of Geology, Gems and Minerals. www.mnh.si.edu/specialevents


Looking Ahead WRITTEN IN BONE: FORENSIC FILES OF THE 17TH-CENTURY CHESAPEAKE

THE MUSEUM’S NEW LEARNING CENTER Scheduled to open by 2012, a

Written in Bone: Forensic Files of the 17th-Century Chesapeake will

new 14,000-square-foot Learning

employ modern forensic anthropology, archaeology, and historical

Center will act as a center for the

research to tell how the earliest English and African settlers in the

Museum’s onsite and outreach

Chesapeake region lived and died 400 years ago. The 4,800-square-

educational activities. Designed

foot exhibition will be open February 2009 through February 2011.

by the Museum’s education, exhibits, and science departments,

Highlights of the exhibition include skeletal remains and artifacts from

the center will provide a unique

five “Colonial Cold Cases” and an additional 600-square-foot

space to inspire new generations Donald E. Hurlbert

Forensic Anthropology Lab to enable visitors to experience forensic anthropology firsthand by searching for the biological clues used in

Chip Clark

forensic cases. Complementing the exhibition will be a companion book highlighting the work of curators Dr. Douglas Owsley and Kari Bruwelheide and their scientific team, a children’s book, and the exhibition website, writteninbone.si.edu.

of scientists to explore the natural world. In the Learning Center, Museum visitors will examine and compare

actual

specimens,

examine species data through the Encyclopedia of Life, manipulate digital collections, speak directly with research staff, and watch scientists in the field present their latest

THE DAVID H. KOCH HALL OF HUMAN ORIGINS

findings in real time. The Learning Center will offer visitors a new way

The new David H. Koch Hall of Human

to explore exhibitions and serve as a reference point for in-depth

Origins—scheduled to open in early 2010—

discovery afterwards.

will

present

an

innovative

permanent

exhibition that explores milestones in the 6million-year journey of human evolution and Chip Clark

presents scientific discoveries on our species’ ancient ancestry. Unique themes will include the drama of environmental change and the past several million years. It will feature three

Writing, Design, & Production

interactive snapshots of early human fossil

Creative Project Management, Inc. www.creativeprojectmgmt.com Cyndi Wood, President & Writer Michael Molanphy, Designer

sites, a central area devoted to the human family tree, and a theater presentation on the

emergence and worldwide spread of living humans. Highlights will include a recreation of the oldest known human footprints (3.6 million years old), the oldest known tool kit (2.6 million years old), plus fossil skeletons and life-like reconstructions of early human species. 36 ANNUAL REPORT 2007–2008

James Di Loreto

James Di Loreto

emergence of human characteristics over the

Printing: McArdle Printing Company

Special Events

T

he Museum’s unparalleled collections and monumental architecture provide an ideal setting for after-hours special events. Corporations and organizations making an unrestricted contribution to the Museum may co-sponsor a special event in celebration of their gift. Event guests

can enjoy cocktails or dinner in the grand four-story Rotunda and take advantage of the Museum’s many exhibition halls, like the Sant Ocean Hall, Kenneth E. Behring Family Hall of Mammals and the Janet Annenberg Hooker Hall of Geology, Gems and Minerals. www.mnh.si.edu/specialevents


10th Street and Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20560-0135 www.mnh.si.edu


National Museum of Natural History Annual Report 2007-2008