Issuu on Google+

(This book is Copyrighted Š 2009 by Author through BalajiThemis Consultants)


2

HRD in Creative Organisations: R D D Institutes

by PROF (WG CDR) GULSHAN KUMAR M.B.A. Finance (Deptt of Mgt, Pune University), Materials Management (APPC, Hyd.) Ph.D.* at F.M.S. (Delhi), MBIM (U.K.) N.E.T. (Merit) JRF/SRF University Grants Commission--National Topper M.A. (P) Economics (Delhi School of Economics) B.A. (Hons.) Economics (Hindu College, Delhi) Advocates-on-Record Exams (Supreme Court of India) LL.B. (Campus Law Centre, Delhi) J.C.C. (Indian Air Force) SAP (ABAP, Basis), C++, C-BASIC, Microsoft OS & Applications (NIIT, Aptech) C.P. Russian (JNU), C. French (Alliance Française)

 Goal of Research, Design & Development: The use of positive, lateral, parallel & synectic thinking for discovery, innovation, invention, improvement or adaptation, and extension & commercial use of these techniques or processes by their incorporation into a product, application or productive process. The Aim of HRD is to reveal to homo sapiens their inner worth, and the structure & processes that help them harness this value ...

 2009


3

Preface Industrial Man: With increased mechanisation in manufacturing industries and formation of large corporations, Man has ceased to be an independent economic entity -- especially in the production & distribution sectors. He is considered a substitutable productive resource that can be trained to perform simplistic or structured activities, and his/her monetary compensation or productivity is measured not by his/her identifiable contribution to the final product but by the number of stipulated actions that he/she completes almost mechanistically or bureaucratically. Because of this rule-bound ‘iron cage’, worker loses his/her unique identity and work has lost its status as a source of pride for the worker. Moreso, Corporate Culture of Multinational Corporations may also not match the value system of the Cross-Cultural Global Worker -- besides, within the same Culture the purposive-rational style of Business Managers may differ from the value-rational style of Scientists and Engineers. This Paper is an attempt to demonstrate the essential similarity of all major religions, and to integrate at least the Indian worker with the purposiverational culture of modern business entities by making him/her aware of the pride and spiritual reward that are intrinsic to socially assigned economic work. This Indic workethos, in turn, persuades the managers to become value-based role models to their workers; moreso, these values are the same for secular and spiritual organisations. Thereby, its findings enable all types of Organisations to predict reasonably the contextual judgment and behaviour of individuals to various internal and external stimuli and, thereby, it assists in unleashing the Power of Excellence and Ethics in Management. Less and less number of men are now self-employed, and the number of those who work for monolithic business entities is ever increasing. In the result, even work has lost its status as a source of pride for the worker. He/she works merely out of necessity to earn the means for buying economic goods and services; moreso, the worker is not emotionally attached to any particular work-place because businesses have largely become impersonal. And the only pride that he/she may derive from work is when the employing organisation commands prestige in the Society. Organisational prestige springs from several factors, including its Corporate Culture. This culture or value-system may or may not match the value system of the cross-cultural Global Worker who is employed by Multi-National Corporations. Part-I of this book


4 attempts to integrate the Indian worker with the purposive-rational culture of modern business entities and also to make him/her aware of the pride and reward that are intrinsic to work -- by adopting this Indic work-ethos the worker, too, can unleash the Power of Excellence in Management. Research & Development Environment: The Goal of Research, Design & Development is the use of positive, lateral, parallel & synectic thinking for discovery, innovation, invention, or reverse engineering for improvement & adaptation -- as also the extension & commercial use of these techniques or processes by their incorporation into a product, application or productive process. The Aim of HRD is to reveal to Homo sapiens their inner worth, and the structure & processes that help them harness this precious value for the good of mankind as also to preserve our Natural assets. If Nature is conceived as comprising of various ‘objects’ then homo sapiens, as an object, is the most complex one because it is not only a thinking object who can change or adapt its properties at Will, but also that each human being has a Will of his own. These uniquely differentiating factors defy laboratory experiments on this object and, hence, make any altruistic generalisations about human behaviour impossible. It is this object that does not, therefore, find itself on the research agenda of many a research, design & development laboratory. This book humbly attempts to fill this gap -- it assists the Scientist/Engineer to look at him or her as an unfathomable, versatile, ever-growing, adaptive & productive resource whose economic behaviour can be mediated to become more predictable & reliable. Moreso, for the spiritually inclined, this book goes beyond sermons and points to a technique for perceiving (even experiencing and/or observing) the metaphysical phenomena in Nature that will enable their theoretical analysis (if not manipulation) by a method that is closely akin to the one used by logic or non-replicative sciences (in the sense of not being duplicable in a laboratory). My answer, in brief, to those who may question the existence of God on the sole ground that He is not conceivable by many of them, is contained in Chapter-I.


5 In any case, Religious dicta may be viewed as a broader spectrum of social mandates that fall within the genre which we accept as Professional Ethics, Social Responsibility of Business &c. “A philosophy of life must include functional as well as reductionist explanation ... functional interpretations of nature cannot be calculated from mechanistic representations -- they can only be mapped to one another.” --Betz, Frederick. Strategic Technology Management (McGraw Hill) pp.58, 151, 153 “Management’s strategic precepts about the nature of the world and the value of action determine the focus of corporate perception, commitment and preparation.” -Anonymous Johari Window (‘Atman Darshan’): Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham (1969) use a schematic model, named Johari Window, to explain the basic process involved in developing openness and inter-personal trust. This model consists of four windows that depict: the amount of information that is either known or hidden between any two individuals who interact with each-other, the degree to which this information is shared, and the methods for increasing the size of one’s window. However, before we come to the advanced step of knowing any information that’s held in common between two individuals, let us consider the complex fact that in ancient India many ‘rishis’ spent their entire lives searching for information on the Self, i.e. ‘Who am I?’ This book begins with two Chapters that introduce you to yourself, Indian philosophy of life (which I shall call ‘Indic’) and to the value of economic action – that is to say, to the economic work in a socio-economic environment which involves various economic interactions. Part-I of this book comprises of four Chapters devoted to the hard and sublime aspects of this theme. Many scholars consider Hindu religion or Indic Culture as having ‘fuzzy’ edges. Chapter-I of this book goes directly to the Hindu scriptures and attempts to reinterpret the same in a way that brings out their true meaning -- as supported by scriptures of other main religions practiced in the Indian sub-continent. This approach is not yet found in literature; however, it has great implications for modern Business Managers because it avoids the ‘iron cage’ of industrial culture, and mediates the purposive rational style of


6 our business managers. This Chapter is an attempt to demonstrate the essential similarity of all major religions, and that pride and spiritual reward are intrinsic to Indian worker‘s socially assigned economic work. This Indic work ethics, in turn, persuades the managers to become value-based role models to their workers; moreso, these values are the same for ‘secular’ and ‘spiritual’ organisations. Thereby, its findings enable all types of organisations to predict reasonably the contextual judgment and behaviour of individuals to various internal and external stimuli and, thereby, it assists in unleashing the Power of Excellence and Ethics in Human Resource Management. Further Research on Human Resource: Specific portions of the Questionnaire, at the end of this book, may be used on larger samples to compute correlations, tests of significance &c. The book is divided into four Parts, and Bibliography/References/Endnotes for each are given at the end of that Part itself. Modified MLA style has been used. Gulshan Feedback to the Author: http://consultant-law-education-india-nepal.in/consultants/conatct.htm


7

Table of Contents

Preface

1-6

Part-I Chapter-I

Culture and Work-Ethos

10-33

Chapter-II

Learning and Productivity

34-47

Chapter-III

Planning Research

48-57

Chapter-IV

HRD in R & D

58-69

Annexure-I

Thumb-rule

70-73

Annexure-II

Left vs. Right Brained Test

74-77

Annexure-III

Parallel & Lateral Thinking: Examples

Annexure-IV

Labour Legislations

107-109

End-Notes, References, Bibliography

110-116

Chapter-V

Technology

118-120

Chapter-VI

Definitions

121-127

Chapter-VII

Scope of Research

128-133

Appendix-A

Library Resources

134

Appendix-B

Labs Surveyed

135-136

End-Notes etc.

136

78-106

Part-II

Part-III Chapter-VIII

Data-Analysis

138-170


8

Chapter-IX

Intuitive Observations

171-185

Chapter-X

Findings, Implications and Recommendations

186-193

End-Notes etc.

194

Questionnaire

196-251

Part-IV

Index

252


9

Part-I

Human Resources HR Environments Structural variables Mediating Factors


10

CHAPTER-I REVISITING ‘INDIC’ CULTURE TO REDEFINE SOCIO-ECONOMIC WORK AND HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT: IMPLICATIONS FOR EFFECTIVE BUSINESS LEADERS Preamble: My brief answer to those who may question God’s existence on the sole ground that He is not perceivable or conceivable by many of them, is that: One television channel is received by some television sets with a simple indoor antenna, but another set may not be able to receive it without outdoor antenna (albeit an ordinary one) and yet another set receives the same channel by a directional antenna only -- a yet another set might access it by satellite dish antenna alone. Similarly, our ability to perceive God also differs. Our best antenna lies in the unblemished state of our ‘sushumna nadi’; the purity of our thoughts and ‘karmas’ determine both the distance of our sets (souls) from Him and the strength and weakness of our antennae.

Culture “Such an historical concept ... cannot be defined according to the formula genus proximum, differentia specifica, but it must be gradually put together out of the individual parts which are taken from historical reality to make it up.” --Max Weber, ‘The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism’ (New York: Scribner's Press, 1958), p. 47. Civilisation begins with cultural and spiritual human evolution -evolution of ‘consciousness’ or conscientiousness. Civilisation in Indian sub-continent dates back to more than 3000 years -- the Indus Valley Civilization spread and flourished in the northwestern part of Indian subcontinent from c. (circa) 3300 to 1300 BCE (Before Common Era). Moreso, the founders of Jain, Bodh & Sikh religions were also born in this sub-continent, whereas Christian & Muslim faiths travelled from Bethlehem and Mecca to several countries in Europe and West. The Bodh faith travelled from India to Nepal, Tibet, Japan, amongst others. Influence of Hindu religion is found in Java, Bali, Sumatra, Vietnam and some islands of the Philippine archipelago; however,


11 it is not certain whether the local population converted to Hindu religion, or that Hindu religion spread through marriages by Hindu migrants with the local population. It is interesting to note that, unlike other religions/faiths, none founded the Hindu religion or faith -- this religion dates back to the Vedic period. A Hindu worships one or more Gods -- by several names, yet all Gods possess the same powers; only Their duties are different. Hindus regard Gods & Goddesses like Mahamaya (the founding deity) Brahma, Vishnu, Mahesh, and Shakti as free from the cycle of births & deaths -- Rama, Laxmana and Krishna, on the other hand, were reincarnations of Vishnu. The latter took human form so that they could interact with other human beings; moreso, they preached by example -- performing their socio-economic duties exemplarily. By moving around their kingdoms incognito, they kept in touch with the feelings of common man. They were born in the ruling classes to be able to use the State’s power in rooting out common evils, and used their supernatural powers only against those whom laws of the State had failed to control. Moreso, they were ‘servant-leaders’; for example, Krishna acted as the Charioteer for Arjuna in Mahabharata, and Krishna and His wife washed the feet of Krishna’s school-friend Sudama. By eating the fruit offered by Shabri -- who was a ‘shudra’, Rama exemplified in real life that in Hindu faith no one is untouchable. Rama & Laxmana discarded their human bodies by immersion into the Saryu river; Guru Nanak’s last remains were only flowers -which Hindus and Muslims divided between themselves for cremation and burial, respectively. There were no prophets or founders for Hindus because the common person did co-exist with Vishnu’s incarnations and learnt from the latter. Moreso, he/she could easily relate to God-inhuman-form (please see ‘saguna’ infra). And by their teachings and writings, the rishis (sages) preserved for posterity the real-life examples set by these incarnations. These writings form the basis of Hindu Culture -- although the word ‘Hindu’ is not used in any of these scriptures. It is a Persian term (Middle Persian Hinduk, New Persian Hindu) that entered India with the Delhi Sultanate and appears in South Indian and Kashmiri texts from at least 1323 CE


12 [Common Era]. In English literature, this term generally denotes religious, philosophical, and cultural traditions native to India. I would prefer to call it the Indic Culture. The essence of Indic Culture is that it bestows various degrees of respect not to a man’s religion or socio-economic position, but to that person’s nearness to God (by whatever name known), the ethical example set by that person for his/her fellow human beings, and the degree of excellence achieved in the performance of his/her socio-economic duty. Different Hindu scriptures explain the same concepts in ways that are particularly suited to the spiritual maturity of their audiences and in the socio-political context of the eras in which these scriptures were written. In this sense, the best way to revisit Indic Culture is to read directly the scriptures that preserve our eternal principles in their most condensed form. Gita, for instance, summarises most of these principles. Similarly, Hindu faith permits two types of worship: (i) ‘Saguna’ for those who find it easier to relate to a deity that possesses the three ‘Gunas’, namely Sattwa, Rajas & Tamas (Sanatan dharma); and (ii) ‘Nirguna’ who are spiritually mature enough to concentrate on God as an eternal & formless energy (Arya Samaj). The followers of Christian and Muslim faiths, on the other hand, describe their founders as ‘Messenger of God’ and ‘Prophet’, respectively. Like the Hindu faith, these religions regard God as subtle & eternal -- though they believe in one God. Sikhs, Jains and Bodh regard their founders as (Teacher) or Bhagvan (God) or the Enlightened One. Bhavishya Purana -- written long before the period in which Guru Nanak was born, predicts the reformist role of Nanak. It is also believed that Sikh religious scripture, namely Sri Guru Granth sahib, was originally written in a manner that did not separate individual words -- so that only the spiritually mature person could decipher and interpret this scripture; Bhai Mani Singh, however, rewrote this scripture by separating its words. Similarly, the Hindu scriptures (like Gita, Ramayana & Mahabharata) are not easy to decipher because these were


13 written in Vedic Sanskrit -- a language that was the preserve of Brahmins and ruling classes. Moreso, in Gita certain groups of verses are split up and scattered across different Chapters or portions thereof. Therefore, it needs more than mere grammatical knowledge of Sanskrit to decipher the Truth hidden in Gita. Consequently, no commentary on Gita interprets this scripture in a way that the present book attempts -- it also points out the essential similarities amongst religious scriptures of other main religions that are practiced in India. Although traders and missionaries had initially introduced Christian and Muslim faiths in some parts of India, these religions largely flourished because of foreign invaders who later ruled large parts of this subcontinent. For example, the southern state of Kerala had maritime business links with the Roman Empire from around 77 CE, and through this route Muslim traders introduced Islam in Kerala. But large-scale conversions to Christian and Muslim religions were witnessed when Christian & Muslim rulers were in a position to effect religious conversions by way of allurement or force -- mainly targeting the lower castes or backward areas. Belief is the foundation of all religions; moreso, beliefs smoothen our daily routines: Culture is influenced by mass-belief in the interpretation given to Society’s religious scriptures by its contemporary commentators. Hence, we begin this book by a discussion of ethical beliefs that are relevant to the present socio-economic scenario. For a clearer understanding, let us limit our focus to Indian sub-continent and Research, Design & Development Organisations -- though the principles evolved have a general application. The difference between ‘right’ and ‘wrong’ rests within our inner selves -- moreso our outer and inner selves are inseparable during our conscious waking hours. Thus, our beliefs and values do create a unique underlying spirit that can transform our physical-cumpsychic energies in a way that is most conducive for ethically and reciprocally (harmoniously) harnessing our maximum potential for the productive processes of our socio-economic life. It is not easy to imagine a life without beliefs. For example, how does a ‘confessioner’ know that God has really forgiven him/her? It


14 depends on his/her belief! Our real Life has, in fact, many ‘takenfor-granted’ areas like Euclid’s intuitive Theorem (or accepting the first available solution in a reiterative process of modern mathematics) that we simply believe in as either true or the best solution -- until we socio-culturally become competent, mature & knowledgeable enough to question the underlying basis of such choices. As a corollary of Zeitgeist, a day comes when our questioning any long-standing belief is not frowned upon as ‘blasphemy’1. Another reason for not questioning these beliefs is that it is simply convenient, for the present, to believe in their efficacy. However, we ought not to allow these healthy beliefs to degenerate into rituals or dogmas by becoming afraid to question these as soon as we are intellectually and socio-culturally competent & mature to raise such questions. Otherwise, it will take a major movement (like the Renaissance2 in the West or Bhakti Movement3 in India) to throw off the cultural yoke of redundant beliefs. Moreso, most of the times we are able to live our lives smoothly because our beliefs provide us with inner strength -- even if they are apparently based on myths, because myths sometimes do provide us with a temporary rationale. Or else, we may lose our sanity trying incessantly to find the elusive cause behind every phenomenon that we come across in our daily lives. At the same time, it must not be lost sight of that what science claimed to be the truth yesterday, is often found to be false today -- if that which was unconfirmed or unknown at a particular stage of our knowledge is not subsequently confirmed or found, then science will not progress. Even in Law, almost all Affidavits contain the clause: “or is based on information received and believed to be correct”. Another plausible reason for the existence of beliefs is that most of the issues in life have two sides – almost every idea has its opposites or alternatives (perfect or imperfect substitutes) and we are faced with the problem of choice or trade off or optimisation (rationalisation); this choice often is NOT this 'or' that, but this 'and' that. Thus, our decisions involve trade-offs/compromises. That is to say, though our knowledge may assure us what is right


15 and what is wrong, yet our environment does not offer clear choices -- we often make merely an ‘optimum’ compromise. Machiavelli called it “virtu” and contrasted it with virtue. We may call it economic rationality or materialistic wisdom -- but all this is based on beliefs only! Moreso, in Ethics we speak in terms of ‘values’, but in Economics we weigh mutual ‘interests’ -- the latter is a Pavlovian motivation (a weighted or reinforced response to environmental stimulus). In Economics, the assumption of ‘rational man’ is essentially an expectation that certain responses will be repeated. However, Human Resource Managers have found that not every individual or group responds to the same set of stimuli in the same manner or to the same extent. In addition, the conflict may sometimes not be between two clearly opposites like ‘right’ and ‘wrong’, but between shades of two rights or degrees of two wrongs -- for example between ‘right’ and ‘less right’, or between ‘wrong’ and ‘more wrong’, or even between ‘bad’ and ‘worse’. At times, the situation may be such as to demand that one must suppress his/her personal or universal ethics in the interest of a notionally larger interest, e.g. ‘interests of the State’. Hence, the practical way to work through the realities of life is to have the courage of conscience but, at the same time, be flexible and individually accountable to oneself as well as to others. Thus, pursuance of moral values demands blending of at least four perspectives: character, accountability, compromise and conscientious judgment -- after all, taking all obstacles into account the shortest line between any two points may sometimes be a crooked one! Despite our choices, life remains a churning process that brings forth both good news and bad news; it is bad news first and good one the next, i.e. failures preceding successes. This happens in any Research & Development environment, too, and it requires a Hero who can rise from the ashes or at least keeps the ember burning till help arrives! Heroism demands courage -- courage to go beyond the ‘rational’ to the “ideal”. Culture provides us that “ideal”; thus, the process of self-development is dominated by a continuous search for a set of beliefs and a set of ideals to live with and live for. Beliefs and ideals give meaning to life and make it worth living! As per Zeitgeist, India is destined to witness a period when our thoughts would be purified by Kalike Avtaar; and just prior to that


16 period, we shall be competent and mature enough to revisit our Cultural heritage and discover an ideal meaning for the term ‘economic work’. This book will directly access the text of those scriptures that are largely believed in by the masses in our Indian sub-continent or by ‘the Indic Culture’. It will focus upon certain portions of these mutually supportive scriptures, interpret the same and discover whether their eternal & universal value-rational style can be superimposed over the purposive rational style of modern business entities. During this process, however, let us not lose sight of the fact that in a Global enterprise an individual’s ethical values might conflict with those of the Organisation due to a variety of factors -- including the cultural differences. Hence, this book takes into account religious scriptures of more than three religions and every civilised Society’s desire for fairness, justice, minimisation of sufferings and enough of mutually exchangeable production to improve quality of life for all its Members. In this effort, we may follow the example of Renaissance that -coupled with Calvinism4 and Baptism5, changed West’s attitude towards work, wealth and scientific inquiry. This change was also facilitated by pro-capitalist legislation, and consumers’ willingness to forego the luxury of designer’s goods to buy mass-produced products. However, industrialisation and the resultant socioeconomic system in the West created an ‘iron cage’5 of bureaucratisation or rationalisation. Therefore, while revisiting Indian Cultural Heritage an attempt will be made to circumvent such rigidities, and demonstrate that secularisation of business entities is not necessary. Similarly, in the East those countries that adopted a reinterpreted Confucian philosophy7 (e.g. Japan and South Korea) developed faster than others who continued to stick to the traditional view of Confucius -- like China, North Korea. Moreso, as compared to nonConfucian countries like India, South Korea achieved within its first three plan-periods much more (Choi, 1983) than what India failed to achieve even during the first half century of its five-year planning (including the intervening no-plan periods). Why does India, with the fourth largest contingent of scientists and engineers in the world, fall in the category of countries that have the lowest per capita income? Can a reinterpretation of Indian Culture act as a saviour and free us from the bondage of the


17 retrograde pronouncements made on our scriptures by the ‘pandas’8 and the 19th or early 20th century researchers? For example, the pandas misinterpreted Destiny as controlling even ‘karma’ (actions) and also misled the masses into believing that certain rituals and offerings can manipulate the fruits of action or ‘karmafal’. Thus, pandas reduced the ‘Karma Theory’ into a vicious circle wherein the people had no choice to change their destiny by voluntary karmas in the present -- except by way of performing certain rituals and making offerings through the pandas. Can our Cultural heritage -- if properly reinterpreted and holistically integrated with mass production, goad us into achieving alertness and excellence in our socio-economic duty that is ‘work’ or economic work? Can we explain the grey areas of current interpretations in a way that is not only readily intelligible to the mildly dogmatic individuals but is also considered as an invigorating exercise by the intellectuals? Can we regard the socially assigned economic work as ‘Dharma’? The concept of Dharma appeals to most, if not all, Homo sapiens. Even the Biographies of 20 eminent scientists (from Archimedes to Einstein) reveal that at least 18 of them had an abiding faith in God -- besides excellence, hard work & commitment in their areas of interest. They also enjoyed an inner sense of peace, tranquility with the outside world and aesthetics (or a sense of proportion) -how can one observe Nature, access its ethereal Knowledge Base and discover its Laws if he/she is not in communion with Nature? Therefore, introducing the pith and substance of the following paragraphs into a Training Programme of young scientists and engineers may help in integrating them better into a Research, Design & Development environment -- especially into the purposive-rational style of market-oriented R &D organisations. An effort to put together individual parts of our Scriptures, assimilate & synthesise their ancient knowledge, and to reinterpret the same with modern logical techniques -- albeit in parables, shall create new knowledge equivalent to a Thesis. In this book, it would be my humble effort to do so. Amen! Our journey commences with an attempt to know self and others -this, being a key structural realignment for any R & D Organisation,


18 takes a pride of place not only at the end of this book (researchwork) but also at its beginning. Spiritualism versus Ritualism or Grammatical Parsing of Scriptures: 2. To interpret Indic Culture correctly, we need a clear understanding of certain concepts that are used in Hindu faith, explore the similarities amongst various faiths about these concepts, and find their inter-relationships so that Indic Culture no longer looks “fuzzy” to a passerby. There exists a parallel between this humble attempt and the Renaissance. In the West, pre-Renaissance and post-Renaissance polaristic attitudes towards ‘work’ stemmed from the same source, viz. the Bible -- albeit the emphasis was shifted from one part of Scripture (both Old and New Testaments) to another. Let us examine these differences: (a) God said to Adams in the Garden of Eden: “Because you have listened to your wife and eaten from the tree which I forbade you, accursed shall be the ground on your account, with labour you shall win your food from it all the days of your life … You shall gain your bread by the sweat of your brow until you return to the ground -- for from it you were taken.” --Genesis 3.17-19 [The New English Bible (The New Testament) p.4] Hence, work came to be regarded as a curse; and the cleverest of men invented the feudal system to garner the cleanest of work -these interpretations are reflected in the works of poets/novelists of that era: “Who first invented work and bound the free And holiday rejoicing spirit down?” --Charles Lamb (1775-1834) in Work (The Penguin Dictionary of Quotations) p.228 “Which of us … is to do the hard and dirty work for the rest … and for what pay? Who is to do the pleasant and clean work, and for what pay?”


19 --John Ruskin (1819-1900) in Sesame and Lilies (The Penguin Dictionary of Quotations) p. 302 (b) However, Lord Christ did also say -- albeit in a parable (Luke 19.11-27, The New English Bible, p.100): ‘A man of noble birth … called ten of his servants and gave them a pound each saying, “Trade with this while I am away” … *On his return as the King, he] sent for his servants to whom he had given the money, to see what profit each had made. The first came and said, “Your pound, Sir, has made ten more”. “Well done” he *King+ replied “You are a good servant. You have shown yourself trustworthy in a very small matter, and you shall have charge of ten cities”. The second came and said, “Your pound, Sir, has made five more”, and he also was told, “You, too, take charge of five cities”. The third came and said, “Here is your pound, Sir; I kept it put away in a handkerchief ….” …Turning to his attendants he *King+ said, “Take the pound from him and give it to the man with ten … the man who has *,+ will always be given more; but the man who has not will forfeit even what he has”. *parentheses added+ “Being lazy will make you poor, but hard work will make you rich.” --Proverbs 10.4 (Good News Bible) p. 628 Protestant religion -- coupled with Calvinism, focussed on similar aspects of Bible as illustrated vide sub-para (b) above; thus, Renaissance radically changed the work-ethos of the ‘faithful’. Historically, Protestantism played an important role in giving a fillip to hard work, discovery, invention, innovation and industrial revolution (Akhilesh, 1990) -- which marked the beginning of mass economic development. 3. Since the objective of this book is to reinterpret the composite Indian Culture and discover its emphasis on excellence, hard work and alertness (pro-activeness) in ‘economic work’, let us first take a holistic look at Human Resource. We begin with the Indic concept of God, ‘Parmatman’, ‘Atman’, Man, Life, ‘Karma’, Man’s Mission in Life, ‘Maya’, Work &c:(a) God: He can be perceived through the Law of Elimination इति न, इति न (iti na, iti na, The Brihadaranyaka Upanishad and


20 Shankracharya’s Commentary, p.ix) -- that is to say, neither this nor that. However, one can eliminate only that which he/she can perceive (with or without the aid of technical devices) through his/her five senses of sight, sound, touch, smell and taste. But God cannot be perceived through these biological senses. Thus, His existence can neither be proved nor objectively disproved by the use of these outer five senses alone -- because God is subtle and is not made of the gross matter of which mortals are made (men are made in His own ‘image’ but are not of the same origin as He Himself is): “*M+en on earth can understand earthly things and nothing else” says the Bible (2 Esdras 4.21, The New English Bible, p. 24-25.) [parentheses added] “No vision can grasp Him … He is above all comprehension.” --Sura VII. 103 (Ali. The Holy Koran: Text, Translation and Commentary, 1983) Therefore, before starting the elimination process we add to our 3Dimensional plane a fourth dimension (i.e. Time); now God is what is not eliminable over Time -- He is the eternal Truth. All else is ‘maya’, because all else has a temporal life – howsoever long may it be! God is the eternal energy (force) that binds together and regulates in an orderly way all that is ‘maya’. One may argue as to why Hindus depict God in only three Dimensions, or why do Christians say that ‘God made man in His own image’. The answer lies in the psychological fact that one can better follow a role-model whose image, at least, one can conjure up in his/her mind – that’s why even the Brahmakumars9 chose to focus on, at least a ‘point’ (which, by definition, has some length & breadth) than the concept of an unseen ‘force’. Those who conceive God in terms of the three ‘Gunas’ (supra) find it easier to concentrate their fleeting minds into meditation, than those who regard Him as ‘nirguna’. Moreso, ‘image’ in the above saying does not necessarily mean ‘a being with limbs characteristic of Homo sapiens’ -- it may mean the purity of character or soul [please refer to the parable of initial properties of the air cocooned in the balloon (infra)].


21 Besides, in Hinduism the above practice -- when stretched to the extent of worshipping stones (e.g. ‘thakurs’ that bear no human figure at all) conveys a subtle message, viz.: God lies within one’s own perception and, thus, need not live outside of man himself; moreso, man is God’s self-made abode. Moreover, when man can see Him in a stone or within oneself, then why can he not see Him in one’s fellow beings? *This is a subtle message to religious fanatics who are ignorant of the true nature of religion.] To see God, we need a sixth sense that we all possess, but it lies dormant in most of the adults. (b) Parmatman, Jeev-atman and sooksham-sharir: For ease of understanding let us dwell upon a parable:Fill some air into a balloon and leave the balloon in the surrounding air-- though the properties of the air inside and outside the balloon were initially the same, yet these two sets of air are now separately identifiable. Similarly, a jeev-atman (a subset of the whole) is identifiable separately from the param (Supreme) Atman. Over time, that part of the air, which is cocooned inside the balloon, starts stagnating10 and the properties of these two portions of the erstwhile same air tend to become distant -- unless there is a path for their communion, e.g. sushumna ‘nadi’ (infra). At this stage, pierce the balloon and let the cocooned part get a whiff of fresh air. Now, the freed part gets purified by the whole and you can no longer identify the two portions separately. As a parable, we may say that the separated part of air has achieved Moksha, i.e. it has inextricably mingled with the unbounded whole and, thus, freed himself/herself from the cycle of births and deaths. In this sense, the concept of Atman goes beyond the concept of ‘Spirit’. The concept of ‘sooksham-sharir’ is linked to astral travel; it is not our body-matter that goes astral travelling but our Spirit or the sooksham-sharir or the temporarily non-transformable part of that bodily energy which is indestructible (energy is indestructible according to the First Law of Thermodynamics); however, Brahmakumars believe that Soul (not Spirit) itself indulges in astral


22 travel. This sooksham-sharir is sometimes visible after the gross body-matter has ‘died’ *please refer ‘Life & Death’ (infra)]. Thus, the so-called ghosts are either this sooksham-sharir or the relational metaphysical leftovers that are similar to the temporary existence of inherent relations between the surgically removed human organ and the remaining organs. Or it may be an apparition of the natural phenomenon of our retina projecting onto our cerebral screen certain images or movie (during our dreamy state, our mind projects onto the same cerebral screen garbage-images from the un-wiped memory-space -- which is normally occupied by dynamic cognitive memory during our waking state). However, this apparitioned state freakily works in a reverse direction -- that is to say, the affected individual’s retina projects images from aforesaid cerebral space onto a thin film of dry fog (pictures are projectable on dry-fog screen) outside his/her body. These three hypotheses need further research by para-medical scientists. (c) Life: The controversy accompanying ‘euthanasia’ proves our inability to identify a single substance within human anatomy, whose existence or non-existence can lead us to pronounce death. It is so because the properties of life and death are carried in the same substance-- a circulating fluid called ‘blood’: God forbade Noah from eating ‘the flesh with the life which is *flowing+ blood, still in it’ says the Genesis 9.4-5 [The New English Bible (The Old Testament) p. 9] [parentheses added] From its very inception every living creature carries within itself the seeds of life and death or the life-giving (+) and life-taking (-) forces11. As long as the residue of these two forces is positive, growth occurs; when these forces are equal, stagnation is witnessed. Decay begins when the life-taking forces get the better of the life-giving ones. These three states are simultaneously depicted in Hindu scriptures in the same deity, namely Lord Shiva; the holy Ganges flowing from His ‘jattas’ (hair) symbolises the fluid that circulates and carries regenerative forces (‘Bismillah ur Rahman neer Rahim’). “On the fifth day you commanded the seventh part, where the water was collected, to bring forth living things …” *emphasis added] --2 Esdras 6.47-48 [The New English Bible (Apocrypha) p. 30]


23 “It is He who has created man from water …” *emphasis added+ --Sura XXV.54 (Ali. The Holy Koran ... ) One can liken the life-giving energy to amino acids (Patai, 1968) and, to some extent, to the stem cells; and the life-taking force is somewhat similar to the blackholes which presumably act as cosmic scavengers by converting matter into energy and then storing it in a stable form12 (such a method of storing energy may support inter-Galactic voyages). Just as deathly forces are released when an atom of matter (or gas) is split, so are dangerous substances released when we try to fuse two opposing energies (e.g. life-giving and life-taking forces) together into a single atom -the continuing failure of super-cyclotrons to replicate the ‘Big Bang’ is an example. Moreso, before amino acids are activated into a life-giving force, it is necessary to completely deactivate and destroy those dangerous substances which automatically get created when these two opposing forces or energies fuse together into a single molecule. In Hindu mythology, Lord Shiva is depicted as the deactivator and destroyer of the poisons that arose from ‘sagar-manthan’ (this mythological churning of the sea probably occurred in the area now marked by Bermuda Triangle) and because of the sucking in of this poison His throat is symbolically shown as blue (the colour of our veins). This hypothesis, too, needs further research by paraphysicists. (d) Man: It is the only species amongst the 84 lacs13species on earth, which can taint his actions with intentions (mens rea) other than the pure Natural instincts or ‘nishkam karma’. It is the only species capable of giving more to this World than what it takes from its environment, and it alone can discover and master the Laws of Nature. Man is the only being who can turn these discoveries to either his advantage or disadvantage; moreso, he/she alone can follow one or more of the paths to Moksha. (e) Maya: All matter – whether living or non-living – is ‘maya’ (untruth, non-eternal or waste or mere dust)14: “Dust you are, to dust you shall return.” --Genesis 3 (The New English Bible) p. 4


24 (f) Karma: In its simplistic form, ‘nishkam karma’ is the behaviour that stems from our animal instincts -- that is to say, it is untainted by motives, unattached to the mirage of temptations and is unblemished by ego. Nishkam karma is one of the paths to Moksha. It is ‘action’ guided purely by our central ‘nadi’ (sushumna nadi that is active when both our nostrils are flowing together, e.g. when we take a deep breath). This nadi is active in every newborn baby and communicates directly with the vast store of knowledge that lies in our space (ether); on one end of sushumna is a lotus whose petals serve as antennae for communion with the said knowledge. However, man’s ‘apkarma’ (evil actions) destroy the communicative aspect of sushumna nadi15. To understand nishkam karma, let Lord Krishna illumine us -- vide The Bhagvad Gita (Gunaji. Geeta, pp. 133-139.): “By not originating any action *karma+ a man does not get actionless. [In fact] [n]onesoever is actionless even for a moment[,] [e]veryone, being helpless, is forced to work by the qualities born of the Prakriti *nature+ … Perform your prescribed duty [.] [I]ndeed action is superior to inaction [;] [m]aintenance of the body itself may not come about from inaction … he is a thief who feeds himself without offering them [the society] what he received from them [.] He who does not turn over this wheel [--] thus set in motion, is a man of sinful life and he lives in vain. By work alone Janaka and others obtained perfection … With an eye to the maintenance of the world [including its social order] you ought to perform action [.] Whatever a great one does, the common man does, too. Whatever the [great one] makes authoritative, the people follow it. [For example] there is nothing in the three worlds *‘Trilok’+ that is to be done as duty by me *--] there is nothing obtained or to be obtained [by Me] yet I do engage in action. For, if I do not work alertly [then] men all around the world will follow my example.” *parentheses and emphasis added+ --The Bhagvad Gita 3,4,5,7,12,20,21 & 22 (Gunaji. Geeta, pp.133139)16 Lord Krishna further enjoins that the “enlightened should act [without attachment to karmafal (fruits of action)] with a view to the maintenance of the social order ….” *parentheses added+ --The Bhagvad Gita 3.25 (Gunaji. Geeta, p.141)


25 Krishna exhorts Arjuna that while performing action the latter should surrender all actions to God (Krishna Himself) and, thus, be free from expectations, ego and mental fever (depression, anger etc.) -- vide The Bhagvad Gita 3.30 (Gunaji. Geeta, p.141) Krishna assures Arjuna: “Men whoever abide in this teaching of mine with faith and without carping [shall be] freed from the bondage of action [causeeffect of karma, or karmafal+.” *parentheses added+ --The Bhagvad Gita 3.31 (Gunaji. Geeta, p.137) “Therefore, unattached, do your duty that is to be done meticulously; because a man doing his duty without attachment attains the supreme” (meets with Parmatman -- in other words, he/she attains Moksha) -- The Bhagvad Gita 3.19 (Gunaji. Geeta, p.139)

However, Krishna also cautions that no wise man should unsettle the minds of ignorant men attached to action (The Bhagvad Gita 3.26) -- probably because the men referred to here are ‘dummies’; we shall presently revert to this issue. [Please also see page 19.]. Let us take an illustration: The Author has spiritual powers to heal any disease, but does not use the same because sufferings (including sufferings caused by way of disease) are 'karmafal', and one should not interfere in the operation of the 'Law of Karma'. But a Medical practitioner can try to reduce a patient's sufferings because he has been assigned this duty, as a profession, by the Society -- the way a hang-man can hang without falling within the Law of Karma for the act of hanging, a soldier kills the invaders etc… But within the bounds of his profession (i.e. within the norms set by Society for his/ her profession) otherwise, (s)he is committing an 'apkarma'. That is why Gita says that you should not do another's duty (work) even if you can do it better than him/ her, because in doing that work, the exemptions attached to the 'profession' (of which that work forms a part) will not apply to you -- in that you are neither in that profession, nor has that duty/ work been assigned to you by Society. Even Gods have duties assigned to them. For example, the Author once prayed for something to his 'Isht' Dev (Lord Shiva) and He


26 said, "Tumhara kaam aap (His hand pointing towards someone) karenge" -- A Devta (Lord Kapali) appeared and Author's prayer was answered. ['Isht' means the one who is the most revered and worshipped by a particular individual. And Isht Dev said that Author's prayer would be answered by Lord Kapali.] Overemphasis by pandas on ‘destiny’ -- without understanding its nature and scope -- coupled with the expectation of attaining Moksha through mere discourses or meditation (sans nishkam karma) virtually led the Indian society to a life of feudalistic inaction. Moreso, if we confuse Destiny with the fruit of involuntary action -- that is to say, if we believe that our present actions (not results) are controlled by our past karmas, then the ‘karma theory’ degenerates into a vicious circle. This confusion -created by the pandas -- prevented the Western scholars from capturing the true spirit of Indian work-ethos. As explained in Chapter-II, destiny merely lays down our core personality, i.e. the way different individuals react to the same stimulus or set of stimuli. In terms of analogy from the world of electronic computing, planetary position at the time and place of our birth determines the hardware circuitry within our brain; this etched circuitry makes different individuals perceive same stimuli in different ways. Thereafter, it is completely left to us individually to voluntarily choose to react to the environmental stimuli either in a crude way (i.e. go by the default settings in this circuitry) or to meet this challenge in a trained manner -- like an accomplished expert who is pre-trained to appropriately re-configure and tweak this circuitry as far as possible. Thus, by our actions we can shape our reactions to destiny and, in turn, improve our future (karmafal17). At this stage, it may be necessary to clear two doubts of the “faithfuls”:i) Why do evil men prosper but sufferings is the lot of noble ones? Firstly, these evil men are probably dummies18-- a sub-category of maya (supra); their role is merely to funnel the fires of temptation within us. Secondly, just as the diamond-cutter chisels and grinds a raw diamond in order to bring out its intrinsic beauty, so does man need be rubbed onto the roughs-of-life in order to bring forth the best in him – because the best in us is akin to God’s image.


27 ii) Why did Lord Jesus Christ and Guru Teg Bahadur (9th Sikh Guru) undergo torture, especially when they performed their karma in an unattached manner? Firstly, they had transposed unto themselves the fruits of apkarmas (evil actions) committed by others prior to these others having become the “faithfuls”. Secondly, it was a way to show to men that the fruits of karma cannot be escaped. Thirdly, it demonstrated the indestructibility of Atman (Moksha does not ‘destroy’ atman -- it merely ends its exile from Parmatman). Fourthly, it was a way to instill courage amongst the ‘faithful but feeble minded’ and, at the same time, it exposed the futility of actions of those who were aggressively evil. Fifthly, it demonstrates that a mind fused in God’s Name effectively mediates the effect of physical comforts (or lack of the same) on the body in which such mind dwells -- the Author can say this from personal experience as well. The essence of Gita is: “Do not pine for what is not yours (i.e. what you have not rightfully earned by noble ‘karmas’); what is yours shall necessarily be given to you, at the right time, by Me. What you are receiving now is that you have already earned -- so, continue to perform noble actions and leave their fruit to be determined by Me.” However, during our visit to a Temple, Church, Gurdwara or Mosque don’t we normally pray either for something that is not ours or ask that which He, in any case, promises to bestow upon us ‘at the right time’. Let us consider two actual incidents: i) I once prayed to Him to enable me to visit, from India, the Pashupatinath temple (Nepal). He granted my prayer, and a foreign client approached me on the Internet and paid for my visit to Nepal in return for my expediting certain legal processes with the bureaucrats there. Did I pray for ‘that which is not mine’? No, because I belong to Him; therefore, He is mine. His ‘darshan’ (viewing the deity and performing His ‘puja’) is, thus, my spiritual right -- albeit so long as my thoughts are pure. ii) On way to Ayodhaya, I desired to visit an ancient Shiva temple; but by the time I reached there, the temple’s doors had been closed to the public for that afternoon. Still I purchased the floral offerings for Him -- that is to say, I performed my ‘karma’ (went to the temple and bought the flowers); however, this time I did not


28 pray for ‘darshan’. Low and behold, the temple’s doors opened to let me in for a puja that is performed by ‘purohits’ (priests) before temple-doors are finally sealed. This time He determined that what shall be mine was ‘His darshan’ and He bestowed the same upon me -- “That what is yours shall always be given to you by Me”. Why does the impact of Karma Theory on our behaviour or workethos remain so low? Because the predictability of results of our 'karmas' is low -- in the sense that both the format and timing of these results are unknown; this limits the degree by which Karma Theory exerts an influence upon those who learn only from viewing the cause-result relationship. The following factors are also important in determining the degree to which an individual may subscribe to the Theory of Karma: i) Personality type of the individual concerned; ii) His/her own perception about the format and timings of the results of his/her known 'karmas', iii) Strength of his/her faith in God; and iv) Reliable sources to help him/her understand the likely format and timings of the results of karmas. (g) Work: Work is important for the maintenance of a cohesive social order, it does not divide Society into ‘classes’ that are governed by birth. On the contrary, Indian scriptures exhort everyone to perform his/her socio-economic duty meticulously, excellently, alertly and as a role model, e.g. “… unattached do your duty that is to be done, meticulously.” (supra)19 Krishna, however, cautions us against meddling with another’s duty even if we could have done that duty in a better manner (please also see supra about not disturbing the ignorant men attached to work): “Better is one’s *own+ duty though defective, than the duty of others well performed.” *parentheses added+ -- The Bhagvad Gita 3.19 & 35 (Gunaji. Geeta, p. 142) The Theory of Karma, and people with disabilities: The 'hell' and 'heaven' exist within this Universe, especially on this earth itself. And the feelings of pain ('sufferings') and pleasure cannot be experienced by a soul unless it is cocooned into a living


29 body -- it may be a human body or the body of another creature. Moreso, being born into a human form (with or without disabilities) is the only opportunity to perform the right (proper and good) 'karmas' that lead to 'moksha' (freedom from the cycle of life and death) -- because all the seven paths to Moksha can be performed only as a human being. It is true that 'sufferings', in whatever form, are a result of past 'karmas' ('past' includes the past lives as well as that portion of present life that one has already lived). Hence, disabilities are a form of 'suffering' (supra) -- though these have their own plus and minus points in accordance with the basic psyche of the sufferer (in the same way as an optimist calls a glass “half-FILLED” rather than “half-empty”). Now let us look at your plus points (the Author is directly addressing, in this paragraph, the disabled): i) You are lucky to be born as a human being -- the form that does greatly assist you in not only ending the ill-effects of your past 'apkarmas' (bad actions) but also in performing such 'karmas' as can see you nearer to the goal of 'moksha'. How? ii) 'Tapasvis' performed 'tapasya' by meditating with closed eyes -your eyes are already closed; another form of 'tapasya' is performed by standing on one leg -- you have only one leg... In short, you are already EQUIPPED with whatever is required for performing 'tap' or 'tapasya' and all that you now need is the right orientation (psyche) a strong Will and an appropriate Guide. Your first task, therefore, is: convert your so called "disability" into a form of 'tapasya'. iii) Secondly, like Jesus Christ, learn to carry your own burden (Cross) -- though Christ carried it on behalf of others whose sins He took upon himself. Because it is your 'tap' and the more rigorously you perform it, the better are its results for your own future. Hence, refuse all "help" unless you are really sick -- even an otherwise 'healthy' man, too, needs help when he is really or acutely unwell (ill, sick). iv) Don't ask what others can do for you, rather ask, “What can I do for the others?” Because you can serve God by serving Humanity -it is a powerful good 'karma' that will be added to your 'samskars'. You will find that not only your own attitude towards yourself but also the attitude of others about you, will change dramatically. v) The faster you perform such good karmas, the earlier you might die -- 'Those whom God loves die young' because He might have already decided that you deserve a better life in future.


30 “Earn your living With your own efforts, Thus you will obtain happiness.” --5th Guru, Suhi Rag (Adi Granth) [Cited in The Message of Sikhism (ibid) p. 133] “… let there be amongst you traffic and trade by mutual goodwill …” --Sura IV.30 (Ali. The Holy Koran ... , p. 189) In short, therefore, ‘work’ is a socio-economic duty well performed to: i) achieve Moksha through nishkam karma or karma yoga (supra); ii) to maintain a social order, and sustain life on earth; iii) to be a role-model for the ignorant; iv) to give back to ‘Prakriti’ (Nature) more than what we have taken from it. (h) Man’s Mission in Life: The prime aim of man is to attain Moksha by one or more of the following paths:i) tapasya (corporeal penance); ii) yoga (union of mind, body and spirit through the posturing of body, controlling of breath and repeating a cycle of exertion, tension and relaxation); iii) understanding, discussing and reflecting upon Upanishads (Advaita or Samkhya20 system); iv) Nishkam karma or karma yoga -- as explained above. (j) Religion: Its two prime roles are:i) As a centripetal force, it brings about social cohesion and order by self-regulation without any complex or incomprehensible statutory legal framework of substantive, procedural and penal Laws or their associated institutions: investigative agencies, police, judiciary, jails etc. ii) As a centrifugal force, it differentiates amongst individuals in terms of their purity of thought and bestows a degree of enlightenment that he/she has earned -- the highest degree being the ‘Moksha’.


31 However, in both these roles the pith and substance of every religion remains the same, viz.: ‘O Being, if thou knoweth the purpose of Life, pursue it; if thou possesseth the ability to discern good from evil, then follow your intellect; if thou hath a conscience free from ego, ill-will, selfaggrandisement and vindictiveness, then obey thy conscience; and if thou art not blessed with any of the above, then follow the example of those who hath these assets.’ Hence, it is not necessary that the capitalist organisations should be secular and bureaucratic. 4. Work, thus, not only comes naturally to all of us but is also essential for the maintenance of our social order. Devoid of lust, anger, greed, egoism and nepotism the ‘work’ itself can uplift our souls. Therefore, work can increase our happiness -- both within and without, and help us achieve Moksha. Hence, work is the most natural and expedient path not only to a cohesive and selfregulated individual personality and social order, but also for an improved Quality of Life and Moksha. It is clarified that this concept of work and the term ‘economic worker’ applies to the Owners of Capital, Business Managers and the Workers equally. By saving (i.e. foregoing current consumption) and investment, the owners of capital are also performing work or tapsya. Every man has the potential, if properly inspired and trained, to excel in his socially assigned duty – usually called economic work (Moddie, 1990). Hence, the development of right attitude towards work ought to be one of the prime tasks of the science and art of Human Resource Development -- a term for which, as per K Ramesh (1987, p.34) there is “as yet no consensus definition”21. For the purpose of this book, we define HRD as: ‘The process of acquisition of knowledge and skills that will help us achieve spiritual mastery over self, know our prime socioeconomic duty and be well prepared to perform the said duty excellently, alertly and meticulously in cohesion with the rest of economic workers.’ At this stage, one might ask, “Do evil men, too, not strive for excellence?” Yes, but they do so with an apparition as far as the purpose of their ‘work’ is concerned: the noble men work in a


32 manner that requires minimal control over their actions, but the evil ones’ important aim is to obtain control over others’ actions: “Know that the self is the master of the chariot and the body is the chariot. Know that the intellect is the charioteer and the mind the reins. The senses are said to be ... horses and objects [temptations] for them. The wise men call him the enjoyer who is in union with the body, senses and the mind [i.e. in control of his/her body, mind and senses+.” *parentheses added+ --Katha Upanishad III.3.4 (Gunaji. Geeta, p.5) The ideal socio-economic order requires self-regulated and selfdriven men enthused with neo-Protestantism or reinterpreted Confucianism or rediscovered Karma Yoga (Nishkam Karma) as aforesaid. Gunnar Myrdal22 had identified certain traits in the traditional Indian culture, viz.: efficiency, diligence, orderliness, punctuality, frugality, scrupulous honesty, rationality in decisions to act, preparedness for change, alertness to opportunities, energetic enterprise, integrity, self-reliance, cooperativeness, and willingness to take the long-term view. If we no longer find the above traits in us, it is primarily because of the failure of our screening system (socio-cultural foundations that filter and firewall) and the result of our willingness to stoop to the lowest level of human behaviour to subserve personal aggrandisement at the cost of Society. Such evils are the result of our personal failures; a noble person does not succumb to evil temptations, nor does he blame these upon any form of economic or production system. In pointing this finger I am, however, reminded of the caution once sounded by the great Spanish Philosopher Blaise Pascal23: “It is dangerous to show man too often that he is equal to beasts, without showing him his greatness. It is also dangerous to show him too frequently his greatness, without his baseness. It is yet more dangerous to leave him ignorant of both. But it is desirable to show him *the+ two together.” *parentheses added+


33 5. Where to begin? Going by the wisdom of Gita, and observations of Gunnar Myrdal and Blaise Pascal we have begun introspection. Scientists and Engineers who filled up the Questionnaire for this Research, found that it made them introspect; hence, they requested for its blank copies -- for their personal record. Conclusion When economic work (especially working for another entity) is viewed as 'Dharma', its effect upon worker's personality (including his/her attitude, response to stimuli, predictability of his/her socioeconomic behavioural pattern, and his/her sources of satisfaction) can be profound; and the same may be said of its impact on workgroup's characteristics. Man’s behaviour on-the-job becomes more predictable and self-regulated; it also persuades leaders to become role-models -- thereby, tremendously augmenting excellence in Management. Having culled from our religious scriptures the right attitude towards work, the next logical step is to investigate the additional traits that must be developed in the scientists and engineers who are engaged in Research, Design & Development (RDD) environment -- by influencing internal environment like organisational structure and mediating processes. The traits as well as factors influencing these traits are likely to be different for the three levels of scientists and engineers in any RDD environment; for the purpose of further research, these levels are classified as Techno-Administrator, Project-Leader, and Team-Members or Facilitators.


34

CHAPTER-II

SHAPING EMPLOYEE’S RESPONSE TO STIMULI: SCIENTIFICALLY TAPPING ANCIENT RESERVOIR OF TENDENCIAL KNOWLEDGE

Introduction Society today needs, at all levels of its business activity, such humans as are willing to work alongwith other humans for a third person, group or legal entity. This, in turn, requires that these humans’ on-job behavioural response should be predictable, within at least a broad range, to programmes in training, adaptation and motivation. Can we classify human beings into a manageable number of broad categories such that within each category an identifiable pattern of similar responses to a set of stimuli is reasonably predicable -- so that by a process of selection, training and motivation we can develop a group of humans whose interests will conveniently match those of the business organisation? When one machine breaks down, the entrepreneur temporarily selects another of similar make, model and capacity; when one ox, out of a pair of oxen, dies the peasant buys another of somewhat similar strength. But the personnel manager’s choices when a key employee retires are not as simple as the previous examples may suggest. Why are humans unique? Can we classify their pattern of response to stimuli in a way which may reasonably ensure that within each such class this pattern remains somewhat similar or reasonably predictable? This is the question we attempt to answer here. Analogy


35 Computer Science is continuously seeking to emulate human logic and computational capabilities. A computer can also serve, by analogy, as a simplistic model of how human mind works. Human mind may be viewed as a system comprising of hardware and software -- both programmable and non-programmable that is configured into twelve broad patterns. Although an infinite number of unique variations exist within each of these twelve categories, our thesis is that reactions to stimuli are largely similar and predictable within each category -- subject to understandable limits; let us try to understand these similarities and limits. These 12 broad categories are based on the electromagnetic impact of relative planetary positions when the mind’s hardware circuitry was laid while the child was still in mother’s womb – astrology impliedly believes that the said circuitry is finally completed just before the child is born. Be as it may, this circuitry determines the pattern of basic intuitive reactions of that individual to any given stimulus or set of stimuli, and creates three components of a child’s Id (Freud’s concept of Id does not distinguish these): i) Basic animal instincts of fear, hunger, aggression (including ‘benign’ aggression 24) and pain-avoidance etc. ii) Genetic features (stage of evolutionary development of Homo sapiens -- in computer language we may call it a ‘version’), hereditary features (or ‘brand-differentiation’ if we may use the marketing terminology) and his/her capacity for Pavlovian reinforcement. iii) ‘Karmafal’ -- as explained herein-below. This complex view of Id explains why a simplistic Freudian concept of Id did not help in fully understanding the causes of infinite


36 variations in human responses to needs, emotions, need-stress, environmental stress, stimulus or motivation, and human expectations, self-concept &c. Flippo 25 says that Ethologists have proposed five possible instincts that are genetically transmitted in human beings, viz. reproduction, hunger, fear, aggression and grooming. But he says that these instincts do not constitute pre-programmed behaviour (as in the case of lower animals), rather these are shapers of learned behaviour -- this argument is partly true in the sense that Pavlovian reinforcement is a shaper; however, the Author herein disagrees with Flippo on many grounds already mentioned above, or on those that follow. Continuing with our computer analogy, the aforesaid circuitry in the brain is easily influenced by the rise and fall of cerebrospinal fluid that acts as a neutral medium through which the positively charged neurotransmitters (messaging chemicals) travel within our brain. This fluid is affected by several factors mentioned below. Electric shocks given to a schizophrenic patient are basically aimed at re-lubricating with cerebrospinal fluid such areas of the brain as have gone dry -- certain areas of the brain may go dry due to genetic defect, disease, particular emotional state etc. This may be further accentuated or mediated by the changing configuration of planets during human’s life-time -- it is scientifically proved that planet moon can cause the rise and fall in tides at sea; hence, the hypothesis that planets may affect the level or distribution of cerebrospinal fluid within the brain, cannot be said to be wholly inconceivable, irrational or far-fetched. This, in turn, causes unique changes in the general pattern of reactions to stimuli within the same class.


37 The inherent pattern of reacting to stimulus determines, too, the state of emotional well-being of the individual, and creates the experiential states of heaven or hell through which one momentarily passes during his/her life-time. As per Hindu beliefsystem, heaven and hell are experienced because of one’s ‘karmas’ -- that is to say, a part of the aforesaid circuitry is shaped by his/her past karmas. The Theory of Karma and ‘sushumna nadi’ are explained at: http://www.balaji-themis.co.in/thesis/gestalt.htm A sizeable portion of this hardware circuitry is non-programmable, and a small part of the behavioural pattern (a subset of aforesaid software-cum-hardware circuitry) -- though initially programmable, may also be virtually rendered unprogrammable after dogmatic indoctrination during impressionable age of an individual; this is how religious bigots, zealots and terrorists are made! A portion of the brain may also become resistant to reprogramming due to satisficing reactions to a particular stimulus -Pavlovian reinforcement. A very large part of the brain is still available for programming or re-programming through education and training; these programmable areas (including a part of the configurable subconscious mind that can be re-programmed under Narco-Analysis or hypnosis) consist of the following: i) Cognitive ability ii) Analytic (including Logic and Arithmetic) ability iii) Learning ability iv) The ability to observe, conceptualise, analyse, synthesise and manipulate Natural phenomenon so as to make it subserve the needs, purpose or intention of Homo sapiens.


38 However, by the time a person becomes available for hiring to a business entity his/her pattern of reacting to stimuli has already been set in place by instincts, Ego and a substantial part of Superego -- these are probably developed during the following stages of human life-cycle (adapted from life-cycle stages cited by Flippo 26 and the results of Author’s research):Infancy: dependence on sushumna nadi (supra), trust in others, love, desire to imitate. Child: ego, beginning of trust in him/her, superego (conscience) learned by observing others’ behaviour and indoctrination from others. Adolescence: search for identity, acceptance by peers or rolemodel. Early Adult: early intimacy -- includes leaving a given attachment for a self-chosen one, beginning of conscious rationalisation that improves superego, leadership. Adult: concern for family, relating to peers, interacting with society at large, becoming aware of one’s socio-economic duty, etc. Old: ego-integrity, security, love, trust that he/she is still considered worthy by others, etc. Role of Filters such as Ego, Superego: The Id is suppressed by certain filters, for example: Ego: Behaviour learnt from ethereal knowledge that flows through the child’s active ‘sushumna nadi’ -- the basic function of ego is to protect an individual when his pre-set reaction to a particular stimulus is likely to bring him or her harm, and such protection continues to be provided by sushumna until the age the child can discern the difference between instinctive and normative behaviour. Thereafter, the child voluntarily chooses a pain-


39 avoidant behaviour that has either been normatively prescribed, or experientially learnt as under: a) Defensive Mechanisms: Certain acquired mental associations with past events -- that were perhaps painful experiences, discourage repetition of any act which had brought forth such experience. b) Pavlovian Reinforcement: A happy experience reinforces the response that originally fostered it. Superego: Normative behaviour that is prescribed by Culture (i.e. child’s Family, Race, Society, Nation, Professional Code of Conduct etc.) or the one that has been reinforced, or what the child sees in a person whom it accepts as its role-model, etc. Thus, the actual response of a human being depends upon the relative strength of his/her Id and Ego -- as mediated by the Superego. And a pattern of such responses constitutes his/her perceptible behaviour. A nearly consistent pattern of behaviour constitutes his/her personality. This pattern has been classified by ancient ‘rishis’ (systematic observers and philosophical analysers of the universe) into 12 broad categories (infra). Desirable Human Characteristics in an R & D Environment Different Personality types are required to fit into the three different Levels or Roles in a Research & Development environment. These job-roles are: Techno-Administrator (Director), Project/Team-Leader, and Team Member. For example, computer data-processing personnel prefer cognitive structures and are high on stamina 27. An exploratory Objective of my research is to identify the predominant traits which facilitate performance of particular job-roles so that in the process of recruitment, selection, training, maintenance/motivation of Scientists and Engineers for an RDD Institute, the Interviewers and HR Managers can focus on


40 the assessment of these traits as well as on behavioural patterns of these candidates/employees. Rushton et al 28 have identified certain characteristics that differ amongst creative Researchers and effective Teachers even within the field of science (though the sample was drawn from the Department of Psychology only); these characteristics are: Creative Researchers: Ambitious (achievement motivation), seeking Definiteness, Compulsive, showing Leadership, nonSupportive, not Meek, Enduring (persistent), Orderly (methodical), Approval-seeking, Independent, Dominant, Aggressive. Effective Teachers: showing Leadership, Liberal, Intelligent, Sociable, Extroverted, low in Anxiety, Objective, Supporting, nonAuthoritarian, not Defensive, Aesthetically sensitive. That is to say, only one trait (viz. Leadership) is common to both the job-roles. Rushton further claims that Achievement Motivation was found to be a reliable predictor of the number of publications by a Scientist; however, similar avenues are rare for the Engineers. Recruitment/Selection Procedure: It requires identification, out of the twelve categories, the one which provides the best fit between behavioural expectations and Job-Role. A candidate’s tendency towards certain attitudes, behavioural pattern and temperament that will influence his/her goodness-of-fit in an RDD environment, can be found from NatalChart or Sun-signs (given in Annexure-I). Focus on those candidates who fall in one or more of the relevant categories. And subject them to Psychological Tests to determine their amenability to appropriate programmes of instruction, training and motivation/maintenance, viz. their cognitive ability, logical (both inductive and deductive) ability, computational


41 capability, skills in comprehension and communication, general awareness, etc. In addition, Tests can be conducted to evaluate the degree to which these candidates are right-brained or left-brained -- one such Test is shown in Annexure-II. Moreso, these tests may also include methods to assess a candidate’s cognitive process, motivational & emotional variables, behavioural pattern, sense of mission, endurance, concern for excellence, achievementmotivation, entrepreneurship, and capacity to think laterally, synectically, kaleidoscopically or parallely. During Personal Interviews the candidate’s behavioural tendencies may be tested under both normal and stressful situations -- with special focus on his/her inter-personal relations, motivations, value systems (viz. sense of community, universalism, emotional distance etc.), personal traits like leadership, perseverance, alertness and patience. These behavioural requirements are in addition to the technical requirements (knowledge, skills and experience) that are needed for a particular job-role, and are necessary for the best possible performance of that job in the organisational settings. It is hypothesised that tendencies towards positive and negative traits are heavily influenced by the ruling planet in his/her natalchart (sun sign). Research was conducted on Scientists & Engineers working in various types of Research, Design & Development Institutes spread over several sectors -- ranging from Public to Private. They are mostly employed at the level of Class-I Officers -- out of whom 26 were working as either Scientists ‘F’, Director, University Professors, Award-winning Entrepreneur, Reader or Project Leaders; in the DRDO Scientists and Engineers are normally graded


42 from ‘B’ to ‘F’, and ‘Distinguished Scientist’ is the highest grade. Thirty-five of these scientists and engineers held PhD degrees (2 more were pursuing PhD programme); 35 had at least one publication to their credit. Even 7 non-PhDs had contributed Papers in various Journals. Two of them published more than 100 Papers each -- more than 75 Papers in International journals belong to one of them alone. However, none of the respondents answered the specific Question about Citation Index of their Papers. This sample of 95 Scientists and Engineers consists of meritorious students who not only made it to the Science-stream at High School, but also pursued higher studies in a narrower scientific/engineering discipline, e.g. MSc, MTech etc. Ninety-five Questionnaires were analysed -- whereas International academic-research standards consider 40-45 as sufficient for such an exploratory/qualitative research. The number of Questionnaires that were analysed from each of the three classes (Technocrat/Director, Project Leader and Team-Member) is: 26, 39 and 30 respectively. The Questionnaire comprised of 66 pages that contained a total of 136 Questions (Section-I: 45 Questions, Section-II: 18, and Section-III: 73). The Geminis (ruled by planet Mercury) appear to be the most prolific writers: 4 such respondents have more than 20 publications/books to their credit, and one of them had published the highest number of papers (175 -- more than 75 in International journals alone). The group of Geminis also has the 2nd highest percentage of respondents who published papers or books (5 out of a total of 11 Geminis in the sample); however, the highest


43 percentage in this category went to Scorpions (7 out of 11 had published papers or book) – moreso, one of them had published the second highest number of papers (more than 100). The ruling planet of Scorpio is Pluto). Virgos (ruling planet Mercury) ranked first in terms of number of scholarships awarded while they were at college, viz. 6 out of 9. These findings, though statistically meagre, do intuitively support the generalisations contained in Annexure-I. Lateral, Parallel, Synectic and Kaleidoscopic Thinking: Lateral thinking is concerned with how we perceive the world, and our attempt to move through an asymmetric pattern to a symmetric one. Parallel thinking means not taking the traditional argumentative (win/ lose) positions, but to think independently and in parallel with a view to eventually find a solution which everyone believes in. Synectic thinking is explained through a PowerPoint template at: http://www.balaji-themis.co.in/thesis/synectics.htm Three examples of Synectic thinking are given in Annexure-III. I shall presently return to these aspects. Left-brained vs. Right-brained: Experiments have shown that the two different sides (hemispheres) of the brain are responsible for different manners of thinking. The following table illustrates the main differences between left-brain and right-brain thinking: Left Brain

Right Brain

Logical

Random


44 Sequential

Intuitive

Rational

Holistic

Analytic

Synthesising

Objective

Subjective

Looks at parts

Looks at wholes

Speed reading: Speed Reading aims at reading quickly while, at the same time, gaining maximum comprehension of the material being read. Some of the methods for speed reading are: chunking, skimming and eliminating sub-vocalization. Most speed readers use a variety of methods to increase their reading speed and comprehension level. One way is to read first the Foreword, Preface, Table of Contents, Glossary, Index and Comments about the Book or Article that you wish to examine in detail; next read the first and last paragraphs of a Chapter, then the first and last sentence of each paragraph in that Chapter. Thereafter start reading the book (preferably having a two-column layout -- like that of a newspaper) by looking down the centre of each line and taking in as much content of that line as possible so as to form a general understanding of the whole sentence, then a general understanding of the paragraph, the page, and so on.

Time-Management The era of Information Society has made it incumbent that we not only read fast but be also able to manage our time in a way that increases our overall efficiency.

Productivity Productivity of a Scientist or Engineer is a function of several variables -- including the degree of his/her fit into one of the three


45 roles that are usually assigned in Research, Design & Development Institutes. Never Run Faster Than Your Angel Can Fly Nature may not view benedictively certain deliberate human interventions -- especially those that might eventually create harmful imbalances between Nature and man. A few examples are: The ancient Greeks believed that Titan Prometheus invented fire -displeased, the gods chained him to a mountain to expose him to the elements (vagaries) of Nature. Similar fate befell the early developers of electronic computers. “The historical facts are these. In 1943, the logical scheme of the general-purpose computer was first described in a famous report entitled ‘First Draft of a Report on EDVAC’ (EDVAC is an acronym for electronic discrete variable automatic computer) written by John Von Neumann. It was about a machine being planned by John Mauchly and J Presper Eckert (however EDVAC was never built) ... The ideas for EDVAC eventually turned up in the Mauchly/Eckert UNIVAC machine. And just before the UNIVAC, Von Neumann supervised the building of the first programmable electronic computer at the Institute of Advanced Studies at Princeton. At first, Von Neumann, Mauchly and Eckert had been intellectual collaborators, but they later split over their own claims to fame. ” “He (Neumann) was influenced by the earlier ideas of Kurt Goedel and Allen Turing. He also drew on the ideas and work of John Mauchly and J Presper Eckert.” “Mauchly and Eckert created one of the world’s first all electron vacuum tube special-purpose computers (at about the same time other special-purpose computers were also being created independently in England by Turing and in Germany by Konrad


46 Zuse). Mauchly also borrowed earlier ideas from John Atanasoff. Mauchly and Eckert, in turn, were influenced by Van Neumann’s ideas ... (However) Mauchly and Eckert created the world’s first commercially successful stored-programme electronic computer, the UNIVAC.” In the Patent claim for ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator), Von Neumann testified against Mauchly. In that case the Judge ruled that Mauchly and Eckert were not the true inventors of electronic computer; hence, there was never any basic patent on the computers. This ruling also contributed to Mauchly’s penury; after the said ruling, Mauchly said, “We’ve got down to the point where maybe we can buy some hotdogs with our Social Security”. And in 1980 he died of a genetic disease that had terribly disfigured him. For Neumann it was even worse. In the summer of 1955, he was diagnosed with bone cancer, which soon brought on excruciating pain. “In the words of his friend Edward Teller, ‘I think that Von Neumann suffered more when his mind would no longer function than I have ever seen any human being suffer’. Toward the end there was panic and uncontrolled terror.” The gods were also hard on Allen Turing, the person who had first conceptualised general computation as programmable operations. “Convicted in England for soliciting sexual favours from a teen-age boy, he was given a choice of prison or hormone treatments. He chose the hormones and soon found his breasts growing. Driven to despair, he made up a batch of cyanide in a home laboratory and died an apparent suicide.” Even the famous logician Kurt Goedel -- whose work influenced the computational ideas of both Turing and Neumann, was personally


47 tormented. “... After his wife underwent surgery and was placed in a nursing home in 1977, Goedel (Gödel) refused to take any food. He starved himself to death.” (Parentheses and emphasis added) Source: Betz, Frederick. Strategic Technology Management (McGraw Hill, New York, International Students Edition 1994) pp.131-132


48

CHAPTER-III R & D ENVIRONMENT: AN HR MANAGER’S PERSPECTIVE In markets whose major focus is on consumers, technological change is a major factor in the long-term business success. However, it is difficult to plan technology because it is very difficult to forecast the extent of change in the scientific basis that underlies any technology or to forecast the degree to which a new technology (incremental or radically ‘next generation’ technology, i.e. NGT) may be transformed into a useful product, application, process or service at competitive prices, or whether such technology will find willing entrepreneur(s); moreso, commercial adoption of technology also depends upon the degree to which potential users of this technology consider it a full or partial substitute for their current way of doing things. The history of scientific discoveries and technological innovations are, however, said to follow zeitgeist (infra). The above process is made more complex by the fact that a MultiNational Corporation is usually diversified and uses not just a single technology but several -- core and complementary technologies. Research planning is a step between technology planning and technology implementation. Technology planning provides business context for planning the research programmes in industry. The goals of planning research projects -- in industrial context, are: i) Improving current products, applications, processes & services; ii) Creating next generation technologies for new models or for new versions of existing products, applications, processes and services so as to expand their existing markets; or to create new uses that will, in turn, open up entirely new markets; iii) Creating radical innovations that not only lead to new products, applications, processes and services but also give rise to wholly new businesses.


49 Research Planning may occur at one or more of the following levels: Federal or State sponsored research; basic or industry-sponsored research conducted in Universities or Laboratories; research by the Corporates in their central laboratory (for core technologies), and in their divisional laboratories for product-development; and research in Cooperative/Autonomous Research-cum-Consultancy Laboratories. Research is the principal means for systematically advancing technologies -- either by incremental innovation or by altering the underlying structures of technology in such a way as to enable a radical innovation, and the present day research systematically uses scientific methods to perform research selected by the technological goals of Research Strategy. A Research strategy aims at technical advances in both -- devices and processes: a) Devices require research on the structures of the device, materials used in the device, scientific understanding and modelling of the phenomena underlying the device, tools and software to improve the design of the device, etc. b) Processes require research on inventing production processes for transforming individual products or services, understanding and modelling of the transformations in unit-production of these products or services, monitoring and control of transformations, tools & software to improve the design of processes, integration and control of individual processes into a production system. The steps in planning Research Projects are: i) Exploratory Research that is basic in nature but technologically oriented: to discover, explore & understand Nature [e.g. research conducted in Universities and National Laboratories or research that is initiated when a National/State ‘Potential Technologies Scanning & Monitoring Committee’ (PTSMC) finds that a particular basic research project is opening up new technological areas]. If it does, the PTSMC organises a Workshop to identify the opportunities and to propose topics for future research that can be funded by Governmental Agencies or by Industry, or by both.


50 Thereafter, the direction and pace of research in the selected projects may be closely monitored by one of its Sub-Committees. ii) Once a basic technological invention/innovation occurs, further research should be focused on generic technology systems and subsystems, production processes, and the scientific phenomena underlying these systems and processes. For example, Research can be focused on one or more of the following aspects of technology system, and the scientific phenomena underlying them: Improved system boundary Improved components Improved connections (relations) between components Improved raw materials, subassemblies Improved sources of power and energy generated Improved system control, etc. Obviously, such a detailed research will be complex & costly. Moreso, a wrong decision concerning any of these aspects can spell the difference between success and failure; the following instances will prove this point: a) Although the American Manhattan Project and the German Army Ordnance’s project for creating a nuclear fission (sustained chain reaction) reactor were conceived at about the same time, yet it was the Americans who achieved success earlier (US reactor went critical in the year 1942) -- this difference lay in choosing purified graphite as a moderator by the Americans (rather than the heavy water selected by the Germans due to constraints of finance, and its assured supplies). It is pertinent to mention here that nuclear fission was first discovered by the German scientists (Hahn, Meisner, Frisch et al) yet the Germans failed to be the first in transforming this discovery into a technology-application. b) It was a US Naval project, under Rickover’s leadership, that first utilised the nuclear fission technology to create the world’s first nuclear-powered submarine -- this project used pressurized light water as the moderator, instead of graphite or heavy water.


51 The above examples emphasise that in the early stages of engineering research we should aim at systematically exploring all the available technical alternatives so as to find the optimal solution for particular application or use which is under consideration. The parameters of optimality for different purposes may, thus, vary; the criteria for optimality may include, inter alia: Performance, efficiency, ease of use, cost, life-cycle, availability of raw material & sub-assemblies, safety, and other competitive advantages. Hence, an application prototype should adopt the best engineering solution for each purpose. There are two stages in prototyping of technology systems, and the same ought to be evaluated by a Team of experts drawn from scientists, engineers and potential users of that application: i) Technical feasibility prototype: It demonstrates that the engineering principle does work in at least one configuration. ii) Application functional prototype: Selection from alternative technically feasible prototypes, of the one that optimises the chosen performance criteria for a given application. In Research Planning, we first describe the technical system; then identify the critical technology performance variables and, thereafter, list all the underlying scientific phenomena. Progress in technology system can be either incremental or discontinuous – the latter improves the performance so radically as to require strategic reorientation of the skill-base of the organisation. The discontinuous ones may be called ‘next generation’ technologies (NGTs); research planning procedure for NGTs should be as under: i) characterise this technology as a system; ii) identify bottlenecks in making improvements; iii) imagine/visualise how new research in instrumentation, instrumental techniques, algorithmic techniques or theoretical modelling could be focussed on the bottlenecks;


52 iv) imagine/visualise how to improve our understanding of the phenomenon that causes bottlenecks, and how either to alter (manipulate) this phenomenon or to find alternatives, if any. The next stage in Research Planning is to develop Theory or Models that are semantic and representational tools for abstracting and generalising instrumental observations of Nature. It is this Modelling (not mere analogies like the ‘S-curve’) that provides the basis for scientific prediction -- including technology forecasting. The development of new mathematics, heuristic procedures, learning & programmed operations etc. provide mathematical Models and tools for testing our theories and, thus, help our progress in sciences that, in turn, provide improvements in technology. The following illustration (year 1991) for Targeted Technological Research in Bioreactors depicts the complexity of planned, systematic scientific research in technology: For the design of bioreactors for production of proteins from mammalian cells, the biotechnical engineer needed to design reactors that grow a high density of cells, formulate the proper medium for their growth, provide proper surfaces for mammalian cells to attach to, control the operation of the reactor, and provide for the recovery of the proteins that are grown in the cells. In that year, bioreactor designs for growing mammalian cells were: fixed bed, fibre-bed, and ceramic-matrix designs. The recovery processes for separating desired proteins from the output of the reactor were: chromatography, filtration, and protein refolding procedures. After carrying out a systems analysis of bioreactors, recovery systems and important technological variables, the MIT Biotechnology Process Engineering Centre (MITBPE Centre) identified the research areas necessary to provide improved knowledge for the technology; for this it listed the following scientific phenomena as requiring better understanding:


53 1. Extracellular biologic events: nutrition and growth factors of the cells, differentiation factors of the cells, redox oxygen conditions in the cellular processes, and secreted products of the cells. 2. Extracellular physical events: transport phenomena of materials in the medium, hydrodynamics of fluid/gas interactions of the medium, cell-surface interactions, and cell-cell interactions. 3. Intracellular events and states: genetic expression of the proteins in the cells, folding of proteins and secretion from the cells, glycosylation of the proteins, cellular regulation of secretion, metabolic flows in the cells and their energetics. Similarly, MITBPE Centre listed the following phenomena that underlie recovery process of the system as requiring better understanding: 1. Protein-protein interactions: aggregation of proteins into clumps and mutations of protein structures. 2. Protein-surface interactions: aggregation of proteins through denaturation, and absorption of the proteins to surfaces. 3. Protein stability: surface interactions, chemical reactions, aggregation in the solvent, and stabilisation. Accordingly, the Centre organised their research into two areas: • Engineering and scientific principles in the therapeutic protein production • Process engineering and science in therapeutic protein purification. The Centre’s Research Projects in the first area included the following: Expression: transcription factors Protein trafficking and post-translational modifications: glycosylation/ folding Redox potential Intercellular energetics


54 Regulation of secretion Hydrodynamics: gas sparging High-density bioreactor designs Substrata morphology (for cell attachment) The Centre’s Research Projects in the second area were, inter alia, as under: Protein absorption: chromatography and membrane Protein aggregation In vitro protein folding Protein stability (in processing, storage and delivery). Ongoing Project Viability Audit: Large Research Laboratories conduct several projects at any given time, and these projects are in different stages of planning and development. Periodic Reviews must be conducted to assess the financial, technological and commercial viability of these projects so as to either temporarily place on-hold the non-priority ones or totally eliminate those that are unviable. Skill Development: Research requires several skills, in varying degrees, not only during the different stages of planning & development but also amongst different levels of Research Managers -- these levels are: TechnoAdministrator, Team-Leader, and Team-Member/Facilitator. These traits are neither found nor necessarily required in equal degree in every Scientist/Engineer; in the same way, the mosaic of science does not require every individual to be creative to the same degree. The following techniques, however, do help Creativity: Lateral thinking: Lateral thinking leads us to newer ways of conceiving Strategic Goals of Research, Research Planning and Implementation. Let us, for example, examine an alternative strategic research plan for Star-Wars:


55 Via satellites, we may be able to manipulate a particular portion of stratosphere and ionosphere over an alien country in such a way that its aerodynamic properties and electromagnetic characteristics (including wireless frequencies) are altered in a significant way -- which is neither anticipated nor programmed into the aerodynamic properties, trajectory and guidance systems of the alien missile. In the result, the missile may never reach its intended target. And if we are able to simulate the effects of solar flares on electronic circuits, we may be able to burn the alien missile’s onboard electronic guidance system during its flight. Parallel Thinking: Two examples of Parallel Thinking are given in Annexure-III to this book -- the first one illustrates the difference between bitterly argumentative debates (e.g. the debate between HRD Ministry versus School Principals, Educationists, Parents, Students and General Public on the issue of abolition of Class-X Board Examinations in the Indian School-system) on the one hand, and the analytic yet consensual & constructive approach that’s made possible by Parallel Thinking Method. The second example concerns a much needed judicial reform that has been made possible by our enhanced IT capability. Synectic Thinking: Three examples of Synectic Thinking are given in Annexure-III to the book. In addition, a PowerPoint presentation defining Synectics is placed at www.balaji-themis.co.in/synectis.htm Kaleidoscopic Thinking: This technique enables one to discern cumulative patterns in disjointed pieces of information. As already stated above, I shall call it ‘creativity’ for the purposes of this research work. Zeitgeist: While discussing Zeitgeist and Communication Theory, Simonton 29 claims that the Theory of ‘Chance’ better explains the timings of occurrence of scientific discoveries and technological innovations -albeit in terms of history. He, however, concedes what Einstein


56 said, “God does not play with dice”. In essence, the Chance Theory says that frequency distribution obtained by throwing a dice (probability distribution with a chance element) or the one obtained with random numbers, is a Poisson distribution -- which incidentally resembles the recorded pattern of occurrence of ‘multiples’ in scientific discoveries and technological innovations during the history of science. Can the theory of Chance fulfill the purpose of statistical inference and make predictions about future discoveries and innovations? No. Here, Simonton misses the point that ‘randomness’ merely means the absence of a visible hand in the results of certain events (throw of dice is an event) -- not that there is no invisible hand at all that may still govern these results. In fact, there are a number of ‘unknown’ causes that cumulatively influence the outcome of any event, coupled with innumerable ways in which these causes may interact with each other (sequentially, quantitatively & qualitatively); moreso, there are numerous variations produced by inclusion/exclusion of certain causes -- until exhaustion of all possible outcomes (without placing any arbitrary limit on the total number of occurrence of multiples, singletons & nulltons). The number of possible outcomes is too large to be simulated; however, if a large enough representative sample is taken then the results thereof resemble a Poisson distribution -- even though neither all the aforesaid causes nor their combinations have been specifically identified in detail. Some of these causes include the factors subsumed by zeitgeist.

Simonton himself observes that the ‘history of science in other civilisations, most notably the Chinese, has pursued a contrasting sequence of events’ from that followed by Western science -- this contrast was the result of different socio-cultural conditions and the resultant technological requirements in the two sets; moreso,


57 there are certain pre-conditions that must precede particular innovations.

‘Multiples’ occur because geniuses produce ideas prolifically -some of these ideas may be expressed as core statements or peripherally. Multiples or rediscoveries sometimes enrich discovery or innovation (e.g. discovery of Calculus by Newton and Leibniz) and, at times, may ensure that a novel idea is utilised in the march of human history.

From the above discussion, it is self-evident that proper management of any research organisation requires a technoadministrator who is not only well versed with the technical jargon (that’s only partially hinted at above) and the complex process of research involved, but is also perceived by the scientific community as capable of fairly and justly assessing the contributory performance of each and every highly qualified technical employee in the success of organisational objectives. Clearly, this role requires a competence that is usually beyond the training acquired by an administrative generalist.


58

CHAPTER-IV HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT IN RDD INSTITUTES Origin and Growth of Personnel Function in India In the year 1855 Fatal Accidents Act was enacted, in 1923 Workmen’s Compensation Act was passed, and in 1926 Trade Unions Act came into force. Moreover, the Report of Royal Commission on Labour in India (1929-31) recommended the appointment of Labour Officers/ Labour Liaison Officers to check corrupt practices in the recruitment of labour by Indian industry. Payment of Wages Act was passed in the year 1936, Employers’ Liability Act in 1938, Weekly Holidays Act in 1942, and the War Injuries Ordinance Act in 1943. To win over the support of Indian labour for British war-effort, Welfare Officers began to be appointed by the Government and Industry; they were to deal with labour’s working conditions, canteens, ration shops, medical & recreation facilities, workers’ housing etc. In 1942, Calcutta University started a course in Social Welfare for training these Welfare Officers. Compulsory adjudication in labour disputes was introduced by the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947 -- thereby, the functions of Labour Officers were extended to handling disputes & adjudication in respect of wages, leave, bonus, fringe benefits, retirement benefits etc.; thus, Welfare Officers also became Industrial Relations Officers and began to participate in collective bargaining, conciliation proceedings and adjudication. Other legislations soon followed; for example, Factories Act of 1948, Employment Exchange (Compulsory Notification of Vacancies) Act of 1959, the Apprentices Act of 1961, etc. -- there are more than 40 Acts covering various aspects of labour (covering their recruitment, terms and conditions of service, severance of their services etc.); these Acts are listed in Annexure-IV (infra). Traditionally, the labour field encompassed the following broad functional areas in industry:


59 i) Labour welfare (it is usually looked after by Welfare Officers) ii) Industrial relations (generally the responsibility of IR Officer) iii) Personnel administration (assigned to Personnel Manager who is an MBA with preferably Legal, Personnel Management, Social Work or Industrial Relations background). Personnel Policies in the private sector usually conform to Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Act, 1946; and sanction for deviations, if any, is obtained from the concerned Authority. Interpretation of these policies is, however, judiciously left flexible. But in the public sector the tendency is to follow the pattern of Central Civil Services Rules -- as modified by bipartite Agreement, if any, between the Management and Employees. The Policy Statement generally covers the following matters: • Hiring & Severance • Service conditions • Medical & Educational facilities • Industrial Relations • Fringe Benefits etc.

The location of Personnel Manager, within the organisation structure, is generally at the second or third rung/position, and although he/she may be placed in Corporate Headquarters yet his/her staff might be partially dispersed between Headquarters and Production-Divisions. There may also be separate cells, within the Personnel Department, to deal with regular employees and ad hoc employees, regulatory compliance (Minimum Wages, Employees’ Provident Fund, Employees Insurance Scheme, Medical Reimbursement, Accident Claims, Bonus, Gratuity, Canteen, Crèches, Pollution Control, Safety, Fire-Prevention etc.) negotiations with Trade Union(s), Conciliation & Adjudication, Training, Counselling and Termination Interviews. The traditional functions of Personnel Department are summarised below: Labour Welfare: 1. Conditions of Work Environment


60 a) Working Conditions (including light, air, ergonomics etc.) b) Factory Sanitation and Cleanliness c) Welfare Amenities 2. Employees’ Health Services a) Factory Health Services b) Recreation 3. Workers’ Education (basic skills) 4. Economic Services 5. Housing for Employees and Community Services 6. Monitoring of Compliance with Welfare Acts 7. Social Work in Industrial settings -- Social Responsibility of Businesses Personnel Administration 1. Recruitment a) Recruitment of Personnel b) Job Analysis (Industrial Engineering -- Time and Motion Studies and Work-Study), Job Description, Job Specification, Job-Enlargement, Job-Enrichment, and Manpower Planning 2. Retaining a) Placement (assignment) b) Introduction and Indoctrination/Assimilation c) Supervision and Discipline d) Wage and Salary Administration (Job & Performance Evaluation, and Counselling) e) Merit-Rating f) Transfer and Promotion g) Safety and Prevention of Losses h) Administration in Relation to Absenteeism, EmployeeTurnover etc.


61 i) Personnel Skill-Development & Training Programmes (basic) j) Personnel Records and Statistics k) Retirement, Handing Over/Taking Over, and Retiral Benefits l) Compliance with Central & State Legislations like Apprentices Act, Employment Exchanges (Compulsory Notification of Vacancies) Act, Factories Act, Shops and Establishments Act etc. Source: Monappa, Arun and Mirza S. Saiyadain. Personnel Management (Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd, New Delhi, 1979) pp.58-60.

The present Thesis transcends the above-mentioned traditional areas of man-management, and focuses mainly on the current interest in Human Resources Development or HRM. The broad Objectives of modern Personnel Departments (which include the Human Resources functions) are: i) Effective and efficient utilisation of human resources; ii) Desirable working relationships, integration of employees into organisational culture, and synergy of individual and organisational goals; iii) Maximum individual and group development. The extent of satisfaction of employees’ expectations from their work and work-place impact their performance on the job; some of these expectations are: • Financial security (ability to satisfice his/her basic wants) and job security • Fair wages, and opportunity for advancement & selfdevelopment • Individual’s and group’s job-satisfaction, and a feeling that he/she is doing something important for the Society • Participation and involvement in the management of his/her work. My research attempts to explore the special characteristics, talents and expectations of the highly qualified and well placed (career-


62 wise) RDD Scientists & Engineers, and the intrinsic & extrinsic factors that influence their performance on-the-job.

Characteristics of Technical Workforce Robert C Sampson (1965) 30 believes that self-interest and selfprotection are normal and healthy human emotions, and that good management should endeavour to reduce the need for selfprotection while, at the same time, harmonising their self-interests with the objectives of the organization. Carl Rogers (1961) 31 perceives that people are more comfortable when they are allowed to determine for themselves, as human adults, the pace & direction of their growth—within the overall constraints laid down by the organisation, and are treated in a manner which reinforces their self-image. Moreso, individuals in a group tend to view a supervisor who reinforces their self-image, as part of that group. However, employee’s self-image changes as he/she matures and grows. Douglas N Jackson 32 observes that the values of a non-scientist may not fit the competitive world of science. For example, an Accountant feels comfortable in a predictable environment that is bound by rules but, on the other hand, R & D involves risk and uncertainties. Though for a Researcher the successful completion of a project is an end in itself, yet for the Entrepreneur it is only a means for profits. Their values often diverge -- the Scientist values universalism, sense of community, organised skepticism etc. And even traits within the technical personnel may differ, e.g. DataProcessing Personnel are high on cognitive structures and endurance (stamina). Creative Organisations


63 Some business organisations, in their own economic self-interest recognise, reward, develop, foster & harness the creative & innovative traits of their human resources much better than do others. These organisations are usually engaged in such business activities as demand a maximum amount of commercially viable new ideas, products, processes or concepts; and their environment/ settings are significantly different from those of many others -- Research, Design & Development Organisations are one such category of creative entities. Jackson (supra) says that “motivation of the scientist might be different from that of the entrepreneurial businessperson” and cites six dimensions of scientists’ achievement-motivation as: Concern for excellence, status with experts, status amongst peers, competitiveness, acquisitiveness and achievement by independence. He further states that even the Reward system is different for the Scientists, e.g. a Professor’s annual salary taken together with the prestige of his/her University provides a basis for status ranking -moreover, salary is not a precise index of a Scientist’s performance because salary depends upon age, length of service and budgetary constraints from country to country. Besides, the nature of work may itself provide intrinsic rewards to a Scientist/Engineer if it facilitates his/her achievement-motivation. Social recognition is an important ingredient of a Reward System for Scientists & Engineers. However, there are more Award-Systems for the Scientists than exist for the Engineers. Jackson cites another important difference, viz. Business Managers are trained for a purposive-rational style of leadership whereas the Researchers possess a value-rational style. For example, Business Managers are dominated by economic & political considerations,


64 obey rules & formal authority, are flexible with regard to means & ends -- will change if secondary consequences are not acceptable, perceive as a source of authority legal & bureaucratic rules resulting into a body of law for the society, act for an organisation or group, and prefer a hierarchical structure based on formal authority & rules. On the other hand, Scientists/Engineers are dominated by ideas, obey ideology & norms -- rather than rules & law, seek an absolute goal (i.e. knowledge) without great concern for secondary consequences, and perceive legitimate authority as springing from expert knowledge -- with the goal of accumulating a body of knowledge. However, the traits above describe the ideal types. Business Manager tries to control the unknown by proper planning -- including avoidance of the unknown, whereas the Scientist is oriented towards discovering the unknown. Jackson says that the “highest levels of performance and productivity were not identified in individuals devoting 100% of their time to research ... Persons who had two or three areas of specialisation or who spent one-quarter of their time in teaching or administration ... performed better as scientists�. While achievement-motivation was found to be a reliable predictor of the number of publications, the highest citation rate was for those who scored high in both work and mastery. He, therefore, suggests Citation Index as one of the bases for selection of Scientists -- for lateral entry or head-hunting. He states that “research personnel attached high importance to being challenged by projects assigned, having freedom in managing their work, seeing ideas put to use, associating with able


65 professionals”. However he says, “When creative scientist had more than 30% of time free to work on self-directed projects, their performance dropped’; he also cautions that people “who have achieved a status commensurate with well-appointed facilities, may be unwilling to undertake the risks inherent in uncertain developmental projects or novel hypotheses”. R & D Settings R & D organisations continually demand from their human resources a conscientious upward movement along the continuum of human behaviour—in this process these Creative Organisations help their human resources to mature and grow both as professionals and as persons. Hence, Project Leaders in these organisations need much deeper understanding of the behavioural sciences (viz. psychology, sociology, management, ethics & anthropology). Moreover, they not only need to have more frequent interaction with their human resources at a subtler person-to-person level, but also ought to adopt relatively more positive assumptions about the human resources that are assigned to them to accomplish a particular project. These leaders, in addition to the acquisition of soft people-skills, also need to become a role-model to their co-workers and subordinates in at least one scientific discipline. Usually these leaders/managers are “high producers”. Rensis Likert 33 lists the following traits in ‘high producers’:i) they are good delegators ii) they allow workers to participate in decision-making iii) they encourage open, two-way communication iv) they are non-punitive.


66 Positive assumptions about the work-force reduce the managerial overheads in terms of number of supervisory levels, and foster close inter-personal relationships between the manager and subordinates. Carl Rogers 34 found that close personal relationship between the leader and followers reduces the managerial overhead.

R & D is a complex world filled with both -- uncertainty and promise. On the contrary, an average employee seeks stability & security. Hence, the R & D manager ought to be a visionary who not only puts foundations under the organisational dream, but also draws his co-workers to that vision in order to inspire them; the Scientists and Engineers need to be inspired to take to their Wings and convert challenges into opportunities. W. Shield aptly said, “A ship is safe in the harbour, but that is not what the ships are for” 35 -- often great opportunities lie in research off-the-beaten track (the unexplored new territory) which, however, has higher probability of failures.

Most of the major R & D managerial functions are multidimensional activities involving complex attitudes and behavioural patterns -- which cannot be reduced either to a rule-of-thumb or a brief flurry of discrete & simplistic activities. These activities, in turn, require different mind-sets and varied motivational levels as the scientist/ engineer grows in his/her career and matures as a person.

“We know nothing about motivation. All we can do is write books about it” opined Peter Drucker 36 in one of his earlier works titled ‘Management --Tasks, Responsibilities & Practices’. He further said that the only certainty about a person with a PhD is that he or she has sat on a school-bench for a very long time. Let us consider this


67 quote in the light of the fact that one of the most prolific inventors, namely Thomas Edison, had only three months of formal education in his entire life!

Hence, the emphasis of education ought to be not only on theory and analysis, but also on assimilation and application -- the scheme that pervades the four Indian ancient Vedas.

With regard to assumptions (in the preceding Section) Tom Peters 37

says, “When we begin to understand that real control comes

from within *the worker+ … then we will edge closer to unlocking the virtually unlimited potential that lies dormant in most of our work places” [parentheses added].

Hence, the role of R & D Manager is to provide a ‘fertile’ environment which would catalyse and unleash the scientists’ and engineers’ inner motivation and control, as also to harmonise through proper Project Planning the Business Goal of rapidly bringing a new product into the market with the Scientists’ Values for excellence -- the failure of Vista (Microsoft’s operating system) to capture the market exemplifies the effect of disharmony in business objectives and scientists’ values. The manager’s primary role in R & D is, therefore, to act as a professional, consultant, teacher and facilitator. Carl Rogers 38 says, “An effort should be made to allow the employee the right to choose in any situation in which he seems capable of bearing the consequences of his choice” *emphasis added]. Delegation, however, must be based on understanding coupled with trust, competence, capability and ethical behaviour-especially when a conflict of personal interest vis-à-vis organisational goals arises.


68

Appropriate delegation defers to the Scientists’ expertise, enhances his/her self-image, and generates a sense of mutual understanding and trust. “To be understood has a very positive value to individuals” says Carl Rogers. 39

Management is in effect a human relationship geared towards certain goals -- therefore, to manage well we must know both ourselves and those whom we lead, as a team, towards these goals. Effective groups are particularly important in the R & D!

Anchors and Orientations: Schein 40 suggests that certain attitudinal drives (composed of needs, values & talents) ‘anchor’ people to particular types of careers. Early identification of these anchors -- at the time of selection of scientists and engineers will assist the R & D Organisations in properly charting their career paths. These anchors are:

i) Managerial Competence: People choosing this anchor have overriding interest in administration/management, possess capacity to bear high responsibility, are skilled in solving problems even if complete information is not available, and are able to influence others. Flippo 41 suggests that effective managers should also possess interpersonal, analytical, inter-group and emotional competence. ii) Creativity: These people are predominantly interested in developing/creating new things. Many of them have entrepreneurial ability. iii) Technical-functional Competence: Such persons are primarily concerned with their functional duties, and look down upon administrative work as an irritant. iv) Security: Basically driven by security-needs (Maslow’s physiological & social needs -- both economic and emotional) they are more attached to


69 particular organisations or geographical areas rather than to any particular type of work. v) Autonomy-independence: These people value freedom and independence; they are generally attracted to professions like college professors, consultants, free-lance journalists etc.

Flippo also cites a study (published in 1971) that was conducted by Miller and Wager on 390 engineers and scientists employed in a large aerospace company. The researchers found that 31% of these scientists and engineers can be called ‘cosmopolitan’, i.e. their dominant posture is dedication and service to pursuit of knowledge; and they use organisations as a means to that end. They value recognition by professional community more than what their employer is willing to recognise as contributions to the organisational goals. Though their skills and ideas are of great value, yet their questions and critical comments may often hurt traditional managers as a behaviour that borders on disloyalty. Twenty-seven percent of these scientists and engineers were considered as ‘locals’ -- they possessed relatively low orientation to professional values, a high concern for and loyalty to the organisation, and were interested in taking over progressively more administrative duties. They are more cooperative and willing to take directions from Management. Flippo further suggests that engineers, especially people with long service in the company, are more likely to adopt this attitude. The rest of the scientists and engineers studied had either a high orientation to both profession and organisation, or were ‘indifferent’ -perhaps, due to lack of personal progress in these areas.


70

ANNEXURE-I

TENDENCIES TOWARDS POSITIVE & NEGATIVE TRAITS (INDICATED BY NATAL-CHARTS/SUN SIGNS)

Sun sign (Alphabetical listing) Aquarius (ruling planet: Uranus)

Aries

Cancer

Capricorn (ruling planet: Saturn)

Positive Traits for R & D Environment

Negative Traits for R & D Environment Unpredictable, loners (at least temporarily), egoists, tend to be dogmatic in their personal beliefs, dislike interference by others

Original, inventive, intelligent, clear, concise and logical, patient, detached (unemotional), they have a feeling of unity with Nature and a desire for knowledge and truth that makes them admirable scientists, have a breadth of vision to see both sides of an argument, ready to learn, serious minded, strongly imaginative and psychically intuitive, they are interested in anything technical, their scientific research is inspired by philanthropic ideals of benefiting mankind, they work best in group projects -- provided that they are given a leading part Pioneer in thought and action, Do not make very good courageous leaders with a genuine followers since they want to concern for those they command be in lead-roles, occasionally argumentative, self-centered, promiscuous Intuitive and imaginative Over-emotional and touchy, the least clear-cut characteristics amongst all Zodiac signs Practical, prudent, patient, careful, Pessimistic, miserly & disciplined, reliable, hardworking, grudging, may not, if they unemotional, shrewd, responsible, reach high rank, be willing to persevering, pioneering, resourceful & listen to other’s opinions on determined managers -- setting high things they are directly standards for themselves and others, responsible for they are fair yet demanding; in their methodical & tough way, they persist against personal hardship (putting their families and/or their work before their own needs and welfare) to reach their objectives long after others have given up and fallen by the wayside -- when practical ability allied with the drive of ambition are required in employees to make a project succeed then Capricorn


71

Gemini (ruling planet: Mercury)

Leo Libra (ruling planet: Venus)

Pisces Sagittarius (ruling planet: Jupiter)

are the people to hire; they plan carefully to fulfill their ambitions, they are economical without meanness, and able to achieve great results with minimum effort and expense; because of their organising ability they are able to work on several projects simultaneously; they have great respect for authority -- but may not, if they reach high rank, be willing to listen to other’s opinions on things they are directly responsible for; they think profoundly and deeply -- thoroughly exploring all possibilities before deciding on a 'safe' alternative; they have good memories and an insatiable yet methodical desire for knowledge; they are rational, logical, clearheaded, and have good concentration; they are good at mathematics and money matters Versatile, adaptive, Communicative, intellectual & eloquent, inquisitive, keen, intuitive, they love cerebral challenges, easily grasp almost everything requiring intelligence & mental dexterity, and are often able to marry manual skills to their qualities of mind; their intellect is strongly analytical -- however, this trait sometimes gives them so great an ability to see both sides of a question that they vacillate and find it hard to make decisions Spontaneously creative, enthusiastic, self-controlled Diplomatic, urbane and like harmony; they have good critical faculty and are able to stand back and look impartially at matters which call for an impartial judgment to be made; they detest conflict between people; they are sensitive to the needs of others and have the gift of understanding the emotional needs of their companions and meeting them with their own innate optimism -- they can be good in supporting (staff) roles Imaginative, intuitive, easily led, gentle, patient, malleable nature Intellectual, philosophical, honest, truthful, straightforward, conventional, optimistic, good humoured, energetic,

Tense, inconsistent, their strongly analytic mind gives them so great an ability to see both sides of a question that they, sometimes, vacillate and find it hard to make decisions

Dogmatic and intolerant Indecisive and changeable

Weak willed, emotional Tactless, careless


72

Scorpio (ruling planet: Pluto)

Taurus (ruling planet: Venus)

versatile; they are adventurous --eager to extend experience beyond that which is familiar; they enjoy exploration, their minds are constantly open to new dimensions of thought; they are basically optimistic, and continue to be so even when their hopes are dashed; they have profound and wide-ranging minds -- equipped with foresight and good judgment; they love to initiate new projects (they make excellent researchers) and have an urge to understand concepts that are new to them; they think rapidly, are intuitive and often original, but are better at adapting than inventing, and are at their best when working with colleagues of other types of character that compliments their own; they are strongwilled and good at organizing -- a combination that gives them the ability to bring any project they undertake to a successful conclusion; they exercise extreme care at handling their resources, and can make good project auditors/ coordinators, and do well in incremental research (in contradistinction to new generation technologies) Determined, forceful, intuitive; they have a seething intensity of emotional energy. Likes truth, hidden causes, work that is meaningful and being persuasive; and dislikes being given only surface data. They are dependable, steadfast, prudent, just, firm and unshaken in the face of difficulties; they are practical, extremely determined and strong willed -- however, they will willingly and loyally follow a leader they trust; they are stable, balanced, conservative, good & law-abiding citizens, and lovers of peace; they are industrious and good craftspeople, and are not afraid of getting their hands dirty; they are reliable, practical, methodical and ambitious -- within a framework of obedience to superiors; they are at their best in routine positions of trust and responsibility where there is little need

Jealous, obsessive, obstinate, consider themselves to be different from others

Rarely make friends with anyone outside their social rank -- to which they are ordinarily excessively faithful; they may have strong (sometimes, unconventional) religious faith


73 of urgency and even less risk of change - yet they are creative and good founders of enterprises where the rewards of their productiveness come from their own work and not that of others; they can flourish in many different trades and professions Virgo (ruling planet: Mercury)

Meticulous, reliable, intelligent, analytical, diligent, practical, realist, potentially creative, patient, judicious; they love orderliness and hygiene; they are intellectually enquiring, methodical and logical, studious, teachable, thorough, hard- working and conscientious; they combine mental ingenuity with the ability to produce a clear analysis of the most complicated problems; they have an excellent eye for detail -- but may become so meticulous that they neglect larger issues; they need the stimulus of practical problems to be solved rather than the mere routine (or working to set specifications that need no thought); they are careful with money and their interest in statistics makes them excellent bookkeepers and accountants; they also make good editors, physicists and analytical chemists; they are practical with their hands, good technicians and have genuine inventive talents; because of their ability to see every angle of a many-sided question, they are unhappy with abstract theorising – because appreciating the many different points of view (as they do) they find philosophical concepts difficult, and they vacillate and have no confidence in any conclusions at which they arrive; they are better TeamPlayers than Project Leaders

They are such perfectionists that, if things go wrong, they are easily discouraged; overcritical; they may slow down projects by being too exact; they often lack the breadth of vision that a Leader must possess


74 ANNEXURE-II PERSONALITY TEST (This Test determines whether the candidate is predominantly Left-brained or Rightbrained) Answering these questions accurately requires honest reflection on how you really think, feel, and act in general – preferably, you may take the test on more than one occasion. Some of the questions on this test measure personality trait differently than what you might guess; trying to answer the test in a way you think is ideal, might spoil your results -- so just focus on being honest if you want the most accurate results, please. PLEASE NOTE: SELECTING THE MIDDLE ANSWER MEANS A STATEMENT IS AROUND 50% ACCURATE, EXAMPLE: Very Inaccurate

Very Accurate

1) I am very practical. Very Inaccurate

Very Accurate

2) I am absent-minded. Very Inaccurate

Very Accurate

3) I get chores done right away. Very Inaccurate

Very Accurate

4) I am very cautious. Very Inaccurate

Very Accurate

5) I am scatterbrained. Very Inaccurate

Very Accurate

6) I am messy. Very Inaccurate

Very Accurate

7) I am fantasy prone. Very Inaccurate

Very Accurate

8) I tend to take precautions. Very Inaccurate

Very Accurate


75

9) I prefer organized to unpredictable. Very Inaccurate

Very Accurate

10) I am rebellious. Very Inaccurate

Very Accurate

11) I like chaos. Very Inaccurate

Very Accurate

12) I am conventional. Very Inaccurate

Very Accurate

13) I finish everything I start. Very Inaccurate

Very Accurate

14) I don't follow the rules. Very Inaccurate

Very Accurate

15) I maintain my spaces in an orderly way. Very Inaccurate

Very Accurate

16) I prefer routine. Very Inaccurate

Very Accurate

17) I feel the need to adhere to the standards of correct behavior. Very Inaccurate

Very Accurate

18) I am impulsive. Very Inaccurate

Very Accurate

19) I am rule conscious. Very Inaccurate

Very Accurate

20) I am prudent. Very Inaccurate

Very Accurate

21) I am comfortable with things making no sense. Very Inaccurate

Very Accurate


76

22) I am forgetful. Very Inaccurate

Very Accurate

23) I am a thrill seeker compared to most people. Very Inaccurate

Very Accurate

24) I act spontaneously without thinking about the consequences. Very Inaccurate

Very Accurate

25) Rules and regulations are important. Very Inaccurate

Very Accurate

26) I am a planner. Very Inaccurate

Very Accurate

27) I like a structured environment. Very Inaccurate

Very Accurate

28) I am adventurous. Very Inaccurate

Very Accurate

29) I am a risk taker. Very Inaccurate

Very Accurate

30) I am very random. Very Inaccurate

Very Accurate SUBMIT RESULTS

Sample Results (XYZ examinee): Brain Lateralization Test Results Right Brain ||||||||||||

46%

Left Brain |||||||||||||| 56% *results won't usually add up to 100% as this test measures each side separately Left brain dominant individuals are more orderly, literal, articulate, and to the point. They are good at understanding directions and anything that is explicit and logical. They


77 can have trouble comprehending emotions and abstract concepts; they can feel lost when things are not clear-- doubting anything that is not stated and proven. Right brain dominant individuals are more visual and intuitive. They are better at summarizing multiple points, picking up on what's not said, visualizing things, and making things up. They can lack attention to detail, directness, organisation, and the ability to explain their ideas verbally, leaving them unable to communicate effectively. Overall, this (XYZ) examinee appears to be Left Brain Dominant. Please keep in mind that your results are dependent on the accurate truth of your responses. The more you take this test and get the same result, the more likely it is that yours mind’s normal functional tendencies have been accurately assessed. Finally, your scores over the long term will change -- as do you.


78 ANNEXURE-III A PARALLEL THINKING APPROACH TO THE ISSUE OF ABOLISHING CLASS X EXAMS

ABSTRACT The Educator today has a vast opportunity to equip himself/ herself with one or more methods of mass e-communication technology and e-learning platforms. These techniques also provide an improved methodology for Testing & Evaluation. But to make use of these opportunities the Educator must become tech-savvy and adept in their use and manipulation. Moreso, certain infrastructural framework that is financially affordable, ought also to be provided by the Government. Unfortunately, mother-boards (nay, not even computer cabinets) are not manufactured in India; the lone open-source Operating Systems BOSS can be tweaked as shown in the left panel of: http://consultant-laweducation-india-nepal.in/college/ Attachments

Synectic ( flash video):

http://consultant-law-education-india-nepal.in/thesis/synectics.htm

INTRODUCTION Education involves ‘learning’; and learning starts with awareness, perception, observation, intuition, communication, reasoning and judgment. And the endresult of education is the application of knowledge for the good of homo sapiens (mankind). Our first communication is through sushumna nadi when we are still in our mother’s womb. And this communication is with the ethereal knowledge-base -it is this knowledge-base that guides and protects the infant before his/ her actual learning begins with cause-effect associations that are gradually stored in the child’s mind, e.g. crying to get attention. An important process of communication is our reaction to what we observe -- the basic pattern of this reaction is also etched when we are preparing to get out of the mother’s womb. The Astrologers have classified this reaction into 12 broad


79 categories and named these as rashis. In fact, these are our individual mental frames of reference or the ‘looking glass’ through which we visualise the outside world. And this looking glass, coupled with the aforesaid pre-ordained instinctive reactions, define our real-life states of heaven and hell because each of us then reacts differently to the same set of stimuli and, thus, meets with different responses from the external world -- good or bad. One of the purposes of holistic education is to modify these pre-ordained instincts by assisting us to gain control over our inner selves*.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Note: *Due to constraints of space and time, it is not possible to elaborate on the above interesting subject within the confines of this Paper -- moreso, details are already uploaded vide two Chapters at: http://consultant-law-education-india-nepal.in/thesis/gestalt.htm


80 PEDAGOGY Before we begin teaching, it is necessary to decide: i) which traits we wish to develop, when, why and in whom; ii) whether we should emphasise the development of left-brain or right-brain; iii) which format of thinking we should encourage: sequential, parallel, lateral, synectic or kaleidoscopic -- why and in whom; iv) how to test the extent to which we, the educators, have been able to communicate with our human resource -- the students.

A necessary adjunct of learning, therefore, is: testing*. Objectives of Testing: a) At the ‘School-Admission’ Stage: i) Basic cognitive and learning skills ii) Behavioural patterns of the child, and intensity of interest by the parents in child’s learning iii) Ability of child, coupled with learning atmosphere at home to follow the mode of instruction at school, and family characteristics that will reinforce learning (including the need to give right Answers to child’s Queries). b) Compulsory Child-Education Stage: i) Literacy (Learning of the 3 Rs) ii) Character building, patience, tolerance and sportsman-spirit iii) Preparation for Middle School (including motivation for self-learning). c) Middle School: i) General awareness, and motivation for scientific learning ii) Cognitive and analytical skills development ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Note: *During the years 2005-2007 there were a number of paper-leakages in Admission-Tests. Hence, the Author (herein) suggested a system of Online Examination; and the same was implemented by CAT 2009. Details of the proposed system are in Annexure-II, and also at: http://consultant-law-education-india-nepal.in/wp3/


81 iii) Honesty, self-discipline, social commitment and team-spirit iv) Consistency v) Identification of ‘gifted child’ and sponsoring him/her, at least over the weekends, to a Centre wherein the child’s so-called non-conformist* creative instincts can be channelised into productive hobbies -- rather than being hindered by criticism. A Centre that will also train this child to be patient towards those who are not able to keep pace with his/her razor-sharp thinking processes -- this lag sometimes affects the listener’s ability to comprehend such a child. The Centre must also help improve the gifted child’s verbal communication skills and interpersonal relations because some of them may be more fascinated by objects than relationships. Moreso, the reference-point of their Ego (in Freudian sense) is an ‘opponent’ who is perceived by them to be as intelligent as they themselves are -this coupled with the fact that they can pro-act the events, tends to make them over-react to the perceived external stimulus. d) Class IX to X: i) Consistency ii) Aptitude for vocational training or higher learning iii) Ability for quick-paced self-study and critical analysis, and ‘speed-reading’ iv) Free Membership for gifted child at Public Libraries -- to stoke the fire of curiosity about ‘What, Why, How & Where’ of the area that interests him/her the most (including e-Libraries). e) Vocational Training (ITI etc.): Practical approach to solving technical issues at fabrication-level and repair-level, mastery of subjects and skills taught – i.e. the ability to apply one’s knowledge. f) Class XI to XII: i) Consistency, ii) Aptitude for higher learning, iii) Brain-storming sessions amongst gifted adolescents in order to keep the embers of their curiosity burning, and introduce them to the techniques for application of knowledge to real life issues, -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Note:* This is sometimes misinterpreted as neurosis.


82 iii) Uniformly Standardised Tests that will directly (without subjecting them to additional Entrance Tests) determine their relevant Ranking for Admission to National Institutes for Higher Learning, e.g. IITs (for BE/BTech), Medical and Dental Colleges etc. These are applicable to both the Streams, viz.:Technical: Information Technology (including BCA), Sciences, Engineering etc. Non-Technical: Business Management (including BBA), Commerce, Economics, Humanities & Social Sciences (other than Economics & Commerce), and Arts (including Fine Art and Fashion Designing) g) College i) Under-graduate level: • Ability to apply the knowledge and skills (including tools) to real life situations • Aptitude for higher learning, and Leadership (especially in the gifted youth) • Uniformly Standardised Tests that will directly (without subjecting them to additional Entrance Tests) determine their relevant Ranking for Admission to National Institutes for Higher Learning, e.g. IITs (for MTech etc), IIMs &c. ii) Post-graduate (both Academics and Professional courses) level: • Science & Technology: To be laid down by IITs in consultation with Ministry of HRD and AICTE -- emphasis ought to be on preparing the student to work for another entity upto his/ her maximum potential in terms of the traits listed under sub-para (k) below, and to relate appropriately to another individual who comes to work for his/ her company • Medical, Dental, Pharmacology and Para-medical (including Physiotherapy, Preventive Health etc.): To be laid down by Medical Council and Dental Council etc in consultation with Ministries of Health and Social Welfare -- special emphasis ought to be placed on medical ethics and ‘service to humanity’ • Business Management: To be laid down by IIMs in consultation with Ministry of HRD and AICTE-- emphasis ought to be on preparing the student to work for another entity upto his/ her maximum potential in terms of the traits listed under sub-para (k) below, and to relate appropriately to another individual who comes to work for his/ her company; in addition, it must also prepare the student to run his/ her family-owned firm, if any


83 • Law: To be laid down by Bar Council of India in consultation with Ministry of Law -special emphasis ought to be placed upon professional ethics and implementing the Objectives of the Constitution of India, e.g. equal justice that’s within the easy reach of all strata of Society • Others (including B Ed, Library Science etc.): To be laid down by Ministry of HRD in consultation with UGC, AICTE, Association of Indian Universities, etc. h) Merit Scholarships (including need-based Fellowships for SC/ST/OBC etc.): To be laid down by funding Agencies (UGC, CSIR etc.) in consultation with Ministry of HRD -- such a scheme should gradually replace the existing caste-based ‘reservation system’. j) Doctoral: To be laid down by the Ministry of HRD in consultation with Ministry of Science & Technology and other apex academic bodies (e.g. ICSSR etc). k) For initial Recruitment to a Job: • Public Service Commission(s): To be laid down by the UPSC in consultation with Ministry of Personnel -- keeping in mind the functions of each Service in the context of current socio-economic environment and our Constitutional Goals. • Private (Foreign or Indian Corporates and Firms): Cognitive knowledge, experiential skills, ability to apply knowledge & skills, ability to innovate, capacity for growth, emphasis on continued self-improvement, honesty & commitment, personal hygiene & orderliness, self-discipline, appropriate inter-personal relations, behavioural patterns that foster Team-Work, communicative skills, flexibility & ability to integrate into the Corporate culture, work-ethics, social responsibility etc.

• For starting own work: Uniformly standardised Training and Licensing must be introduced for practising each and every trade -- as is being done in the USA, Canada, South Korea* etc. N.B.: *For appreciating the importance of introducing uniform and standardised Vocational Training-cum-Testing as also mandatory Licensing Schemes before one is permitted to pursue any Vocation or Trade, please peruse: Choi, Dr. Hyung Sup. Bases for Science and Technology Promotion in Developing Countries (Asian Productivity Organisation, Tokyo, 1983)

Traits that Need to be Developed, by Educators, amongst the Students


84 Although fairly detailed, this Alphabetically arrayed List is not yet exhaustive:Ability to make use of any opportunity for application of knowledge Ability to sell ideas Accuracy in communicating Adaptability Aggressive (calculated risk-taker) Aware of the need for congeniality, accommodation & respect for others’ beliefs (when mixing with people of other than his/ her own class) Belief in a Mission Belief in God Bias-less -- no caste, religion, region, race, language, skin-colour etc bias Cooperative Committed to Organisational Standards Competent in managing his/ her personal finances Competitive (healthy competition, not cut-throat) Composure Confidence (sometimes, even dogged confidence in certain roles/ tasks) Considerable cognitive flexibility Consistent and dependable Control over his Will Courage (including the courage to laugh at desperate situations) Creativity Crisis-handling (disaster management, including strategic and tactical planning) Curiosity for detail Desire to excel Desires feedback (Johari Window), and learns from experience


85 Discipline (including discipline to avoid ‘technological traps’) Disinterested in close controls (‘looking-over-the-shoulder’ type of controls) Dissatisfied with the ‘closed-mind’ way of performing various tasks Dreamer but able to put foundations under his/her dreams (a Practical Visionary) Drive for power (without treading upon the right of others) Dynamic Egoist when the assigned task or role demands it, otherwise Humble* Emotional intelligence, and emotionally stable Empathy, extrovert Enjoys living, work and sports Etiquette Fairness, and having a sense of proportion Feels that ‘there is always room for improvement’ Finds balance between task and skills possessed by him/her Flair to diagnose & fix Foresight Future oriented General awareness Genius in perceiving possibilities Genuine friendly interaction with colleagues Gets pleasure out of his/her work Getting others’ cooperation -- ability to/ knack of Great energy Happy-go-lucky Hard working High I.Q.


86 High sense of accountability High tolerance of ambiguity -- needed in certain scientific works Human dignity, humaneness Imaginative Impatient with routine tasks that are mundane and unchallenging* Individualistic versus socially inclined* Inquisitiveness, Intellectual curiosity Inspiring Interaction (without any complexes) with colleagues of opposite gender Interested in communicating with others Interested not in facts for facts’ sake, but to solve real-life problems/ issues* Interested in his/her work as well as in the organisational structure/environment Intuitive Lateral thinker Leadership competence/ability Likes challenges Makes decisions (does not procrastinate) Mentally active -- hyperactive when the task/ role demands it* Multiple interests Neatness & methodology No negative complexes or fears (like inferiority) Non-conformity/ radicalism -- when task/ role demands it* Not too discouraged by failures Objective evaluation of others Opportunity seeker Organises and manages his/her time


87 Originality Patience, Perseverance Perceptive of people and environment Personal integrity Pleasant personality Positive attitude Pragmatic, not paper-bound (stickler to red-tape) or paper-pusher (bureaucratic) Problem-solving ability Punctuality Quick uptake/ grasp Realistic Record of previous creative acts (track-record) Relatively uninterested in small detail, but perfectionist when the task demands it Relaxed Respect towards supervisor Right-brained Ruled by the left brain-hemisphere -- as per task/ role* Sees novel in the familiar (no fixed mind-set) Self-starter Self-sufficient Sensitive intellect Sensitive emotionally -- when the occasion demands it* Sequential thinker Sets goals, and realistic step-by-step sub-goals Skills to persuade Social Defence and Social Responsibility


88 Soft-spoken/ humble Sportsman’s spirit Submission to other’s instructions -- whenever appropriate* Success-oriented Surrounds himself/ herself with (or seeks company of) stimulating colleagues Synectic/ Parallel thinking Tact & diplomacy Takes initiative Takes personal responsibility Team-work, and Verbally skillful Thinks in terms of analogies, parallels & similarities ‘Time-is-important’, Work-ethics Tolerance, and willing to learn Trusts subordinates Understandingly self-aware Urge to organise people and tasks Wants to make a lot of money (entrepreneur) Wide-ranging interests, and very energetic Use of Technology and e-Learning The use of electronic mass-communication media (especially the internet, and software-applications such as interactive online Microsoft Office Live-Meeting, flv or swf streaming videos, power-point presentations etc) coupled with cloudcomputing and tablet computers can provide not only Virtual Class-rooms or -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Note: *The above List also includes such traits as are desirable in some tasks or roles, but not in others. A Questionnaire on the identification of positive and negative traits amongst business leaders, scientists, entrepreneurs etc is appended as Appendix-I to this Annexure.


89 Online Training Programmes but also give access to regularly updated archived information; even judicious use of social forums like Twitter/ Facebook/ YahooGroups can be made. In addition, use of ‘Zero-Budget Free IT-Access’ Network suggested by the Author (herein) and approved by the Union Cabinet can also be availed of not only for extension of Teacher-Education to hinterlands but also for disaster management -- the Central Government had allocated Rs. 200 crore for the said Project. Details of the said Proposal are available at: http://consultant-law-education-india-nepal.in/rbh/ Publication of Papers Before acceptance of any Paper in a refereed Journal, it is subjected to a ‘Blind’ Peer-Review*. A sample score-card is shown below:SAMPLE SCORE-CARD 1. A minimum of 15 out of 20 "Evaluation Checks" in the table below must be attained to be accepted for the conference. 2. Author(s) must address all "X" and "?" as well as any suggestions by the RTP and EEB where appropriate. 3. A " √ " may not require any changes to be made for publication. 4. An " X " requires MAJOR revision to be considered for publication in a double-blind reviewed Journal. 5. A " ? " may require MINOR revision to be eligible for publication in the refereed Conference Proceedings and to be considered for publication in a double-blind reviewed Journal. 6. Full papers and Research-in-Progress are accepted based on Originality and Contribution, Concept and Relevance, Academic Quality, Intellectual framework, Evidence and Data Gathering, Methodology and Approach, Research Motivation, Research Argument, and Social Benefit. 7. A " - " indicates not applicable for Peer Reviewed Conference Proceeding.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Note: *The Author is Peer-Reviewer for two International Journals -- one of which is published by the prestigious Cambridge University. He was recently invited by a foreign University to submit a Paper for an International Workshop sponsored by the European Commission.


90

Peer-Review Guidelines for IIC Refereed Proceedings and Journal Publication

Evaluation Checks

Comments

Originality and Contribution

Significant

Concept and Relevance

Significant

Academic Quality

Good

Methodology and Approach

Good

Research Motivation

In line with Researcher’s Discipline

Research Argument

Good

Social Benefit

Useful

Research Limitations

Good

Clarity, Grammar and Consistency

Good

Abstract and Keywords

?

Must provide a minimum of 5 Keywords

Introduction

Good

Evidence and Data Gathering

Significant

Literature Review

Good

Findings and Analysis

Good

Regional Impact

Good

Global Impact

Significant

Rigor and Coherence

Good

Conclusion/Summary

Good

Reference Quality

Good

* Research in Progress

-

May not be applicable to some research topics


91 Different Journals prescribe different methods for referring to the published or unpublished source/work cited in your Paper. Some of the citations systems are: Oxford, Harvard, MLA, American Sociological Association (ASA), American Psychological Association (APA), etc. Even formatting (page-size, page-margins, font-size, font-face, .doc or .pdf, etc) of the Paper may differ from Journal to Journal. Presentation Technology (including the Internet) also helps in your presentation by facilitating alphabetical sorting of listed items, online free conversion of Word (.doc) to Adobe (.pdf) and vice-versa, correction of spellings and even in the right pronunciation -- in Adobe Acrobat v.8 the last-mentioned feature is built-in (a Demo can be given). Conclusion In brief, the Educator today has a vast opportunity to equip himself/ herself with one or more methods of mass e-communication technology and e-learning platforms. These techniques also provide an improved methodology for Testing & Evaluation. But to make use of these opportunities the Educator must become tech-savvy and adept in their use and manipulation. Moreso, certain infrastructural framework that is financially affordable, ought also to be provided by the Government, Industry and Universities’ R&D Labs. End-Notes, References and Bibliography Notes, where appropriate, have been appended on the same page in which the matter which these amplify, appears. The above paper is based on original research made by the Author himself and, hence, no References and Bibliography is given -- except at page 7, wherein modified MLA style has been used. The layout of this Paper conforms to the one prescribed by the Organising Committee, except that left-alignment is used for single paragraphs under a group-head; and bulleting or sub-paragraph numbering or List-Items have been used to identify individual paragraphs amongst a group of paragraphs.


92 Appendix-I N.B.: Answers to Questions Nos. 1 & 2 may please be given purely from your own observation, and not be influenced by whatever others may have said! Q.1. Given in the Table under Q.9 are certain traits, habits & skills -- some of these were in-born, while others were learnt/acquired during the process of your growing up. Please match the Traits with the Factors that you suppose are responsible for the existence of these Traits in your own case. The Codes and their Numbers are given below$. [You may simply insert the Factor-Code Number (i.e. 1, 2, 3 ...) against each Trait, under the column-heading ‘Code’ (column # ii) in the following Table.] Q.2. You have observed Director(s), Team-Leader(s) and Team-Members at work. Using the Table below, please write ‘A’, ‘O’ or ‘N’ (these notations stand for: ‘Always’, ’Often’ and ’Never’, respectively) in column numbers (iii) to (v) if you think that a particular Trait or Skill has always/often/never been found (not merely wish) by you in a Scientist/Engineer# in the performance of a particular Role or Function by him/her [e.g. as a Director (Techno-Administrator), Innovator (Team-Leader) or a Facilitator (Team-Member)]: Trait

(i) Ability to make use of any opportunity for application of knowledge Ability to sell ideas Accuracy in communicating Adaptability Aggressive (calculated risktaker) Aware of the need for congeniality, accommodation & respect for others’

Code Director Innovating (TechnoScientist/Engineer Administrator) (ii)

(iii)

(iv)

Scientist/Engi neer supporting the Innovator (v)


93 beliefs (when mixing with people of other than his/ her own class) Belief in a Mission Belief in God Bias-less -- no caste, religion, region, race, language, skin-colour etc bias Cooperative Committed to Organisational Standards Competent in managing his/ her personal finances Competitive (healthy competition, not cutthroat) Composure Confidence (sometimes, even dogged confidence in certain roles/ tasks) Considerable cognitive flexibility Consistent and dependable Control over his Will Courage (including the courage to laugh at desperate situations)


94 Creativity Crisis-handling (disaster management, including strategic and tactical planning) Curiosity for detail Desire to excel Desires feedback (Johari Window), and learns from experience Discipline (including discipline to avoid ‘technological traps’) Disinterested in close controls (‘lookingover-the-shoulder’ type of controls) Dissatisfied with the ‘closed-mind’ way of performing various tasks Dreamer but able to put foundations under his/her dreams (a Practical Visionary) Drive for power (without treading upon the right of others) Dynamic Egoist when the assigned task or role


95 demands it, otherwise Humble* Emotional intelligence, and emotionally stable Empathy, extrovert Enjoys living, work and sports Etiquette Fairness, and having a sense of proportion Feels that ‘there is always room for improvement’ Finds balance between task and skills possessed by him/her Flair to diagnose & fix Foresight Future oriented General awareness Genius in perceiving possibilities Genuine friendly interaction with colleagues Gets pleasure out of his/her work Getting others’ cooperation -- ability to/ knack of


96 Great energy Happy-go-lucky Hard working High I.Q. High sense of accountability High tolerance of ambiguity -- needed in certain scientific works Human dignity, humaneness Imaginative Impatient with routine tasks that are mundane and unchallenging* Individualistic versus socially inclined* Inquisitiveness, Intellectual curiosity Inspiring Interaction (without any complexes) with colleagues of opposite gender Interested in communicating with others Interested not in facts for facts’ sake, but to solve real-life problems/ issues* Interested in his/her work as well as in the


97 organisational structure/environme nt Intuitive Lateral thinker Leadership competence/ability Likes challenges Makes decisions (does not procrastinate) Mentally active -hyperactive when the task/ role demands it* Multiple interests Neatness & methodology No negative complexes or fears (like inferiority) Non-conformity/ radicalism -- when task/ role demands it* Not too discouraged by failures Objective evaluation of others Opportunity seeker Organises and manages his/her time


98 Originality Patience, Perseverance Perceptive of people and environment Personal integrity Pleasant personality Ability to exploit a situation Positive attitude Pragmatic, not paper-bound (stickler to red-tape) or paper-pusher (bureaucratic) Problem-solving ability Punctuality Quick uptake/ grasp Realistic Record of previous creative acts (trackrecord) Relatively uninterested in small detail, but perfectionist when the task demands it Relaxed Respect towards supervisor Right-brained


99 Ruled by the left brain-hemisphere -as per task/ role* Sees novel in the familiar (no fixed mind-set) Self-starter Self-sufficient Sensitive intellect Sensitive emotionally -- when the occasion demands it* Sequential thinker Sets goals, and realistic step-by-step sub-goals Skills to persuade Social Defence and Social Responsibility Soft-spoken/ humble Sportsman’s spirit Submission to other’s instructions -whenever appropriate* Success-oriented Surrounds himself/ herself with (or seeks company of) stimulating colleagues Synectic/ Parallel


100 thinking Tact & diplomacy Takes initiative Takes personal responsibility Team-work, and Verbally skillful Thinks in terms of analogies, parallels & similarities ‘Time-is-important’, Work-ethics Tolerance, and willing to learn Trusts subordinates Understandingly selfaware Urge to organise people and tasks Wants to make a lot of money (entrepreneur) Wide-ranging interests, and very energetic Code:${1}) Innate/genetic/inborn (inherent), {2} Taught by the Family, {3} Learned from or enhanced by School-teachers, {4} Learned from or enhanced by School-friends, {5} Learned/ enhanced at College, {6} Learned from or enhanced by Media (TV, Movies, Novel etc.), {7} Learned from or enhanced by social Club/professional Association, {8} Learned/enhanced at Work-place, {9} Other worldly influences, {10} Sub-consciously acquired due to certain beliefs/fears that were reinforced either by others or by events. #

Successful Scientist/Engineer.


101 Notes: *The above List also includes such traits as are desirable in some tasks or roles, but not in others. For appreciating the importance of introducing uniform and standardised Vocational Trainingcum-Testing as also mandatory Licensing Schemes before one is permitted to pursue any Trade, please see: Choi, Dr. Hyung Sup. Bases for Science and Technology Promotion in Developing Countries (Asian Productivity Organisation, Tokyo, 1983)

JUDICIAL REFORMS Indian Supreme Court is opposed to the idea of having its Benches in any city other than Delhi. Moreso, the Supreme Court Rules mandate that only the Advocates-on-Record can file pleadings and appearances before it, and further that such Advocates must have an Office within a radius of 16 KMs from the seat of Supreme Court. However, the said Rules permit formation of a Company by an Advocate-on-Record with another Advocate(s), and also enable e-filing (including payment of Court Fees on-line). The said Rules can easily be modified so as not to compel the Clients --who are living or working in far off places (like Chennai, Guwahati etc.) to travel all the way to Delhi just to find and consult a Supreme Court Lawyer. To this end, one partner of an Advocates’ Company may be allowed to have a camp-office in, say, Chennai -- whereas the Company's main Office shall remain situated within the aforesaid radius of 16 KMs of the Supreme Court premises; and service of Notices/Copies by the Court's Registry or Opposite Counsels can be effected upon such Company's main Office in Delhi -- irrespective of the fact that the pleadings in that case were drafted by a Partner working out of Chennai and filed either through his/her Delhi-Office or via the e-filing facility.

AN EXAMPLE OF LATERAL THINKING

Concepts underlying construction of bridges: a) Traditional designs based on opposite concepts of compression and tension: i) Arched bridges with a key-stone (compression method) ii) Hanging bridges like the Laxman ‘jhoola’ (tension method)


102 b) Modern designs using the concept of slack, e.g. Flyovers resting on rollers c) Combinations of (a) & (b) above.

THREE EXAMPLES OF SYNECTIC THINKING 1) Rural Business Hubs is an Initiative of the Ministry of Panchayati Raj in collaboration with Confederation of Indian Industries and such Panchayats, NGOs (including Trusts and Societies) and Professional Experts/Facilitators as are willing to contribute to the goal of Rural Economic Empowerment. The website at www.balaji-themis.co.in/rbh is just the beginning to create mass awareness about the purpose, parameters, scope, amplitude and methodology of this new Initiative. About three decades ago, Japan took the initiative of experimenting with the concept of ‘One Culture, One Product’ in its Oita Prefecture--located on the island of Kyushu. This initiative was borrowed by Thailand which, with some conceptual modifications, launched an experiment into One Town (Tambon) One Product (OTOP). These two initiatives/ experiments became successful due to several local factors; many countries, however, tried to copy these concepts without regard to the differences in Cultures. Some of the cultural factors that help OCOPs/OTOPs succeed are:i) In Japan and Thailand the reputation of certain handicrafts depends upon local culture per town (whereas in India it largely depends upon the individual Master-craftsmen or their schools/gharanas). ii) In the Japanese and Thai cultures, respect for the Vocational Gurus and Village elders is much higher than what it is in the 21st century India. iii) Governmental support, in terms of Internet exposure and e-commerce, was overwhelming in these countries. On the other hand, colonial India was split into several Administrative Units for the ease of governance/ administration-- that is to say, it was a top-down approach for politico-geographical division without any consideration for the economic viability of these Units. Moreso, due to a number of factors the Indian villages (even the small townships) fail either to provide evenly distributed and round-the-year gainful employment to their residents or to act as self-nurturing economic Units. On the other hand, the fundamental concept of OTOP (One Tambon, One Product of Thailand) or TVE (Township and Village Enterprises in China) or OCOP (One Culture, One Product of Japan) are a bottom-up socio-economic integration of contiguous villages and townships into economically viable Units which can provide round-the-year gainful employment to all its inhabitants at a level which can assure a minimum standard of Quality of Life for all of them.


103 Rural Business Hubs (RBHs) should aim at the bottoms-up socio-economic integration. Such a well-balanced model of RBH will be applicable to all those countries which had suffered colonial rule and whose villages and townships bear a similarity to the Indian ones. Hence, the said model-- coupled with its flexibility and portability to act as a medium for Disaster Management (in times of need) is likely to be funded by the World Bank, too. This will save us a large part of our research-overheads. Most of the resources for sharing such an information-base are available within the country-- we have only to intelligently modify and dovetail the same with the above objectives in mind. Surely, this can be achieved only through Bhagidari-- participation of all the Partners (viz. the Panchayats, Industry, NGOs, and Government et al). Though the above suggestions are simple to understand by any well-meaning sociologist/macro-economist, yet these may leave a farreaching impact not only on the RBH-initiative but also on the very concept of grass-root planning in any once-a-colonial country. It is common knowledge that it is not possible for the peasants (semi-literate or illiterate) to note down important information which is given during the 30 or 60-minute programme named ‘Krishi Darshan’ on Indian official TV channel; moreso, these programmes are not available in very many regional languages. Besides, the farmers have no access to any Archived Data on rural development – had such data been available in archived form, the near-drought situation (coupled with late monsoon) witnessed in the year 2009 could have been better tackled through the timely online advice from Agricultural Scientists and weather experts. Hence, we must construct at least one building per RBH for setting up commercial Transmission Towers for electronic digital media (generally used for Mobile-phones and Broadband transmission) coupled with one Central Database Server (with at least 5 Mirrors) at the National level -- for the use of the latest technology in our rural development. Through these towers, a dedicated broadbandaccess will be provided for each such Centre to connect to the Central Database Server or one of its nearest Mirrors. This Server shall provide all the crucial information on Rural Development/RBH/Disaster Management, in several regional languages. Since these Towers can also be used for Mobile-connectivity, such ISPs as the BSNL/ Tata/ Reliance etc. should be willing to use the same and, in turn, provide free dedicated broadbandconnectivity to each such RBH-Centre. Construction of Panchayat Ghars is already funded by the Government, and computers for these Centres may be funded out of the Development Funds allotted to the local Corporator/Legislator; these Centres will, thereafter, be commercially selfsustaining by selling mobile re-chargers, computer print-outs of emails etc. The Company which provides free dedicated broadband-connectivity will be able to earn revenue by allotting local Dealership (through the local Panchayat) to a person who, in addition to the sale of Mobile recharge cards for that ISP, will look after the Security and day-to-day operation of these Transmission Towers. This will not only increase (at nearly zero land-costs) the transmissionreach of the Company, but also lessen its administrative overheads. The said Dealer shall be responsible for assisting the Panchayat in retrieving the needed information from the Archives of the Panchayati Raj Ministry on its various Initiatives (including e-learning courses) as well as from the Archives of the Ministry of Agriculture etc. Space for construction of ISP’s transmission tower will be provided by the Panchayat at a nominal yearly rent of Re.1.


104 These Centres and Server can also be utilised for Disaster Management since one of these Centres, at least, will be available near the affected spot and even lap-tops with satellite connectivity can be used, in the event the Centre itself gets destroyed. Through these Centres and server(s) the Volunteers and Government Agencies can communicate up-to-the-minute information as to which emergency items or services are needed and where, monitor their movement, and divert the supplies as and when required. (It is common knowledge that, in the absence of such coordination, communication-gaps affect Relief Measures during large-scale Emergencies). The PCs used in these Centres can use Windows 98 (or a modified recycled technology that is further developed and adapted by an indigenous firm like the C-DAC/Tata/Reliance etc.) as OS since Windows 98 is a robust and reliable operating system -- though it is outdated and no longer supported by the Microsoft Corporation. As such, Microsoft and the indigenous companies may be persuaded to discharge their Corporate Social Responsibility by giving special bulk-Licenses (plus off-line Knowledge Database) for this Package at the lowest possible price; this database may be supplemented by live online users Forums. Union Cabinet accepted this proposal and allotted Rs.200 crore for its implementation -- moreso, Free IT-Access for Rural Masses was included in Congress’ Manifesto during Election 2009. -- Adapted from the Proposal made by Prof G Kumar (Copyright 2008 Prof Gulshan Kumar)

2) Cancer: In the early 1990’s the author had proposed that, unlike the then popular belief, cancer is not consummative like tuberculosis; rather, it is a growth—albeit a haphazard one. This view has been endorsed by further research. More than a decade has elapsed since then; but the cause behind this unguided growth is not yet conclusively found by our Research Labs. Here is a theoretical framework for further Clinical & Lab research. There is no system-- akin to Central Nervous System, in the human body which centrally controls the reproduction of cells. The cells grow in an autonomous fashion; however, these cells use the available DNA-strands in the adjacent cells as a reference-point in order to determine the growth-parameters of the cell in question. Hence, the DNA is widely replicated within the human body to serve as a reference standard/measure/point -- though with minute differences from organ to organ. The DNA has a passive role to play, though a very important one. When the DNA-strands in a particular portion of the body get corrupted, the adjacent cells lose these reference-parameters and start replicating in a haphazard manner. This causes nonmalignant tumour -- because this corruption is reversible; often the body itself refreshes the DNA strands in that area, and sometimes even cocoons/encapsules the affected portion of the cells. The correction is most probably made by the mRNA which resides in the ‘third cell’—more about this cell in Section-II below. At other times, these cells lose the ability to communicate with the neighbouring DNAs—either


105 because there is damage to the outer wall of the cells or because the surrounding chemical is unable to act as a message-transmission medium. This causes malignant tumours. Section-II: The Third Cell—it is the unexplained part of Mendel’s exposition on reproduction. Mendel had said something like this: “A pair of chromosomes is first replicated within the cell, then these two pairs move to the opposite sides of the cell-walls, and then the cell divides into two -- each cell having its own pair of chromosomes. And then a third cell appears.” The research published so far suggests that within a cell there is no such thing as ‘dynamic memory’; all memory is static, i.e. imprinted on something physical -- be it the mRNA or DNA, or something else. Further that the second pair of chromosomes is made by first imprinting the existing pair of DNA strands onto the mRNA and then, from the mRNA, printing it onto the proteins -- so as to create the second pair of chromosomes. What happened to the pair imprinted on the mRNA? If the said intermediary pair (printed on the mRNA) cannot be immediately destroyed, then the Nature encapsules it into a new cell – the third cell. The third cell does not, probably, have the power to replicate itself; however, the print of the DNA within it can be used for correcting the chance-mutations, if any, in the DNAs of the neighbouring cells. But if this cell outlives its normal life or goes into an un-cocooned state, then it may become a cause for tumours. Ayurveda’s Panchkriya can remove toxins from the body -- the uncocooned mRNA may possibly be removed by Ayurveda. Similar work is auto-performed, in healthy individuals, by macrophages. Section-III: The aforesaid encapsulation of mRNA into a third cell warns us that it is dangerous to leave within the human body any free-floating proteins onto which the DNA is printed -- because a deformed DNA can mislead the neighbouring cells into multiplying in a haphazard way. Certain drugs (including steroids) and foods (like chewing tobacco, betel-nuts or ‘gutka/paanmasala’) may destroy the cell-walls and, thereby, let loose the DNA/mRNA within that cell— which, in turn, may lead to the aforesaid haphazard growth in adjoining cells. One of the following factors is the cause for AIDS:a) the outer cell-walls are unable to read the DNA-structure of a bacteria/virus and, hence, the production of anti-bodies is not triggered—this is the most likely cause; or b) the outer cell-walls read the DNA-structure of a bacteria/virus as ‘friendly’. If the dominant cause for AIDS is the latter one, then the possibility of a more lethal variant of this mal-function -- wherein the DNA-structure of all neighbouring cells is read as ‘foe’, lurks nearby.


106 3) Star-Wars: Via satellites, we may be able to manipulate a particular portion of stratosphere and ionosphere over an alien country in such a way that its aerodynamic properties and electromagnetic characteristics (including wireless frequencies) are altered in a significant way -which is neither anticipated nor programmed into the aerodynamic properties, trajectory and guidance systems of the alien missile. In the result, the missile may never reach its intended target. And if we are able to simulate the effects of solar flares on electronic circuits, we may be able to burn the alien missile’s onboard electronic guidance system during its flight. The difference between being able to see an object and not seeing it, lies in whether you treat light as 'particle', 'ray' or 'wave'. Similarly, detection by radar can be evaded either by absorbing the radar waves or simply deflecting the same. Design of flying saucers is both theoretically and technically feasible.


107 ANNEXURE-IV

Alphabetical List of Central Legislations Governing Labour Matters Apprentices Act, 1961 Bidi and Cigar Workers (Conditions of Employment) Act, 1966 -- alongwith Bidi Workers Welfare Fund Act, 1976 Bidi Workers Welfare Cess Act, 1976 Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act, 1976 Building and Other Construction Workers (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) Act, 1996 Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1988 Cine-Workers and Cinema Theatre Workers (Regulation and Employment) Act, 1981 alongwith-Welfare Cess Act, 1981 Cine Workers’ Welfare Fund Act, 1981 Coal Mines (Conservation and Development) Act, 1974 Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Act, 1970 Dangerous Machines (Regulation) Act, 1983 Dock Workers (Regulation of Employment) Act, 1948 alongwith-Safety, Health and Welfare Act, 1986 Regulation of Employment (Inapplicability to Major Ports) Act, 1997 Advisory Committee Rules, 1962 Employees’ Provident Funds and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952 EPF Scheme, 1952 Employees’ State Insurance Act, 1948 Employment Exchanges (Compulsory Notification of Vacancies) Act, 1959 Employment of Manual Scavengers and Construction of Dry Latrines Prohibition Act, 1993 Employers’ Liability Act, 1938 Equal Remuneration Act, 1976


108 Factories Act, 1948 Fatal Accidents Act, 1855 Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Act, 1946 Industrial Disputes Act, 1947 Inter-State Migrant Workmen (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) Act, 1979 Iron Ore Mines, Manganese Ore Mines & Chrome Ore Mines Labour Welfare Fund Act, 1976, alongwith-Iron Ore Mines, Manganese Ore Mines & Chrome Ore Mines Labour Welfare Cess Act, 1976 Labour Laws (Exemption from Furnishing Returns and Maintaining Register by Certain Establishments) Act, 1988 Limestone and Dolomite Mines Labour Welfare Fund Act, 1972 Maternity Benefit Act, 1961 Merchant Shipping Act, 1958 Mica Mines Labour Welfare Fund Act, 1946 Minimum Wages Act, 1948 alongwith-Central Rules, 1950 Mines Act, 1952 Motor Transport Workers Act, 1961 Payment and Settlement Systems Act, 2007 Payment of Bonus Act, 1965 Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972 Payment of Wages Act, 1936 read with Payment of Wages (Amendment) Act, 2005 Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act, 1995 Plantation Labour Act, 1951 Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005 Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991 Public Provident Fund Act, 1968


109 Public Servants (Inquiries) Act, 1850 Sales Promotion Employees (Conditions of Service) Act, 1976 Shops and Establishments Act (these are separately enacted by States, e.g. Delhi Shops and Establishments Act, 1954) Trade Unions Act, 1926 read with Trade Unions (Amendments) Act, 2001 The Central Labour Laws (Extension to Jammu & Kashmir) Act, 1970 Unorganised Workers’ Social Security Act, 2008 War Injuries Ordinance Act, 1943 alongwith-War Injuries (Compensation Insurance) Act, 1943 Personal Injuries (Emergency) Provisions Act, 1962 Personal Injuries (Compensation Insurance) Provisions Act, 1963 Weekly Holidays Act, 1942 alongwith-National and Festival Holidays Act Working Journalists and Other Newspaper Employees (Conditions of Service) and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1955 Working Journalist (Fixation of Rates of Wages) Act, 1958 -- as amended upto date Workmen’s Compensation Act, 1923 read with Workmen’s Compensation (Amendments) Act, 2000

N.B.: The above List is merely illustrative, i.e. not exhaustive. In addition, there are several State legislations. Moreso, knowledge of central legislations alone is not sufficient because the State Legislatures can amend a Central Legislation with the assent of the President of the Republic of India. Obviously, a technocrat may not be assumed to know all these Legislations.


110 End-Notes/Footnotes (superscripts 1, 2, 3 ...): 1 The Vishnu Puran (Part-II) foretells the birth of Nanak and his role in Bhakti Movement. 2 Renaissance thinkers sought out learning from ancient texts-- typically written in Latin or ancient Greek. Scholars scoured Europe's monasteries searching for works of classical antiquity that had fallen into obscurity. In such texts, they found a desire to improve and perfect their worldly knowledge; an entirely different sentiment to the transcendental spirituality stressed by medieval Christianity. 3 During the 14-17th centuries, a bhakti movement swept through Central and Northern India --initiated by a loosely associated group of spiritual teachers or saints, e.g. Nanak, Tulsidas, Kabir, Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, Vallabha, Surdas, Meera Bai, Ravidas, Namdeo, Tukaram and others. It rebelled against caste system and such Brahmanical rituals as were not necessary to salvation. 4 Calvinism: Calvinism: This term refers, inter alia, to the doctrines and practices of Reformed Churches, of which Calvin was an early leader. 5 Baptists are a group of Christian denominations, churches, and individuals who subscribe to the theology of salvation through faith alone. A person living according to this world-view is more likely to accumulate money because the new religions (in particular, Calvinism and other more austere Protestant sects) effectively forbade wastefully using hard earned money, and identified the purchase of luxuries a sin. They also emphasized frugality, hard work and thrift. The spirit of capitalism invested “economising” with high moral significance; the individual engages in capitalistic economising not only for the expediency of making a living, but in the expectation that such activity would test his inner resources and thus affirm his moral worth. By not working, one failed to glorify God. Moreso, instead of giving away money to charities, it was invested -- which led to capitalism. The spirit of capitalism constituted a sort of moral "habitus" which burdened the possessor of money with a steward’s obligation toward his own possessions. 6 Industrial Revolution: A period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, and transportation had a profound effect on the socio-economic and cultural conditions in Europe. “*T+he liberating spirit that prompted fresh inquiry wherebefore [the] medievalists had relied on ancient pronouncements … Copernican revolution brought out the scientist in Renaissance man.” *parentheses added+ -- Kolasa, Blair J. Introduction to Behavioural Science for Business (Wiley, New York, 1991, 5th edn) p. 32. Iron cage is a sociological concept introduced by Max Weber. It refers to rigid rationalisation & bureaucratisation that is inherent in the social life of Western capitalist societies. The "iron cage" traps individuals in systems that are based purely on teleological efficiency, rational calculation and control. Weber was concerned by the subjective meaning that humans attach to their actions and interactions within specific social contexts. He also believed in idealism, which is


111 the belief that we only know things because of the meanings that we apply to them. This led to his interest in power and authority in terms of bureaucracy and rationalisation. 7 Confucius (551 BC – 479 BC) was a Chinese thinker and social philosopher. He wanted his disciples to think deeply for themselves and to study the outside world through old scriptures, and to relate moral problems of the present to the past political events or to the past expressions of feelings by common people and reflective members of the elite. He believed in a unified royal state whose rulers would succeed to power based on their moral merit, and not by parentage; and these rulers should be devoted to their people -- reaching for personal and social perfection. Such a ruler would spread his own virtues to the people instead of imposing proper behavior with laws and rules. He emphasised the superiority of personal exemplification over explicit and rigid rules of behavior; his moral teachings emphasise self-cultivation, emulation of moral exemplars, and the attainment of skilled judgment rather than knowledge of rules. However, his teachings rarely rely on reasoned argument; rather, the ethical ideals and methods are conveyed more indirectly -- through allusions, innuendo, and tautology. 8 Pandas are priests-by-birth, who claim that performance of Brahmanical rituals through them and making offerings through them can free one from the bondage of the fruits of karma (or the Karma Theory); they overlook the factum of transposition of sufferings (supra). 9 Brahmakumars study spiritual knowledge that nurtures respect for all faiths and traditions; they practise a form of meditation that relaxes the mind and nurtures a healthy balance between man’s inner and outer worlds. They explain ‘karma’ as under: The first thing we do is take a breath. Then we must give it back. This is the rhythm of life. This is a natural law of reciprocity -- whereby everything and everybody is affected. Karma is natural & spiritual law or principle that governs all our interactions. It starts with the seed of thought that develops and grows over time -- through our feelings, attitude, words, actions, and relations. If it is repeated often, it embeds in our personality traits. They also believe in reciprocity -- what I do unto others, ultimately returns to me; whatever emotion I cause another to experience, becomes my own experience sooner or later. It means that whatever circumstances I am in at the moment – whoever or whatever is compelling me or repelling me and whatever I am experiencing, is the consequence of my own previous thoughts, decisions and actions. Understanding the Law of Karma gives deep significance to concepts such as responsibility and justice. Sometimes the Law of Karma is misunderstood, then one may think helplessly, “If whatever is happening to me now is because of my past actions, then there’s nothing I can do about it”. On the other hand, if the past created the present then the present also creates the future. Hence, a proper understanding of the Law of Karma inspires us to participate actively in the creation of our own future or destiny. The Law of Karma begins to work to my advantage when I stop habitual actions that are harmful, take responsibility to address positively the


112 consequences of any such actions performed in the past, and pay attention to performing positive actions from this moment forward. Once I realise that I am a spiritual being (a soul) interacting through the body, I must maintain my soul’s conscientiousness while I think, act, interact -- use my mind and body with wisdom, care for them with accuracy (truth, honesty, propriety) and discipline, and communicate respect and love through my attitude, thoughts, vibrations and expressions. The energy of consciousness functions through three closely connected faculties -- referred to respectively as mind, intellect, and personality (ability to judge, knowledge & logic, habitual action). Thoughts are created in the metaphysical mind, these are then processed and interpreted by the intellect that reasons, memorises, discriminates and makes decisions. The physical brain acts like an Options Dialogue Box (to use computer terminology) for the soul, and provides choices for the soul’s expression. It is difficult for the mind to comprehend even eternity -- God is much more than eternity. One can reach out to God with pure thoughts. Thoughts link one soul to another and, if properly channeled, thoughts can even go where only the soul can travel. God is Truth -- the Supreme Soul that never takes on a body (gross or subtle, human or angelic) of His own. He is beyond the effects of action and is never subject to the dualities of birth and death, pleasure and pain, success and failure. Being beyond the limits of time of this physical world, He retains absolute knowledge of the universe and all its dimensions. He doesn’t wave a magic wand and fix things because He never takes away anyone’s freedom of choice. He respects each soul’s individual identity, inherent freedom and goodness. God shares His knowledge – a profound understanding of the dualities and dilemmas of love and hatred, happiness and sorrow, victory and defeat, etc. but does not make our choices for us. The soul is free to choose ‘to be or not to be’, ‘to love or not to love’. God’s love for us strengthens the soul’s will to free itself from the distresses caused by vices such as selfish desire, anger, fear, ego and attachment. When you learn to tune your mind in meditation to the wisdom and love of God, then whatever the situation, you always have a source of help and strength to draw upon – an infinite reservoir of power and virtues by simply tuning your thoughts to Him. God’s power helps the soul to recognise its highest potential and aim for perfection. Such an approach by a significant number of souls eventually brings about positive change in the whole of humanity. 10 “Janam janam ki man ko mal lagi …”, Adi Granth, p. 651. Cited in Lahori, Lajwanti (1985). The Concept of Sikhism. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers, p. 48. The ‘Adi Granth’, like the Testament, is a scripture authored by the Guru Himself. 11 About DNA and RNA, please see my Article on ‘Cancer’: http://consultant-law-education-india-nepal.in/wp3/ 12 This type of energy can power inter-Galactic voyages of the future. For StarWars, please see Chapter-II.


113 13 “One wanders through eighty-four lacs of different births” –5th Guru, “Gauri Rag” in Adi Granth. Quoted in: Singh, Harbans (1968). The Message of Sikhism. Delhi: Delhi Gurudwara Prabandhak Committee, p. 86. 14 Kahan Singh Nabha in his Gurshabad Ratnakar Mahan Kosh says that the gross body of man is composed of 5 gross elements, 5 subtle elements, 5 ‘pranas’, 5 sense organs, 5 action organs, ‘mun’ (ego) and ‘budhi’ (intellect). At death, the gross body of 5 elements (dust) is separated from the rest -- Quoted in The Concept of Sikhism (ibid), p. 45 (Notes). 15 Every book on ‘Yoga’ depicts a man sitting in ‘lotus posture’ -- it shows three nadis emanating from his head. Sushumna nadi begins from the lotus-point, and its petals act as antennae for communication with the ethereal storehouse of knowledge. 16 An alert reader will observe that one who is in communion with Him and, thus, sufficiently enlightened can pick the flowers (individual shlokas or verses from different Chapters of Gita) and weave the same into a garland that conveys the true interpretation of Gita. 17 See page 14. 18 Soulless creatures whose secondary role is to interpose whenever any individual who has mastered the control over himself, does not choose the action whose repercussion is destined to fall on a third individual. For example, if X is destined to die a violent death and Y is chosen as the most likely actor to cause that violent incident -- albeit with consequent repercussions upon Y himself; and Y voluntarily chooses not to be the causal factor, in that situation the dummy intervenes and causes the violent incident leading to X’s death. 19 Supra. 20 Advaita school is based on Upanishads, and emphasises complete identity between brahman and atman. Shankaracharya is its supreme teacher. Samkhya school divides all things into those which have consciousness (‘chetna’) and those which do not possess chetna-- the latter are objects for chetna’s use. 21 Ramesh, K. in Human Resource Management says at page 34 [cited in Jill P Kern, et al (Eds) 'Human Resources Management' (ASQC Quality Press, New York, 1987), page 9] that HRD is omnibusly defined as: “the umbrella term covering the many forms and techniques to maximise the contribution of the human resources of the enterprise towards the joint objective of meeting the goals of management and satisfying the overall needs of the people who work in the company at all levels”. HRD was functionally defined by Lippitt in 1978 as depending upon: (i) work itself which generates a higher degree of responsibility for employees, (ii) individual’s personal and professional growth, (iii) improved quality of output as a result of increased responsibility, and (iv) organisation as an open system -- quoted in MS Saiyadain (1988). Human Resources Management. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, p. 233.


114

22 Cited in Ramesh, K. ‘Human Resource Management in India’, Human Resource Management (ibid) p.36 23 Quoted in Sudhi, Dr. Padma (1983). Aesthetic Theories of India. Pune: Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, p. xiv (Preface)

24 Ardrey, Robert. The Territorial Imperative (Atheneum Publishers, New York, 1966) p.12. In Flippo, Edwin B. Personnel Management (McGraw Hill Book th Company, New York, 6 Edn, 1984) p. 384. Flippo says that humans share with many animals an innate behavioural pattern that leads them to establish a basic area or territory as theirs and to defend it against invaders. This defense leads them to ‘benign’ aggression -- aggressive acts against invaders that are biologically adaptive by way of contributing to the survival of the species, and it ceases when the threat is removed. Malignant aggression, however, is a learned response that is specific to humans. Humans will kill humans for reasons that are not biologically adaptive ... Lower animals master their environment through an evolutionary change in genes, but humans master it by culturally learned behaviour that is quicker and more effective. 25 Flippo, Edwin B. Personnel Management (McGraw Hill Book Company, New th York, 6 Edn, 1984) p. 384, 393 26 Flippo, Edwin B. Personnel Management (McGraw Hill Book Company, New th York, 6 Edn, 1984) p. 252 27 Schein, Edgar H. “How ‘Career Anchors’ Hold Executives in Their Career Paths” (‘Personnel’, vol. 52, no. 3, May-June 1975, pp. 11-24). In Edwin B Flippo. th Personnel Management (McGraw Hill Book Company, New York, 6 Edn, 1984) pp. 250-252 28 Rushton, J. Philippe, Harry G. Murray & Sampo V. Paunonen. ‘Personality Characteristics Associated with High Research Productivity’. In Scientific Excellence: Origins and Assessment. Eds. Douglas N. Jackson and J Philippe Rushton (Sage Publications, Newbury Park, 1987) pp. 138-146 29 Simonton, Dean Keith. ‘Multiples, Chance, Genius, Creativity, and Zeitgeist’. In Scientific Excellence: Origins and Assessment. Eds. Douglas N. Jackson and J Philippe Rushton (Sage Publications, Newbury Park, 1987) pp. 115, 122, 126 30 Sampson, Robert C. Managing and Managers (McGraw Hill, New York, 1965) 31 Rogers, Carl R. On Becoming a Person: A Therapist’s View of Psychology (Hoghton Mifflin, Boston, 1961) 32 Jackson, Douglas N. ‘Scientific and Technological Innovation: Its Personological and Motivational Context’. In Scientific Excellence: Origins and Assessment. Eds. Douglas N. Jackson and J Philippe Rushton (Sage Publications, Newbury Park, 1987) pp. 150-153, 156, 159, 160-163 33 Likert, Rensis. New Patterns of Management (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1961) 34 Rogers, Carl R. Carl Rogers on Personal Power (Delacorte, New York, 1977)


115

35 Cited in Tingstad, James E. How to Manage the R & D Staff -- A looking-glass World (AMACOM -- A Division of American Management Association, New York, 1991) p.42 36 Drcuker, Peter F. Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices (Harper & Row, New York, 1974) 37 Peters, Tom. ‘Firms may be Dancing Last Macho Tango’ Arizona Daily Star, April 4, 1989 38 Rogers, Carl R. Carl Rogers on Personal Power (ibid) 39 Rogers, Carl R. On Becoming a Person: A Therapist’s View of Psychology (ibid) 40 Schein, Edgar H. “How ‘Career Anchors’ Hold Executives in Their Career Paths” (‘Personnel’, vol. 52, no. 3, May-June 1975, pp. 11-24). In Edwin B Flippo. th Personnel Management (McGraw Hill Book Company, New York, 6 Edn, 1984) pp. 250-252 41 Flippo, Edwin B. Personnel Management (McGraw Hill Book Company, New th York, 6 Edn, 1984) pp. 252-254

References/Bibliography (refers to Chapter-I: APA Style was used for that Chapter because its contents were accepted as a Paper for two International Conferences): Akhilesh, K.B. et al (Eds.) (1990). Human resource management 2000: Indian Perspectives. New Delhi: Wiley Eastern, p. 7. Ali, A Yusuf (1983). The Holy Koran: text, translation and commentary. Brentwood, USA: Amana Corp.. Choi, Dr. Hyung Sup (1983). Bases for science and technology in developing countries, translated by Dr. Chong-Ouk Lee. Tokyo: Asian Productivity Organisation, pp. 84, 110-111. Good News Bible (1977). Bangluru: The Biblical Society of India, p. 628. Gunaji, N.V. (1957). Geeta. Mumbai: Phoenix, pp. 5, 137, 139, 141, 142. Upanishad is not a part of Bhagvad Geeta. Moddie, A.D. (Ed.) (1990). The concept of work in Indian society. New Delhi: Manohar Publications. It describes, at pages 209 & 221, the attempts made by Don Super, Friedman and Havinghurst to gather empirically the reasons why people work, viz.: to regulate pattern of life, to identify with the group and fix patterns of association, to maintain contact with reality and gather meaningful life-experiences, to serve God, to fulfill oneself through service to society, and to sustain life. A moment’s reflection would show that some of these are not causes but ‘effects’ of work.


116

Patai, Saul (Ed.) (1968). The chemistry of amino group. London: Inter-Science Publishers. Ramesh, K. (1987) in ‘Human resource management’ says at page 34 [cited in Jill P Kern, et al (Eds) 'Human Resources Management' (ASQC Quality Press, New York, 1987), page 9] that HRD is omnibusly defined as: “the umbrella term covering the many forms and techniques to maximise the contribution of the human resources of the enterprise towards the joint objective of meeting the goals of management and satisfying the overall needs of the people who work in the company at all levels”. HRD was functionally defined by Lippitt in 1978 as depending upon: (i) work itself which generates a higher degree of responsibility for employees, (ii) individual’s personal and professional growth, (iii) improved quality of output as a result of increased responsibility, and (iv) organisation as an open system -quoted in MS Saiyadain (1988). Human resources management. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, p. 233. Salmon, Jean-Jaques. What is Technology? … in S. Bhattacharya, et al (Eds) (1990). Techniques to technology. Hyderabad: Orient Longman, p. 267. Srinivasan, M. (1989). Management of science & technology: problems and prospects. Affiliated East-West Press, p. vii (Preface). Also see Statistical outline of India: 1988-89. Mumbai: Tata Services Ltd’s Department of Economics and Statistics, p. 17. The Brihadaranyaka Upanishad and Shankracharya’s commentary, translated by Swami Madhavananda (1965). Kolkatta: Advaita Ashram, Kolkatta, p. ix (Preface). The Holy Koran (ibid) page 189. See also “… to men is allotted what they earn, and to women what they earn …” --Sura IV 32, in The Holy Koran (ibid) p. 189. The message of Sikhism. (1985). New Delhi, Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers, p. 133. The New English Bible (The New Testament). (1970). Oxford: Oxford University Press and Cambridge University Press, pp. 4, 24-25, 100. The New English Bible (Apocrypha) ibid, p. 30. The New English Bible (The Old Testament) ibid, p. 9. Also see: Leviticus 19.26 therein. The Penguin dictionary of quotations. (1964). The English Language Book Society and Penguin Books, pp. 228, 302.


117

Part-II

Literature-Research Research-Design and Methodology


118

CHAPTER-V

Technology: Technology i is a product of creativity, controlled experimentation ii and committed perseverance; it is one of the four environments in which Homo sapiens live, viz.: Cosmic, Natural, Social & Technological environments.

However, technology is essentially fostered by, and exists in, a social medium -it aids man to understand, analyse, synthesise, control and harness different states of energy and forces of nature both in and around him. In such an attempt, it is the cosmic environment that guides Man. Thus, the process of RDD is integrative rather than dichotomous -- it need not necessarily lead to the mastery of one environment (sub-system) over the other.

Human Resources (HR) can be harmonious producers as well as users or beneficiaries of Technology. Moreso, technology is a means to improve the ‘production function’ -- whereby it increases the producers’ surplus as well as the consumers’ surplus which impliedly improve the quality of life of the Homo sapiens sapiensiii.

Moreso, Government funding of research creates external economies in the production of goods and services by firms; thereby, maximising social welfare -- which partially depends upon the production function (or, in other words, upon the marginal rate of technical substitution).

In view of our National Aim to become a major World Power by the year 2020, meet the challenges of competitive science and become a major player in the Global economic competition, we must begin exploring/adapting the best possible ways and means to speed up our technological research efforts and make our research-effort more meaningful. Moreso, we ought to use the results thereof not only for improving the Quality of Life of our masses but also to conserve our Natural Resources.


119

On the other hand, if Technology is misused by the baser motivations of Man it can become a bad tool or even an evil master – unfortunately, these baser motivations are insatiable whereas the normal human wants can be, at least, ‘satisficed’. In 1980 the world spent US $ 207.8 billion on research and development in one year alone, 'the developed countries' using up the lion's share (viz. the US expended $ 195.4 billion -- vide UNESCO's Statistical Year Book, 1986). And more than 1 million researchers are working around the world. The power of advanced technology was demonstrated in the Afghan & Iraq Wars.

In this ultra-competitive race for superior ('hi-tech' or 'state-of-art’) technology in several spheres, including the Military, the following variables play a crucial role:● The quality and quantity of technological inputs used in the process of research, design and development (RDD); ● The quality, training and number of the human resources available for catalysing, monitoring and managing the RDD-process; ● A supportive but demanding organisational structure with emphasis on utilitybased, time-bound, budgeted and audited projects -- leading to the development of economically viable, technically sound and socially appropriate technologies; ● Basic research in core disciplines whose development is necessary for the continuous innovation and improvement of technology -- incremental and NGT; ● Availability of facilitating and enabling resources; and ● A leader who can motivate through own example, who can obtain effective collaboration from such other laboratories as can contribute specialised inputs to the work of his/her own laboratory -- a person who, based on his/her track-record in the RDD process, can easily convince the funding agencies to readily trust him/her with sufficient monetary grants. He/she ought to be able to lead the research effort in a way that not only maximises the measurable output of the organisational effort invested in RDD but also enhances the self-concept, work-culture and sense of achievement of the positively contributing individual scientists/engineers.

‘Managing’ R & D is a seeming contradiction in terms because managing means


120 control and order -- whereas research involves a high degree of creativity and freedom. To harmonise these seemingly contradictory concepts ‘formal control’ must be non-restrictive and appropriate to an R & D setting -- considering the high educational qualifications of scientists/engineers, the self-imposed rigours of scientific experiments and the heightened self-motivation of a true scientist/ engineer.

On the other hand, the techno-administrator (Manager of R & D effort) though not involved in hands-on laboratory work remains accountable and responsible for the results of experiments; hence the need for him/her to control the research-process. An ideal techno-administrator should, therefore, be a rolemodel in at least one of the relevant scientific disciplines and also trust & defer (whenever appropriate) to the multi-disciplinary expertise of his co-workers.

RDD is a complex world filled with both --uncertainty and promise. On the contrary, an average employee seeks stability & security. Hence, the R & D manager ought to be a visionary who not only puts foundations under the organisational dream, but also draws his co-workers to that vision to inspire them. He must care for them as unique individuals, and involve them in decisionmaking; moreso, he should be able to assist them in achieving their personal goals -- while pursuing the organisational objectives. A word of caution: Since a person’s desirable as well as undesirable characteristics stem from the same psychological set of drives, a Manager cannot attack a subordinate’s weaknesses without endangering his/her strengths. Scientists & Engineers need to be inspired to take to their Wings and convert challenges into opportunities -- unlike a bureaucratic office, R & D does not hire people to play-safe. This is one of the several reasons why Indian research laboratories failed to produce results under a bureaucratic structure or under bureaucrats who had successfully run District Administration.


121

CHAPTER-VI Important Terms Defined: Science: A systematic study and analysis of the natural phenomena in order to discover the laws governing the relationships amongst/between various forms and states of energyiv, the direction of the forces released by this energy, the space and time.

Technology: A utility-based application of science in order to add to, subtract from, replicate, change or control the natural phenomenon in a specific setting, or create tools/ machines/processes in aid of human endeavour.

Human Resource Development:

The process of acquisition of knowledge and skills that will help us achieve mastery over self, of knowing one’s prime socio-economic duty and being well prepared to perform the said duty excellently in cohesion with the rest of the economic workers. Organisational Structure: A normally repetitive grid of inter-locked patterns of human behavioural roles (expected or actual, formal or informal) that fall in the areas of decision-making, decision-implementation or information inputs (supportive roles). Here the word ‘formal’ refers to pre-determined and ‘informal’ means spontaneous actions and reactions.

Research, Design & Development (RDD): It refers to the whole process of research and development of a new product, process or service -- from conception to commercialisation or extension services.

Limitations of Present Research:


122 Due to financial constraints, only the RDD Institutes located in Delhi, Pune, Mumbai and Hyderabad were personally visited; Questionnaires for other institutes (located in other than these four cities) were mailed to their Directors who were requested to distribute the same among a randomly chosen set of Scientists and Engineers drawn from the 3 categories stated above. More than 100 filled-in Questionnaires were received back from the answering respondents -- although for qualitative exploratory research 40-45 Questionnaires are universally considered as adequate. The Quantitative and Qualitative Data from the 95 Questionnaires, as aforesaid, have been analysed and tabulated in this book. Literature Survey: Raymond et al in their book Organisational Strategy, Structure and Process (McGraw Hill, Kogakusha, 1978) suggest that in response to external environment, the firm attempts to adapt its strategy and internal environment – while it may also try to influence its external environment. The components of internal environment are: entrepreneurial, technological (engineering) and administrative. The last one comprises of organisational structure and process, including the flexibility for managerial innovations to meet changes in external environment; however, the said book neither attempts a discussion on technology benchmarking nor forecasting, nor does it broach the subject of audit of R & D Projects. Prof Arlyn J Melcher in his book Structure and Process of Organisations: A Systems Approach (Prentice-Hall Inc., NJ, USA, 1971) reviews the literature on Structural Variables and Organisational Processes, and also suggests an organisational Model for further research on these aspects. However, the said review is available upto the year 1975, or so -- moreso, the mediating impact of individual’s Personality, Group Characteristics, Recruitment & Training (especially the entrepreneurial attitude and skills to deal with uncertainties that are inherent in RDD), Counselling (individual and family), Informal Communications Network, and impact of Mergers & Acquisitions has not been dealt with in detail; moreso, the influence of Cultural Beliefs and emerging market-matrix organisations (strategies, structure & processes to deal with internal


123 interdependencies within complex organisations with a view to develop strategic technology attitude) are not even touched upon. Moreover, the special demands of a creative industry (e.g. Research, Design & Development Institutes/Organisations) and the typical characteristics of their Human Resources have not been specifically dealt with. Since Culture is an important mediating variable influencing both the individual personality and group characteristics, I have added a Chapter ‘The Impact of Indian Culture on Work-Ethos’ to the present research effort. In addition, the focus of my research will be on those contextual and personality variables as are specific to an RDD environment, and impact its productivity, commitment, group cohesiveness and individual satisfactions. Research Design: The following phases were sequentially followed: § Literature Survey at several Libraries -- listed in Appendix-A (infra) § Qualitative Pilot Survey by Interview method in RDD Orgs in Pune and Delhi § Design of a structured as well as open-ended Questionnaire (in 3 Parts -covering Personality, Structure & Processes) which also included ‘veracity-check questions’ § Testing the effectiveness of the Questionnaire on a randomly selected group of Scientists and Engineers engaged in RDD in Pune and Delhi § Followed by mass contact programme at: Indian Agricultural Research Institute (New Delhi) National Chemical Laboratory (Pune) Research & Development Establishment (Engineers) Pune National Informatics Centre (Pune) § Review and redesign of Questionnaire that comprised of 66 pages § Classification of RDD Institutes into Organisational Types, e.g. Public (Departmental and Autonomous), Private (Industrial and Consultancy), Universities and Cooperative sector


124 § Categorisation of Scientists and Engineers into three broad categories -- based on their roles as Techno-Administrator, Project Leader and Team Member § Randomly selecting Institutes from within each category (as aforesaid) -- a List of these Institutes is placed at Appendix-B § With the permission of Directors in each Institute, a set of Scientists and Engineers were randomly chosen within each category (as stated above) § Circulation of the Questionnaire amongst 190 of these Scientists and Engineers -- to be filled up individually; complete anonymity was also assured § Upon receipt of filled in Questionnaires, follow up Interviews with randomly selected Scientists and Engineers as also with a few Directors [e.g. DRDL (Hyd), RDDE (Pune), Dr. RA Mashelkar (then Director, NCL)] and Prof JM Lehn (Nobel laureate in Chemistry, who was on a visit to NCL). Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam was kind enough to invite the Author over to DRDL (Hyderabad) although by the time he reached there, Dr. Kalam had already left on a foreign tour – however, the latter left a word with DRDL’s officiating Director (a Major General) to help the Author in his research effort; the Ministry of Agriculture (Union of India) also shared with the Author the Confidential Inquiry Report submitted by Justice PB Gajendragadkar on ‘Suicides by Agricultural Scientists’. § In addition, one Questionnaire each was received back from specialists in the related behavioural disciplines, viz.: Psychology Sociology Labour Laws The aforesaid specialists had been requested to answer certain portions of the Questionnaire in order to validate the clarity and objectivity of the contents of the Questionnaire itself § Out of 104 filled-in Questionnaires received back, nine were rejected due to scanty or incomplete information § Some of the Questionnaires were answered personally by the Organisations’ Heads (including Scientists ‘F’ in DRDO) -- notwithstanding the fact that the


125 Questionnaire comprised of a whopping number of 66 pages. One of the reasons for attempting to answer the full Questionnaire was cited as ‘perusal of the Questionnaire tended to enable the reader to introspect and think through such issues as he/she had not, for quite some time, consciously thought about’. Last, but not the least, DRDO was kind enough to allow the Author (a Wing Commander) a long stay in their Officers’ Mess to enable him to study, first hand, the daily routine of their Scientists and Engineers. § Twenty-six of the aforesaid 95 respondents were scientist-administrators (or were, at least, in the pay scale of University Professors) and each possessed more than ten years’ experience in Research/Teaching. Thirty-nine respondents were from middle level -- who were most likely to have played the role of a team or project leader during their tenure; and 30 respondents had upto 4 years’ experience in RDD. Thirty-five of these 95 respondents held PhD degrees, and 2 were pursuing PhD --thirty-four of these 37 respondents had at least one publication to their credit, and some of them had published papers in International Journals (two of them had published more than 100 papers each). On the other hand, 7 non-PhDs had also contributed Papers in various Journals. However, none of the respondents answered the specific Question about Citation Index of their Papers. The Geminis appear to be the most prolific writers: 4 such respondents have more than 20 publications/books to their credit, and one of them had published the highest number of papers (175 -- more than 75 in International journals alone). The group of Geminis also has the 2nd highest percentage of respondents who published papers or books (5 out of a total of 11 Geminis in the sample). However, the highest percentage went to Scorpions (7 out of 11) – moreso, one of them published the second highest number of papers (more than 100). On the other hand, the Virgos ranked first in terms of number of scholarships awarded to them while they were at college, viz. 6 out of 9. These findings, though statistically meagre, do intuitively support the generalisations contained in Annexure-I to this book. Most of these respondents are drawing Pay & Perks which are either equivalent to or more than that of a Class-I Officer; it is hypothesised that their ‘basic physiological needs’ as also the ‘safety and security’ needs in terms of Maslow’s


126 Need Hierarchy vi have, at least, been satisficed and, therefore, these no longer act as ‘motivators’ -- in other words, in terms of Herzberg’s proposition vii these needs or factors are merely ‘hygiene’ factors for this sample of respondents. § A few of the answering Scientists and Engineers were randomly selected for Follow up Interviews. § SPSS v.13, Microsoft Excel 2010 (Beta) and Word 2010 were used for Data Analysis and Presentation of Results. In view of the reasons stated above, Melcher’s model was suitably modified as under: • Melcher’s Model (Modified): PRIMARY STRUCTURAL VARIABLES: Size (number of persons) Work Flow [inter-dependent work (with or without the buffer of intermediate goods and/or specialisation between groups) and independent work] Task Complexity (programmed, unprogrammed, availability of resources and predictability of outcome) Spatial-physical Factors (concentrated or dispersed -- intra-group and intergroup) MEDIATING STRUCTURAL VARIABLES: Formal Authority Relations (decentralized or centralised) Departmentation (inter-dependent departments or independent/autonomous) Formal Control System: Formal Standards (high/low, stability over time, historical/comparative) Rewards, Penalties and their relation to performance Formal Communications Network: Lateral Vertical


127 Inter-group, and with External Environment MEDIATING ORGANISATIONAL PROCESSES: Leadership: Representation Rule-Orientation Participation Direction (close or loose) Inducements (linkages to Rewards, Penalties) MEDIATING GROUP CHARACTERISTICS: Corporate Culture: Training and Counselling: Entrepreneurial attitude and skills relevant to RDD context MEDIATING LEARNT BEHAVIOUR, HEREDITARY AND SOCIO-CULTURAL FACTORS: Personality (predisposition to react to a stimulus in a particular manner) Culture: Indian Culture -- ‘the Indic mindset’ (influence of more than 5 religious streams or belief systems) Desirable Impact of Indian Culture on Work-Ethos (Indian Culture Revisited or Re-interpreted) – Eastern Renaissance


128

CHAPTER-VII

Scope of Present Research: Published Research in the area of Human Resources Management in Research, Design & Development Institutes in India being rather scarce, the present research aims at studying the impact of following factors upon Motivation of personnel engaged in research -- Pure Sciences, Applied Engineering and Extension Services: i) Structural aspects (organisational size, spatial/physical barriers, pattern & direction of communication channels, time-lag in the provision of facilities for research etc.) ii) Mediating processes (including leadership styles) iii) Inter-personal work-environment (including mutual respect, group dynamics, peer-evaluation etc.) iv) Perks [including sponsorship for seminars & workshops, e-library facilities, facilities for higher learning for self, education of employees’ children, permission to pursue research in at least one additional (personally preferred) area of research, leisure activities &c] v) Pay-structure (including time-scale promotions, selection-grade promotions, or a single continuous grade with additional pay attached to particular projects/posts, retiral benefits) v) Other relevant aspects (e.g. hereditary & astro-biological personality traits, bio-clock; and acquired traits like lateral, sequential, parallel, synectic and kaleidoscopic thinking etc.). Broad Objectives: Exploratory & Descriptive Research identifying major factors in the Indian context that impact motivation of Scientists, Applied Engineers and Extension


129

Workers who are engaged in different roles in various organisation-types, viz. Governmental (Departmental), Public sector (Autonomous Institutes funded by Government), Universities, Co-operative sector (including Research Institutes funded by private Trusts), Private sector (either stand-alone Research Institutes or the in-house Research Departments of commercial Companies) etc. The Present Indian Scenario: At present, there is no nodal agency -- not even the Department of Science & Technology (Ministry of Science & Technology, Union of India) to record, leave alone monitor, all the research projects currently in hand at the National level. The largest agency that has some data -- albeit for its own Research Institutes, is the CSIR. Many a times such data is not available due to reasons like National Security, Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) etc. Only one independent course is being run on R & D Management in the country, viz. by Administrative Staff College of India at Hyderabad (ASCI)--it is a very short course of about two-week duration. In comparison, the Telfer School of Management (University of Ottawa) in Canada has much better instructional resources on this subject. Thus, in the Indian context even descriptive literature either on human resources (HR) or on sociological aspects of R & D Organisations is scarce. A survey of the Journal of Indian Social Sciences Research reveals the necessity for such a Research. Data on Project Appraisal/Evaluation (including Audit and Termination of individual Projects -- if found unfeasible or redundant) is also lacking. Formation of Research Problem and Design of Research Methodology: The paucity of published material (literature) in this area of study forced upon me the initial choice to go in for an open-ended, unstructured and experimental approach -- without freezing the knowledge at any stage.

I classified the population, to be studied, into broad sectors/segments mentioned


130 above. Thereafter, within each Research Institute/Organisation three broad role-based categories of Scientists & Engineers were identified, viz. Techno-Administrators, Project Directors and Team-Members. The Support Staff (Tech/Admin staff) was generally excluded from the present study – although a few of the employees working in the Technical Services or Administrative Services Departments (e.g. in NCL, Pune) were included in order to obtain their comparative views on certain aspects. The Questionnaire broadly covered the following areas:● Personal Details (required for follow-up Interview, but on condition of anonymity with regard to the publication of research-results) -- this information helped me to determine the personality-type of the respondent; ● Questions relevant to qualitative research -- which is essentially an exploratory one because very few published data is available on R & D Management in India; ● Questions which would be of interest for further research work. Research was conducted under the Guidance of well known Management Guru, namely Prof (Dr) PC Shejwalkar, and under Prof (Dr) PP Bawale (Pune University) as well as under Prof (Dr) VK Seth (FMS, Delhi). Broad category of Information Collected: For reasons already stated above, data was collected on the following: i) Respondent's personality traits, achievements, any memorably strong motive or depressant faced during his/her life-time, and the respondent’s satisfaction with his/her present life-situation (socioeconomic, gender, work-related, etc.); ii) Respondent's perception of the traits desirable for different functional levels (roles) in the RDD process, and his/her identification of the approximate period during which he or she did or could have acquired the said trait(s); iii) Respondent's vision as to how his/her work fits into the overall science and technology scenario, as well as into the economic and social


131 environment at large; iv) Respondent's perception as to the motivational/maintenance factors existing in the socio-economic environment itself; and such structural variables within the RDD organisation as are perceived by him/her to aid in the creation, augmentation, maintenance or absence of motivational/ maintenance factors at the aforesaid three functional levels (roles) in RDD; v) Respondent’s reaction to different leadership styles vis-à-vis the respondent’s own maturity level and his/her role in one of the three functional levels mentioned above. Based upon the data obtained from the above study, such structural variables within the organisation as have perceptible impact upon Scientists’ motivational needs in the Indian context, were identified. Specific Objectives of Present Research: Despite the overall importance of this subject, the constraints of time/finance/ space do restrict this study to only a small portion of the broad canvas of interrelated phenomena in the field of Motivation of Creative Teams -- that is to say, my initial focus was on such realignments in organisational structures and leadership styles as are perceptibly believed by the scientists & engineers themselves to foster or hinder certain personal and group attitudes & traits that are required to generate the highest Rate of Return on RDD investment. After identifying the major factors that impact motivation of Scientists, Applied Engineers and Extension Workers engaged in RDD in India, the scope of my research was further extended by drawing upon the data already collected by the Author and others. The four Hypotheses being tested in this study are: “The level of impact of a Leader upon his Team’s Motivation is directly proportional to the degree of control that he/she can exert upon structural variables within the organisation, for the benefit of his/her Team-Members.” “The concepts of ‘need-hierarchy’ and ‘motivation-hygiene factors’ apply to the white-collared knowledge workers, too.”


132 “Maintenance (hygiene) factors include, at least in the Indian context, the need for flexibility in the Organisational structure and processes to accommodate the employee’s concern for his/her family.” Research Methodology: i) Selection of representative samples by random stratified sampling technique (stratification is based on classification by Organisational type, and role-based categorisation of respondents therein; the individual respondents were then randomly drawn from within each category/class ); ii) Application of SPSS for analysis of data, and use of the appropriate Test of Significance – if applicable; iii) Presentation of conclusions, alongwith assumptions and probable limitations of the research-results; iv) Suggestions for further research. Observations on the quality of selected sample: It consists of meritorious students who not only made it to the Science-stream at High School, but also pursued higher studies in a narrower scientific/engineering discipline, e.g. MSc, MTech etc. Thirty-five of them hold PhD degrees while two are pursuing PhD programme. They are employed on a fairly high status in Research, Design & Development Institutes spread over several sectors -- ranging from Public to Private. Twenty-six of them are working at the level of Scientist ‘F’ (a DRDO designation), Director of Research Lab, Additional Director General, Heads of University Departments, Professors and Directors -- one of them is an AwardWinning Techno-Entrepreneur. Ninety-five Questionnaires were analysed -- whereas International academicresearch standards consider 40-45 as sufficient for such an exploratory/qualitative research. The number of Questionnaires analysed from each of the three classes, mentioned above, are: 26, 39 and 30 respectively.


133 The data collected is, therefore, not only a reliable reflection of the mindset of a representative set of scientists and engineers employed in RDD, but also provides a rich resource for further research -- a perusal of the Questionnaire blank (included at the end of this publication) will show the richness of data collected for conducting even individual counselling or development sessions by the HRD and Departmental Heads, because this data suggests the underlying causes for various responses to certain emotive Questions about the way the respondent perceives his/her work and the organisational environment. In this research, however, we are concerned with the aggregates that will also ensure the respondents’ anonymity

.


134

APPENDIX-A Resource Centres that provided the Author with requisite facilities for deskresearch on Science and Technology (arranged Alphabetically):Administrative Staff College (Hyderabad) American Center Library (New Delhi) American Studies Research Centre (Hyderabad) Armament Research & Development Establishment (Pashan, Pune) British Council Library (Pune) Central Secretariat Library (Shastri Bhavan, New Delhi) Delhi University Central Library Departmental Library (PUMBA, Pune) Faculty of Management Studies Library (Delhi University) Gokhale Institute of Politics & Economics (Pune) Indian Agricultural Research Institute (Pusa, New Delhi) Indian Institute of Technology (New Delhi) Indian Law Institute (Deemed University, New Delhi) Indian National Science Academy (New Delhi) Indian National Science Documentation Centre (New Delhi) Jayakar Library (Pune University) Ministry of Agriculture (New Delhi) National Chemical Laboratory (Pune) National Information System for Science & Technology (Department of Science & Technology, New Delhi) National Institute of Virology (Pune) National Social Sciences Documentation Centre (New Delhi) Planning Commission (Government of India, New Delhi) Ratan Tata Library (Delhi School of Economics) Research & Development Establishment (Engineers) Dighi (Pune) Research & Development Establishment (Pune) Tata Institute of Social Sciences (Mumbai) Tata Research Development & Design Centre (Pune)


135

APPENDIX-B With the permission of the Head/Director of the concerned Institute or Organisation, copies of the Questionnaire were distributed amongst three categories of Scientists & Engineers in the following Institutes/Organisations:Award-winning Techno-Entrepreneur Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai Botany Department (Pune University) Pune Centre for Development of Advanced Computing, Pune Centre for Development of Telematics, New Delhi Chemistry Department (Pune University) Pune Engineers India Ltd., Gurgaon (near Delhi) India Meteorological Department (Regional Centre for Tropical Research) Pune Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi Industrial Consultancy Department, IIT (Delhi) M/S Bajaj Auto Ltd., Pune. M/S Deccan Explosives Manufacturing Co., Pune M/S Ranbaxy Labs. Ltd., New Delhi M/S Sandvik Asia Ltd., Pune M/S Sudarshan Chemical Industries Ltd., Pune M/S Tata Engineering & Locomotive Co. Ltd., Pune M/S Tata Iron & Steel Co. Ltd, Jamshedpur M/S Tata Research, Development & Design Centre, Pune M/S Thermax Pvt. Ltd., Pune M/S Vasantdada Sugar Institute, Manjari, Pune Maharashtra Association for the Cultivation of Science, Pune Maharashtra Electronics Corporation Limited, Pune Mechanical Engineering R & D Organisation, Pune


136 National Chemical Laboratory, Pune National Informatics Centre (Western Region) Pune National Institute of Virology, Pune Physics Department (Pune University) Pune Research & Development Establishment (Engineers), Pune Science & Technology Park (Pune University) Pune SHAR Centre, Sriharikota (an island off coastal A.P.)

End-Notes, References and Bibliography: I

That requires lateral thinking firmly grounded on assimilated multi-disciplinary knowledge. ii

Which needs sequential thinking and mastery of the particular subject; it is interspersed with lateral thinking whenever ERRORS are encountered. iii iv

In Sociology ‘homo sapiens sapiens’ is an exalted stage of homo sapiens.

Energy has two states, viz. stable and volatile. Blackholes (scavengers of the cosmos) convert matter into a stable state of energy and store the same, whereas an implosion/explosion produces an unstable state of energy.


137

Part-III

Data Analysis Findings Recommendations Further Research


138

CHAPTER-VIII

Data Analysis The Questionnaire comprised of 66 pages that contained 136 Questions, as under: Section-I: 45, Section-II: 18, and Section-III: 73.

At the cost of a little repetition, it is summarised that our Sample comprised of 95 Scientists and Engineers working in various types of RDD Organisations, mostly at the level of Class-I Officers -- out of whom 26 were working as either Scientists ‘F’, Director, University Professors, Award-winning Entrepreneur, Reader or Project Leaders; and 35 of them held PhD degrees (2 more were pursuing PhD programme). Many of the respondents in Category ‘A’ and ‘B’ (not to be confused with DRDO’s promotion Grades) had published their Papers -- two of them published more than 100 Papers each, more than 75 Papers in International journals belong to one of them. In DRDO Scientists and Engineers are normally graded from ‘B’ to ‘F’; and ‘Distinguished Scientist’ is the highest grade. However, Categories ‘A’, ‘B’ & ‘C’ used in this sample are defined supra.

The data collected is so in-depth that it can easily be used for individual counseling. However, in this book we are mainly concerned with the aggregates and individual members of the sample remain anonymous.

Respondents’ Perceptions about Certain External and Internal Stimuli in the Organisational Structure and Processes of RDD (Research, Design &Development) Environments:

SECTION-I: Socio-Economic Factors that create fertile ground for R & D: (Listed in descending order of importance) 1) Willing Entrepreneurs to utilise the new Technology: 57


139 2) Willingness of Consumers to change their Life-style in order to use potential new technologies: 47 3) Original Thinkers: 30 4) Stimulating Scientific Community: 29 5) Social Structure (socio-economic stage of development in terms of ability to adapt to new technology): 28 6a) Integrity (Moral and Intellectual) of Scientists and Engineers: 27 6b) Leadership for Technology Environment: 27 7) Motivation: 26 8) Vision of Political Leadership: 23 9) Best Equipment: 17 (5/26, 4/39, 8/30 -- this perception is mostly in Category ‘C’) 10) Large number of Skilled Assistants: 17 (4/26, 4/39, 9/30 --mostly at junior level) 11) Recognition of Contributions: 16 (2, 7, 7 -- mostly at middle and junior levels) 12) Cultural Values: 14 13) Discipline: 8

Factors that are perceived by the respondents as very important in their Lives: (the digits preceding forward-slash ‘/’ denote the total points given by the respondents to this factor, and the numerals after the slash indicate the frequency of selection of this factor -- if we place the choice of each factor in descending order of their frequencies, then the order is: Family, Career, Clean & comfortable Work-place, Higher Income, Recognition by Organisation, Challenging work, Recognition by Professional Community, Job security, Assessment by Professionals in the same discipline, Salary related to output, Benevolent Supervisor, Field work, One-month Annual Leave, Structured routine work, etc.)


140 Related to family 1 a) Family (their responses to the three sub-groups, viz. (i) Supportive wife, (ii) peaceful atmosphere at home and (iii) family by itself, have been cumulated here): 340/115 b) Son or daughter: 117/29

Related to Job 2 a) Career: 127/59 b) Job-Security: 66/21 3 a) Nature of Work: b) Clean & comfortable work-place: 171/47 (This is a hygienic factor, and its importance was felt more by Categories ‘B’ & ‘C’, viz. A: 11/26 or 42.3%, B: 20/39 or 51.28%, C: 16/30 or 53.33%) c) Challenging, though slightly risky, work: 91/30 d) Outdoor (field-work): 33/10 e) Structured (routine) work: 29/6 f) Desk-job: 11/3 g) Working-Dress -- an overall instead of shirt-trouser: 6/2

4 a) Salary: b) Higher income: 132/41 (these are cumulative answers to various subcategories of ‘Income’) c) Salary related to output: 70/16 d) Fixed hours and/or monthly salary: 25/5

5 a) Perks: b) One month’s Leave per annum: 34/6 c) Leisure: 7/3


141 d) All expenses paid Holiday for a week per annum: 4/2

6) Awards that the respondents will prefer: a) Professional Recognition*: i) By Organisation: 94/31 ii) By Professional Community (local or otherwise): 86/23 iii) By students: 2/1 b) Cash: 6/1

7) Performance Appraisal: a) Assessment by Professionals from same discipline: 81/17 b) Assessment by a professional from the field of general Management or by a technocrat from another discipline: 6/2

8) Leadership: Benevolent Supervisor: 34/10

In the eyes of respondents, the following factors make their job prestigious: a) It is useful to society, fulfills social obligation, its socio-economic importance, its result leads to technical development; and it has practical application for country's needs.

b) Its result will lead to recognition in scientific field or to a significant achievement recognised by society, latest technical break-through of high quality in the frontiers of science; advantages & application of its results.

c) Prestigious Organisation where the Scientist/Engineer works, his/her work leads to technical excellence that enhances company's image, the Scientist/Engineer becomes indispensable to Organisation, a pat from the boss, directly in line with organisational goals, satisfaction & appreciation that it receives from others.


142 d) Work efficiently done by using multi-disciplines, feeling that the outcome is yours, job-satisfaction from your own contribution, impact of success of the project.

e) The job is commensurate with his/her qualifications & specialisation, lots of activity that’s making progress, challenge and opportunity to prove one's talents, hard work, more output, one's own attitude towards work, ethical work, original ideas, job to one's liking -- no job in itself is small or great.

f) The Status, Pay & Facilities that go with the job, his/her work is assessed properly, recognition of work, free hand, relationship with top-management, promotions, enough work -- neither idling nor encroaching upon one's time that is needed for family, hobbies & social activities.

Reasons for not leaving the present job despite dissatisfactions: a) Factors related to family: Children’s education will be adversely effected: 28 Residential accommodation will have to be arranged all over again: 27 His/her spouse employed in same city/org: 13 Total Family Income in this place is sufficient: 11 (Total= 79) b) Social factors: Current friends at Office will be lost: 21 Good Neighbours may be lost: 20 His/her brother(s) or sister(s) is settled in same city: 10 (Total= 51) c) Job-related Factors: Present job is Secure: 39


143 Present Organisation is reputed: 29 Seniority gained here will be lost: 23 Respondent’s age will hinder mobility: 21 Job is less demanding here: 16 Current Supervisor is good: 13 (Total= 140) d) Climatic factors: Climate (weather) is good here: 33

Reasons as to why the respondents will be willing to leave the present job even if the Pay and Status in the new Organisation remains the same: a) General dissatisfaction (‘Wish that things could have been better here’) = 25 b) Respondent feels that he/she is now underemployed= 17 c) Respondent feels that his/her Luck is not favourable here= 7 d) Credit is denied here= 7 (out of these 2 are from IARI-Delhi, 2 from MERADO Pune and 2 from NCL-Pune*) e) Working conditions in the present Organisation is frustrating= 5 (out of these 2 are from IARI & DRDO each, and 1 from Bajaj Auto - Pune) f) Respondent’s opinion is not taken by the Project Leader= 4 However, 39 respondents replied that they were satisfied with their current organisation. Moreso, 12 respondents described their present job as ‘fulfilling’ -however, these responses were mostly given by those in the position of Director, HoD or Professor, and also by 1 Scientist ‘D’. Note: *Their particulars will not be disclosed because complete anonymity was promised by the Author before collecting the data.

Six Top Reasons as to why the respondent will be willing to quit his/her current Organisation even if an alternative job is offered elsewhere at the same Pay &


144 Status etc.: (this is a Veracity-Check Question -- to be read with Answers to the previous two Questions) 1) Less Opportunity for Advancement here: 19 2) The Evaluation & Assessment in the present Organisation is not fair: 16 3) There is no Appreciation of good work done in the current Organisation: 15 4) The respondent does not feel Motivated here: 13 5) He/she will leave if a Higher Socio-economic Status is offered by the new Organisation: 10 6) There is no mutual Loyalty between the three rungs of Scientists/Engineers, viz. Category ‘A’, ‘B’ & ‘C’: 9 However, 12 respondents have specifically stated that they would not want to shift for the same Pay & Status.

Factors that affect mobility of respondents from one Project to another, as Team-Members, because of perceived adjustment-issues that may arise in any new environment:

a) Personal Issues: To have to establish respondent’s professional importance (based on his/her demonstrated competence) all over again: 42 To adapt to new Work-Group’s informal norms, and to the individual natures of its Members: 31 To develop new personal work-relationships with the new Team-members: 24

b) Work-related: To get to know the ways in which the work of group-members relates: 28 (14 for the 3rd Category of respondents alone; the figures for others are: 7 and 7) To find out as to which part (portion) of the Team’s work is performed by whom: 12 (5 in the 1st Category, 6 in the last; and only 1 for the 2nd Category)

Veracity-check (reliability) Question that was differently worded and also placed on a different page of the Questionnaire: Respondent’s current job: a) Interests and challenges him/her?


145 Yes: 63 No: 20/95 (95 respondents) b) Lifts his/her spirits? Yes: 56 No: 27/95 (95 respondents)

Respondent’s present level of Satisfaction with his/her: a) Salary: Satisfied with current: 39 (including the 1 response ‘somewhat satisfied’) Not satisfied: 31 NK (Not Known): 15

b) Level of Participation in management of his/her work: Satisfaction with current level of participation in defining own duties & organisational goals (or respondent’s indifference to the Organisation setting his/her tasks and the organisational goals): Yes: 60 No: (6+16=) 22 + (4 are satisfied but want more Autonomy in choosing the period of research and to have a Say in selecting their Team; 1 respondent wants freedom to select his/her Project and to have a Say in determining the ResourceConstraints). 3 respondents desire that they be allowed to choose the methodology for their research.

c) Advice sought in areas outside one’s narrow discipline (specialisation): Sometimes: 57 Often: 20 Never: 8

The greatest achievements were made by respondents in following situations: (Listed in descending order of frequency of achievement)


146 When asked to do their best, and were left alone to set their own targets= 47 The job assigned was challenging but within the respondent’s competence= 41 Targets were fixed in consultation with the respondent= 23 When the respondent was in the company of colleagues who exalted and stimulated him/her= 10 When outsiders were observing the respondent on-the-job= 6 While competing with another Department= 4 When the target was fixed 50% higher than what it was last year= 3 When competing with another Team within the same Department= 2

When does the respondent feel the most motivated or buoyant: When the breakthrough in their Project is achieved= 43 While he/she is working on a prestigious Project= 35 When Novel Results are expected= 22 When the Targets are fixed in Consultation with him/her= 20

The most preferred Rewards by the respondent for his/her efforts: Recognition by his/her Professional Community= 62 Recognition by his/her Superior or (election to or sponsoring for) Membership of Professional Associations or Nomination for Seminars etc= 45 Monetary Reward, after the Performance Appraisal is over, once a year= 28

Perceived reasons for failure to motivate beyond a certain point: (This is a disguised Thematic Apperception Test that Reflects the respondent’s own suppressed feelings or transferred thoughts) Motivation to work at a high pitch over extended periods is not possible: 33 Hollow words, unaccompanied with tangible benefits, ultimately fail to motivate: 26 If neglect of Families is forced by the nature of Work, it hinders motivation: 24 When the Leader fails to share laurels/fame with his or her Team: 11 The highest contributing factor to respondent’s achievements at work:


147 His/her knowledge: 49/31 [i.e. 49 respondents upticked boxes ‘41-50%’, and 31 upticked ‘10-40%’] His/her hard work: 44/32 [-do-] His/her skills: 41/29

[-do-]

His/her own conscience: 35/30

[-do-]

Facilities available: 32/38 [-do-] Team-work: 28/38

[-do-]

Personality of the Team-Leader: 17/40 [-do-] Rewards: 10/38

[-do-]

Luck: 8/51

[-do-]

Peer-pressure: 6/34

[-do-]

Punishments: 3/37

[-do-]

Guidance received from others: 3/61

[-do-]

Leaders under whom the respondent is likely to give his/her best:

a) The Leader who guides and encourages his/her Team-Members: Selected as one of the first two preferences: 38 (i.e. by 38 respondents) Selected as the second three preferences (3-5): 15 Total: 53

b) A leader who is more knowledgeable and skilled than his/her team-Members: First two preferences: 39 Second three preferences (3-5): 10 Total: 49

c) The Leader who invites his/her team to participate in planning their work:


148 (5+36)= 41 (only 5 respondents selected it as their first two choices)

d) A leader who gives due weight to Team-Members’ suggestions/opinions: (6+32)= 38

e) The Leader who is honest and fair: (12+19)= 31

f) The Leader who takes interest in his/her Team-Members’ progress: (7+23)= 30

g) The Leader who is understanding and caring: (3+23)= 26

h) A Leader who allows his/her Team-Members to plan their own pace of work and office-hours (i.e. flexi-hours -- with a common minimum time during which everyone should be available at the work-place): (3+21)= 24 Situational responses which the respondent feels should emanate from the Leader/Supervisor when the respondent is going through a particular mood or is facing a particular situation (that is to say, preferred Positive and Negative Strokes from Leader or Supervisor appropriate to the current situation): a) When the respondent is feeling under-confident: Supervisor should encourage the respondent, build his/her confidence, guide him/ her sympathetically, advise, ignore and leave him/her alone, praise his/her latent abilities, discuss the matter with the respondent (includes understanding & moral support), patiently goad, make the mood brief, reassure, give constructive work; help from colleagues.

b) Overconfident: Caution and tell him/her the limits, calmly discuss and counsel, point out the problems or consequences it may lead to, remind of every individual’s general


149 limitations (discreetly tell his/her true worth), smile and add a note of caution, control his/her pace, check his/her progress and recheck his/her plans, give complex problem to him/her to solve, make him/her to become realistic, cut his/her wings, let him/her try out his/her opinion if it is harmless -- but under the guidance of an expert; help from colleagues.

c) Frustrated: Sympathise, counsel, encourage, be nice, point out positive aspects of one’s life, cheer him/her up and raise the morale, soothe, cool down, grant leave, show patience, give moral support, warn, console, reassure, leave alone, discuss frankly to understand reasons and suggest remedy, let him/her work a little slow or allot no work -- albeit temporarily, help remove the cause of frustration, motivate.

d) Losing Interest in work: Motivate, help by colleagues, pull up, pursue, sack, give small & cosy job, encourage, remind of duties to the Organisation, motivate, advise, create interest, stimulate, show new dimensions of work, change nature of job, change environment, give new task, leave alone, grant leave, open heart discussion to find reasons and suggest the remedy, weigh his/her previous contribution, be indifferent, sermonise (e.g. one must work, importance of work), reward past achievement -- if earned (in order to motivate him/her), give challenging work, guide.

e) Feeling Lazy: Fire (firmly but mildly scold), reprimand, warn, leave alone, affectionately apprise his/her weakness, give administrative work, allot new work, give interesting work, grant leave, chat to find reasons (e.g. over-eaten, not slept well) and help with a positive attitude, create interest, stimulate, change his/her environment, engage in indoor sports, cite others’ example, enthuse, rebuke, actuate (activate), highlight commitment to work & organisation, engage in technical discussion, give him/her housekeeping assignment, if there is not enough work then change his/her work-station, deal with an iron hand, make him/her move up & down (e.g. by sending on an errand), advise firmly and support, push a little,


150 ask for his/her output, be strict & discipline him/her.

f) Depressed: Be considerate, encourage, discuss, engage in interesting chat, sympathise, leave alone, warn, give interesting work, grant leave, empathise, boost his/her morale, give more work, change environment, listen to pop-music, cite others’ example, pat and support, find reasons and give concrete help to him/her for solving underlying issues, show patience, give urgent work, reward past good work, give a change of work/environment, remove depression, ask him/her to get busy doing anything, increase his/her confidence level, soothe, advice from colleagues.

g) Nervous: Encourage, find out reasons and sort them out, tell him/her not to bother, help and moral support, counsel, comfort, be tolerant, console, soothe, give new work, entertain, advise him a vigorous exercise like swimming, cite others’ example, grant leave, give moral support, build confidence, allot him/her some work and ignore the nervousness, forgive, show compassion, remove nervousness, sympathise, reassure, cooperate.

h) In High Spirits: Appreciate, moderate, discuss and share his/her joy and exuberance, praise, utilise this spirit and give more work, tolerate, encourage, enlighten, give a different job, warn, buck him/her up or check it -- depending on the source of high spirits, let him/her work unhindered, extract good results, treat it normally, ask him/her to write Technical Reports, advise to sober down, support this tempo, allot a different job, laud/praise -- this mood may be experienced when one is feeling refreshed and relaxed.

j) Facing Family Worries, like sickness of a dependent etc.: Console, be considerate, give latitude in work, discuss and sympathise, be humane, grant leave, encourage, allow him/her to attend to these needs, show compassion, friendly advice and help to solve, be sensitive, leave alone, comfort,


151 build courage, exempt from strenuous duties, give routine work, reaffirm faith, share feelings, be understanding, give him/her time to solve these problems, cooperate, show concern, visits by colleagues to enquire and offer help.

Traits of a Sensitive Supervisor: Periodically have a candid (heart-to-heart) discussion with juniors -- discuss with them their work and future plans, pat them for good work, be lavish in praise and hearty in approbation (Dale Carnegie’s famous advice), respect every individual, give fair treatment, be understanding, be genuine, appreciate juniors' real difficulties, be sincere, hard-working, track project activities, guide his/her juniors to promote their careers, convince his/her superiors of the department's needs, before pulling up a junior weigh his/her overall past-performance and regular habits, recognise his/her feelings -- do not criticise publicly (especially in the presence of juniors). Poor judgment of juniors leads to poor utilisation of human resources.

How does the respondent perceive the Supervisor’s act in not closely supervising respondent’s work: a) Positively perceived: Supervisor is too busy to devote time to inspection of respondent’s work= 51 Supervisor trusts the respondent= 34 b) Negatively perceived: Supervisor is disturbed, something is wrong somewhere, Respondent has taken the wrong approach in his/her work or his/her work is not upto the Supervisor’s satisfaction, or that something has gone wrong in another task that is also being supervised by the same Supervisor, etc.= 14

Close supervision by the Supervisor all of a sudden: a) Positively perceived: Respondent’s work has suddenly become important for the Supervisor= 35 b) Negatively perceived: Supervisor is under pressure from his/her boss= 25


152 Respondent’s work is lagging behind schedule= 22 Supervisor no longer trusts the respondent= 15 Supervisor is unwell= 4 What makes the highly qualified respondents in this sample to continue working hard despite deterioration in physical conditions at their work-place: Out of Habit: 32 Work for Work’s sake: 27 Otherwise, an idle mind would become devil’s workshop: 11 Additional reasons cited (e.g. moral duty, for the sake of country, professional attitude to work, keeping oneself battle-ready, in search of excellence, to achieve the targets that have already been set, ‘work is worship’, to eke out a living for one’s family, etc.)= 11 Belief in the cliché of Silver lining: 10 Fear of Reprisals: 2

How long can the respondent maintain his/her tempo of work in the mere hope that things will, one day, improve: More than 6 weeks= 46 [more than 1 year upto infinity= 24, 7-52 weeks = 22] 2-6 weeks= 20

Is it humanly possible to maintain one’s work-rate even after coming to know that things will never improve: No: 55 Yes: 28 How does a Scientist/Engineer usually get feedback on how well he/she is doing: The amount of satisfaction that he/she gets from doing the job= 56 His/her own assessment= 50


153 Colleagues inform him/her= 14 The juniors’ behaviour towards the respondent (e.g. juniors’ deference, intrinsic respect etc. towards senior indicates latter’s success or failure) = 7 Supervisor tells him/her= 7 Monetary Rewards or Regular Promotions are a measure of success at work= 1

Performance-Evaluation is perceived as fair if the evaluation is made by: A Supervisor from the same narrow specialisation as that of respondent’s: 43 A Supervisor who is from a wider scientific/engineering discipline: 23 A person who has specialised in general Management: 17 A Technocrat (Techno-Administrator): 14

When does the respondent feel relatively less lonely or isolated: When he/she is working with colleagues from the same discipline: 44 While working on a joint project with people from diverse disciplines: 36 In carrying out one’s official work, is Personal Liaison better than formal official channels of communication in obtaining expeditious assistance from other Departments: Yes: 76

No: 12

Perceived Qualifying Requirements for the various Roles performed in R & D: ROLE

Qualifying Requirements

Simple & routine jobs

P-G, upto 3 years R & D experience

Simple non-routine jobs

P-G with 0-7 years R & D experience or a PhD

Complex with discretion

PhD with 0-7 years R & D

experience Complex + some control over others

8-15 years R & D experience with Leadership Qualities

Research & Administration

8-15 years R & D experience with Leadership Qualities and Admin experience

Project Leader

10-15 years R & D experience with Leadership Qualities and proven


154 Creative ability Perceived importance of certain Resources during particular stages of R & D:

Stage of R & D

The Most Important 2 Resources that should be Controlled

a) Basic research

Quality of

Morale

Personnel b) Design

Quality of

Outside Consultancy

Personnel c) Prototype

Raw Materials

Time

d) Engineering (preparation

Time

Number of Persons

Overhead Costs

Time

for commercial production) e) Commercial production

Which of the following Factors has helped the respondent the most in carrying out his/her work successfully and quickly? General Awareness of many other fields, besides his/her own: 47 Specialised Knowledge: 28 His/her Interpersonal Skills: 27 When competing with another Team, the respondent will control the following factors: Quality= 53 Time= 30

The usual Degree of Dependence (Work-Flow) between Project-Team and other Colleagues within the same Organisation: Slight: 40 High: 28 Very High: 5 None: 7


155 Period that is perceived as reasonable for intimating respondents’ needs for resources to procurement agencies within the R & D: 1.5 months: 12 (2 recommend it for those items that need to be purchased) 1 month: 33 (2 recommend it for maintenance of plant and machinery) 15 days: 27 (2 recommend it for procuring various support services)

The usual Decision-Level in the surveyed R & D Organisations for procurement of research-facilities: Director of the Institute/Lab: 42 Head of Department/ Project-Director: 42 Team-Leader: 9 Head of Technical Services: 4 Individual Scientist: 2 Finance: 2

Time usually taken in processing the above Decisions: Upto 1 week: 36 (2 respondents said that it can take more than a week; 2 also stated that it might take less than a week in case of Emergency; 1 opined three days to a week) 1-2 days: 23 Spot-decisions: 10 (e.g. in C-DAC) 1-5 days: 7 More than a week -- may be a month or more: 5 Unspecific time-lag or schedule: 1

Correlation, if significantly apparent, between Decision-level and Time-taken: 1) When decisions are taken at the level of Departmental Head, Technical services, Finance or Institute’s Director, then 44 respondents report that


156 procurement is delayed by more than 5 days. However, 20 have also reported decisions within 1-2 days -- 9 report even spotdecisions, i.e. a Total of 29. Thus, the percent of quick decisions as compared to delayed ones in the surveyed R & D Units is not very bad, viz.: 29/44= 65.9%. 2) On the other hand, in the case of delegation of decision-making power to Team-Leader or Individual Scientist, 6 respondents have reported that either spot-decision is taken or that the processing takes only 1-2 days. However, 2 have reported that even when decisions are made by individual scientist or by the team-leader, the processing may take upto a week -- that is to say only in 4/6 cases (or 66%) the decisions are faster. This percentage is almost the same as in the first situation (hereinabove).

Procedure for Procurement of fresh materials for research-work: Answers intuitively suggest that there is no set way of processing procurement of Materials in R & D Laboratories surveyed. The data suggests that: There is neither A, B, C Analysis, nor Category-wise Analysis (e.g. Productive Assets, Raw-materials, Tools, Oils & Lubricants, Stationery & Mailing, Computing Hardware & Software, or Items that help Storage & Preservation), nor is there Periodicity (Non-Recurring, Recurring) Analysis, nor any Make/Buy Analysis for imported or long lead-time items, etc.

Preferred location, within the Company, of Support Services Section or Cell: Pooled at Departmental level: 27 Pooled at Organisational level: 27 Attached to Project Team: 25 Outside Consultancy: 12

Perception of respondents that the Management has, while fixing their targets, overlooked the following:


157 a) Employees’ Difficulties: No: 61 Yes: 24 b) Adverse Effect on Quality: No: 54 Yes: 27 c) Pressure to achieve targets is so intense as to cause tension & frayed tempers: No: 58 Yes: 20 The two most preferred levels of Increases in Targets per annum: 21-30%= 26 10-20%= 19 Other responses: 31-40%= 8 41-50%= 5 51-60%=4 61-70%=3 71-80%=2 81-90%= 1 91-100%=2

Effect of fixing Targets for each Project in terms of Budgeted Cost: This will provide the respondents with opportunity to set their own pace of work -- without constant reference to the Supervisor or Controller of Activities: 73 It will challenge the respondent to work with higher Energy: 70


158 There will be less need for Supervision of Team-Members’ efforts: 63 It will persuade the respondent to meet the expected Standards of Work: 60 It will enhance the employee’s perceived Status: 40/95 (95 less 13 who did not attempt the Question at all, i.e. 40/82= 48.78%)

Setting high, but achievable, targets will challenge respondents to do their best: 72

Easily achievable targets will not hold respondents’ Interest: 28

Too ambitious a target will discourage the respondents: 20

Preferred periodicity for review of targets: Yearly= 37 Six-monthly= 23 3-yearly= 13 Every 2 years= 8 Once in 5 years= 3 Can Targets be continuously increased every year? Yes= 37 No=38 (The opinion is almost divided.) Anticipated responses to mistakes committed at work: Admit the mistake= 83 Cover-up immediately= 9 Claim that it was beyond his/her control= 4 Wish that none will find out about the mistake= 1


159 Preferred training in thought and skills: (In descending order of preference) Practical Training in an Academic Institute of Higher Learning or an R & D Organisation recognised as an Institute of Higher Learning: 81 Visits to other Laboratories: 45 Workshops, Seminars, Symposia, Exhibitions: 44 Temporary Opportunity to work under the best known Professors, Scientists, Engineers and Researchers: 39 Training on-the-job: 35 Degree (PhD, MTech) and specialised Diplomas: 30 Mutual Transfer of Staff, on temporary reciprocal basis, between Universities and Laboratories: 28 Membership of prestigious Associations that meet regularly: 25 Free subscription to prestigious Journal (e-journal, hard copy, photocopy): 21 Training in Creativity: 21 Training in Time Management: 19 Training in Inter-Personal Skills: 11 Q.11: Method for collecting official information for a Project: a) Whom will the respondent usually approach? Senior who has up-to-date information: 59 Person of Equal status: 30 (4 make a conditional declaration, i.e. if the person of equal status has updated info or is involved in that Project; 1says that he/she may confirm the info from the senior); and 24 (less 4 who will approach if updated info is available with the equal) of these are from middle and junior levels. This shows their inhibition to contact the senior even if he/she has the latest info.


160 c) Usual means of communication the respondent will adopt to collect information: Personal visit: 63 Telephone: 26 (7 will use both telephone and personal visit, and 2 will prefer both telephone & memo) Formal Memo: 8 Send junior: 2 (if necessary) email: 1 (DRDO in Dighie, which has paperless Office) The choice of telephone and memo for official interactions with other departments seems to be marginally influenced by gender of the initiator. For example, ladies prefer telephone or memo to personal visit.

Channels of Communication:

a) For conflict-resolution about morality: Own conscience: 66 Management (including Supervisor): 50 Professional Ethics: 31 Friends, close ones, at work-place: 28 Family (including friends at other than work-place, and family’s religious priest): 27 Government (Regulatory Authority) and Professional Association: 9

b) Formal Channels of Information: Management’s Circulars/News-Letters (including verbal inter-action by Supervisor): 73 Respondent’s Colleagues from his/her own Deptt: 67 Colleagues from other Departments within the same Organisation: 56


161

c) Informal Channels of Information: Respondent’s Colleagues from his/her own Deptt: 49 Colleagues from other Departments within the same Organisation: 48 Supervisor (verbal inter-actions): 35 Lunch-time informal Groups: 29 Technical & Administrative Services Departments: 15 Trade Union Leaders: 14 Personal Assistant/Peon/Chauffeur of Top Management: 13 Outsiders (including local Newspapers): 16 We may compare these responses with the Answers tabulated below. Will the respondent readily believe news circulated by his/her colleagues: No: 60 Yes: 31 At work-place the respondent becomes most friendly with: The one who shares the respondent’s interests -- wherever the latter’s department may be located: 42 One who is very knowledgeable= 29 The one who is gentle and helpful= 29 Those who are on the same Project-Team= 19 The ones whose enthusiasm is contagious= 13 The suave ones= 7 Those who sit face-to face= 4 [Compare this with the responses to the Questions ‘chances of coming into conflict with a colleague who sits face-to-face’ and the ‘person whose face comes


162 first to one’s mind upon thinking about the work-place’ (infra).] Coffee-mates= 3 Those from the same discipline= 2 The ones close to Top Management= 2 Same city= 1 Same school/college= 1 Probability of one coming into prolonged conflict with the person who sits faceto-face with the respondent: Sometimes= 23 Physical distance (spatial barrier) is of no consequence= 23 [The Total of above two responses (23+23) = 46 indicates that sitting face-to-face is not an important hygienic factor] Never= 33 Upon closing respondent’s eyes and thinking about his/her place-of-work, whose face comes first to the mind and encourages positive feelings in him/her: Colleague who always encourages the respondent -- although he/she may be located in a different office= 36 Colleague who thinks alike with the respondent -- although he/she may be located in a different office = 29 Colleagues who sits face-to-face= 10 Colleague in the same Department/Division but sits in a different Office= 9 Colleague with whom respondent can converse without leaving his/her seat= 5 A pretty/handsome colleague= 4 Colleague in the same Lab/Office, but his/her seat is not facing the respondent= 2


163 A regular client= 1 Director=1 (Compare these responses with the ones given to earlier Questions about faceto-face location.)

Will the respondent break the informal Group Norms, if breaking these helps him/her personally: Yes: 45 No: 42 Pareto’s Law: Which Activities are perceived to consume disproportionately more of Scientist’s/ Engineer’s time but contribute the least to the Organisational Goals: Duties designed for an operational Military Unit but unwittingly carried forward to an R & D Unit under the Ministry of Defence; for example: Duty Officer’s and Orderly Officer's duties, Pay-Disbursement Officer’s duties, Board-of-Officers for Checking Stock of Liquor received, Checking of Guards at night, Board/Court of Inquiry, etc. Time wasted while waiting for resources and decisions; waiting-time during maintenance of equipment; fabrication, testing and trials of equipment. Chasing Administration, Purchase and Stores Sections for Supplies; time spent in circumventing red-tape and administrative hierarchy. Make disinterested and dishonest juniors to work. Frequent, long and unnecessary Meetings involving larger than 10 officials; briefings and de-briefings, Report-writing, documentation and supplying information. Too frequent Seminars/Symposia at which attendance of all Scientists and Engineers is made compulsory. Routine Administrative duties, their back-log, coordination, Trade Union activities, time spent on solving juniors' problems.


164 Work in areas unrelated to one's specialisation. Time spent on solving bottlenecks. Time wasted on a line of action because the Leader was not sound in the subject, or due to individual bias of top management for getting certain work done coupled with absence of feedback to the Management about such wasted resources. Time spent on making the boss happy. Number of visits, on an average, to the Library per work-week by the respondents: 1-2 visits = 41 3-4 visits = 23 7-10 visits = 14 5-6 visits =9 Is the difference in Work-Ethics a barrier to striking conversation with colleagues: Yes: 45 No: 44 Are the Colleagues of the respondent: a) Reliable: Many: 46 A few: 41 b) Jealous: A few: 55/95 (!) Many/Several: 13 None: 1


165 c) Encouraging: Some: 63 Many: 17 None: 4 d) Helpful: Some: 54 Many: 31 None: nil

If the Supervisor not only decides the respondent’s work but also supervises him/her closely and yet something goes wrong, then who should be blamed: Both (Supervisor & Respondent) = 51 (the Team should share the blame) None=16 (things do go wrong often in R & D) Supervisor=11 Respondent= 11

The number of times in a work-day the respondent feels the need to reinvigorate himself/herself with tea, coffee etc.: Twice= 37 Thrice= 21 Once= 11 Four times= 7 Five times= 6 Six times= 1 Average duration of these tea-breaks: (Intuitive observation, not statistically computed from data)


166 10-15 minutes or 20 minutes generally, sometimes it may extend to 30 minutes.

Preferred Alternatives to Promotion: a) Promotion only -- there is no equivalent to promotion, and recognition is hollow; Promotion first and in the alternative: recognition, retiral benefits, children’s education.

b) Children's education: reservation in seats for higher studies, financial support or free education upto professional education level, higher child-education allowance or scholarships, non-transferable job to avoid disturbance in children’s education, help in children’s settlement in career. But 1 respondent said, “Let my son struggle for himself”.

c) Salary: Higher Pay, 2-3 increments, equivalent increments in Salary, Salary should meet growing needs (need-based income), better life-style, single incremental pay-scale upto the level of Director, assured higher pay by time-scale (Time-Scale Pay), no efficiency-bar.

d) Perks: Equivalent perks – same as would have been available upon promotion, Respect, Conveyance for field duty or in the alternative conveyance allowance , home-loan, sponsorship for international seminar, good office or working facilities, appreciation of work, pat by the Organisation, more research funds, flexible perks, free subscription to journals, free membership of a local sports club, entertainment allowance, prestigious project or a trip abroad, incentive schemes, National award or Certificate of Recognition by Organisation or Cashaward or announcement of Outstanding Team of the Year, breadth and depth in experience, responsibility with requisite authority, more opportunity for work, no unnecessary restrictions on work, higher TA/DA/LTA, short leave every quarter, paid holiday for family for 1 week once every two years at a hill station.

e) Accommodation: rent-free or subsidised accommodation near the place of work, furnished accommodation or reimbursement for furnishings, 100% accommodation (at least Bachelor’s) with fair rules for allotment, better living conditions, larger accommodation.


167

f) Retiral benefits: protected monthly income, higher pension, medical facility after retirement, retiral benefits equivalent to those that would have been due in the next grade, higher Gratuity, LTC for 2 years after retirement, Insurance (group or other), pension @ 他 of last pay drawn (!). g) Seniority Medals, equal pay for equal work, Batch-wise uniform and Batchwise size of accommodation -- these benefits should be independent of promotion. If promotion depends upon scientific break-through but no such breakthrough is in sight within one year then does it, in your experience, lead to the following?

Unbearably

High

Slight

None

High Frustration:

Nil

23

40

7

Stress/Anxiety

2

23

36

10

Tension in inter-

1

11

33

26

Withdrawal/detachment Nil

7

25

37

Hostility

Nil

8

23

36

Self-effacement/loss of

Nil

7

28

35

Decreased cooperation

Nil

6

30

33

Breakdown in Formal

Nil

4

28

38

Nil

4

26

41

2

21

41

personal relations

self-confidence

Groups Breakdown in Informal Groups Ulcers/neurosis etc. (medical problems) How

will


168 the respondent (or how do his/her colleagues) usually cope up with these situations? Often Sometimes

Never

8

37

24

Sometimes

Pit them against the wall

8

20

34

Never

Release tension in other

25

35

8

Sometimes + Often

13

34

18

Sometimes

Throw up their hands

3

18

44

Never

Pretend sickness

5

11

50

Never

Blame equipment/facilities

6

23

38

Never (Sometimes)

Refuse to recognise that a problem exists or seriousness of the situation

ways Take help from outside sources

Type of respondent’s current Organisation: Type-II: 37 (2 nearly/slightly modified) None of these: 26 (e.g. BARC) Type-I: 20

Note: Type-II is a Matrix Organisation. The Charts are given overleaf.

P.T.O.


169

Departments which are appreciative of respondents’ practical problems: Mostly own Deptt. Departments which appreciate respondents’ practical problems the least: Administrative Department, Estate Department (including Public Works Deptt): 7


170 Finance & Purchase Departments: 4 Workshop, Laboratory, Production/Manufacturing/Quality Control Deptt: 5


171

CHAPTER-IX

General Intuitive (Qualitative) Observations These observations are based on Author’s personal visits to R & D Organisations, Mass-contacts with Scientists and Engineers in R & D Organisations, the Followup Interviews, his stay in the DRDO’s Officers’ Mess in Pune for about an year (Author was a Wing Commander), Responses to the Questionnaire, and Comments made by some Respondents while answering open-ended Questions - in addition, Author’s own experience in the Armed Forces is also cited, wherever appropriate.

PRIMARY STRUCTURAL VARIABLES: Structural Focus/Orientation: During the Premiership of Pundit Jawaharlal Nehru, experiments were made with the following organisational structure in public sector R & D Organisations: Create a Lab (including a coterie of scientists/engineers) around the leading Indian scientists of the time (e.g. Dr. Homi Bhabha). However, break-throughs in research were still scanty. The very fact that the respondents herein have expressed a preference (ratio: 35/8) to work on a ‘prestigious project’ rather than working under a ‘reputed scientist’, reveals at least one of the causes that might have led to the failure of the above-mentioned strategy. Size (as applicable to Meetings): Frequent Meetings with more than ten participants are perceived as a drag on the productive time of Scientists/Engineers. On futility of Meetings in any bureaucratic (Government) organisation, let me cite an example: While on a temporary duty (as Section Commander) to Air Force Station Ayanagar, an Inspection Visit to that Unit by an Air Marshal was announced. As usual, the Commanding Officer convened a Meeting of all Section Commanders. The Author requested that he be exempted from that Meeting because he had


172 attended many such meetings at several Units and was, therefore, well aware of the Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs); secondly, that he be informed of the schedule of Air Marshal’s visit to his Section only. Thirdly, the Author requested that his Section personnel be not made to work over-time if he was satisfied that they had achieved during the normal working hours the targets set by him for them. After the said visit, the aforesaid Air Marshal declared that during his entire military career he had never seen a Section as well managed as that of the Author. Within the bureaucratic policy constraints, this Section’s Personnel were motivated by introducing certain hygienic factors, a rational-cum-courageous leadership style and good liaison with other Sections/Departments (including the Military Engineering Service) which did help this Section to stand out. Task Complexity: a) Programmed/unprogrammed tasks and their Inter-dependence: Preference for structured (routine) jobs is lukewarm; the responses indicate that there is, at least, some inter-dependence of Project-Team’s tasks on such colleagues as are not directly involved in the Project. However, they report a lack of rapport (loyalty) between the three Categories of Scientists/ Engineers. Moreso, only three respondents out of the sixty-one who answered this Question, have attributed their task- achievement to guidance received from others. On the other hand, perception about jealousies is high, and lack of mutual loyalty between A,B & C categories has been reported. In an R & D environment (especially such organisations as are engaged in hi-tech research) it is alarming that a factor like ‘Guidance’ finds a place below that given to ‘fear of punishment’, and it is the last factor contributing to task-achievement, viz. 3/61 (i.e. 3 out of the 61 who answered this Question). In an R & D environment the number of personnel with encouraging and helpful attitude and a high degree of reliability ought to be more than what the statistical analysis in the preceding Chapter suggests. Moreso, jealousy must be discouraged because it may sabotage research work (the news-channel report about a missing missile-tail reaching the garbage area in DRDO, is a case in point). b) Tempo of Work:


173 In answer to the Question whether the respondents can continue their tempo of work despite their dissatisfaction with work-environment, one of them says that with the passage of time one tends to accept the inevitable. However, the subject-expert from Psychology Department opines that continued dissatisfaction with one’s work-environment usually leads to despair; and in these situations withdrawal symptoms start raising their ugly head. On the other hand, some respondents have stated that their work-tempo might continue for a long time in the hope that their work-environment will change when the top-management changes -- change in top management occurs almost every 3-5 years in most of the government organisations. Some respondents attributed their continued tempo to positive attitude towards work and contribution; but some stated that they had resigned to their perception that Government Organisations do not allow their employees to modify their work-environment. In this context, the Author wishes to share the following observations and experiences which prove that public sector environment is not so dismal: DRDL (Hyderabad) comprises of both Civilian and Military Scientists/Engineers. Its Directors from the Armed Forces were prone to emphasise, inter alia, punctuality (in terms of adherence to office-hours) and cleanliness of work-place, etc. After Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam took over as its Director, he set an example of selfregulation and dedication that transcended the normal call of duty -- this spirit was soon imbibed by the Scientists/Engineers under his command, and the results are there for all to see. Moreso, Dr. Kalam coordinated very well with other Agencies/Departments; in the result, DRDL was able to procure the needed resources expeditiously. Dr. Jayant Narlikar imbued the suppliers of materials for his ambitious Project with so much of his contagious vision that during the period of temporary shortage of steel in the country the Tatas willingly agreed to accord top priority to meet first the demands of Dr. Narlikar’s Project. While he was posted in Air Force Station Digaru, the Author was given charge of as many as eight Sections, whereas the norm was ‘one section per officer’ -moreso, at the time of their assignment to the Author some of these Sections


174 had either been declared almost sick or were comprised of notoriously undisciplined staff. Soon after the aforesaid assignment, these Sections and their personnel became one of the most productive ones -- although we were working in a government organisation where the Leader has no power to grant more than what the rule-bound procedures would allow. तनर्वाहः प्रतिपन्नन्नर्स्िुषु (manage with whatever is available), क्रियवतिद्धिः ित्र्े भर्ति मह्िवं नोर्करणे (success depends upon greatness of people rather than sophistication of equipment). To cite another example: More than six months after the Cactus-Lily Operations (1971 Indo-Pak war) the Author was on Duty Officer’s duty at a Signals Unit when a wireless message was brought to him for signatures; the message read ‘The Sky is Blue’ (it was a bluesky message that was started during the War so as to compel those Units which might tend to cover up a local reportable incident, to commit in writing every day that nothing untoward or reportable had happened). After so many months of the War, the said message had outlived its utility and was unnecessarily cluttering up ‘Ops-Priority Wireless Messages Inbox/Outbox’. Hence, the Author added to this one message his brief comments wherein he stated that thenceforth no such Message would be transmitted and further that an appropriate Message will be sent only when the sky was not blue -- soon after, the Controlling Command realised its error and issued instructions to all Units on the lines suggested by the Author. Incidentally, at Author’s behest the practice of exchange (i.e. return of old for the new) clothing was discontinued in favour of the time-bound issue of new clothing and prescription of a little longer life-time for these clothing than the one that was applied under the previous exchange-policy. As stated earlier, the Union Cabinet approved the Author’s suggestion of free (albeit zero-budget) IT-access to rural masses. His proposal of online Entrance Tests has been implemented vide CAT 2009. Similarly, many of his suggestions on VIP security were implemented by the Government of India and the Supreme Court of India.


175 The above instances do highlight the fact that even in a bureaucratic organisational structure, Leaders can be ingenious in at least their acts of humaneness by infusing their own contagious vision into others. c) Professional Colleagues and Supervisors: It is pertinent to mention here that a number of respondents herein prefer to be evaluated by an expert from their own discipline (supra). And a majority of them feel more comfortable while working with experts from their own discipline. Related to above phenomenon are their responses to ‘Recognition’ -- which is a self-actualisation need and should, therefore, normally be the highest in Category ‘A’ Scientists/Engineers (these Categories are defined supra). Our sample supports this hypothesis so far as the aggregate score for all sub-classes of ‘recognition’ goes, viz.: A: 10/26 (38.46%), B: 14/39 (35.89%), C: 9/30 (30%). However, within the main class ‘recognition’, there are sub-classes like ‘Recognition by Professional Community’ -- this sub-class has the highest score for Category ‘B’ Scientists and Engineers than that for ‘A’, viz. A: 4/26 (15.38%), B: 8/39 (20.51%). Preference for it is the least in the last Category (C: 0/30). But in answer to another Question that was a veracity-check question, ‘Recognition by his/her Professional Community’ was chosen by 18/26 (69.23%) respondents in Category ‘A’ as one of their first three Choices; and its choice by Category ‘C’, too, was higher than that for Category ‘B’, viz. 20/30 (66.66%)

-C

24/39 (61.53%)

-B

Award in terms of ‘Recognition by his/her Superior, Membership of Professional Associations or Nomination to Seminars’ was chosen by 17/26 (i.e. 65.38%) of the respondents in Category ‘A’ as one of their first three Choices; the other scores are: 13/39 (33.33%)

-B

15/30 (50%)

-C

(Inter-Group differences appear to be significant, and the same need significancetesting by drawing a larger sample.)


176 These observations support Jackson’s observations (supra) about researchers’ need for recognition by professionals and sense of community.

d) Availability of Resources and Location of Support Services: The following period is perceived as reasonable for intimating to procurement agencies, within the R & D, respondents’ needs for resources: 1 month: 33 (especially for maintenance of plant and machinery) 15 days: 27 (especially for procuring various support services) 1.5 months: 12 (especially for items that need to be purchased from outside) The usual Decision-Level in the surveyed R & D Organisations for procurement of research-facilities is either the Director of the Institute (42) or the Head of the Department/Project-Leader (42). And the time usually taken in processing such decisions is upto 1 week (lesser in case of Emergency) or 1-2 days; even spotdecisions have been reported (e.g. in C-DAC). There is, however, no significant correlation between the decision-level and timelag in the surveyed R & D Establishments. Nonetheless, the procedure outlined for procurement of fresh materials that are needed in research-work, suggests that there is no uniform way for processing the procurement of Materials in R & D Laboratories. The data also suggests absence of A, B, C Analysis, Category-wise Analysis, Periodicity Analysis or Make/Buy Analysis etc. The preferred locations for pooling of Support Services Section/Cell are either at Departmental level (27) or Organisational level (27) or attached to each Project Team (25). One respondent opines that location of support services should depend on the cost of the facility that is to be provided. Administrative, Estate (including Public Works Deptt), Finance, Purchase, Workshop, Laboratory, Production/Manufacturing and Quality Control Departments are cited as the least appreciative ones of respondents’ practical problems. This corroborates the findings of Jackson (supra) on purposive-rational style of Managers and value-rational style of Researchers. e) Targets and Predictability of Outcome (Achievement):


177 The two most preferred levels of Increases in Targets per annum are: 21-30%= 26 10-20%= 19 The respondents also opine that high, but achievable, targets will challenge them to do their best (72). And the preferred periodicity for review of targets is either yearly (37) or six-monthly (23). One respondent says that it is possible to achieve continually growing targets, from year to year if targets are realistic, resources are available and there is a history of achievement. Another opines that targets may be increased qualitatively and/or quantitatively. The respondents also feel that fixing of Targets for each Project in terms of Budgeted Cost will provide the respondents with opportunity to set the pace of their own work such that constant reference to the Supervisor would be unnecessary (73), it will challenge the respondent to work with higher energy (70), there will be less need for Supervision of TeamMembers’ efforts (63), it will persuade the respondent to meet the expected Standards of Work (60) and that it will enhance his/her perceived status [40/(9513) or 40/82, i.e. 48.78% as explained supra]. A large number of respondents say that stress on meeting targets (in terms of time-schedule) may affect considerations of Quality.

Spatial-physical Barriers (concentrated or dispersed -- intra-group and intergroup): These are not perceived as important in either forging inter-personal relations at work or in preventing clashes. On the other hand, relationships are made by the gentle and helpful attitude of the colleague and the amount of encouragement that he/she provides to fellow colleagues. Thus, the hypothesis of Prof Melcher (supra) about spatial-physical barriers is not borne out by, at least, this sample of knowledge workers.

MEDIATING STRUCTURAL VARIABLES: Formal Authority Relations:


178 In relation to procurement processes, this factor has already been discussed above. Formal Control System: Formal Standards (high/low, comparative): This aspect, with regard to targets, has been dealt with supra. Rewards/Penalties and their relation to performance: Direct penalties have almost negligible influence on the present sample of knowledge-workers; however, indirect influence by way of loss of opportunity for career-advancement needs to be measured further. Formal Communications Network: a) Lateral, Vertical and Inter-group Channels for Collecting Information: i) Method for collecting official information from another Department: Most of the respondents have no compunction in approaching a senior in another Department, who has up-to-date information on the subject (59); however, a number of junior respondents (30) will approach a person of equal status (moreso, if he/she has updated information or is otherwise involved in the concerned Project). ii) The usual means of communication for collecting such information is either to pay a personal visit (63) or by telephone/intercom (26); only eight respondents reported the use of formal Memos --the choice of telephone and memo for official interactions with other departments seems to be marginally influenced by gender of the initiator, in that ladies mostly prefer contact by telephone/memo instead of personal visits. At least one respondent cited the use of email in DRDO’s paperless office in Dighie (Pune) that was put in place by its Director, namely Dr. Joshi. b) Channels of Communication for Conflict-Resolution: For conflict-resolution about morality, 66 respondents would depend upon their own conscience (i.e. no formal/informal communication with others), 50 would seek guidance from in-Company formal channels like Management or Supervisor, 31 will refer to Professional Ethics (i.e. communication with external


179 environment), 28 may confer with close friends at their work-place (internal informal channels), and 27 would prefer to consult other external sources like family, friends (other than those at work-place) or their family’s religious priest, or even the Regulatory Authority. This confirms the researchers’ need for independence of achievement. c) Formal Channels of Information emanating from the Organisation: These comprise of Circulars and News-Letters issued by Management, including verbal inter-action by Supervisor. d) Informal Channels (grapevines) of Information about in-company matters: Gossips conveyed by respondent’s colleagues from his/her own Department or other Departments within the same Organisation, informal interaction with his/her Supervisor, lunch-time Informal Groups, staff of Technical & Administrative Services Sections, Trade Union Leaders, Personal Assistant/Peon/Chauffeur of the Top Management, and outsiders (including local Newspapers) etc. However, a large number of respondents (nearly two-thirds) say that they will not readily believe informal news circulated by their colleagues. In the Indian context, informal personal channels get work done faster. Moreover, Indian researchers are not loners or asocial, and family-considerations are very important in their lives. MEDIATING ORGANISATIONAL PROCESSES: Leadership Style (including predictability of employees’ on-the-job behaviour): a) General: In Bajaj Auto’s R & D (Applied Engineering Department) no Engineer, except the Head of Department, was more than 2 years old in that job -- that is to say, the rate of employee-turnover was alarmingly high. Follow-up interviews suggested that in the leadership style personal touch was missing.


180 It is pertinent to mention that several Indian Agricultural Scientists had committed suicides. Therefore, responses hinting at continued demoralisation of Scientists in IARI (Pusa) indicate a danger-signal that must be attended to. Response ‘NK’ (i.e. Not Known) by knowledge workers while replying to the question on adequacy or otherwise of their Salary, suggests reluctance to disclose their inner feelings -- may be for fear of reprisals from their Supervisor!

b) Participation: Though nearly a half of the respondents indicated that they would give their best under a participative style of leadership and many of them maintain that allowing them to set their pace of work will increase their perceived status. yet in answer to the Question on fixing of Targets they have largely shown indifference about ‘participation’. c) Direction (close or loose): The respondents are almost indifferent to close/loose direction (in contradistinction to ‘too much interference’) and have, to a large extent, positively viewed toggling behaviour of their Supervisor between these two extreme positions on the continuum. d) Delegation and Performance Evaluation: Leader as a Guide and Facilitator: The respondents have reported a state of abject lack of guidance. However, the example about DRDL (supra) shows that a sea-change in output is possible under a Director who acts as a facilitator and becomes a role-model for his/her Team. While assessing the performance of a Scientist/Engineer engaged in R & D, just one year may not be adequate for assessment of his/her efforts or results in, at least, certain types of research. However, where he/she handles 3-4 Projects at a time, delays in break-through in any one of these projects does not usually affect his/her promotion -- moreso, other criteria for promotion also compensate for the delays in scientific break-throughs. Some respondents have suggested that


181 regular habits and overall past-performance of the Scientist and Engineer ought to be given more weightage than performance during just one year. The majority of respondents would like to be evaluated by an expert in their own field; however, the comparatively larger percentage of responses in favour of assessment by a generalist Manager rather than by a Technocrat is intriguing! c) Catering to information Needs: Since Library is often used by the respondent to read Articles appearing in journals, a well-managed Library Information System (including internet searchengines, e-books/e-journals, inter-library resources via networking, audio-video tutorials, etc.) can act as a versatile facilitator. Jayakar Library of Pune University is an example of such rich resource-networking and online availability of learning materials. Many of the respondents purchase books for their personal library. A few borrow books from colleagues, friends or students; and some Organisations do circulate journals within their Departments. Hence, Income-Tax rebate on purchase of books by Scientists/Engineers working in RDD would encourage reading habits amongst them.

Recruitment, Training, Motivation, Retention, Promotion, Transfer and ExitInterviews: a) Johari Window, Personality Development, Career-Counseling, Education, Training & Development, and Inter-Personal Relations: Quite a number of respondents have expressed their desire for specialised courses on Creativity, Interpersonal Relations and Time-Management. b) Work-ethos and integration with Organisational Culture: Intuitively, one finds from the Answers to open-ended Question on Pareto’s Law, that the Scientists/Engineers have not even been briefed about the importance of certain complementary and subsidiary (secondary) roles in Organisations that fall under the Ministry of Defence. Scientists/Engineers should be made aware of the purposive-rational style of Business Managers, and the latter must be


182 apprised of value-rational style of R & D Researchers -- this will generate understanding and empathy. c) Retention, Transfer, Promotion, Retirement and Rehabilitation (including mediation of adverse effect of Departmental Transfers on children’s education): These are either motivational or hygienic factors. The Respondents consider them important aspects of their jobs; hence, based upon their comments the Author has suggested certain techniques for using these factors to motivate and retain the knowledge-workers. Job-related factors are the most important in not leaving the present job. Family considerations come next, in order of importance; the next in importance are Social considerations, and then comes the local Climate. These revealed preferences may be used by RDD Organisations while designing the structure of Pay-cum-Perks. There are several other motivating factors, e.g. sense of performance, opportunity for full utilisation of one’s potential knowledge and experience etc. -these may be included in future research. MEDIATING GROUP CHARACTERISTICS: Corporate Culture: Research, Design & Development Institutes should imbibe a composite culture that combines positive aspects of both the styles: value-rational and purposiverational. And incorporate in their Planning Strategy the Business’ emphasis on speed and the Scientists’ concern for excellence. In Air Force Technical College (Jalahalli) all Officers take tea with the Commanding Officer at about 11 AM every day -- its working hours are 7.30 AM to 1.30 PM. This informal Meeting proved to be a good meeting ground not only for sharing formal information but also to introduce personal touch in interdepartmental inter-actions which expedites interdependent flow of work. This also reduced inter-departmental Memos and personal liaison visits. Training and Counselling:


183 Entrepreneurial attitude and skills relevant to RDD context: Short Courses in Entrepreneurship are available at Entrepreneurship Development Institute of India (EDII) Ahmedabad; similarly, training in Softskills (Inter-personal Relations, Personality Development, Creativity, Speed-Reading and Kaleidoscopic/ Synectic/Parallel/Lateral Thinking) is available at the Institute of Business Softskills (URL: www.balaji-themis.co.in/Balaji-Themis.htm). MEDIATING BEHAVIOURAL FACTORS (LEARNT & HEREDITARY) AND SOCIOCULTURAL NORMS/PSYCHE/MINDSET/ETHOS: Personality: Predisposition to react to a given stimulus in a particular manner can be altered with self-mastery through training in Yoga, Meditation and Discovery of Self. Indian Culture and Work-Ethos: The Indic psyche emerging from the confluence of more than five religious streams or belief-systems is revisited in Chapter-I (supra). Although researcher’s individual perceptions change as per his/her maturity level in the R & D, yet the respondents’ aggregate response suggests that the progress in Research & Development depends on factors subsumed by the theory of zeitgeist. Their responses also reveal that socio-economic prestige springs partly from work itself, and constitutes intrinsic reward for the high achiever. However, in the Indian context the nature of work should not force researchers to neglect their families -- especially their children’s education, and the prime time that they wish to spend with their families either outside of office hours or on sponsored vacation. Although the researchers display a sense of community, yet presence of stimulating colleagues is not viewed by them as a very important achievementmotivator, nor does competition generate a very high achievement-motivation. However, they show a high commitment to work and are willing to maintain their tempo of work despite deterioration in their working conditions -- until all hopes are dashed.


184 The respondents value knowledge, and will give their best for a Supervisor who, inter alia, is knowledgeable and shares their interests. They also ascribe their achievements to their own knowledge and skills -- especially their knowledge in more than one area. They also show integrity in owning their mistakes; however, they believe that blame for errors should be shared by them as a Team because mistakes do occur in R & D. NOTES: In the detailed Question on Personality Traits, each respondent was asked to write what he/she has actually observed in most of the Scientists/Engineers who belonged to different categories A, B & C (enumerated supra). However, many respondents made the mistake of attempting this Question in terms of ‘ought’ -what they feel that each Role should possess. As a result, their responses could not be evaluated objectively, and the said Question has been excluded from the present Analysis. The effect of situational strokes -- whether positive or negative, is mediated by the relationship of the person giving these strokes, viz. strokes by a wife, colleague or Supervisor may have different connotations for the receiver. Hence, appropriate strokes out of those listed above should be utilised. While answering Questions that required numerical expression of respondent’s preferences, some of them confused the word ‘weightage’ (ascending order) with ‘ranking’ (descending order); whenever such confusion became obvious, an attempt was made by the Author while tabulating their responses to convert the same into rankings -- such conversion is indicated in the Tabulation-Sheet in a different text-colour. Moreso, some respondents have clearly stated that they were giving marks as per ranking; others have, however, indirectly indicated their minds by being selective and yet allotting 8, 9 marks (that is to say, they had in mind the concept of ‘weightage’). In view of the above, Instructions for filling-in the Questionnaire have been suitably modified (the modified Questionnaire is included in Part-IV of this book). The pattern of responses (number of ‘NAs’ and ‘Satisfied’ in their Answers to the Question on ‘satisfaction with their present organisation’) shows that


185 respondents had a latent fear in their minds that their Answers might be read by their Supervisor and, therefore, they should keep him/her in good humour! The phenomenon of ‘pleasing the boss’ is alluded to by some of them, while answering an open-ended Question. However, it is pertinent to mention that at least twelve Scientists/Engineers have specifically stated that their satisfaction with their present job is very high or that they are satisfied with their current job or that their satisfaction is not low or that they are not considering any change of job at present, or that they are morally bound to stick with their current organisation.


186

CHAPTER-X Findings

Primary & Mediating Structural Variables, and Mediating Organisational, Individual & Group Processes: The hypothesis of Prof Melcher i about spatial-physical barriers is not borne out by this sample of knowledge workers, and their responses indicate that this factor has negligible influence on either forging relations or preventing interpersonal clashes or on informal channels of communication in the RDD environment. With regard to Prof Maslow’s Motivational factors ii, respondents in Category ‘B’ have higher preference for ‘recognition by professional community’ than that expressed by Category ‘A’ – although one would have expected otherwise, viz. A: 4/26 (15.38%), B: 8/39 (20.51%), C: 0/30). However, their answers to the veracity-check Question contradict the relative importance assigned by them herein.

Related to the above phenomenon are the responses to ‘Recognition’ -- which is a self-actualisation need and should, therefore, normally be the highest in Category ‘A’ Scientists/Engineers (these Categories are defined supra). Our sample supports this hypothesis so far as the aggregate score for all sub-classes of ‘recognition’ is concerned, viz.: A: 10/26 (38.46%), B: 14/39 (35.89%), C: 9/30 (30%).

The frequency and degree of preference in favour of ‘clean and comfortable work-environment’ supports the hypothesis of Herzberg iii that hygienic factors remain important even for those employees whose basic physiological, safety and security needs have been satisficed. Argyris’ Maturation Process iii is evident from the responses of category ‘B’ and ‘C’ respondents who placed, comparatively, more emphasis on the following factors as responsible for growth in R & D:


187 i) Best Equipment: 17 (5/26, 4/39, 8/30 -- this perception is mostly in Category ‘C’) ii) Large number of Skilled Assistants: 17 (4/26, 4/39, 9/30 -- mostly in Category ‘C’) iii) Recognition of Contributions: 16 (2, 7, 7 -- mostly in Categories ‘B’ and ‘C’) McGregor’s Assumptions under Theory Xiv are partly indicated by the factors that the respondents have selected as some of the reasons for their willingness to shift to another Organisation -- even if their Pay and Status remain the same. Simonton’s observation vii that ‘Individuals may choose the novel elements, yet societies select what shall be recognised and preserved’ is supported by the choice of respondents herein while pin-pointing the factors that foster science and technology (supra). One of their responses *viz. ‘battle-readiness’ (supra)+ in relation to the possibility of continuing the tempo of work, accords with Louis Pasteur’s observation, “Chance favours only the prepared mind” (cited by Simonton); moreso, Einstein also said, “God does not play with dice” (supra). The respondents’ choices accord with the theory of zeitgeist.

Several Respondents chose the option ‘Alexander’s soldiers owed a duty to their families back home’ in the TAT-type Question -- their transferred thoughts coupled with the comments about non-encroachment upon the time that they must spend with their families, supports the observation at page 146 of Rushton’s Paper (supra) that denying “a highly affiliative person his/her sociability by requiring long hours alone in the laboratory” may be perturbing.

Similarly, some of the respondents’ comments (in one of the open-ended Questions) wherein they consider ‘solving the problems of juniors’ a drag on research-work may be explained away as a purely individual difference which Rushton describes in these words: “*I+t may well be more onerous for the ambitious [and] task-oriented person seeking ultimate definiteness, to spend long hours helping and counselling ...” *parentheses added+


188 The respondents’ overwhelming response that departments like Administrative and Estate do not appreciate their problems, stems from the purposive-rational style of these departments vis-à-vis the value-rational style of researchers (supra). Recommendations • Promotional Alternatives in Public Sector Laboratories: a) There may be three separate promotional streams – Core-Research, Application-Research and Techno-Administrative. They should have equal Ranks, Salaries and Perks -- though different job-roles, different job-content, different training and also aptitudinal differences. There should be separate Budget Allotment to the Heads of all these Streams, which each of them can trade off with one-another -- under a well thought out bid-scheme (infra). Every Establishment or Laboratory will come under a Techno-Administrator in the role of a facilitator whose main task will be to look after the estate (including roads, buildings, landscape etc.), maintain statistical data like budget-allotment and record of personnel, the provision of common facilities like library, workshop & fabrication-shop, Mess, Canteen, Sports; he/she will, inter alia, oversee the work of CPC (Central Purchase-Classification Committee) etc. Every Institute will also have a Core-Research Sub-Laboratory headed by a Scientist or Engineer equal in rank to that of the Techno-Administrator for that Establishment -- or may be a little lower or higher. And there will be an Application-Research Sub-Laboratory that will be similarly headed. Administratively, the personnel of all Sub-Laboratories will come under the Techno-Administrator -- whereas their functional control will be retained by the respective head of the Sub-Lab to which they have been seconded (under the aforesaid bid-scheme) during the period of specific Project for which the bid was made. Initially, all the technical and non-technical personnel shall be pooled under the Core Sub-Laboratory, and their pay and perks shall be debited to the Budget allotted to the said Sub-Laboratory for basic research in a core discipline. It shall be the duty of the Head of each Sub-Laboratory to scan the Thrust-Areas


189 that will be announced by the National Science Planning & Monitoring Committee from time to time, and then present his/her bid for one or more of the potential projects that he/she can visualise in each area. Each Project on New Generation Technology (NGT) will, preferably, be allotted to two competing Teams under the same Sub-Lab; and a preferred target time will be fixed by the aforesaid NSPMC for the completion of 1st Stage of that Project -- only the successful Team will proceed to the next Stage. Each Head of Sub-Lab shall be granted a budget by the NSPMC on the basis of the Presentation made by him/her before this Committee while bidding for that Project. And the bid can only be made if the scope of that project comes within the purview of his/her lab, i.e. either a core technology or an applicationtechnology. Now comes the bidding for personnel; the said Head will identify the personnel who are best suited for that Project from within the main Establishment (including those seconded to another Sub-Lab or from amongst the ones who still remain with the Core Sub-Laboratory). He then places a bid for these personnel before the Head under whose functional control the said individuals currently fall -- apparently, this bid will include an amount over and above the cumulated pay and perks of these personnel so that the Head foregoing their services is compensated and induced to part with their services temporarily (i.e. for the duration of the Project). The bid amount shall be transferred from the budget of the Lab hiring the personnel to the Lab which leases out that person(s) -- with these transferred funds the Lab which leased out its personnel may hire temporary hands to fill the gap, if necessary; or may spend these on any promising project. For every Sub-Lab the continuance of its Head shall be reviewed every two years, and his/her reappointment will depend upon having achieved a given BenchMark comprising of the ratio between the number of Projects successfully completed and the number of Projects awarded by the NSPMC under the bid scheme. Every project that is successfully completed, will receive cash-bonus and ‘Team of the Year Award’ -- to be shared equally amongst all Members of the Team. A somewhat similar concept -- albeit in a very limited format, has been adopted


190 by a few Global Conglomerates who are commercially catering to the Hi-Tech end of the market. By comparing from year-to-year the C1 to C5-level Maps of Co-citation Analysis for various clusters within the SCI, the NSPMC can not only identify the fast emerging areas of technology but also the Institutes/Laboratories where development in this field is currently concentrated. The NSPMC can also endeavour to place in these Institutes/Labs those whom it had identified as ‘gifted children’ (vide Annexure-III supra) so that these personnel come back to India in their 30s or 40s -- which are believed to be the peak periods for creativity in applied sciences vi. The Science Citation Index is published yearly (per month for the fast developing ‘explosive fields’) by the Institute for Scientific Information. This Citation Index may also be used for hiring researcher for lateral entry (head-hunting) into a Lab. b) Collegiate System: The Head of Laboratory is selected every 3-5 years, by rotation, from amongst the senior most Officers in that Lab. This is prevalent in University Departments, e.g. in FMS (University of Delhi); hence the name ‘collegiate’. In Pune University the Deans of certain Departments are elected periodically. In a modified form, collegiate system is practiced in Military Hospitals where a Surgical Specialist may wear the rank of a Major General -whereas the Hospital’s C.O. (Commanding Officer) might be a Brigadier only. • Since Library is often used by the respondents, a well-managed Library Information System (including internet search-engines, e-journals, inter-library resources via networking, audio-video tutorials etc.) can act as a versatile facilitator. INSDOC’s resources may be utilised, or funds allotted to various Libraries under this head may be pooled and handed over to the highest bidder for making these facilities available to employees of all the MemberOrganisations. The online facilities offered by Pune University’s Jayakar Library and some foreign Universities/Labs may be shared. Library is mostly used by the respondents to read Articles appearing in journals; hence, relevant e-journals may be subscribed to, as far as possible. Moreso, many of the respondents purchase books for their personal library. A few borrow books from colleagues, friends or students. And some Organisations do circulate journals within their Departments. In addition, Income-Tax rebate or standard


191 deductions on the purchase of books by Scientists/Engineers working in RDD will encourage reading habits amongst them. The books/Journals which will enjoy this deduction/rebate may be identified by the Establishment/Lab/Institute. • In R & D Organisations the Appraisal Forms may be modified on the basis of traits (desirable and undesirable) that have been identified in this book. • Specialised Training Workshops may be initiated on Creativity, TimeManagement, Speed-reading, Inter-personal Relations and Lateral/Parallel/Synectic/Kaleidoscopic thinking for those who may opt for such Programmes. Collaboration from outside Consultants may be solicited on Organisation-wide basis. • Retention Strategy should include, inter alia: Location of the Lab in a place that enjoys good climate (e.g. Pune, Bangalore etc.), provision of 100% residential accommodation, assistance in children’s education (in terms of their guaranteed admission to the nearest Kendriya Vidyalaya) and also reimbursement of their transfer-expenses, assistance in finding a job for the spouse in the same city, creating a social network at either the work-place or by way of a sponsored Club, etc. High Organisational reputation, good Leadership and intrinsic rewards of work itself are also important factors that improve recruitment and retention of competent researchers. In addition, while designing the ‘Job Enrichment’ package we should bear in mind that a knowledge-worker views his/her participation in the planning of his/her task as a status-symbol. Moreso, some of the respondents have cited ‘less demanding job’ as one of the factors for their continuing in the present job. Hence, while planning the employee’s job-content the Organisation should use the concept of slack (i.e. slightly less than the aboveaverage-potential) and further augment its potential by the force-multiplier called ‘job-security’. • Pay, Perks & Promotional Avenues may be designed keeping in mind respondents’ preferences and alternatives mentioned above. In view of the variety of acceptable alternatives suggested by scientists/engineers, a cafeteria type of menu of different packages may be


192 devised in lieu of promotions -- out of which each employee can choose the one that best suits his/her aspirations. The total cost of each package to the Organisation should, however, be the same. • Standardised Procurement Procedure: There ought to be a 3-Member Committee comprising of experienced Scientists/ Engineers from different disciplines to scrutinise all Requests for every first-time purchase of an item that is not yet included in the ‘Standards List’. The Department demanding the new material or equipment shall make a prestructured presentation before this Committee. This Presentation will include, inter alia, justification for this item, available alternatives and their specifications, cost and likely sources of supply. While granting permission for purchase (including quantity, quality, cost etc.) this Apex Committee will categorise these items into A, B & C -- so as to routinise future procurement procedures for the same as also for similar items. This information will be incorporated into the Lab’s data-base in the form of a ‘Standards List’. The authority to make subsequent purchases of ‘B’ and ‘C’ items appearing in the said Standards List may be delegated to the concerned Head of Department, and the purchase be made from within the Sub-Budget allotted to the said Department. The basis for classification of items into A, B & C is available in any standard textbook on Inventory Control -- it is also briefly explained at: www.balaji-themis.co.in/abc.htm Class ‘A’ items may, however, be controlled by the Director or higher Authority, as appropriate. The aforesaid Committee will also lay down all parameters (including Make or Buy decisions, List of similar items etc.) before including these items in the ‘Standards List’. However, purchase of critically urgent items whose necessity for a particular research was unforeseen, should be handled out of Contingency Grants available with the Director -- subject to a recorded Review by the aforesaid Committee


193 which will also look into the viability of the particular line of research, minimum quantity that was necessary for experimental research etc. and grant ex-post facto sanction. The Committee will complete all other tasks that it performs for the purchase of new items. The resultant Information Bank ought to be shared -- though confidentially, if the security needs so require, amongst all Labs under the concerned Public Authority. The Information-Set should include an Abstract of the Presentation [including Cost and Specifications of the material(s), availability of Alternatives, Sources of Supply, and Class of similar Items]. The sharing of this data will avoid duplication of efforts by other Labs. However, new sources of supply and substitutes should continue to be explored by all concerned so that the info-bank remains updated. A similar process may be devised for standardising the procedure for requisitioning of Maintenance (2nd, 3rd line), Servicing and other facilities as also for stream-lining the Purchase-Procedures further.

Suggestions for Further Research: a) Indirect influence of Penalties: For example, by way of loss of opportunity for career-advancement, etc. b) In addition to the motivating factors already included in the Questionnaire, responses towards several other motivation or hygienic factors (like the sense of performance, utilisation of full potential of one’s knowledge and experience etc.) need to be collected for future research. c) The Questions related to ‘Recognition’ as a reward, may be put to a much larger sample -- so that test of significance can be applied to the observed differences, if any, amongst the three categories (A, B & C) of Scientists/Engineers. d) The Question on Personality Traits that are normally observed in different (A/B/C) categories of Scientists and Engineers needs to be re-administered in a face-to-face situation, to groups of respondents; it should be preceded by an oral reiteration to the effect that only what is actually observed by the respondents should be written in their answers.


194

References: I

Melcher, Arlyn J. Structure and Process of Organisations: A Systems Approach (Prentice

Hall International Inc., Englewood Cliffs, 1976) ii

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: Maslow, A.H.. A Theory of Human Motivation

(Psychological Review, vol.50, no.4, 4 Jul, 1943) iii

Herzberg’s Motivators and Hygienic factors: Herzberg, F., B. Mausner and B. Synderman.

The Motivation to Work (John Wiley & Sons Inc, New York, 1959) iv

Argyris’ Maturation Process: Argyris, Chris. Personality and Organisation (Harper & Row

Publishers Inc., New York, 1957) v

McGregor’s Theory X & Theory Y: McGregor, Douglous. The Human Side of Enterprise

(McGraw Hill Book Co., New York, 1960) vi

Vernon, Philip E. ‘Historical Overview of Research on Scientific Abilities’. In Scientific

Excellence: Origins and Assessment. Eds. Douglas N. Jackson and J Philippe Rushton (Sage Publications, Newbury Park, 1987) pp. 48, 52, 56. vii

Simonton, Dean Keith. ‘Multiples, Chance, Genius, Creativity, and Zeitgeist’. In Scientific

Excellence: Origins and Assessment. Eds. Douglas N. Jackson and J Philippe Rushton (Sage Publications, Newbury Park, 1987) pp. 115, 122, 126. Zero-budget IT-access for rural masses: www.balaji-themis.co.in/rbh Cancer: http://creativegb.joeuser.com/


195

Part-IV

Questionnaire


196 Dear Sir/Madam, The data you will help us to gather through the following few sections will be of original value in developing an optimal yet realistic model of an organisational structure for a creative organisation (Research, Design & Development Institute) which promotes personal development of its employees -- while also contributing to the highest number of innovations to the society. Your own spontaneous answers, therefore, are solicited. Please answer all questions sequentially, i.e. without reading the succeeding question(s) in advance. Sections I and II are confidential in that your anonymity shall be maintained. Thus Section III automatically becomes anonymous. The technical jargon used in the Questionnaire has been defined at some places; where it is not, it is assumed that the meaning is generally clear. But this assumption could be wrong. Hence, please write ‘N/K’ immediately after a word/phrase whose meaning is unclear. While answering multiple-choice questions, please uptick/check-mark (√) the answer which comes closest to your thought. But if it does not quite identify with your thoughts, you may please add an extra comment below the given choice. Kindly uptick only one box per question unless the Question Number bears an asterisk (*), e.g. *Q.33. Please do not assign the same rank/preference (e.g. 1, 2, 3 etc.) to more than one factor; and where a continuum of numeric preferences is to be indicated, please use it in a descending order -- starting with digit ‘1’ (i.e. the most preferred choice should be marked as ‘1’). Where no boxes are drawn but alternative choices are provided (e.g. Yes/No) please score out the inapplicable choice. Please do not use erasures; a wrong entry may be scored out by a single straight line across it, e.g. ‘ERROR’. Please write within the space provided in the Form; answers may, therefore, be condensed. Detailed views will be solicited (during the in-depth interviews) from those whose answers show a keen, observant and clear mind. Your cooperation and early action is solicited, please. With best wishes and regards,

Prof (Wg Cdr) Gulshan Kumar


197 QUESTIONNAIRE SECTION-I 1. Your Name please, surname first (kindly use the upper case, i.e. BLOCK LETTERS):SURNAME: .................................... FIRST NAME: .................................... MIDDLE NAME: ............ 2. Date of Birth (Christian era): Year: ............... Month: .......................... Date: ............ 3. Your Sun-sign, if known: a) As per Indian system (i.e. Moon-Rashi): .................................. b) As per Western system: .............................. 4. Male or Female: ...................... 5. Marital status (unmarried, married, separated, divorced, widowed or live-in): ....................... 6. Number of persons financially dependent upon your total household income (i.e. upon your total family income): ......... 7. Number of persons living with you, who need almost constant nursing care (e.g. chronically ill, spastic, senile, etc): ........ 8. Your total family income from all sources: Rs. ........................ per mensem (month). 9. Your own personal income, including perks (i.e. Pay, Allowances, Fringe Benefits etc): Rs. ........................ per annum. 10. Educational Qualifications of the following: Yours Spouse’s Father’s Mother’s Your most qualified brother’s/sister’s

11. Your work-experience: Period

Designation

Salary

Organisation*


198 From

To

N.B.: *Please also write (within parentheses) the number of Scientists/Engineers employed in its R & D. 12. Can you define your current duties and responsibilities in a single word? .............................. 13. Can you define your life-objective (career-wise) in just three words? ..................................... 14. Can you define the nature and scope of your work in just one word? ..................................... 15. Can you describe the main objective of your firm (organisation) in just two words? ........................................................... 16. In which year did you attain the age of 17? ...................... 17. In that year what was your father’s a) vocation: .................................. b) monthly income: Rs. ...................... p.m. approximately 18. With whom* did you live between the ages a) 1 and 4: ................... b) 5 and 17: ....................... (* natural parents/one natural and other step parent/single parent/hostel/relatives/any other) 19. What was the average monthly income of the families to which your usual playmates/best friends belonged? Rs. .............................. p.m. 20. How would you have, at that time, described your neighbourhood*? ............................ (* vast open spaces/between 5,000 and 10,000 persons per square kilometre/more than 10,000 persons per square kilometre)


199 21. (a) Where did you live at that time (metropolis/city/town/suburb/village): ................. (b) In which type of locality was your house located (posh/upper middle/middle/low income group): .................................... (c) How many persons were living under the same roof (i.e. in the same household) with you -- excluding you? ................. 22. Which school did you go to? (a) Public (convent)/Government Model School (Kendriya Vidyalaya/Sarvodaya/Model)/ Municipal City School/Village School: ................................................. (b) English medium/Hind medium/Vernacular? ................................... 23. How would you describe your overall relationship with the following? [You may choose from: very satisfying (VS), satisfying (S), indifferent (I) and don’t know (DK)+ (a) Father: ............ (b) Mother: ............ (c) Siblings (brothers and sisters): ............ (d) School-teachers: ............ (e) College-teachers: ............ (f) School friends: ............ (g) College friends: ............ (h) Fellow Members at the Club: ............ (i) Colleagues (peers/equals) at work within the same Deptt/Division: ............ (j) Clients, if any: ............ (k) People you interact with in your day-to-day life, but not covered in the above categories (e.g. post-man, bank-clerk, etc): ............ (l) Your spouse: ............ (m) In-laws: ............ (n) Neighbours: ............ (o) The political worker for your area: ............


200 (p) Your immediate seniors: ............ (q) Your immediate juniors: ............ (r) Colleagues in your organisation but in a Deptt/Division different from yours, who had worked on a Team with you in the past: ............ 24. By the time you were 17 years old, what had your parents planned for you after graduation? (a) In terms of higher studies: ................................ (b) In terms of vocation: ......................................... (c) In terms of marriage: ........................................ 25. What did your teachers counsel/expect you to become after completing your studies? ........................................... 16. What did your college friends expect you to become? ...................................... 27. What did you yourself wish to be? ................................................ 28. (a) Out of the above, whose expectations were not fulfilled? ........................................ (b) Why? (Please give your reasons under the appropriate head): (i) economic: ........................ (ii) social discrimination: ................. (iii) lack of aptitude on your part: ................. (iv) lack of guidance: ........................... (v) lack of facilities: .......................... (vi) absence of encouragement in the face of under-confidence, failure or problems that were required to be surmounted: ...................................... (vii) sheer luck: ................... (viii) tight job-market: ...................................... (ix) failure to qualify: ....................................... (x) corruption/nepotism: ................................ (xi) Others (please specify, briefly): .........................................................................


201 29. (a) At what age did you seriously consider taking up a job? ........... years (b) Why? ........................................................................................................................ 30. How many unsuccessful attempts did you make before landing (getting) your first job? below 5

5-10

11-15

more than 15

31. (a) Did you feel so frustrated by failures (others’/own) that you decided to take up the first “reasonably acceptable” job that came your way (offered to you)? Yes/No. (b) Why did you consider your first job as reasonably acceptable? Please answer under the following heads if these factors were known to you fairly well before you joined: (i) Pay: ........................ (ii) Organisation: ............................... (iii) Nature of Work: ........................................................................................................ (iv) Status that your designation enjoyed: ...................................... (v) Job-security: .................................. (vi) Location of job vis-à-vis your home: ......................................... (vii) Educational qualifications of your would-be colleagues, and also their competence level: ................................................................................................................................. (viii) Work environment: .................................................................................................. (ix) Office-hours/work-days per week: .......................................... (x) Others (like work-culture etc): .................................................................................... (xi) Commuting time: .............................. (c) Were you, after one year of joining, satisfied with your first job? Yes/No. (d) If not, why not? ...............................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................


202 32. Which games do you play the most? (a) Indoor

Indoor

(b)

Between 2 persons

Outdoor Involving more than 2

*33. When do you feel at the Top of your spirits (refers to your bio-clock)? Between 8.30 AM and 10.30 AM Between 10.31 AM and 11.59 AM Between 12.00 PM (Noon) and 2.30 PM Between 2.31 PM and 5.00 PM (N.B.:* You may uptick more than one box in all Questions that are marked with ‘*’.) 34. Do you believe that a single event in one’s life can change his/her entire outlook towards life, society, money or work? Yes/No 35. Which single event in life gave you the confidence that you could do something unique? ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... 36. You often face quite complex problems at office; then while thinking about something else – like sleeping or relaxing at home -- you suddenly (as if in a flash) hit upon solutions to these problems. Please answer the following: (a) How often does it happen? 1 in 10

2-4 in 10

5-7 in 10 problems

(b) When does it happen? while sleeping thinking something similar to the problem thinking about something quite different relaxing, with mind drifting to different things -- creating a kaleidoscope 37. Are you happy with your problem-solving ability when the problem is pressing and relates to family affairs but you are unable to leave the office? unhappy

slightly happy

very happy


203 38. Which awards have you won? Please cite the name of Awards: ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... 39. Of which professional associations are you a Member? .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... 40. Have you published any Papers/Articles in international journals? If yes, please fill in the following and also cite (within parentheses) the Citation Index for your Articles: Name of the Journal Number of Your Articles Published

41. Have you published any book? If yes, please cite: Publisher Title of Book

Year of Publication

42. Are you a Director (Executive/Honorary) in any firm/corporation? If yes, which one: .......................................................................... *43. Which exercises do you take regularly? walk laughter

jog

light flexing exercises sports (like tennis, badminton, golf etc)

44. Please briefly enumerate (without anyone else’s help) the outstanding* achievements of the following during the past 3 years: (a) Your own: ................................................................................................................. (b) Your department’s/divisions: .................................................................................. (c) Your organisation’s: ................................................................................................. (d) Of the local professional community from your discipline: ..................................... N.B.: *Worthy of National/International recognition, or the one that has already been recognised by way any Award. 45. Do you have, to your credit, any Patent? (a) National: Yes/No


204 (b) International: Yes/No

SECTION-II Q.1. a) Would you like to be born again? Yes/No b) If yes, i) Would you prefer to be a boy or girl? Boy/Girl ii) In which type of family would you like to be born: financially : ............................................................ culturally: .............................................................. outlook-wise: ........................................................ religion/caste: ....................................................... iii) Which surroundings would you wish to be born into? in the midst of Nature/concrete city-jungles: .................................................. a place where the pace of life is fast/slow: ...................................................... iv) Which profession/Vocation would you adopt? ............................................... *Q.2. How will you describe the years that you have spent in R & D? don’t know could have been better

frustrating

satisfying luck has not favoured you

you couldn’t do your best because your opinion was not valued in improving the methods, equipment and tools with which you are forced to work you were deprived of the credit that rightfully belonged to you you felt underemployed (not called upon to use your full potential -faculties, knowledge, training and experience) on-the-job most fulfilling Q.3. Please list underneath the 4 best known journals, in the world, in your discipline; and also the most reliable citation-index in which it is the most prestigious to get a Paper published:


205 Sl. No.

Title

Publisher

Frequency of Publication

1 2 3 4

Citation Index: ......................................................................................................................... Q.4. Out of the following items, please select the 10 most important ones, then rank them in order of your preference (the most important first, i.e. as No.1): Items: higher income, career, family, more leisure time, daughter, a benevolent supervisor, son, clean and comfortable surroundings at work, prestigious organisation to work in, peaceful and cozy atmosphere at home, desk-job, outdoor-duties, challenging but risky work, patterned and routine work, an overall instead of shirtand-trouser at work-site, job-security, pay related to a fixed number of working hours, salary related to output, assessment of your work by a professional in the same field as yours, assessment of your work by a techno-administrator (manager) from another discipline, weekly pay, monthly pay, one month’s holiday per annum, all-expenses-paid holiday for a week for the whole family + 10 days earned leave per annum, professional recognition by the organisation, recognition by the professional community in the city of your employment, only a cash-award for your contribution (but the professional recognition goes to your organisation alone), a supportive wife - emotionally and financially, stable and secure work although it may be routine. Preferential Order (Please list only the best 10, in order of their importance): 1. ................................................................. 2. ................................................................ 3. ................................................................ 4. ................................................................ 5. ................................................................ 6. ................................................................ 7. ................................................................


206 8. ................................................................ 9. ................................................................ 10. .............................................................. Definition: A ‘Supervisor’ is a person who oversees and controls your job -- he could be a manager, technocrat, team-leader etc. Q.5. Do you often wish that: a) Colleagues could be more encouraging? Yes/No b) Supervisor could be more understanding of your personal problems (not workrelated, yet affecting your performance at work)? Yes/No c) You could be socially more mixing and adept? Yes/No d) You could face your supervisor with more confidence? Yes/No e) You had more patience? Yes/No f) Your supervisor ought to be as qualified, if not more, as you are? Yes/No g) You could win the trust of your junior more than what you have now? Yes/No h) You could be taller/stronger/slimmer/fairer in complexion? Yes/No i) You could have more lasting friendships? Yes/No j) You could shed your complexes when approaching a person of opposite sex? Yes/No k) You could be rising faster up the promotion ladder? Yes/No l) You could be paid more for your commitment and sincerity to work? Yes/No m) You could be the life of a party? Yes/No n) Assessment of your work could be fairer? Yes/No o) You could get more satisfaction from the job? Yes/No p) Your social status ought not relate to your job-status? Yes/No q) Colleagues could be more cooperative? Yes/No r) You could be allowed to work as late as possible, and office-hours should be flexible to allow you to come to the office whenever you are in the right mood or bio-clock to contribute your maximum to the organisational goals? Yes/No


207 s) Someone could tell you as to how pursuing the organisational goals will, in turn, help you achieve your personal goals? Yes/No t) You could be provided better tools and equipment (including computational & design software and hardware) than what you have at present? Yes/No u) Your work-environment could be better lit/airy/cleaner/orderly/physically (including ergonomically) or more comfortable? Yes/No v) Your job could be more important to the organisation? Yes/No w) Your own importance to the organisation could be more? Yes/No x) Your relationship with the colleagues could be better? Yes/No y) Your Proposals could be better appreciated? Yes/No z) Leave ought to be more easily granted? Yes/No aa) Your status could now be higher even if the pay remains the same? Yes/No bb) There could be more support for undertaking promising, though risky, new ventures? Yes/No cc) Needed equipment and personnel could be available at short notice even if there was no advance planning on your part? Yes/No dd) Assessment of your work could be done only by a specialist from your special field of knowledge/discipline, even if he may have to be brought from outside the organisation? Yes/No ee) Promotion should depend purely upon your competence, within your special field -- without taking into consideration your administrative capabilities and leadership qualities, even if 40-50% of the work-content in the available (vacant) higher post involves effective and efficient administration? Yes/No Comments, if any: .................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... ff) Hours of work could be 6 per diem (day)? Yes/No gg) Your job could be more challenging and unstructured (i.e. you should have more discretion in planning the pace, method, direction etc of your work)? Yes/No hh) Your supervisor could be more protective during your bona fide mistakes? Yes/No


208 * Q.6. If your overall satisfaction with your present job is low, are you still not seeking a change of job mainly because of one or more of the following reasons: a) Loss of seniority if job is changed now? Yes/No b) Your age-factor? Yes/No c) Your children’s education will be adversely affected? Yes/No d) Service-bond/contract? Yes/No e) You will miss a good and understanding supervisor? Yes/No f) High reputation of the existing organisation? Yes/No g) Problems of residential accommodation at the new place? Yes/No h) You will miss the circle of friends at the office/place of work? Yes/No i) You will miss good neighbours and other local friends (not related to your workplace) if the new job involves a change in residence? Yes/No j) Your spouse is employed in the same organisation/city? Yes/No k) Although your individual income is low here, the total family income is sufficient? Yes/No l) Present job is less demanding, has more peace and less tension? Yes/No m) It is a secured, good job? Yes/No n) Afraid that new job may not afford as much leisure time as is available now? Yes/No o) Local climate here is good? Yes/No p) Your brothers/sisters etc are settled in the same city? Yes/No *Q.7. Please choose the 15 best out of the following incentives, and rearrange them as per the degree of importance you attach to each of them (the most important may be indicated by writing ‘1’ in the box in front of the ‘incentive’; for the next best, please write ‘2’ in the corresponding box, and so on; you may also give the same preference to more than one incentive): AK Bose Memorial Award INSA Medal for Young Scientists Sir Ashutosh Mukherjee Gold Medal


209 Prof Hira Lal Chakravorty Award ISCA Young Scientist Award Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Award Department of Science & technology’s (Government of India’s) Awards for Science Popularisation INSA’s Indira Gandhi Prize for Popularisation of Science Election as as a Fellow of of INSA Vividhlakshi Audyogik Samshodhan Vikas Kendra (VASVIK) Award Homi Bhabha Award SH Zaheer Medal FICCI Award for Scientists Appointment to the Editorial Board of a prestigious international journal Appointment to the Editorial Board of a prestigious National journal Vishwakarma Award Appointment as a Visiting Professor to a National University Appointment as a Visiting Professor to an international University Prof LSS Kumar Memorial Award Distinguished Service Award by ISCA More than 15 citations of a work published in an international journal More than 25 citations of a work published in a National journal 1 international patent in a sole/joint project 3 National patents in a sole/joint project Appointment as a Director to the Board of Directors of a large corporation Appointment as a Member of a prestigious Advisory Body like the SAC to PM KG Naik Gold Medal Herdillia Award


210 Opportunity to work under a renowned scientist abroad Sponsorship for higher studies (Sabbatical Leave) -- on full Pay Own Laboratory-cum-Office, if you did not have one Out-of-turn promotion One increment in Pay 20 days leave with to-n-fro expenses to any place in India Santappa Award (Siler/Golden Jubilee) Chinnamaul Memorial Prize Departmental/in-Company Award or Citation Pat on the back by a colleague in the scientific community (for scientific work done) Pat on the back by the Boss (for scientific work done) Pat on the back* by spouse (for scientific work done) GP Chatterjee Award BC Guha Memorial Award Any other incentive that you may wish to add: ................................................ N.B.: Answers to Questions Nos. 8 & 9 may please be given purely from your own observation, and not be influenced by whatever others may have said! Q.1. Given in the Table under Q.9 are certain traits, habits & skills -- some of these were in-born, while others were learnt/acquired during the process of your growing up. Please match the Traits with the Factors that you suppose are responsible for the existence of these Traits in your own case. The Codes and their Numbers are given below$. [You may simply insert the Factor-Code Number (i.e. 1, 2, 3 ...) against each Trait, under the columnheading ‘Code’ (column # ii) in the following Table.+ Q.2. You have observed Director(s), Team-Leader(s) and Team-Members at work. Using the Table below, please write ‘A’, ‘O’ or ‘N’ (these notations stand for: ‘Always’, ’Often’ and ’Never’, respectively) in column numbers (iii) to (v) if you think that a particular Trait or Skill has always/often/never


211 been found (not merely wish) by you in a Scientist/Engineer# in the performance of a particular Role or Function by him/her [e.g. as a Director (Techno-Administrator), Innovator (Team-Leader) or a Facilitator (TeamMember)]: Trait

Code

(i)

(ii)

Ability to make use of any opportunity for application of knowledge Ability to sell ideas Accuracy in communicating Adaptability Aggressive (calculated risktaker) Aware of the need for congeniality, accommodation & respect for others’ beliefs (when mixing with people of other than his/ her own class) Belief in a Mission Belief in God Bias-less -- no caste, religion, region, race, language, skin-colour

Director (Techno- Innovating Administrator) Scientist/ Engineer

(iii)

(iv)

Scientist/ Engineer supporting the Innovator (v)


212 etc bias Cooperative Committed to Organisational Standards Competent in managing his/ her personal finances Competitive (healthy competition, not cutthroat) Composure Confidence (sometimes, even dogged confidence in certain roles/ tasks) Considerable cognitive flexibility Consistent and dependable Control over his Will Courage (including the courage to laugh at desperate situations) Creativity Crisis-handling (disaster management, including strategic and tactical planning) Curiosity for detail


213 Desire to excel Desires feedback (Johari Window), and learns from experience Discipline (including discipline to avoid ‘technological traps’) Disinterested in close controls (‘lookingover-the-shoulder’ type of controls) Dissatisfied with the ‘closed-mind’ way of performing various tasks Dreamer but able to put foundations under his/her dreams (a Practical Visionary) Drive for power (without treading upon the right of others) Dynamic Egoist when the assigned task or role demands it, otherwise Humble* Emotional intelligence, and emotionally stable Empathy, extrovert


214 Enjoys living, work and sports Etiquette Fairness, and having a sense of proportion Feels that ‘there is always room for improvement’ Finds balance between task and skills possessed by him/her Flair to diagnose & fix Foresight Future oriented General awareness Genius in perceiving possibilities Genuine friendly interaction with colleagues Gets pleasure out of his/her work Getting others’ cooperation -- ability to/ knack of Great energy Happy-go-lucky Hard working


215 High I.Q. High sense of accountability High tolerance of ambiguity -- needed in certain scientific works Human dignity, humaneness Imaginative Impatient with routine tasks that are mundane and unchallenging* Individualistic versus socially inclined* Inquisitiveness, Intellectual curiosity Inspiring Interaction (without any complexes) with colleagues of opposite gender Interested in communicating with others Interested not in facts for facts’ sake, but to solve real-life problems/ issues* Interested in his/her work as well as in the organisational


216 structure/environme nt Intuitive Lateral thinker Leadership competence/ability Likes challenges Makes decisions (does not procrastinate) Mentally active -hyperactive when the task/ role demands it* Multiple interests Neatness & methodology No negative complexes or fears (like inferiority) Non-conformity/ radicalism -- when task/ role demands it* Not too discouraged by failures Objective evaluation of others Opportunity seeker Organises and manages his/her time


217 Originality Patience, Perseverance Perceptive of people and environment Personal integrity Pleasant personality Ability to exploit a situation Positive attitude Pragmatic, not paper-bound (stickler to red-tape) or paper-pusher (bureaucratic) Problem-solving ability Punctuality Quick uptake/ grasp Realistic Record of previous creative acts (trackrecord) Relatively uninterested in small detail, but perfectionist when the task demands it Relaxed Respect towards supervisor


218 Right-brained Ruled by the left brain-hemisphere -as per task/ role* Sees novel in the familiar (no fixed mind-set) Self-starter Self-sufficient Sensitive intellect Sensitive emotionally -- when the occasion demands it* Sequential thinker Sets goals, and realistic step-by-step sub-goals Skills to persuade Social Defence and Social Responsibility Soft-spoken/ humble Sportsman’s spirit Submission to other’s instructions -whenever appropriate* Success-oriented Surrounds himself/ herself with (or seeks company of) stimulating


219 colleagues Synectic/ Parallel thinking Tact & diplomacy Takes initiative Takes personal responsibility Team-work, and Verbally skillful Thinks in terms of analogies, parallels & similarities ‘Time-is-important’, Work-ethics Tolerance, and willing to learn Trusts subordinates Understandingly selfaware Urge to organise people and tasks Wants to make a lot of money (entrepreneur) Wide-ranging interests, and very energetic

Code: ${1} (Innate/genetic/inborn (inherent), {2} Taught by the Family, {3} Learned from or enhanced by School-teachers, {4} Learned from or enhanced by School-friends, {5} Learned/ enhanced at College, {6} Learned from or enhanced by Media (TV, Movies, Novel etc.), {7} Learned from or enhanced by


220 social Club/professional Association, {8} Learned/enhanced at Work-place, {9} Other worldly influences, {10} Sub-consciously acquired due to certain beliefs/fears that were reinforced either by others or by events. #

Successful Scientist/Engineer.

Notes: The above List also includes such traits as are desirable in some tasks or roles, but not in others. Q.10. When do you feel the most comfortable? Please select the best four out of the following: Working alone the Supervisor

Working in a group

Pleasing

Working for a renowned scientist/engineer Expecting that your efforts will be financially rewarded Expecting professional recognition as a result thereof Urge to show them what stuff you are made of Competition Feeling very energetic and

restless The project was your own idea or Your opinions were valued for taking up this project You are at peace with yourself and in good health -- rearing to go For your Leader whom you do not wish to let down Your feelings that career comes before family and other interests You might, otherwise, lose a promotion/pay-raise You may, otherwise, lose your job Your circle of friends at your office desires it. Q.11. Why did you decide to answer this Questionnaire? For the advancement of knowledge I have been asked to do so by my Supervisor As a courtesy to Mr. Kumar (Research Scholar) At last, somebody has asked how I feel -- how things should be run! Q.12. If you have had sufficient experience in an R & D setting (to enable you to form certain opinions of your own) which areas out of the following will you check and, out of these, which factors will you prefer before accepting a new job? Areas

Factors

Size of organisation

Big, small, intermediate

Nature of task

Structured, unprogrammed, opportunity to apply your indepth knowledge

Your Preference


221 Degree of uncertainty in break-through Work-flow Control

Spatial

Temporal Stage/Methodology

Technical environment

Organisational Structure

Delegation of discretion

Formal authority

Highly uncertain, challenging but not uncertain, mildly uncertain Dependent upon others’ contribution, independent Self-control against predecided norms in the setting of which you were a party, close control against institutionally fixed standards Activities concentrated in nearby buildings, organisational work dispersed in different buildings scattered over a large area Long lead-time projects, short gestation projects Theory, pure research, application design, developmental adaptation and assimilation of foreign technology, reverse engineering, screw-driver technology a) facilities, literature: pooled/individual; b) stimulating colleagues/ compartmentation; c) Comfortable surroundings: lighting, furniture, etc Type-I, Type-II (Please see Q. No.14 in Section-III at page 231 ibid) Decentralised to appropriate lower levels, centralised at the top Rigid Departmentation (i.e. autonomous units/


222 relationships

departments/divisions), inter-dependent work Rewards General Group-rewards, individual rewards as per own merit/contribution to project Formal information systems a) spontaneous (need-based) inter-action, fixed (pre-set) channels only, informal personal contact; b) single channel communication, multiple channel approach (i.e. can by-pass certain hierarchical positions, and cross departmental lines) Cooperation High/low (from colleagues) Leadership

Rule adherence

Direction of subordinates’ work Career prospects

Inducement/Incentives/ Disincentives

Participation in decisionmaking, by subordinates Representation of employees’ grievances/opinions

Formal authority (by virtue of position), informal authority (by virtue of personality & knowledge of the Leader) Stickler for Rules, needbased flexibility without reference to Top Authority Close (over-the-shoulder), loose with occasional checks High in status but not lucrative monetarily, high monetarily but not in status a) Penalties: Far removed from the date of offence/ immediate; b) Rewards: Immediately upon results/once-a-year Low/high/medium Easy/difficult/just not possible


223 Opportunity to enhance your social role outside the organisation Team-spirit

High/low/neutral/selective encouragement/negative

Goals

High/practicable and achievable High/low/medium

Professionalism Environment Nature & looks of colleagues

Orientation

High/low/just average

Encouraging, non-directive (laissez faire) Well kempt, knowledgeable, cooperative, helpful, courteous, positive attitude, flexible Identity of your goals with organisational goals, noninterference by the organisation in your personal goals, mutual adjustment and accommodation (after a certain number of years of service) between you and the organisation

Q.13. What will be your R & D output if you are made to work under a supervisor who has the characteristics given below? (Please uptick relevant column.) Supervisor’s Characteristics

Suspicious nature Bossy Shows off/egoist

Your Output (probable) Average

Above Average

Poor

Non-cooperative


224 Interfering Less knowledgeable than you are Hypocrite Lets you down Stubborn & rigid Doesn’t trust you Stingy/miserly in granting facilities Lacks sense of humour Authoritative (stickler for Rules) Dishonest Belongs to a different discipline/field than yours Not open to suggestions Does not share information with subordinates Grouchy in granting leave Lacks ability to communicate Unkempt/slovenly dressed Nagging about his Supervisor Lacks understanding Lacks knowledge Lacks interest in technical discussions Turns a blind eye towards your personal problems Does not guide


225 Does not encourage Doesn’t protect you Sullen Lacks team-spirit Cannot tolerate constructive criticism

Q.14. What is the approximate proportion/ratio of really genius scientists & engineers amongst the total number of scientists/engineers employed in your organisation? 5%

10%

15%

20%

25%

30% Q.15. What percentage of the engineers/scientists in your organisation hold PhD or MTech degrees? a) Foreign: i) Ph D (or equivalent) ........ ........

ii) M Tech (or equivalent)

b) Indian: i) Ph D (or equivalent) ........ ........

ii) M Tech (or equivalent)

Q.16. What is the ratio of technicians (skilled support staff) to the R & D scientists/engineers in your organisation? 50%

75%

100%

140%

160%

180%

120%

(N.B.: Please specify the approximate ratio if it is widely divergent from the figures given above: ......................... ) *Q.17. Which, out of the following factors, are most important in determining your status in the eyes of the public? [Please first select only ten factors by up-ticking the factors themselves (not the boxes preceding them); thereafter, in the boxes provided please rank these factors as 1, 2, 3 ... in order of their importance


226 perceived by you, viz. please write ‘1’ in the box for the most important one, ‘2’ for the next in importance, and so on.] Factors:

Usefulness of your job to the society

Your position

within the hierarchy

The salary you get

which you live

The perks (like official car, house etc) you enjoy

The way you spend money yourself

The locality in

What you tell others about

Your own perception of your professional worth Conferment of award(s) upon you

Your own

personality (i.e. abilities you were born with)

Your academic and

professional qualifications published by you

The number of Papers/Books Your expertise in social (societal) roles

Offices/posts held by you in your professional Association Invitations as Visiting Lecturer an honorary Director

Invitation to join a firm as The reputation of your employer

The reputation of your team-leader/ project-leader

Faster

promotions than those persons who started in the same Grade as you did The kind of Clubs you join

Election to prestigious Societies

Your closeness to the head of your organisation

The number and

type of social-work activities you engage in

Your cooperativeness

Your knowledge & competence Ability to lead others

Tact and diplomacy Integrity

relevance of the projects you are working on provides to stretch your capabilities

Social The challenge your job

Personal power the job

gives you over other people. Q.19. How important is your social status to you? Minor

Very

Couldn’t care less

A big ‘Thank You’ for your cooperation, please! Answering the next Section will be much easier and quicker since almost no writing work is involved, except entering digits or placing upticks – albeit mostly.


227 SECTION-III Q.1. Can you expect your team-leader to work under you in another Team at some other time? If yes, then under which circumstances is it likely to happen? .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... .......... Q.2. Please indicate whether the following statements are true or false: a) As scientific knowledge grows, the cost of successfully undertaking any given science-based invention declines. T F b) The output of R & D is always directly proportionate to the money, time and effort expended. T F c) The differences in the state of development of individual sciences influence the direction of inventive activities. T F d) The supply of inventive outputs cannot be related always to the demand (expressed by way of higher prices) offered for the expected innovation, but rests upon the degree of commercial substitutability between different technologies or ‘pools of knowledge’ available within different industries. T F e) The state of individual sciences differentially structures the cost to society of the various technological options available at any given time. T F f) The capacity of science to help man in balancing or replenishing the rapidly deteriorating supply of resources is unlimited. T F Q.3. Which four of the following factors are the most important in determining the degree of technological responsive which a society is capable of? Willingness of consumers to modify their life-styles best available equipment & methods (systems, machines, tools etc.) Large number of skilled Assistants Motivation moral)

Discipline

Original thinkers Integrity (intellectual and

Adequate recognition of contributor’s genius

Willing entrepreneurs for exploiting/using the new technology Stimulating scientific community Social Structure of the society

Cultural Value-System Vision of the political leader

The


228 Technological Leadership

Any other* (*Please specify:

............................................................................) Q.4. How would you rate more than 50% of your colleagues in terms of the following attributes? [You may allot 1 to 5 marks to each attribute along the following continuum, please: (1) 50% -60%, (2) 61%-70%, (3) 71%-75%, (4) 76%-80%, (5) more than 80%] Helpful

Cooperative

Dependable

Trustworthy

Loyal

Jealous

Stabber in the back at the first opportunity

Selfless

encourager Q.5. Are your colleagues so dependable that you would readily believe a story/news carried by them, rather than wait and verify the same yourself?

Yes

No Q.6. Your colleagues, as a group, have informally laid down certain unreasonable norms for the work-place. Going against such norms can help you personally -- sometimes; in such a situation, will you break the norms at the risk of social boycott by the group? Yes

No

Q.7. Do you feel that the colleagues in your own department/division are: a) more intelligent than those in other departments/divisions Yes

No

b) more cooperative to other departments than the latter are to your department? Yes

No

Q.8. Which divisions/departments are more appreciative of your problems? ........................................................................................................................................ Q.9. Which divisions/departments are the least appreciative of your problems? ................................................................................................................................................ Q.10. Which divisions/departments receive the ‘most favoured child’ treatment from the Top Management? ........................................................................................................................................ Q.11. Suppose you have to submit a Report about the progress made in a Project in which you are working, or about a certain aspect of your task -- further suppose that you


229 have to incorporate in that Report some information/data which is available only with another department, then a) whom would you usually approach in that other department? a person junior to you a person equal to you in status a person senior to you who is likely to have the most up-to-date data b) whom would you prefer to approach? a person of the opposite gender an individual who is of your own sex c) which means/methods will you prefer to adopt the most to obtain any official information? telephone/intercom

personal visit

sending across a junior with a hand-written Note from you

despatch

formal Memo/ Letter. Q.12. Suppose you are a team-leader/project-leader and that a fixed quantity of various resources has been allocated to you -- with the proviso that you can vary any two factors at any given stage of the R & D cycle. Which of the following factors will you like to vary & control the most at each stage of the R & D cycle? Factors: (i) raw materials, (ii) number of persons employed on the project, (iii) quality of personnel employed, (iv) morale (spirit of your team-members), (v) over-head costs, (vi) outside consultancy services made available to you, (vii) courage to continue the mission even in the face of adversity, (viii) the number of different disciplines represented on your team, (ix) discipline (in terms of conformity with Norms laid down by you), and (x) time.

Stage of R & D Cycle

2 Factors that You would like to Control 1

Basic Research and Consideration of Alternative Approaches (Technology, Materials, etc) Design & Development of Engineering Prototype

2


230 Testing and Debugging Development of Functional/Application Prototype, and Testing Engineering (Design of Process for Commercial Production, and Control) Commercial Production (Trial Runs)

Q.13. Which of the following demands upon you from your support services staff (i.e. personnel employed in service facilities like workshop, maintenance, purchasing, store etc.) are quite reasonable? 1.5 month advance planning of your needs 1 month advance planning of your needs 15 days’ advance planning of your needs Q.14. Given overleaf (page 231) are two different (alternative) structures for R & D, e.g. Type-I and Type-II. To which type does the structure of your own organisation closely resemble?

Type-I

Type-II

None of these

P.T.O.


231

Q.15. How do the professionals in your department/division usually address each-other during conversations? ‘Mr. Apte’)

Sir/Madam First name (e.g. ‘Priyanka’)

By surname (e.g.


232 Son/Daughter (e.g. Hello Sunny)

Any other (please specify here:

............................................) Q.16. How much commitment/cooperation do those professionals who are not officially on your Project-Team, show towards the progress of your project? indifference interest

mild interest go out of their way to help

high their

interest varies directly in proportion to how close the project-leader is to TopManagement

depends upon how friendly the other professional is

to the Project-Leader. Q.17. Tabulated below, in column 2, are certain individual characteristics; and in column 4 are shown certain types of jobs. Please indicate in the cells under the column headed ‘Your Choice’, the characteristics possessed by individuals performing the prescribed jobs, e.g. if ‘Simple and routine’ jobs are being manned by post-graduates with upto 3 years of R & D experience, then please insert both the codes ‘A’ and ‘D’ in the appropriate cell. Your

Job-description

Code

Individual Characteristics

Choice Simple & routine

A

Post-graduate (only)

Simple and non-routine

B

PhD

Complex with high degree of

C

Post-Doctoral work in

individual discretion, but no

University/reputed Laboratory

control over others Complex, with some control over

D

Upto 3 yrs of R & D experience

E

3-7 yrs of R & D experience

F

8-10 yrs of R & D experience

others’ activities Combining research & administrative duties Project leadership


233 G

10-15 yrs of R & D experience

H

Leadership qualities

I

High communicative ability

J

Courage

K

Integrity

L

Vision

M

Administrative experience

N

Multi-disciplinary interests

O

Proven creative ability

P

God-fearing

Q.18. Does your present job a) lift your spirits when you feel depressed?

Yes

No

b) interest and challenge you when you feel bored?

Yes

No

Q.19. Are your colleagues a) Reliable?

Many

None

A few

b) Jealous?

Several

None

A few

c) Encouraging?

None

Some

Many

d) Helpful?

Some

Many

None

Q.20. a) Does your present salary meet your expectations? Yes

No

Don’t know


234 b) if no, what are your expectations? Rs. ......................... per mensem c) Kindly disclose the basis for the above computation, i.e. monthly expenses on: i) Food: Rs. ..................... ii) Clothing: Rs. ...................... iii) Shelter: Rs. ................... iv) Commutation: Rs. .................... v) Savings for emergencies: Rs. ............................ vi) Recreation: Rs. ......................... vii) Others*: Rs. ....................... (*Please specify: ........................................................................................................ ) Q.21. Are you satisfied with the present level of your participation in defining your tasks and organisational goals?

Yes

No.

Please comment:

I allowed the organisation to set my goals autonomy in choosing research-period

I want more

I am not being allowed to choose

the research-methodology

I should have a say in the selection of my team-

mates. Q.22. On a project, how often is your advice/opinion sought in areas that are outside your narrow lines of discipline (field)? Never

Often

Sometimes

Q.23. Who has the de facto (not merely the formal procedural) power to decide, as well as sanction, the quantum of support facilities (viz. equipment, consumables, furniture, personnel, etc.) that are needed for your project? Individual Scientist/Engineer Deptt. Head

Team-leader

Director

Head of Technical Services

Finance Officer

Establishment Officer

Q.24. How much time, on an average, is consumed in obtaining the above decision? Spot-decisions

1-2 days

3-5 days

1

week Q.25. Where would you like the Support Services to be placed (even if the overall costs to the Organisation are thereby increased)?


235 Attached to each project-team Pooled at the departmental level Pooled at the organisational level Outside Consultancy (need-based) Q.26. Do you feel that budgeting efforts (in terms of opportunity costs per unit) will a) Reduce Supervisor’s time in controlling your activities?

Yes

No b) Give you an opportunity to set your own pace of work/schedule without constant reference to your supervisor?

Yes

No

c) Offer you a challenge so that you will spend more of your energy on your work? Yes

No

d) Ensure that your work will not fall below the expected standards? Yes

No

e) Increase your status?

Yes

No

f) If the targets are achievable, though very high, these will challenge you towards doing your best?

Yes

No

g) If the targets are, however, very easily achievable these will not hold your interest? Yes

No

h) If the targets are too high, will these discourage you?

Yes

No Q.27. a) Does the present level of targets make you feel that your difficulties have not been taken into account by the supervisor while fixing these targets? Yes

No

b) Is the present level of targets pushing you to produce more, without regard to quality of work that’s possible in such a short time?

Yes

No c) Is the pressure to achieve targets so intense that there is tension in the air, and tempers are frayed?

Yes

No

*Q.28. If you were offered a job with the same pay & status (as drawn by you now) in another organisation, then why would you leave the present organisation?


236 Less opportunity for advancement here is very stingy here

Top management

You do not feel motivated here

There is no appreciation for good work done assessment is not fair

Evaluation &

You are not allowed to participate in

planning and controlling your work Unchallenging work

Too much interference Top management is not professionally

oriented (i.e. it is from general administration cadre and is untrained in scientific disciplines like chemistry, physics, engineering, management science, etc.) Relationships here are too artificial and impersonal cooperation amongst colleagues departments

Lack of Lack of cooperation between

No mutual loyalty between the top, middle and

lower-level management/professionals Promotion here does not depend upon contribution made to scientific knowledge, but that made to profits/ goals of the organisation People here are not as intelligent as you are, hence they are less stimulating in conversations about professional work

Conflict between

your aims and organisational goals

Isolation from the main

line of research

Higher socio-economic status in

the new organisation. Comments, if any, please:................................................................................................ N.B.: *As already stated earlier, you may uptick more than one box in those Questions that are prefixed with asterisk (*) please. Q.29. What is the degree of dependence between a project-team and other colleagues who are not on that project in your organisation? High

Very high

Slight

None

Q.30. Which of the following factors has helped you the most in carrying out your job successfully and quickly? Your specialised knowledge in a narrow field

Your

general awareness of many other fields though not having in-depth knowledge in all these other fields

Your interpersonal skills.


237 Q.31. a) There are occasions when several projects are accorded high priority and results are demanded in the shortest possible time. But the resources within the organisation are scarce/limited; moreso, the team-leaders have to vie/compete with each-other to get these scarce resources at the earliest. How do you find relationships between various team-leaders in such situations? Highly stressful tense

Cooperative

Mildly

One should see it to believe it!

b) But if a reasonable time is allowed to achieve the results, do you think the working relationships between team-leaders in the above situations will improve? Yes

No

Will it improve the situation if team-leaders are allotted budgets, and then allowed to bargain with other team-leaders (by mutually exchanging a part of their Budgets) for the said resources? $

Yes

No

Q.32. Have you found that a new, directly recruited scientist/engineer is necessarily slower in uptake and more wasteful of resources than is a technician who gets promoted internally to the Scientist’s Grade? Yes

No

No correlation

Q.33. a) The break-through in an R & D setting cannot be predicted. If your promotion depends upon your contribution towards such break-throughs and further that you are due for being considered for promotion within one year from now, how often do you (or your colleagues in similar situations) show the following symptoms if such a break-through is not in sight within the next 6 months? (Please uptick the relevant column.) Symptoms

Frequency of Occurrence Slight

Frustration Stress/anxiety (general) Tension in inter-personal relations Withdrawal/detachment Hostility

None

High

Unbearable


238 Self-effacement/loss of selfconfidence Decreased cooperation Break-down in formal Groups, i.e. resentment against teammembers Break-down in informal groups (circle of friends at work-place) due to decreasing faith in their capability/commitment Ulcers/neurosis etc b) How do you (or your colleagues) usually cope-up with the above situation? Coping Method

Frequency Sometimes

Often

Never

Refuse to recognise the seriousness of the situation Pit themselves against the wall Release tension in other ways Take help from outside sources Throw up their hands Pretend sickness Pretend lack of equipment/facilities

Comments, if any, please: ............................................................................................ Q.34. On an average, how much in advance do you project your requirements for the additional, not replacement equipment (or personnel) so that these are made available to you on the date on which you really need them? Indigenous: .................... (in weeks)

Imported: ...................... (in weeks)

Q.35. What will be the most reasonable and challenging increase in your R & D targets next year -- over and above your present targets? 10-20%

21-30%

31-40%

41-50%

51-60%

61-70%


239 71-80%

81-90%

91-100%

*Q.36. When have your achievements been the greatest? When you were asked to do your best, and then left alone to plan your targets When you were given 50% higher targets than those in the last year When outsiders were observing your work You were asked to equal the achievements of another Team in the same department The targets were fixed by your supervisor(s) in consultation with you Asked to excel the targets of another team in another Firm/Organisation The job is challenging, but within your competence When your colleagues exalted and stimulated you When threatened with reprisals/penalties. Q.37. While trying to excel the achievements of another team, which two out of the following factors you would choose to pay more attention to: Cost

Time

Morale (Quality)

Human resources Output (Quantity)

Minimal waste

Output

Human relations

Systemic synergy Q.38. Do you think targets can be continuously increased from year to year -- indefinitely, or is there a limit to achievement?

Yes, indefinitely

No Your comments, if any, please:.................................................................................... Q.39. When do you feel the most buoyant/dynamic/motivated/energetic? When selected to work on a prestigious project When selected to work with a reputed scientist/engineer When targets are set in consultation with you When expecting interesting/novel results When you/your team achieves a break-through in solving a difficult problem When the project is nearing completion and your contractual period of service is about to end -- with the fructification of the project


240 Nearing project-completion when you are looking forward to go back to your main (parent) department N.B.: You may offer your comments here, please:............................................................. *Q.40. Which three of the following rewards do you prefer the most? [Please assign weightage by inserting marks 1 to 9 in the boxes (in descending order of importance); you can assign the same marks to more than one reward – but please select only 3 rewards.] Monetary reward immediately upon completion of work done Monetary reward once-a-year, after the performance Appraisal is over Monetary reward partially after the work is completed and partially after the Performance Appraisal is over Non-monetary Award, e.g. recognition by your superiors, companysponsored membership of professional associations, nomination to Seminars/Workshops by your organisation, etc Recognition by your professional community -- by way of Award, Citation etc Q.41. What portion (proportion/percentage points) of your achievements would you attribute/ascribe to the following factors? (Please uptick relevant columns.) Factors

Proportion 10%

Your conscience Your knowledge Your skills Your hard-work Luck Guidance from others Working-facilities available Team-work Personality of the Team-Leader

20%

30%

40%

50%


241 Rewards Fear of punishment Pressure from peers

Q.42. What do you consider as the best periodicity for upward revision in your targets in Research & Development? Every six months years

Every year

Every 3 years

Once in 2

Every 4-5 years

Q.43. With whom are you the most friendly at your work-place? (As usual, except for the Question Numbers marked with an asterisk, only one choice is allowed, please.) One who sits face-to-face with you interests

One who shares your

One from the same City/State as you are from

One from the same School/College as you are

One who shares a

cup of coffee or beer with you after office-hours who is very knowledgeable management

One

One who is close to the TopOne who is very handsome/beautiful

One who is suave or has very pleasing manners gentle and helpful

One who is

Your team/project-member

One from the same discipline

One whose enthusiasm is contagious

One who is strong and fit to be a gang-leader One with political connections

The one you are afraid to

oppose. Q.44. Can you imagine coming into a prolonged conflict with a person who sits next to you/sits facing you?

Never

Sometimes

Physical distance (barrier) is of no consequence in forging relationships. Q.45. When you need a new piece of equipment which is not available in your department, through which of the following departments is your request routed for final approval/ allotment of the said equipment? (Please indicate the route by


242 drawing arrows; e.g. if from ‘A’ the demand goes to ‘B’, then please draw as shown herein: A  B*) You

Team-Leader

Head of Discipline/Deptt.

Stores

Purchase

Director

Inspection

Finance

Technical Services

N.B.: *If an arrow cuts another, please curve one of the arrows at the intersection as shown below: | ------(-----| Q.46. Under which of the following team-leaders will you work the best? (Please select only five, and then indicate the ranking 1 to 5 by inserting the appropriate digit 1, 2 ... 5): Who takes interest in your welfare Who inspires fear in you Who is a stickler for rules Who is more knowledgeable and skilled than you are Who is senior to you in rank/position/grade Who guides and encourages you Who gives due weight to your suggestions/opinions Who invites you to assist him/her in planning your work Who is an understanding and caring person Who does not exploit you Who talks sweetly even if he/she does not like you Who is upcoming or well known Who is handsome/beautiful, tall etc (i.e. likeable) Who bullies you


243 Who blackmails you into working hard Who allows you to plan your own pace of work and flexi-hours Who is honest and fair Who recommends leave when asked for Who takes interest in your progress. Do you feel that you should have been allowed to uptick more than one box? If yes, then which additional boxes would have you liked to uptick/checkmark, please: ......................................................................................................................

*Q.47. In case you find a slight difference of opinion with regard to morality in carrying out a certain task (e.g. euthanasia) whose advice will you most probably abide by? (You may uptick a maximum of 3 choices, please.) Your immediate supervisor

Top-management

Your Trade Union

Professional Council/Association of

which you are a Member conscience

Government Your Family

other than at work

Your closest friends

Your religious Priest

of your friends at work-place Any other

Your own

The circle

Professional Ethics (if laid down)

(please specify: .....................................................................)

Q.48. What type of training in thought and skills would you prefer the most? [Please assign rank 1 to 9 (1 for the highest) for the top five choices.] Practical training at an academic institute of higher learning Practical training at R & D organisations recognised as institutes of higher learning As part of mutual transfer of staff (reciprocal basis) between University and R & D laboratories, i.e. from teaching to research and vice versa On-the-job training within the organisation Attendance at Workshops/Seminars/Symposia/Exhibitions etc Membership of professional bodies that meet regularly Free subscription to prestigious Journals of your interest Visits to other Laboratories


244 Temporary opportunity to work under the best known scientists/engineers/ professors/researchers A PhD degree An M Tech degree Specialised Diplomas in related fields -- for multi-disciplinary awareness Creativity training (including Lateral, Parallel & Synectic Thinking; and speed-reading) Training in Inter-Personal Relations (including negotiating skills) Training in Time-Management (how to manage your time). Q.49. From which sources do you generally get the first information about the groupnews/professional news in your organisation? (Please assign weights 1 to 5 according to their frequency of occurrence – i.e. ‘5’ for the highest.) Your supervisor Your colleagues in your Department Your colleagues in other Departments Organisational Circular/Official News-Letter Q.50. Which of the following sources frequently bring you the company-gossip? (Please assign weights 1 to 5 according to the frequency of reporting – i.e. ‘5’ for the highest.) Your supervisor Colleagues in the same department as you are in Colleagues from other departments Technical/Administrative/Estate Services Departments The lunch-break group of friends The Personal Assistant or peon of the Boss The office-bearer of the Trade Union


245 The car-driver (chauffeur) of the Director/Deputy Director Outsiders who have heard about the news People who have themselves seen or heard (as being read aloud) the document containing the news Local media (Newspaper/TV channel etc) The ‘regular guy’ (e.g. a reliable insider source) Q.51. When do you feel your personal as worth being fairly evaluated? When your evaluator is a person belonging to the same narrow discipline as you do When he/she is a professional from another, wider discipline When he/she is a professionally qualified administrator (specialised in Management) When he/she is a technocrat (Techno-Administrator) Q.52. When do you feel less lonely or isolated? When working with people from the same discipline When working with other professionals from diverse disciplines, on a joint project Q.53. Do you feel that your friendship with your colleagues gets your office-work done more easily than would have been the case if the routine formal departmental channels alone were used? Yes

No

Q.54. Can you easily strike conversation with persons whose work-ethics you do not share? Yes

No


246 Q.55. Suppose you, as a specialist, had been working on project ‘A’ for the past six years. Now you are asked to shift to project ‘B’. Which two factors will you find the most difficult to adjust to in the new situation? Develop new relationships with the new team-members To get to know the ways in which their work relates to one another To adapt to their informal group-norms and individual natures To find out who does which part of the composite work To establish your professional importance all over again. Q.56. Suppose you belong to ‘X’ discipline -- which comes under Mr. Bunty (the Head of that discipline). But temporarily you are required to work on a project under a team-leader from another department, viz. Mrs. Enkita; further suppose that both (the team-leader and your department-head) are to evaluate and record your performance. But on one occasion on an issue the Departmental Head and the Team-Leader give you certain instructions that are quite contradictory to eachother. What will you do? Pit one against the other, and enjoy their clash of egos Tell both (the Departmental Head and the Team-Leader) that you cannot work in such a situation Advise both to sort out their differences first, and then to give any directions/ instructions to you on that particular issue Report the matter to their common Boss Any other (Please specify:..................................................................... ) Q.57. ‘Alexander the Great’ was a good orator (speaker) or leader who could enthuse his Army to win several wars, but after the war with Porus (which, too, Alexander won) a number of soldiers in Alexander’s Army revolted/mutinied. Why? Because even an Alexander cannot keep his men motivated to work at a high pitch over extended periods


247 Because his men saw through Alexander’s game, i.e. he alone was getting all the fame and wealth -- which the soldiers had rightfully earned Because Alexander did not care that these soldiers also owed a duty towards their own Families, back home Because hollow words, without tangible Benefits, do not motivate for long Any other (Please specify:........................................................................ ...........................................................................................................) Q.58. a) What makes you to continue to work hard despite deterioration in physical working conditions at your place of work? Work for work’s sake

Out of habit

idle mind is devil’s workshop Expecting a ‘silver lining ...’

An

Fear of reprisals Any other (Please specify:....................

..............................................................................................................................) b) How long can you maintain the tempo of your work merely in the hope that things will -- one day -- improve? Ans.: ................ (in weeks) c) Is it humanly possible to maintain your work-rate after you come to know that things will not improve?

Yes

No

Please let us have your comments here: .................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... Q.59. Which job would you prefer? Technology development

Basic research Administration of R & D

Selection, Training & Development of R & D Personnel. Q.60. What makes a job more prestigious? Please describe briefly: .................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... Q.61. How do you usually find out how well are you doing at your job?


248 Own assessment

Supervisor tells you

Your Colleagues inform you

Your subordinates’ behaviour

towards you Satisfaction that you get from a job seemingly well done Its monetary rewards

Any other (Please specify:..........................

...................................................................................................................................) Q.62. When you commit a mistake, do you usually Immediately try to cover it up someone else Admit your mistake

Shift the blame on

Say that it was beyond your control Simply wish that nobody will ever find out!

Q.63. It is said that each & every activity that a scientist/engineer/executive engages in does not contribute equally towards the achievement of the major tasks assigned to him/her, and further that 80% of the performance which an organisation wants/expects from its employees comes from only 20% of their activities (analogy: ‘A, B, C Analysis’). Please list the other 80% of your activities which, in your opinion, contribute the least towards achievement of overall organisational goals: ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... Q.64. a) May be, for personal reasons or otherwise, you have sometimes felt in high spirits, sometimes depressed, at times frustrated or simply disinterested, or felt under-confident/ overconfident etc. Should your supervisor, in all such atypical situations, continue to expect the same quality of work from you? Yes

No

b) How would you like to be treated when i) You are under-confident: ............................................................................................... ii) You are dangerously overconfident: ...............................................................................................


249 iii) You are frustrated: .................................................................................................. iv) You have temporarily lost interest in work: .................................................................................................. v) For unknown reasons, you are feeling lazy: .................................................................................................. vi) You are depressed: .................................................................................................. v) You are nervous: .................................................................................................. vi) You are in high spirits (in contradistinction to being ‘hyperactive’): .............................................................................................................. vii) You are worried about the children or sick/aged parents (or other familymember) back home:........................................................................................ viii) In such situations, do you strongly feel that your supervisor should take into account that, in general, you are sincere and hard-working: ............................... Q.65. How good do you think you are -- as compared to your colleagues, in the following areas of your work? a) Competence:

better

b) Commitment:

more committed

committed

uncommitted

poor partially

Q.66. If your supervisor had been closely supervising your work till last week, but during this week he suddenly stops seeing you, what would you think? He has been too busy lately He no longer cares how you are doing work-wise He cares for you no more Something is wrong somewhere (What do you think could be wrong: ...............................................................................................................) He trusts you. Q.67. If your supervisor who had not bothered you much in the past, starts questioning you now every day about your work/progress, what will be your first thought?


250 That your work has suddenly become important to him/her or to the department/organisation That your work is lagging (behind schedule) That he/she no longer trusts you He (includes both the genders) is under pressure from his Boss He had lately been fighting with his spouse He has not been keeping well (e.g. high blood-pressure etc.). Q.68. How many times during a work-week do you need to go to the Library? 1-2

3-4

5-6

7-10

Q.69. How many books or Articles (scientific/managerial) do you read per week, and from which source do you normally get them? Number of books/Articles: .............

Source (e.g. library, own purchase etc):

............... Q.70. What would you prefer in lieu of (as an alternative to) Promotion? a) In terms of salary-scale: ............................................................................................................................ b) In terms of perks: ............................................................................................................................ c) In terms of recognition: ........................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................... d) In terms of accommodation: ............................................................................... ........................................................................................................................... e) In terms of retiral benefits: .................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................ f) In terms of children’s education and their financial settlement till completion of their studies: ............................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................... g) In terms of leisure/relaxation, and cost thereof: ................................................. ............................................................................................................................ Q.71. Please close your eyes for a moment and think about your work-environment. Whose face comes first to your mind, that encourages positive feelings in you? a colleague who sits face-to-face with you


251 a colleague who sits in the same office/laboratory room but is not facing you (i.e. does not share a seat that is physically close to yours) a colleague in the same Department/Division but in a different office/laboratory-room a colleague who always encourages you irrespective of his/her place of work a pretty/handsome face a colleague with whom you can converse without leaving your chair/work-station one of your regular clients/consumers/patrons a person who thinks alike (the same way as you do about a lot many things) Q.72. If your supervisor not only tells you what is to be done but also closely supervises your work but still something goes wrong, who do you think should naturally accept the blame? Your supervisor

You

Both

None of you Q.73. How many times and for how long do you need a break from the daily routine to reinvigorate yourself (with tea/coffee, a chat with a colleague &c)? Number of breaks in a day: ........................ Average duration per break: ...................... (minutes).

Thank You! Your cooperation is hereby gratefully acknowledged, please.

Gulshan N.B.: Q. No. 8 (a) and (b) have been split into Qs. Nos. 8 & 9. Q. No.31: $ The italicized portion was not included in the original Questionnaire, but it will be useful to include it during the post-doctoral research. Q. No.32: The italicized Option at the end of the Question was not included in the original Questionnaire, but may be include in post-doctoral research.


252 INDEX


HRD in Creative Organisations