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Caribbean Creatives Promoting Caribbean Creative Industries Promoting the Creative Industries

EPA & Market Access

A Fresh Look at Indigenous Materials

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Exporting Caribbean Creativity

Digital Trade: Is Jamaica Ready?

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PAGE 16 The Trinidad & Tobago Audio-visual Sector PAGE 19

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Contents

www.creativeindustriesexchange.com What is the Creative Industry Exchange? The CIE is an outreach project of the Shridath Ramphal Centre for International Trade Law which was initially funded by the UNESCO, Kingston office. The CIE is a web portal that provides a regional mechanism for the collection, collation, analysis and dissemination of data and information on the cultural/ creative industries. What are the aims and objectives of CIE?

The CIE aims to enhance the image and profile of the Caribbean cultural/ creative industries sector in the regional and international context. ARTICLE PHOTOS Page 3 Jewellery line from Betty Marshall Doll House Creations Church Gap, Hillaby St. Andrew, BARBADOS 246-438-7939/246-269-3834 dollhousecreation@yahoo.com Page 5 Jewellery line from Lucia Joseph TRINIDAD & TOBAGO 868-749-1439 cias2k6@hotmail.com Page 9 Coffee Table Detail by Jean Baptiste Joseph/ PROMOBOIS Entre Remy, route de Nouaille, Croix des Bouquets, HAITI 509-34-65-03-97/ 36-69-88-65 jbjjgalleryisidor@yahoo.fr Page 12 Ceiling Lamp and Book Case by Josnel Bruno/ PROMOBOIS 12, route de Nouaille, Croix des Bouquets, HAITI 509-37-41-78-43 Page 16 Jamaica by David Myrie Exquisite Wicker 92, Hope Road, Kingston 8, JAMAICA 876-582-4370

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PRODUCTION TEAM

Editorial

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Promoting the Creative Industries

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Creative Goods!

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Creative Services

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Creative Intellectual Property

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Dr. Keith Nurse - Director Alicia Nicholls - Research Consultant Stephanie Bishop - Communications Consultant Shridath Ramphal Centre for International Trade Law Policy & Services CARICOM Research Building University of the West Indies Cave Hill Campus St Michael, BARBADOS, BB11000 246.417.4805/246.471.4553 Email: src@cavehill.uwi.edu Website: www.shridathramphalcentre.org

EPA & Market Access

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A Fresh Look at Indigenous Material

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Exporting Caribbean Creativity

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Digital Trade: Is Jamaica Ready?

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Caribbean Film Personality Honoured

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On the cover:

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Pottery by I-Lin in the Pelican Craft Centre, Bridgetown, Barbados

The Trinidad & Tobago Audio-visual Sector

The principal objective of the CIE is to document the economic impact and contribution of the cultural/creative industries to the Caribbean. The CIE aims to facilitate a stronger national and regional framework for the strategic management of the cultural/ creative industries.

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Editorial In this third issue of Caribbean Creatives, we are pleased to have the support of the International Trade Centre (ITC). This issue puts the spotlight on promoting the CARIFORUM creative industries and comes on the heels of a similarly named joint project by the ITC and the Caribbean Export Development Agency (CEDA) which focuses on promoting the CARIFORUM Creative Industries sector as a viable contributor to the export diversification and development of member countries. The first article by Alicia Nicholls provides a critical review of the ITC-CEDA project with a discussion of the potential of the project and its key activities to contribute to the development of the region’s creative industries sector. The magazine then switches focus to consider the challenges and opportunities facing the creative sector by examining the trade in goods, services and intellectual property. The articles by Dr. Keith Nurse and Alicia Nicholls also assess the persistent problem of data collection in the creative industries and outline strategies for improvement. Naturally, any discussion of promoting the creative industries would be incomplete without an exploration of the opportunities which exist for the CARIFORUM creative industries. In her article, Dr. Sandra Browne treats the reader to a fresh look at the underutilized wealth of indigenous materials in the Caribbean which could be used in the production of local artisanal products, while Daenia Ashpole explores the impact of digital trade in the creative economy through an analysis of Jamaica’s reggae and dancehall music. This edition also takes an exciting look at the creation of the Contemporary Caribbean Design brand, born out of the product design workshops under the ITC-CEDA project, and launched at the recently held Design Caribbean Trade Fair, which showcased the best of the Caribbean’s creative splendor. Caribbean Creatives concludes with a look at the success of Cameron Bailey, Barbadian/ Canadian film curator, as well as an assessment of Trinidad & Tobago audio-visual sector. We thank all the contributors, institutions and sponsors that gave graciously to this issue. Keith Nurse, Ph.D Co-ordinator, Creative Industries Exchange Director, Shridath Ramphal Centre for International Trade Law, Policy and Services

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Promoting the CARIFORUM Creative Industries: A Critical Review Photographer: Denyse Ménard-Greenidge

Alicia Nicholls Research Consultant Shridath Ramphal Centre for International Trade Policy Law & Services

Key Project Facts Duration:

September 2010 - September 2011

Scope:

Fifteen CARIFORUM countries

Budget:

1.15 million Euros

Funding Agency:

European Union (EU)

Lead Agency:

International Trade Center (ITC)

Partners:

Caribbean Export Development Agency (CEDA) World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) Jamaica Promotions Corporation (JAMPRO) Femmes en Democratie Export Promotion Agency of the DR (CEI-RD) National Entrepreneurship Development Company Ltd (NEDCO) Barbados Investment Development Corporation (BIDC) National support institutions

Target Groups:

Final Beneficiaries: Some Key Activities:

CEDA, national support institutions, Micro, Medium, and Small Enterprises (MMSEs), Statistical Bureaus Policy-makers, non-targeted MSMEs Training workshops in product design and development, export marketing, and data collection Elaboration of an Export Marketing Strategy for the continued promotion of the Design Caribbean trade fair National Study on the performance and contribution of the creative industries sector to the economy (study being undertaken in T&T and will complement the similar study completed in Jamaica 2007 as well as on-going studies in the OECS) ‘Artesanias de Colombia’ Study Tour Design Caribbean website and emarketing platform

The ‘Promoting the CARIFORUM Creative Industries’ project is a year-long initiative undertaken by the International Trade Centre (ITC) in partnership with the Caribbean Export Development Agency with funding under the European Union’s ProInvest Fund. The project’s specific aims are to build capacity among selected Micro, Medium, and Small Enterprises (MMSEs) to respond to international market demands, particularly with regard to product design and development; to enhance the capacity of its implementing partners (regional and national support institutions – see Box 1) to foster improved marketing and networking services to the creative industries sector and to increase awareness of the CARIFORUM creative industries sector. To this end, the project has three main components: • Strengthening the capacity of the visual arts and crafts sub-sectors to respond to international market demands • Branding and marketing of the visual arts and craft sub-sectors, and • Strengthening data collection; management and dissemination The project, particularly components one and two, build on a CEDA initiative funded by the Canadian Trade Facilitation Office which targeted craft producers and enterprises from several CARIFORUM countries. Five countries were targeted for the first two components of the ITC-CEDA project: Barbados, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica and Trinidad & Tobago. These five countries were selected as they are among the region’s top exporters of creative products and the respective governments have a track record of support for industrial development and export facilitation in the creative sector. For instance, Jamaica has developed a National Export Strategy for Fashion Design, while the budgetary proposals made by the Barbados government in the recent budget presentation include a commitment of $50 million (BDS) over five years to cultural practitioners, as well as a variety of tax relief measures and rebates for equipment. The first two components of the project are synergistic. The project emphasizes creative entrepreneurship, which requires that firms respond to market demands, and entice consumers and audiences through strong branding and marketing strategies. The third component of the project is equally important as accurate and consistent data is needed for business and strategic planning. Why Promote the Creative Sector? Although CARIFORUM countries possess an abundance of creative talent, the economic role of the region’s creative industries sector has been largely undocumented and traditionally outside the scope of economic planning and development. Recognition of the need to diversify CARIFORUM countries‘ economic base has occasioned a paradigm shift (at least in rhetoric) in the way the creative industries are viewed by policy makers in some CARIFORUM countries. The ITC –CEDA project targets the craft and the visual arts sub-sectors. The focus on these two sub-sectors as opposed to the more widely touted music industry is not unjustified as there is an international market for these products. continued on page 4

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The UNCTAD Creative Economy Report of 2010 is instructive as it shows that in 2008, the art crafts and visual arts sub-sectors accounted for 7.9% and 7.3% of world exports of creative goods respectively (UNCTAD 2010). Unfortunately, similar trade data is not widely available on the visual arts and crafts sub-sectors for CARIFORUM countries. What is known is that most CARIFORUM craft and visual artists do not earn enough income from their work to allow for full-time employment in these sub-sectors. Their sales are often not officially recorded in national databases and there is limited regulation of these subsectors. Further, the lack of economies of scale means it is improbable that CARIFORUM countries would be competitive in the mass market for these products. To this end, the project’s focus on high-end niche markets is a more realistic approach. Further, while creative talent abounds, many regional artists lack the business knowledge to be able to export successfully. In many cases the business support structures which are supposed to address this deficit are weak. A Rapid Needs Assessment undertaken under component one of the project found that while business support organizations (BSOs) offered support in management, there was a low level of support in the critical areas of design and production. Nonetheless, while the current contribution of these sub-sectors in CARIFORUM countries is not documented, investment in these two sub-sectors can potentially reduce poverty while promoting the economic empowerment of rural dwellers and women, the two demographics which are most likely to depend on these sub-sectors for income. However, without adequate data on the level of employment in these sub-sectors, it is difficult to accurately gauge how much of a developmental impact such an investment can have. Critically, the ITC-CEDA project recognizes that the bar needs to be raised in terms of product design, quality, branding and marketing if CARIFORUM craft products are to be competitive in a high end niche market. To this effect, craft producers and entrepreneurs from the five CARIFORUM countries were selected to take part in workshops centered on product design and export marketing. The best of these producers were among the exhibitors at the Design Caribbean Trade Fair which took place from September 1st-4th in the Dominican Republic. The project also seeks to leverage the power of the internet for creating greater exposure for CARIFORUM craft entrepreneurs. CEDA will be responsible for transforming the official website of the Design Caribbean trade fair (http://www.designcaribbean.com) into an e-marketing platform for products from the region throughout the year with funds provided by the project. The project also sought to share international best practices and foster South-South cooperation through its study tour to Colombia, a country which has developed a successful high-end creative export sector. Participants in this tour, which included representatives from government, development agencies and ministries, universities, trade support institutions and industry associations, were able to share best practices in product development and branding targeted at high end and niche markets. Component three, which focuses on strengthening data collection, management and dissemination in CARIFORUM countries, is the most important aspect of the project. This component focuses on data collection not just in the two sub-sectors identified but in the creative industries sector as a whole. Data collection on the region’s creative industries sector is poor because of the lack of adequate definitions and measurement by CSOs. The ITC can play a role in this regard as this agency has considerable experience in data analysis. The project also leverages the expertise of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) which has already developed a methodology for capturing data on the contribution of the copyright industries for three indicators: GDP, trade and employment. Coming out of this component will be a database of existing data which builds on WIPO country studies on the copyright industries in Jamaica and the countries of the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS), as well as a study on Trinidad and Tobago which will be supported by this current project. Completion of these studies is only part of the work as these will have to be updated on a regular basis if they are to continue to be useful. This was one of the objectives of the training seminar that took place in St. Lucia in March. The data generated from the database will be an important step in helping to map the contribution of the sector to the region, which should hopefully lead to increased policy awareness of the sector’s contributions and allow for more targeted policy interventions for the development of the sector as a whole and its constituent sub-sectors. From Market Access to Market Penetration The ITC–CEDA project confirms and reinforces what several existing studies have already revealed: the creative industries sector has the potential to contribute to the region’s export diversification efforts and development but there are many challenges to be addressed. Though the project is nearing completion, it will be a precursor to a larger initiative on the sector to be supported by the 10th European Development Fund (EDF). continued on page 5

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However, projects like this are not enough by themselves to transform the CARIFORUM creative industries sector into an engine for growth and economic development. To fulfill this role, the creative industries sector as a whole and its constituent subsectors require more targeted and sustained interventions and investments by the Government, regional bodies, national stakeholders and educational institutions, as well as increased investment by cultural entrepreneurs and artists. While design workshops are useful and the feedback by participants has been positive, there is the need for improved training at the tertiary level for local craft and visual artists through courses which focus not only on creativity but the business side of the industry. There is also the need for better enforcement and updated legislation in some CARIFORUM countries to protect artists’ intellectual property and resale rights, as well as greater awareness by the artists themselves of their rights and of the export opportunities which exist under the various trade agreements their home countries have signed. Additionally, the impact of this project will be short-lived if there is no follow-up by policy makers in terms of the initiatives started or the recommendations made. Thankfully, when asked how likely they were to apply the lessons learnt, all of the respondents in the study tour to Colombia, indicated “very likely”. This is an encouraging sign and it is hoped that such followup will indeed be done. Overall it can be argued that through this project CARIFORUM countries stand to benefit from the ITC’s technical assistance and its strong expertise and experience in trade data analysis and capacity building. The project also benefitted from the expertise of CEDA which has facilitated trade, research and capacity building in the regional creative industries sector for several years. However, one of the key criticisms that could be made is that there was limited consultation with stakeholders at the national level during the project’s design. Secondary consultations only took place after the design of the project had been already decided. However, any critique in this regard also bears in mind the project’s tight timeframe. This only emphasizes the need for regional governments and agencies to expand investment in the sector and to build institutional capacity rather than being overly reliant on externally funded projects with short life cycles. Longer-term interventions and strategic planning are needed if the CARIFORUM creative industries sector is to realistically contribute to regional development and export diversification. One thing that warrants consideration is whether a project like this can help CARIFORUM cultural entrepreneurs capitalize on the market access concessions granted by the European Union (EU) under the CARIFORUM-EC Economic Partnership Agreement (CARIFORUM-EC EPA). The EU has granted duty-free access to CARIFORUM countries’ cultural goods, while CARIFORUM and EC countries have agreed to facilitate the entry into and temporary stay in their territories for up to 90 days (in any twelve month period) of artists and other cultural professionals and practitioners under certain conditions. The ease with which CARIFORUM artists are allowed to enter EU countries would be contingent upon immigration and visa requirements. Moreover, to be considered an artist, cultural professional and practitioner, persons must operate under registered businesses or contractual service suppliers (CSS) and possess at least three years of professional experience. As previously mentioned, many of the region’s visual and craft artists are not full-time but practice their trade part-time. This poses a problem for market access as there is currently no regional Volume 3 July - September 2011

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accreditation board or any way of certifying who is a professional artist in CARIFORUM. While the project’s product development training programmes focus primarily on the perspective of European markets in terms of quality and branding, it is up to CARIFORUM countries themselves to tackle the problems of accreditation of cultural practitioners if market access for the region’s creative goods and services is to translate into market penetration. Despite this, there are opportunities that can be explored. Colombia has shown interest in inviting producer delegations from the region to exhibit at their annual fair and there is already a goods-only Colombia-CARICOM trade agreement which unfortunately remains under utilised by CARICOM countries. Moreover, the Design Caribbean trade fair can serve as a launching pad for future exports. It is hoped that CEDA, which is the organizer of the Design Caribbean trade fair, had tracked the flows of actual sales as well as orders made during the fair. Such data will be useful in highlighting the actual and potential financial benefits such a trade fair can offer to regional producers. Further information on this ITC-CEDA project and its constituent activities and outputs may be obtained by visiting the project’s webpage: www.intracen.org/projects/cariforum-creatives/ and its Facebook page: http://www.facebook.com/pages/CariforumCreatives/106441792782510. The author is extremely grateful to Ms. Jeanette Sutherland, Senior Trade Promotion Officer at the ITC, for providing background materials and insights which were invaluable in the writing of this critique. Sources: http://www.nationnews.com/articles/view/help-for-culture-industry-lauded/ http://www.unctad.org/en/docs/ditctab20103_en.pdf

Photographer: Kerron Lemessy

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Creative Goods Dr. Keith Nurse & Alicia Nicholls Creative goods are the most readily identifiable form of creative output. They include paintings, CDs, books and other tangible forms of creative expression. While data collection for world creative goods trade is not perfect, the tangibility of creative goods lends to easier data collection than obtains for intangibles such as creative services and intellectual property. The most complete publicly available data and analysis of creative industries trade both for CARIFORUM countries and the world is found in the UNCTAD Creative Economy Report (2010). According to the UNCTAD Creative Economy Report (2010), the value of world creative goods exports grew on an annual average by 11.5% between 2002 and 2008, with the total value of exports of creative goods being $407 billion in 2008. Developed countries accounted for the largest share of creative goods exports (56%) in 2008. On the other hand, developing countries’ creative goods exports more than doubled from $76 billion to $176 billion between 2002 and 2008 and accounted for 43% of creative goods exports in 2008. However, this is mainly due to China’s export expansion so that without China, developing countries’ share drops to 22% (UNCTAD 2010). Turning to the Caribbean, the picture appears in keeping with the general trend for developing countries. The Caribbean region generated a negative balance in trade of creative goods over the 2003 to 2008 period. For example, in 2008 the region imported $1,244 million in creative goods and only exported $551 million in that same year, resulting in a negative balance of $693 million (see Figure 1). Figure 2 provides data on the import and export of creative goods for several Caribbean countries for the year 2006, which is the best year in terms of coverage and consistency for the region. What the data shows is that the Dominican Republic was CARIFORUM’s largest importer and exporter of creative goods as well as the only country to generate a positive balance. All the other countries registered sizable negative balances. Figure 1: Comparison of Caribbean Creative Exports and Imports, 2003-2008

Figure 2: Caribbean Creative Goods Imports and Exports (2006 $M)

Source: UNCTAD (2010)

The Creative Economy Report relies primarily on data from the United Nations’ COMTRADE database. As the data in this database is reported by the central statistical offices (CSOs) of the individual countries, the data in the database and in the report can only be as complete and as accurate as that provided by the CSOs. This reality explains why the creative goods trade data for CARIFORUM countries are not as disaggregated as that for other countries included in the Report. Available data also do not usually indicate CARIFORUM countries’ main export and import markets for creative goods. This means that the current contribution of creative goods trade to Caribbean economies remains underestimated and undervalued. The poor performance of the Caribbean in the creative goods sector relates to a number of factors. The shift towards the digital and Internet economy has lead to the deindustrialization of the region. Investments in the regional industries did not keep pace with the new technologies, for example, the move towards digital music (e.g. CDs, DVDs and later digital downloads). Where the region has remained competitive is in niche areas like instrument manufacturing. For instance, the steel pan industry in Trinidad and Tobago accounts for eighty percent of that country’s exports of creative goods. As shown in the Figure 3 below, Trinidad and Tobago’s steel pan exports fluctuated over the 1999 to 2008 period but have risen over the 2006 to 2008 period to TT$4,000,000. Figure 3: Steelpan Instruments Exports, 1999-2008 (TT$)

Source: UNCTAD (2010)

Source: Trinidad & Tobago’s Central Statistical Office continued on page 7

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Box 1: Panland – Panmakers of the World Panland Trinidad and Tobago Ltd began in 1993 as Trinidad & Tobago Instruments Ltd. Becoming Panland Trinidad and Tobago Ltd in October, 2006, it is the largest manufacturer, exporter and marketer of the steelpan instrument. It is located in Laventille, the heart and birthplace of the steelpan instrument. It is also the largest employer of dedicated experts in the industry. Products Panland’s wide range of steel pan products includes the color of pan collection, the medallion chrome collection, accessories, literature and media and packages. Panland also provides a comprehensive range of services, including tuning and blending, training, consultation, entertainment and powder coating. Awards Panland has won a number of awards, including the Emerging Entrepreneur of the Year – Trinidad & Tobago (1998) and Finalist Entrepreneur of the Year – Caribbean Region (2000). Source: Official website of Panland www.panlandtt.com.

What this analysis suggests is that the existing data on CARIFORUM countries’ creative goods trade is far from complete and does not accurately reflect the contribution which creative goods trade is making to regional economies. According to Harrison (2009), several root problems account for this poor data collection. First, there is the lack of standardisation of definitions, methodologies of data collection procedures, methods of analysis and dissemination of data and common classification systems. Second, CARIFORUM countries’ central statistic offices tend to suffer from inadequate human, material and financial resources which make data collection and analysis difficult. Third, inadequate attention is paid to social statistics due to the traditional pre-occupation with economic statistics. Unless these issues are addressed, it will be difficult to gain an accurate picture of CARIFORUM creative goods trade or to engage in strategic planning for the sector. Sources http://www.unctad.org/creative-economy/ Harrison, P. (2006). Issues and Challenges in Data Collection – Suggestions for Measuring the Creative Industries – A Regional Perspective. Retrieved from http:// www.caricom.org/jsp/community_organs/cohsod_culture/wipo_caricom_2006/Issues%20and%20Challenges%20in%20Data%20Collection%20%20A%20Regional %20Perspective%20-%20Philoment%20Harrison.pdf.

Creative Services Dr. Keith Nurse & Alicia Nicholls The trade in creative services is the fastest growing component of the global creative economy. According to the UNESCO Framework for Cultural Statistics (2009), cultural services “do not represent material cultural goods in themselves but facilitate their production and distribution”. Services which are typically defined as having a creative element include: architectural services, advertising, cultural and recreational services, creative research and development (R&D), digital and other related creative services (UNCTAD 2010). Statistical tools for the measurement and conceptualization of services trade have tended to lag behind those for goods trade. The net result is that the true value of global creative services trade is most likely underestimated and in reality, trade in creative services is probably larger than trade in creative goods. Timely and accurate data on creative services trade are needed not just for policy planning, but are important for trade negotiators when seeking market access commitments.

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The World Trade Organisation (WTO)’s General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) is the only set of multilateral rules governing the international trade in services, including creative services. It identifies four modes through which the international trade in services can take place. In mode 1 (cross-border supply), both the service supplier and the consumer remain in their respective territories and the service is supplied through, for example, the Internet. Mode 2 (consumption abroad) takes place when consumers are outside their home territory and consume services abroad, for example, tourism. In mode 3 (commercial presence), services suppliers establish or acquire an affiliate in a foreign country with the aim of supplying services to local consumers. Finally, mode 4 (presence of natural persons) refers to where the service supplier is temporarily present in the country of the consumer to supply services. These modes can also be applied to the trade in creative services (see Table 1).

The UNCTAD Creative Economy Report (2010) provides the most complete data on world creative services trade. According to this report, between 2002 and 2008, creative services exports grew by 17.1% compared to world exports of creative goods which grew by 11.5% during the same period. In 2008, creative services accounted for 31.26% of total creative exports, compared to 23.29% in 2002. Exports of creative services tripled in value from $62 billion in 2002 to $185 billion in 2008 (UNCTAD 2010). The availability of creative services data in national balance of payments varies across CARIFORUM countries. The majority of CARIFORUM countries include data on royalties and license fees in their balance of payments, while just over half provide such data for computer and information services. In contrast, only a quarter of CARIFORUM countries include data on advertising, market research and public opinion polling in their balance of payments. continued on page 8

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Table 1: Modes of Supply and Trade in Creative Services

Mode of Supply

Description

Caribbean Exports

Cross-Border Supply (Mode 1)

Downloads of music or movies Low through the Internet

Consumption Abroad (Mode 2)

Activities like cultural, festival, High heritage tourism

Commercial Presence (Mode 3)

Establishment of a branch or subsidiary to provide services

Movement of natural persons (Mode 4)

Travel abroad by artist or band High to provide services. E.g. Tours.

Low

Box 1: Profile on the St. Lucia Jazz Festival The St. Lucia Jazz Festival is one of the most widely anticipated events on the region’s entertainment calendar. Held in May, the impetus behind the creation of the festival was to increase visitor arrivals to the island during a traditionally slow period of the year for tourist arrivals. A world class event, St. Lucia jazz includes a tantalizing line-up of contemporary regional and international artistes. St. Lucia benefits from the exposure received through marketing the event and the festival has been able to generate a number of new and repeat visitors each year. Much of the data on visitor perception and expenditure comes from the exit survey done by the St Lucia Tourist Board which targets patrons of the event. Both the 2009 and 2010 surveys showed that most visitor expenditure was spent on accommodation. In 2010, some 48% of expenditure was on accommodation, while only 10.3% was spent on jazz events and merchandise. According to the survey report of 2010, one-third of the nonnational respondents came from the USA (35%), with a quarter coming from the Caribbean (26%) and slightly less from the UK (22%). The non-resident nationals also primarily came from the Caribbean (38%) and USA (36%). The Canadian market saw the highest percentage of repeat visitors. Source: Caribbean Creatives expresses its gratitude to the St. Lucia Ministry of Tourism for providing this data.

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Fewer still include statistics on personal, cultural and recreational services; audio-visual and related services and architectural, engineering and other technical consultancy services. The international transactions relating to certain services such as festival and heritage tourism and performance arts are in principle included in either the EBOPS item travel (when it is the consumer moving to the country of the producer, i.e. mode 2) or in personal, cultural and recreational services (for mode 1 and 4). However, only 22% of CARIFORUM countries provide data in their BOP for personal, cultural and recreational services. What the above shows is that while creative services trade occurs in the region, the lack of data makes it difficult to give a complete picture of the extent of this trade, the main markets and the market access barriers. The majority of CARIFORUM countries’ trade in creative services takes place through Mode 2 (consumption abroad) in the form of festival and heritage tourism and through Mode 4 (temporary movement of natural persons) through performances in key markets like the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada and France. Festivals are a major component of CARIFORUM countries’ events and tourism calendar. The region’s three largest festivals (Trinidad and Tobago Carnival, the St. Lucia Jazz Festival and the Barbados Crop Over Festival) regularly conduct exit surveys which provide quality data on visitor arrivals. These surveys show that the festivals have contributed to visitor expenditures, airlift and hotel occupancy rates. Box 1 presents some of this data for the St. Lucia Jazz Festival. While festivals in the region are inextricably linked to CARIFORUM countries’ tourism sector, recent studies have highlighted their importance in contributing to diaspora tourism. Festivals such as Surifesta and Avond Vier Daagse are important for Suriname’s diaspora tourism market. Besides local festivals, there are several Caribbean carnivals which take place mainly in cities in the United States, the United Kingdom and Canada, which have sizable Caribbean diasporic communities. These are Caribana in Toronto, Labour Day in New York and Notting Hill in London. Heritage tourism is another important creative services export for the region. A study commissioned by the Caribbean Tourism Organisation (2009) found that heritage tourism sites in the Region can be classified into four types: natural attractions, cultural/ heritage attractions, manmade attractions and events. One of the most successful heritage tourism sites is Jamaica’s Bob Marley Museum. In 2006, total earnings were US$280,000 for the last fiscal year 2006, which was a 20% increase over 2005 (CTO, 2009). Given the above, the argument can therefore be advanced that creative services trade is making a bigger contribution to CARIFORUM economies than current available data shows. Several reasons account for the disparity between existing data and current CARIFORUM services trade realities. First, as previously mentioned there is the lack of adequate and uniform methodologies for defining and measuring creative services. The recommendations of the new Manual on Statistics of International Trade in Services (MSITS 2010) can help in clarifying the classification of international services transactions involving a "creativity" component * MSITS 2010 is a joint publication of Eurostat, IMF, OECD, UNCTAD, UNSD, UNWTO and WTO and is designed to help governments equip themselves with better statistical tools for economic analysis. It uses a dual approach by promoting consistency with existing classifications related to services and extending them where necessary. MSITS 2010 is fully consistent with the 6th edition of the IMF Balance of Payments and contains the revised Extended Balance of Payments Services classification (EBOPS 2010). Sources: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/statcom/doc10/BG-FCS-E.pdf http://www.unctad.org/en/docs/ditctab20103_en.pdf CTO (2008). Development of a Strategic Business Management Model for the Sustainable Development of Heritage Tourism Products in the Caribbean. Bridgetown: Caribbean Tourism Organisation.

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Creative Intellectual Property Dr. Keith Nurse & Alicia Nicholls Intellectual property is a key area for the monetization and commercialization of creative products and services. Digitization has accelerated this process. Copyright protection is the form of IP rights protection most used to protect creative products. Earnings from copyright include royalties, licensing and digital rights management. Creative intellectual property is rising in importance to the Caribbean economy as exemplified by the findings of the WIPO country study on Jamaica which revealed that the copyright industries contributed 4.8% of Jamaica’s gross domestic product (GDP) while employing 32,032 persons or 3.03% of its population. In CARIFORUM, only 61% of countries include data in their national balance of payments on royalties. The most reliable source of data comes from the royalty inflows and outflows collected by the region’s collective management organizations, several of which are members of Caribbean Copyright Link (see Box 1). continued on page 10

Box 1: Caribbean Copyright Link Caribbean Copyright Link is a regional umbrella association made up of collection management societies in the Caribbean. Founded in 2000, the principal aim of CCL is to place regional authors, composers and publishers in a better position to collect royalties from international markets. CCL itself does not collect royalties. This is done by its member societies. However, the CCL secretariat functions primarily to reduce costs and to assist member organisations with the sharing of data and the management of works. To this effect, CCL operates and monitors a centralised database. The registered office is located in Port-of-Spain, Trinidad. The four founding members of CCL were the Copyright Organisation of Trinidad and Tobago (COTT), the Copyright Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers Incorporated (COSCAP) in Barbados, the Jamaican Association of Composers, Authors and Publishers Limited (JACAP) in Jamaica and the Eastern Caribbean Copyright Organization for Music Rights Incorporated (ECCO). Since then, its membership has expanded to include the Agencia Cubana de Derecho de Autor Musical (ACDAM), Stichting Auteursrechten Suriname (SASUR), the Belize Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers (BSCAP),the Jamaica Music Society (JAMMS) and the Jamaican Copyright Licensing Agency (JAMCOPY). Membership in CCL Founding territories reached 5,344 in 2008. Source: Official website of Caribbean Copyright Link www.cc-link.net. Volume 3 July - September 2011

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For the Caribbean, CISAC (2011) reports that in 2009, a total of €3,300 million was collected, with the bulk (€3,294 million) being for music and only €5 million for nonmusical collections. As shown in Figure 1 below, Caribbean collections have fluctuated between 2007 and 2009, with a dip in 2008. Figure 1: Collections by Caribbean Collection Societies, 2007 - 2009

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According to Caribbean Copyright Link, gross licensing collections in CCL territories in 2009 were US$4,000,000. Payments to major territories increased from US$177,088 in 2003 to US$752,802 in 2008. The major countries to which remittances were sent were the United States, the United Kingdom and the Caribbean. Given the success of many of the Caribbean recording artists it is surprising the relatively low levels of royalties coming to the region. This can be explained by the fact that many of the region’s artists and authors are not members of the various national copyright societies. Another challenge relates to the under-reporting of Caribbean music particularly in the United States. Copyright societies like the American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers (ASCAP) and Broadcast Music, Inc. (BMI) only survey the top radio stations and highest grossing concerts and so a significant share of the public performances of Caribbean music goes undocumented. In terms of the way forward, it is increasingly recognized that intellectual property institutions need to be strengthened to monitor and collect the value embedded in creative products. This includes capacity building along with public education. There also needs to be more active involvement by copyright owners in the dissemination, marketing and export of copyright works. Lastly, a change in perspective is required to fully appreciate the economic value of the creative industries Source: Mark James, V. (2007). The Economic Contribution of Copyright-Based Industries in Jamaica. Retrieved from http://www.wipo.int/ip-development/en/creative_industry/pdf/1009E-3.pdf.

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The EPA & Market Access The first key element of the CARIFORUM-EU Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) from the perspective of the cultural sector is the level of trade liberalization between the CARIFORUM countries and the EU where for the first time the EU has made a comprehensive offer in the liberalization of entertainment services (CPC 9619) other than audio-visual services (see Box 1). The rules of the Services and Investment chapter and the general provisions of the EPA govern the liberalization of the entertainment and cultural services. Under the EPA, CARIFORUM countries secured market access commitments by 27 European states, with some limitations in two states, Germany and Austria. While these commitments take effect immediately for the EC-15, these apply as of 1 January 2011for the EC-10 and as of 1 January 2014 for Bulgaria and Romania.

Under Mode 4 provisions artists, cultural practitioners and professionals will enjoy the same basis for entry as business professionals once they are CSS or registered businesses. For entertainment and cultural services, the following conditions apply for contractual service suppliers: 1.

The natural persons are engaged in the supply of a service on a temporary basis as employees of a juridical person (firm or company), which has obtained a service contract for a period not exceeding 12 months.

2.

The natural persons entering the other Party should be offering such services as an employee of the juridical person supplying the services for at least the year immediately preceding the date of submission of an application for entry into the other Party. In addition, the natural persons must possess, at the date of submission of an application for entry into the other Party, at least three years professional experience in the sector of activity which is the subject of the contract.

3.

The natural person shall not receive remuneration for the provision of services other than the remuneration paid by the contractual service supplier during its stay in the other Party.

4.

The temporary entry and stay of natural persons within the Party concerned shall be for a cumulative period of not more than six months or, in the case of Luxembourg, 25 weeks, in any twelve month period or for the duration of the contract, whatever is less.

5.

Access accorded under the provisions of this Article relates only to the service activity which is the subject of the contract; it does not confer entitlement to exercise the professional title of the Party where the service is provided.

6.

The number of persons covered by the service contract shall not be larger than necessary to fulfill the contract, as it may be decided by the laws, regulations and requirements of the European Community and the Member State where the service is supplied.

Box 1: EU Services Commitments - Entertainment Services CPC 9619 (other than audio-visual) Box 1: EU Services Commitments - Entertainment services CPC 9619 (other than audio-visual) 96191 - Theatrical producer, singer group, band and orchestra entertainment services 96192 - Services provided by authors, composers, sculptors, entertainers and other individual artists 96193 - Ancillary theatrical services n.e.c. 96194 - Circus, amusement park and similar attraction services 96195 - Ballroom, discotheque and dance instructor services 96199 - Other entertainment services n.e.c.

Trade in international services is supplied through one or a combination of four modes. Under the services chapter in the EPA the EU has liberalized its market to different degrees (relative to its offer in the Doha Development Agenda (DDA)) in each of the modes of supply. In Mode 1 (cross-border supply) the margin of preference granted to CARIFORUM countries is not very significant given that the EU listed reservations. Similarly, in Mode 2 (consumption abroad) the gains have not been very high given that this is the least restricted mode of supply. In Mode 3 (commercial presence) there are the expected exclusions for the audio-visual sector but there are general improvements, for instance the fact that the commitments cover more EU Member States; and that they involve the removal of many nationality requirements, some residency requirements and limitations on juridical form. The area where the CARIFORUM countries gained the highest level of preference is in terms of Mode 4 (movement of natural persons). The EPA provides for quota free market access for temporary entry (for up to six months in a calendar year) by contractual service suppliers (CSS) and employees of these services firms. Market access is subject to qualification requirements and economic needs tests. Volume 3 July - September 2011

In trade policy terms the quota free market access for CSS is an important achievement for the CARIFORUM countries. It offers some level of preference because very few EU Member States have commitments for the temporary movement in entertainment services. This is also a critical area for diversification of the Caribbean export economy and to boost competitiveness in other related services like tourism and e-commerce This article is an excerpt from Keith Nurse, "The Economic Partnership Agreement and the Creative Sector: Implications and Prospects For Cariforum" Â in The Cariforum-EU Economic Partnership Agreement: A Practitioners' Analysis, edited by A. Beviglia Zampetti and J. Lodge, London, Kluwer International 2011, 149 - 163.

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Indigenous Materials A fresh look at available wealth from your back yard Sandra O. Brown, PhD The Caribbean as a region, based on its geographic location and its faunal stock, possesses a wide range of indigenous raw materials for use in crafts production. Indigenous raw materials in this article refer to animal or vegetable materials which are resident in the Caribbean and which are used, or, suitable for use in the production of quality crafts which are capable of competing against highend crafts in the international arena. From Guyana on the South American continent, with its Amazonian rainforests and vast resources, to Jamaica in the North with its equally verdant fields, mountainous terrain and diverse flora, artisans of the region have a sufficient stock for ample choice-selection and product diversification. Barbados too, with its comparatively small land mass and hence limited supply of raw materials still has a wealth of materials which are currently underutilized or in some cases never used. This situation obtains regionally because there exists a relatively small number of artisans who are prepared to exploit these resources in a sustained manner, while the majority prefer to source extra-regional resources which come from the “ship to their doors” as it were. Raw materials can be grouped into three broad classifications – vegetable, animal and mineral. These classes may then be divided into subgroups or categories which include fibres, vegetable and animal; woods; clays and minerals; leathers; bones and horns; shells, animal and vegetable and seeds. The region is well-endowed with all of them. In Barbados for example, the most abundant resource now used is clay, used liberally for domestic In this photo, Dr. Brown examines an over pottery and for commercial 50-year old Dung Basket made of wild vines use in roof and floor tiles; Guyana with its huge land mass is rich in woods and fibres. In a 1993 survey of raw materials in Guyana, Elaine Walcott notes that while all ten of Guyana’s regions have abundant resources, “the most widely utilized materials are found in the hinterland regions of the country” and include the vegetable fibres nibbi, kufa and tibisiri (6). Jamaica has diverse straws and fibres used in crafts production such as Jippi-Jappa, silver thatch, big thatch, sisal and many more. Likewise for many of the other islands which all share a similar stock of vegetation but may maintain individuality by using one or other fibres more than sister islands. Consequently, Dominica basketwork is recognized through the use of the Larouma reed while artisans in St. Vincent exploit Pandanus. However, while artisans throughout the region make reasonably good use of traditional materials, there are yet many more materials left under-used or not used at all. Some of these include coconut wood and coir, sugar cane fibre in particular, most plant fibres including banana and ornamentals, grasses and sedges, fish skin, fish scales, cow horn, bones, and of course skins/hides from many animals such as pig, sheep, goat, rabbit and cow. All of these materials present themselves for exploitation but are not now used or used sparingly. Fish skin for example presents the combined region with tons of raw material annually which is now wasted or minimally used in the production of animal feed. Fish skins are a valuable raw material suitable for the production of fine exotic leathers. Pelagic fish in particular present with skins ideally suited for leather production as do some locally occurring types such as Turpits (pot fish) and Triggerfish (Old wife) with their leathery skins. continued on page 13 12

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Production of Fish leather provides a relatively new industry to the region and reduces the dependence on bovine leather imported from extra-regional sources. Fish leather provides artisans and designers with a new material, and aids in the environmental thrust to reduce, reuse, recycle. A spin-off from the tanning of fish skin reduces yet more wastage, through the collection of scales for other crafts like jewelry-making and costume design. Crafts contribute to sustainable development by using traditional skills and readily available raw materials. But whose responsibility is it to identify these materials and to promote their use? Artisans do not always see past the “received knowledge” of usage of traditional materials and practice. They generally stay with the tried and tested. It is, therefore, the business of crafts administrators, product developers and designers to introduce new possibilities in crafts production in collaboration with relevant agents in ministries, universities and support organizations. This is the practice in Barbados where the crafts coordinator is currently in discussion with the relevant fisheries officer on the possibility of production of fish leather in the island. On other occasions, discussions have been engaged with relevant agricultural personnel on the propagation of bamboo and rattan and on the increased planting of Khus-Khus (Vetiver) grass. Business support organizations on the other hand should promote these initiatives as business opportunities for SMEs.

! Soap dish of Coconut wood

Possible Raw Materials for Usage Fish Skin - Leather Fish Scales - Accessories & Jewellery Cow Bones & Horns - Accessories & Jewellery Pig, Cow, Sheep Skin - Leather Dye-producing plants, Onion skins, Turmeric, Seeds - Dyes Grasses, Sedges - Basketry & Furniture Flowers - Paper, Perfumes, Oils, Dyes Sugar Cane - Basketry & Paper Coconut Wood - Construction, Furniture & Crafts Coconut Coir - Horticulture, Crafts & Household

! Sample of Salmon Leather

Consequently, crafts administrators and product developers/ designers need to be proactive to remain aware of initiatives worldwide at all levels of crafts activity. Initiatives such as the Global Natural Fibres Forum, for example, which seeks to expand the usage of coconut, banana and other fibres in artisanal production throughout the Commonwealth should be on the radar of all regional crafts administrators to explore any opportunities for collaboration with other Commonwealth members for the benefit of Caribbean artisans. Could a similar initiative be spearheaded by a Caribbean committee with the assistance of agencies such as the International Trade Centre to explore for example, the development of indigenous dyes from local plants to reduce the importation of dyes from extraregional sources? A singular project in this direction is being attempted in Barbados between a fashion group and the local community college seeking to revive the centuries old tradition of indigo dye production. However, it would be more than useful were assistance and leadership forthcoming from the University of the West Indies in these areas which require research capabilities. Such would demonstrate an understanding of the shared responsibilities for innovation and product development at all levels of the social partnership and an acknowledgement of the popular motto, “God helps those who help themselves.” Or, perhaps with the current emphasis on heritage awareness, assistance can be garnered with the revival of “lost” crafts using indigenous materials. What, for example, has become of the pre-emancipation practice of making bark lace from the lace-bark tree (Lagetta lintearia) in Jamaica or the practice of making Sailor’s Valentines of sea-shells in Barbados? There are many more initiatives that may be explored using indigenous raw materials but there must be a willingness by all parties to see these materials as worthy of use and as a real source of revenue in their own back yards Sandra O. Browne is the Craft Development Coordinator in the Entrepreneurial Development Division of the Barbados Investment & Development Corporation.

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Exporting Caribbean Creativity to the World: The ‘Contemporary Caribbean Design’ Collection Alicia Nicholls The eagerly awaited launch of the ‘Contemporary Caribbean Design’ collection at the Design Caribbean trade fair in the Dominican Republic sought to highlight the export potential of Caribbean creative goods by showcasing the best of Caribbean creativity to the world. " The Contemporary Caribbean Design collection was born out of several product design training workshops which were held in five CARIFORUM countries: Barbados, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica and Trinidad &Tobago. These workshops had the mandate of producing Caribbean products by combining local craft traditions and contemporary design. This joint initiative by the International Trade Centre (ITC) and the Caribbean Export Development Agency builds on a successfully implemented pilot project supported by Canada’s Trade Facilitation Office (TFO) which focused on improving the design skills of craft entrepreneurs in the selected Caribbean countries. The initiative also built on the Caribbean Gift and Craft Show which the Caribbean Export Development Agency has managed for the past fifteen years.

product designs. The project team conducted research with the assistance of national museums to identify the characteristics of the local culture of each participating country and the lessons learnt from this field research were critical in highlighting the region’s unique cultural traits. In addition to the creation of a local design team, a local designer was selected to be a part of the team and was in charge of facilitating national linkages and following up with the selected companies throughout the training cycle.

The product design workshops were just but one of the activities undertaken under the larger year-long ‘Promoting the CARIFORUM Creative Industries’ project, jointly implemented by the ITC and Caribbean Export Development Agency. The wider project aims to promote the creative industries sector as a viable contributor to CARIFORUM countries’ export diversification and export growth goals. In an effort to create an authentic contemporary Caribbean Design brand, considerable research went into the planning of the product design training workshops to ensure that the local craft traditions of the five countries were incorporated into the training and

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Five-day creative workshops were held in each of the five participating countries in which a total of seventy (70) participants from the five countries took part. The selection of the participants was based on six (6) main criteria: technical criteria, production capacity, quality technology, ability to export, personal motivation of entrepreneurs/producers and their interest in moving beyond their comfort zone. These workshops had the twin goals of enhancing the quality of their design in the production process and to improve their export marketing skills and know-how." During the five days, the participants were trained in a myriad of product development areas including: new production techniques, concept development and sketches, modeling, prototyping, creative strategy and identity building and product packaging. In order to ensure continuity, a group of designers and technicians was also trained in order to replicate the design workshops once the project was finished.

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Upon completion of the workshops, the companies were given five weeks to finish developing the prototypes that they had started during the creative workshops. The local designers visited the companies regularly to monitor their progress. Coming out of the workshops was the creation of the “Contemporary Caribbean Design” collection. The brand encompasses more than one hundred and fifty (150) high end and original products developed and produced in the participating countries. The collection was launched at the Design Caribbean Trade Fair, which took place in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic this month (September 1st-4th). The choice of the city of Santo Domingo as the venue for this event is a fitting one, not just because of the city’s natural beauty and charm, but the city had been designated as the American Capital of Culture in 2010.

Attendees of the Design Caribbean trade fair were treated to a firsthand taste of the Caribbean’s creative splendor. Product categories on display included not just handicraft but also furniture, home accessories, jewellery, aromatherapy and spa products, home textiles, gifts and specialty foods. While the event featured exhibitors from across the region, for those exhibitors who had also participated in the product design workshops, the trade fair presented the opportunity to market their products to regional and international buyers and to showcase the skills which they had acquired during the workshops. All exhibitors were eligible to compete for a number of awards for best designs and designoriented products. Successful hosting of this event will not only give publicity to the Caribbean creative brand, but will also give much needed international exposure to a cadre of export-ready companies keen on exporting high quality and branded creative goods. Further information about the Design Caribbean trade fair can be found on its website: www.designcaribbean.com and on its official Facebook page: http://www.facebook.com/DesignCaribbean. All photos were used with the permission of the International Trade Centre and the Caribbean Export Development Agency.

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Digital Trade: Is Jamaica Ready? Daenia Ashpole The Digital Trade The convergence of the telecoms, the Internet and cultural content has revolutionized the creative industries with the introduction and growth of digital content players and tablets (e.g. iPods, iPads, Android), smartphones (BlackBerries, iPhones) and cloud computing (iCloud). It has impacted on product sales, expanded the scope and scale of piracy and other forms of copyright infringement, upset the traditional balance between the major content distribution/marketing companies and the small and independents creative producers. In addition, consumers have not only gained greater access to content, most of which is downloaded for free, they have also become content producers (e.g. bloggers), distributors (e.g. peer to peer filesharing) and marketers (e.g. viral marketing and social networking). The economic challenge of the digital arena is accurately reflected in the earnings profile for the music industry in the last few years. The global retail market was worth US$33.6 billion in 2004. Since then world sales of recorded music have plummeted to $18.4 billion in 2008, $17 billion in 2009 and $15.9 billion in 2010. As such it can be argued that the last several years saw the death knell of the traditional “bricks and mortar” music industry. This period also saw the birth of the digital music industry as exemplified in the rise of digital music revenues from $400 million in 2004 to $3.7 billion in 2008 and $4.6 billion in 2010. The earnings from the digital arena are far from offsetting the losses from the decline in sale of merchandise like CDs and DVDs. Advances in digital technologies have had a negative impact on the music industry even though it has the largest share of revenue among creative industries coming from digital sales at 29 per cent in 2010.

Beyond illegal downloads, piracy and other forms of infringement the key challenge with this model has been the relatively low returns as compared to the sale of physical creative content. Although there has been a proliferation of online music sites where content can be downloaded there are only a few that are making a profit. What are the prospects for Caribbean countries in this context? The Jamaican Scenario Music has been the backbone of the Jamaican creative economy for many years, transferring knowledge of the Jamaican lifestyle and culture to all parts of the world and setting the stage for the prominence of “Brand Jamaica”. The growth of the Jamaican music sector from the late 1950s to present has been significant and represents a developing world success story. A study commissioned by the World Intellectual Property Organisation, found that the core copyright based industries, which include the music sector, contributed US$165 million accounting for 1.7 percent of the country’s GDP. In spite of this contribution, Jamaica’s ranking in performance rights income dropped from 41st in the preceding year to 45th. The picture is not entirely dim, however, as Jamaica is one of seven countries in the region which, when combined, saw music sales increasing 1.2 per cent to US$8.8 million in 2010 over 2009, due to a huge rise in ringtones.

The IFPI’s annual report entitled “Recording Industry in Numbers 2010” shows that digital sales for the first time surpassed the sale of hard copies of CDs. This rise augmented the region’s digital sales ranking by eight slots to rank 31st in the world, while CD In this context established firms have floundered and new firms sales remained 47th position. with new business models have emerged and thrived. In short, the digital and Internet arena has increased supply and consumer Digicel, one of the island’s telecommunications providers, has access at the expense of price and value. The sector that has been been taking advantage of the lucrative ringtone industry, offering most affected has been the music industry but the same challenges its customers the latest reggae and dancehall tunes through its are occurring in other sectors like newspapers, book publishing “Intunes” service. The IFPI report indicates that ringtone sales and audio-visual. For example, Internet piracy and the cost of downloaded music has severely undercut the price that sound accounted for 85% of the region’s digital music sales in 2010, while mobile singles and video tracks accounted for the remainder. carriers like CDs and DVDs attracted up till a few years ago. While there is success in the ringtone sub-sector, the data indicates There are over 400 legitimate online music services worldwide; that the digital music market in Jamaica and the region lacks however, the pirating of music has remained popular simply diversity and there is urgent need to take advantage of the because pirated music is free and easily accessible. The action of opportunities in the wider digital music market. music pirates has led to a 31% decline in global recorded music revenues between 2004 and 2010, causing a crippling effect, There have, however, been some innovative music industry especially to less famous producers of this content. While there has players. The Jamaican music producer, Donovan “Don Corleon” been a proliferation of new licensing models and national Bennett, has been one of the most forward looking and has signed legislation to protect against these acts, the problem of piracy is one that needs constant assessment. However, achievements have a deal with BFM Digital to manage digital distribution of his label. been seen in this area. Effective lobbying has resulted in the Don can be credited with producing famous musical works by closure of Limewire, the blocking of Pirate Bay in Italy and several renowned international artistes such as Sean Paul, Rihanna Denmark and the removal of more than 7 million infringing links and Vybz Kartel. to pirated music. continued on page 17 16

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BFM Digital is a global digital distribution company, which specializes in serving the independent music community and delivering quality music, spoken word and video content to online retailers, such as iTunes, Amazon, Rhapsody, Walmart, Nokia and others. Another of Jamaica’s producers, Stephen McGregor, is also forging ahead into the digital economy. A report from the Jamaica Gleaner, dated May 16, 2010, highlighted the work that has been done by McGregor as it relates to digital distribution. Given his undeniable talent reiterated by his alias “The Genius”, McGregor has taken the step to release a digital compilation album series called “Labwork”, which can be purchased in volumes. McGregor pointed out in another interview with “THE STAR” that his idea was to make it easier for persons to access quality songs in one compilation, where it could act somewhat like a collectors’ item.

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such as Bob Marley, Beres Hammond and Burning Spear to contemporaries like Sean Paul, Vybz Kartel and Shaggy. The company is also a platform for the distribution of the works of many new and upcoming artistes. The website of the company showcases 693 clients (artistes, producers, labels) with a growing network. Its partnership with 24/7 Entertainment, one of the leading digital entertainment service and content providers, has created an extensive platform where the art of reggae and dancehall music can be showcased. Its state of the art technology allows reggae/dancehall music lovers worldwide to have access to quality video and audio content and enables music producers, artistes and labels to sell their works via the internet. Visit http://www.reggaeinc.com for more information on the company Top Reggae/Dancehall Songs on Itunes - April 2011

Tanya Stephens has also appreciated the importance of the digital distribution of reggae music, not only to generate income from digital sales, but also as an avenue to garner a wider consumer base worldwide. Her latest album, “Infallible”, was offered for free download on the internet. While many have seen the merits of digital distribution, producer, David Harrisingh, points out that the culture of music distribution in Jamaica lends itself to the free distribution of these works. The norm, he outlines, is that producers basically provide the public free access to songs so as to facilitate their rapid circulation. While this increases the popularity of the songs, the monetary gains for the artistes and producers are largely scattered and minimal. Despite this, it must be noted that some dancehall rhythm tracks (e.g. DNA, Genesis, Fyah Wyah, Money Tree and singles such as “Rum and Redbull” from Beenie Man, “9 Life” from Movado and Love’s Contagious from Tarrus Riley) are in wide circulation on the Internet and are available for sale on iTunes, Amazon and other digital distribution networks. Reggae Inc., the island’s digital distribution company has also been instrumental in consolidating and distributing the works of reggae and dancehall artists. The company, headed by Levent Karahan, is making incremental steps in promoting reggae music in the international arena. While Jamaican music has gained tremendous recognition worldwide, supportive infrastructure for industrial upgrading remains relatively underdeveloped and human resource development within the industry is largely informal. As such, it can be argued that despite the technological advancement of the Internet and the evolution of the digital economy, Jamaican creative entrepreneurs are still not benefiting optimally from the digital economy. Reggae Inc. Asserting itself as the world’s largest digital distributor of reggae music, Reggae Inc is the leading digital music distribution channel via the internet, mobile devices and cable. Karahan first came up with the idea after resigning from his A&R position at Sony Music in 1999. He established the world’s first standardized application for digital distribution, Yoom. Yoom later evolved as 24-7 Entertainment –now the preferred entity for digital music distribution in Europe and the #3 entity for digital music distribution worldwide. His proven expertise in the field offered an asset to the Jamaican music industry when he decided to migrate to the island in 2003 to establish Reggae Inc. The company has reached tremendous heights in attracting various producers, labels and artistes. Today, these labels include Taxi Records, Mixing Lab and producers such as Don Corleon and Stephen McGregor. The company also boasts a range of artistes, from veterans Volume 3 July - September 2011

Sources: Gerd Leonhard (2008) Music 2.0: Essays by Gerd Leonhard. Creative Commons. International Federation for the Phonographic Industry. IFPI Digital Music Report 2011: Music at the touch of a button. James, V. (2007). The Economic contribution of copyright based industries in Jamaica. Mona School of Business, UWI, Mona. http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/Entertainment/Ring-tones-boost_8641955 Henry, Krista (May 16,2010). Dancehall Producers changing “freeness” mentality. Retrieved from: the Jamaica Gleaner website at http://jamaica-gleaner.com/gleaner/ 20100516/ent/ent6.html http://www.jamaicandancehallmusic.com/2011/04/top-reggae-dancehall-recent-trackson.html Photographer: Mark Scott

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Cameron Bailey Honoured Well-known Barbadian-Canadian media personality and film curator Cameron Bailey was honoured for his outstanding contribution to the Caribbean Film Industry at the 2011 CaribbeanTales Film Showcase. British-born Bailey, co-director responsible for the vision and execution of the Toronto International Film Festival (TIFF), received the award during the opening of CaribbeanTales, hosted by the Consulate General for Trinidad and Tobago in Toronto. "It is important that we celebrate and honour our own, especially those who represent us on the world stage," said Frances-Anne Solomon, CEO of CaribbeanTales Worldwide Distribution. "Cameron was among the first to bring an intelligent, diversity-focused perspective to film criticism and appreciation here in Canada and further afield. He has consistently articulated the perspectives of people of colour around the world and has given us a voice in the mainstream of global society," she added.

In his early career, Cameron Bailey reviewed films for Toronto's NOW Magazine, CBC Radio One and CTV's Canada AM. He presented a weekly program on international cinema on Showcase Television's The Showcase Revue, and produced and hosted the interview programme, Filmmaker, on the Independent Film Channel Canada. He has been published in The Globe and Mail, The Village Voice, CineACTION!, and Screen, and is a popular guest speaker. Bailey has distinguished himself as a curator of a number of significant film festivals, and has served as a programmer for TIFF for more than a decade. He has curated film series for Cinematheque Ontario, the National Gallery of Canada, the National Film Board of Canada, and the Sydney Film Festival. In 1997, Bailey completed his first screenplay, The Planet of Junior Brown, co-written with director Clément Virgo. Not surprisingly, the film was named Best Picture at the 1998 Urbanworld Film Festival in New York, and nominated for a Best Screenplay Gemini Award. Bailey also completed a video essay, Hotel Saudade, shot in Brazil. Bailey was subsequently part of the delegation accompanying Governor-General Michaëlle Jean on her state visit to Brazil in 2007. Earlier this year, Bailey was a member of the blue ribbon panel that designed a brand new Culture Plan for the Mayor of Toronto entitled "Creative Capital Gains: An Action Plan for Toronto". The plan boldly moves away from the notion of the Arts as a luxurious pastime towards that of a significant and powerful business industry which could be key to the global economic recovery.

Cameron Bailey

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The sixth annual Toronto Showcase - set for September 7 to 17, 2011 - aims to raise the international profile of Caribbean film, support the growth of a vibrant worldclass Caribbean film and television industry, and serve as a platform for promoting the Caribbean not only as a premier warm weather travel destination but also as a viable and preferred location for film production.

From December 2007, Bailey has been codirector of the Toronto International Film Festival, one of the largest film markets and festivals in the world, dedicated to presenting the best of international cinema and transforming the way people see the world.

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Denham Jolly, CEO Milestone Radio Inc. presents Cameron Bailey with his award

The Showcase is co-produced with the Harbourfront Centre, and supporters are Animae Caribe Animation and New Media Festival, The Consulate General for the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago in Toronto, First Fridays, Green Light Artist Management, the International Development Research Centre, National Film Board of Canada, 404 Media Group, Pennant Media Group, Planet 3 Entertainment, Taffe Entertainment, Toon Boom Animation, the Shridath Ramphal Centre for International Trade Law, Policy and Services at the University of the West Indies, and WHATZHAPPNG. CaribbeanTales Worldwide Distribution (CTWD) is the first full-service film marketing and distribution company in the English-speaking Caribbean, and aims to become the reference point for producers and buyers of Caribbean film material Adapted with permission from Newz from CaribbeanTales on www.caribbeantalesworldwide.com

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The Audio-visual Sector in Trinidad & Tobago An Economic Impact Assessment The audiovisual industry in Trinidad and Tobago is an emerging sector with export capabilities and scope for diversifying the region’s economic structure and source of foreign exchange. The audiovisual sector also has shown the potential for generating high value-added jobs as well as destination and intellectual property branding for the country’s tourism sector, which is one of the main contributors to GDP, employment and foreign exchange. In addition, the composite nature of the audiovisual sector provides a fillip to the other main components of the cultural and creative industries (e.g. the music industry, the performing arts, photography, etc.). In this respect, investment in the audiovisual sector will have a synergistic impact on the wider creative economy. The audiovisual sector in Trinidad and Tobago is a growing player in the on-location filming sector and is able to earn income for local film producers, actors, artists and technicians. The creation, distribution and exhibition of local audiovisual content has grown in recent years on account of the increased global, diasporic and regional demand for content along with reduced costs of technological and equipment inputs. This content comes in many different forms such as documentaries, feature films, music videos, advertisements, animation, television programmes, soap operas. The target markets crosscut national, regional, diasporic and international economies along with a range of broadcasters, exhibition spaces, festivals, multimedia, online and mobile providers.

Like many developing countries Trinidad and Tobago is faced with the challenge of low economies of scale when compared to the main global exporter and producer countries like the US, India, UK, France, Australia, etc. Only recently have incentive regimes been put in place to attract private investment and the sector has been targeted for public investment. A key challenge facing the audiovisual sector is the wide range of tariffs, other duties and charges that make the importation of equipment and supplies unduly expensive. There is also much scope for the harmonisation, simplification, and implementation of intra-regional trade measures to facilitate the deepening of the regional market: The audiovisual sector is also plagued by an absence of data and information on economic performance and market trends so that policy is often made without an evidence base that would allow for improved strategic planning, management and industry coordination. Regional networking and advocacy is another weak feature of the landscape that needs to be addressed to achieve the necessary critical mass. The current global techno-economic business environment necessitates that any successful player in the global film industry must be cognisant of its industry’s economic worth and its potential to acquire greater returns. Structure of the AV Sector The audio-visual sector (AV) is one of the key economic drivers of the cultural and creative industries in Trinidad and Tobago. This sector has experienced some expansion in terms of composition, size, and structure and currently demonstrates tremendous potential for further growth. The structure of the audiovisual sector in Trinidad and Tobago is such that the key economic flows are associated with the core AV sector, on-location filming, the broadcasting, advertising and film festivals.

continued on page 20

Volume 3 July - September 2011

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continued from previous page

!

! ! ! !

!"#$%&'#()*+*,-$+#.)/($*+$)"#$0%(-#+)$#120/3#($*,$)"#$4(/%&$%5&*/'*+5%0$+#.)/($6*)"$789$/:$)"#$#120/31#,);$ <(/%&.%+)*,-$*+$)"#$,#=)$0%(-#+)$#120/3#($6*)"$>?9$/:$)"#$#120/31#,);$ @/)*/,$2*.)5(#$&*+)(*45)*/,$A?B9C$%,&$#,)#()%*,1#,)$+#('*.#+$A??9C$%(#$)"#$/)"#($D#3$+#.)/(+;$ @/)*/,$2*.)5(#$%,&$'*&#/$)%2#$2(/&5.)*/,$*+$)"#$+1%00#+)$+54+#.)/(;$ Figure 1: Structure of the AV Sector

The Core AV Sector • Film Distributors – There were six (6) companies registered in 2005 and it would appear that no new firms have entered this sector for the period. • Radio and Television Production and Broadcasting – There were forty nine (49) firms registered in 2005 and these numbers fluctuated over the period (2006 - 54, 2007 - 45, 2008/2009 - 47), with some appearing to cease operations and new ones entering the sector. Generally, it appears that eight (8) new firms entered the sector in 2006, six (6) in 2007 and three (3) in 2008. • Motion Picture Production - There were only two new entrants into the sector for the period in question. Two (2) firms were registered for 2005/2006 and two more entered the sector in 2007; these four firms appear to be still operating in 2009. • Video Tape Production – There appears to be a steady increase in the number of firms operating in this sector. In 2005 there were ten (10) firms registered, this increased by four (4) in 2006 and by two (2) in 2007. The same sixteen (16) firms are still registered as operating in 2009. • Motion Picture and Other Media Entertainment Services – There appears to have been a sharp increase in the number of firms operating in the sector over the period. Although only five (5) firms were registered in 2005/2006 (one having ceased operations and a new firm entering), in 2007 it would appear that twenty-one (21) new firms entered the sector taking the total to twenty-six (26) firms for that year. In 2008 only one new firm entered the sector. (Figure 2)

Figure 2: Number of firms by Sub-sector

continued on page 21 Source: Central Statistical Office

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continued from previous page Table 1: Employment Across the AV Sector (2008)

Advertising agencies

Motion Picture and Video Tape production

Motion Picture and Video Tape Distribution

Radio and Television Production and Broadcasting

Motion Picture and Other Media Entertainment services

Total

1664

133

399

1279

471

3946

Figure 3 below compares the earnings and GDP contribution of the AV sector with other key sectors in the Trinidad and Tobago economy. It illustrates that the earnings for the AV sector are almost equal to that of miscellaneous manufacturing and higher than that of textiles, garments and footwear as well as wood and related products. The AV sector is also lower than hotels and guest houses and substantially behind printing and publishing. Figure 3: The AV Sector Earnings Compared with other Key Sectors

800 600 400 200 0

Wood & Related products Hotels & Guest Houses

GDP Contribution, 2008 (at constant prices) Textiles, Garments & Footwear Misc. Man’f

Printing & Publishing AV Sector

Summary of findings from the Economic Impact Assessment: • Advertising is the largest AV-related sector. Total employment is estimated at 1,664 and total earnings are $560.5 million. It is estimated that a 32.5% share of the advertising earnings are attributable to the Core AV sector, which amounts to $182.2 million. • Broadcasting is the second largest AV-related sector. Total employment is estimated at 1,279 and total earnings are estimated at $506.1 million. It is estimated that a 21.5% share of the broadcast earnings are attributable to the Core AV sector, which amounts to $108.8 million. • On-Location is estimated to have contributed TT$2.1 million. All of these earnings are directly attributable to the AV sector. • There is no clear data on the contribution of the of the film festivals and that of the media value generated by the AV content generated by the Core AV sector. This is an area that requires further work given that it is not an insubstantial element of the economic impact of the AV sector. • Based upon the above listed findings the Core AV sector is estimated to have generated $293.1 million in the year 2008. This is considered to be a conservative estimate given that key sources of income were not available This article is an excerpt from The Audio-Visual Sector in Trinidad and Tobago: An  Economic Impact Assessment. A study prepared for the Trinidad and Tobago Film Company by bloom consulting inc., published September 9, 2011 Volume 3 July - September 2011

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For additional information visit our website www.shridathramphalcentre.org Ground Floor CARICOM Research Building University of the West Indies Cave Hill Campus, St Michael, Barbados Telephone: 246.417.4805/4533 Fax: 246.417.4058 Email: src@cavehill.uwi.edu

We are very interested in your feedback. Please email your comments to: src@cavehill.uwi.edu. Visit our website: www.creativeindustriesexhange.com

The production of this magazine was made possible through support from the International Trade Centre and Caribbean Export Development Agency and funding from the European Union 9th EDF Caribbean Trade and Private Sector Development Program

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Caribbean Creatives - Issue 1 - Volume 3 July - September 2011  

In this third issue of Caribbean Creatives, we are pleased to have the support of the International Trade Centre (ITC). This issue puts the...

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