Cockenzie & Port Seton Amateur Radio Club is affiliated to the Radio Society of Great Britain and holds the call signs MM0CPS and GM2T which are used for our special event and contest entries. The Club was formed by Bob Glasgow GM4UYZ in 1984, to help the local amateurs get to know each other. Far from being just a local club we have members regularly attending from the Borders, Dumfries, Strathclyde, Fife and Newcastle. The Club meets on the first Friday of every month (Second Friday of January) in the lounge of the Thorntree Inn on the old Cockenzie High Street from 7pm till late.
November, I really cannot believe we are as far into the year as this. It really is a case of where has the year gone? They say it is an age thing, no comments from you all out there, but the years do seem to fly past so quickly and it only seems five minutes ago that I was trying to put a 2013 Events Calendar together and here I am now doing the same for 2014. On a personal note it has certainly been a very busy few months with a very heavy business workload giving me less time to spend on club matters, so I have quite a backlog to get through but I will get there in the end as they say. What has happened over the past month regarding club events? We had a talk by Geoff MM5AHO on his 2013 Maritime Lighthouse Weekend adventures, another great night by Geoff I must admit. The last contest of the year is CQWW SSB, which we will have done from Barns Ness and as I write this it is in the future. On the training front the last Intermediate Course candidates sat their exam on the 19th October and glad to say all passed with flying colours. I am now delivering the next Foundation Course, starting tomorrow with the 5 candidates take their exam on the 9th November so I hope you will go along with me and wish them all the very best for the exam. Regard my next planned course, the Intermediate Course, which starts on the 23rd November I have a few candidates already but I’m also hoping to interest the Foundation candidates if they pass. The final course for this years training is the Full (Advanced) course starting January
2014... If you know of any one interested in any of the courses can you get them to get in touch ASAP so I can get them booked in or added to next years training program.. This month we have a talk by me on “Special Events – the Whole Story”. This came about at a request from some of last years Advanced Class so hopefully you will come along to listen to it.
We are also taking part in the RSGB centenary year operating GM100RSGB. This event is again being ran from Barns Ness lighthouse over the weekend 16 & 17th November. Fuller details will be placed on the website but I hope many of you will come along and take part. Lastly we have our Christmas Night out in December, and this year we are going for a Chinese Meal in the Dragon Way, Port Seton. This is your last chance if you want to go, so please come and join those who are going and have a good fun night, it only costs £25 a head (your own drinks are not included in this) which by today’s standards is very cheap indeed. I should also say that I need the money for the evening by the December Club Night (6thDecember) so thanks in advance for your help here. If you want to go let me know ASAP, thanks. As always please check the events column for full details. Last thing, I am still looking for ideas for next years Events Calendar so please forward any that you have ASAP so I can complete the 2014 one. (Continued on page 2)
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The Club is run in a very informal way, just a group of like minded people doing something they enjoy!
I feel that I have missed something but I can’t think what it might be, old age and senility creeping in I think!!! That’s it then, enjoy the newsletter this month and I hopefully will see you all at this month’s coming events.
This does not mean that we don’t do anything, we enter (and win!) contests, train newcomers, hold talks and video nights and run a popular annual Junk Sale. Our newsletter has won the Practical Wireless ‘Spotlight’ competition on several occasions. The Club supports the British Heart Foundation in memory of a member who died from heart disease by donating the profits from some of the events we hold, we have raised over £15,832 since 1994.
As you are aware that the GB100RSGB call sign is being used to celebrate the 100 years of the Radio Society of Great Britain (RSGB) during 2013 and Clubs have been approached and applied to use the call sign. We were personally approached earlier on this year to see whether we as a club were willing to take part in the event. The month for South Scotland is November of which we will be taking part over the weekend of the 16/17th November. We will be operating using GM100RSGB A few suggestions on how we will operate over the 16/17th November has been banded about but the final decision was made that we would operate from Barns Ness Lighthouse as that has once again become available to us.
Supported by BT Community Champions
What we will be setting up and running is yet to be decided but I suspect it will be 80M or 40M and also 20/15/10M depending on what
is open and also for the VHF people possibly 2M. Decisions will be made nearer the time. Again this is a great opportunity of publicising the club, a chance to operate and also a major thing with us is to have some fun as well. So in summary we will be taking part and further information will be posted via the club’s forum on the website.
Callsign IOTA Ref GM2T
Category IOTA DXPN MS MIX 24H HP
The results are now in for the contest and we were placed as shown above (Island Expeditions filter): Below was what we submitted but as it says it does not include duplicate QSO’s BAND
Output from the UBN Report
Total QSO’s submitted (including 23 dupes):
The robot/human team has adjudicated
QSOs in non-recommended frequency sections (i.e. 3560 -
3600, 3650 - 3700, 14060 - 14125 and 14300 - 14350 kHz):
======================================== TOTAL SCORE : 6 351 020
see Rule 3 (You have NOT lost any credit for these QSOs). = 2 ** Have to make sure we have none or we will lose points in the future ** (On checking the log 2 were on exactly 14.300 and the other one was on 14.309.5.........) UNIQUES: Your log contains 151 (6.64%) unique.
Dupes are not included in QSO counts neither avg calculations
You have lost 9 multiplier credit(s) and 41 QSOs credit(s) as
So what is obvious is that we lost points along the way after adjudication, so where did we loose them? What is produced by the adjudicators is a file called a UBN file. This file is there to help you see where you went wrong and give guidance in what areas that need improvement. UBN stands for – U = Unique The number of unique call signs that are in your
log that were not worked by any other contest entrant B = Broken
(You have NOT lost any credit for these QSO’s).
Entries in the log which when compared with
follows: BAD CALL SIGN
BAD SERIAL NUMBER
BAD IOTA REFERENCE
BAD COPY OF EXCHANGE
NOT IN LOG
Out of the 41 QSO’s they were
the other station contacted do not compare i.e. serial num-
bers, IOTA Reference missing , etc, etc
N = Not in Log Our Callsign does not appear in the other sta-
The worst areas as you can see are the BAD CALL SIGN and
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Club Attire The club has a design for Club Tee-shirts, Poloshirts, Sweat-Shirts, Fleeces and Jackets and all of these can be obtained from the address below.
When making an order please quote ‘Cockenzie & Port Seton Amateur Radio Club’ as this will ensure that the Club Logo will be placed on the required ordered garments. If you wish to add your call -sign to the logo then please ask at the time of the order.
Summary of score using the following formula:
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((non-IOTA QSOs+ QSOs with same IOTA)x5 + the BAD SERIAL NUMBER. Looking at these is actually given. In itself it doesn’t look bad
Score before adjudication from 2250 valid
but if you look at these as being multipliers
then it hits our score hard. This is where we
( (1491+6) x 5 + 753 x 15) x 337 = 6328860
lost most of our submitted points in the 2013
IOTA contest. The aim is to try and do better.
Score after adjudication from 2209 valid qsos:
The other area NOT IN LOG to be honest I suspect we are in as GM3T and not GM2T ... the
only way we can beat this is making sure we
[FINAL SCORE] is: ( (1472+6) x 5 + 731 x 15) x 328) = 6020440 points (-4.87%)
From the above we actually lost 4.87% of our
listen very carefully to what the other station is score which is a great achievement considergiving us and if it is wrong ensure that it is cor- ing in 2009 it was 11.02%, 2010 it was 3.92%, rected.
2011 it was 7.43%, 2012 it was 6.26%. It is
Sorting out or submitted entry did take time but the effort shows that we ended up with a good UBN file otherwise very few errors. To be honest I think it is nigh on impossible to have no errors at all so our aim is to have as little or
Cost will depend on garment and should cover the garment and logo, call-sign addition will be extra.
QSOs with other IOTA x15) x mults)= Final
more closely it is mistyping or mishearing what score
moving again in the right direction. At least from the UBN file it identifies weak areas and from this in future contests they can be worked on to make sure they are alleviated. We are looking for the ideal of no errors.
none at all. I really must congratulate the
FINAL POSITIONING since taking part in the
whole team on the standard of the logging to
achieve what we did.
How the Score is worked Out…
PATRICIA BEWSEY DESIGNS, UNIT 11, FENTON BARNS RETAIL VILLAGE, FENTON BARNS,
No of ENTRANTS 72
Tel/Fax: 01620 850788 Mobile: 07970 920431
During the IOTA contest 2013, the GM2T amplifier stopped dead. No RF out at all. Something was clearly wrong, and those using it at the time thought it was possibly tube failure. I wonder now if it was wise to volunteer to fix it? But I did, and so after collecting the club’s spare tubes (Svetlana GU74b / 4CX800) I took the heavy beast home and opened the lid for a look. Warning: Linear amplifiers have lethal voltages. Don’t do this unless you know what you’re doing. Even then, the safe way to work with a linear is with one had behind your back, That way you cannot touch two things at once! A visual inspection didn’t show anything obviously wrong. Tube failure in a linear running some power can be dramatic. In some cases meltdown (literally) of components can occur. Big flashes, smoke, even flames have surprised some sleepier contesters during nightshifts in contests.
The getter works at high temperatures better than cold, so a process of running new tubes with the heater on, but no other voltages applied is known as “Gettering”. So for this amplifier, using new old stock tubes, gettering first was advisable. To do this, the amplifiers HV, grid and screen voltages were disabled, but leaving the heater voltage active. The new tubes were installed into their sockets, chimneys replaced and the amplifier powered up running the tube heaters and the cooling fan only. This process needs at least 24 hours, and that’s what this amp was given.
After conditioning the tubes like this, the amplifier needs to be In this case though, there was nothing so spectacular, in fact put back tonothing to show what might have failed. gether, but the Tubes for linears bias needs reare often bought setting. Differas “new, old ent tubes have slightly different characteristics, so setting up stock”, especially the bias afresh is a good idea to get best performance and those sourced long life. from the former To set the bias on the Alpha 91b its necessary to get access to USSR. The Svetthe control board. The front panel needs to be removed, but lana company still operate, so I wired it on at an angle allowing access, while PSU board as arranged for gettering has made elecit still operates. tron valves (or tubes) since the beginning of the 20th century, latterly making many military application devices. Huge stocks Special clips are available for of these have been dribbling onto the market in Europe and connecting a beyond since the USSR dissolved. test meter to Today some distributors specialise in these un-used but old the pins of intestock tubes. grated circuits, Most electron tubes have a vacuum inside, but a vacuum is (eBay has anydifficult to preserve, so manufacturers place a small amount of thing it seems), film on the inside of the tube surface to remove any leakage and these were air molecules. This isn’t to remove large quantities of gas, but used to measure two voltages, and also to bridge two other to remove molecules. pins. The “getter” as it’s known is often barium, but strontium, sodium, caesium, calcium and phosphorous are used. In glass en- To set the bias we need to simulate a transceiver operating the linear, but with no RF actually going in. velope tubes, this is often seen a what looks like silvering on the inside of the glass.
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Thanks to the sterling work by M0RNR, our club has been added to the excellent Clublog system developed by Michael Wells G7VJR. www.clublog.org The system allows members to upload their logs in ADIF format and have them displayed in a table with all the other club members. Clublog also has great facilities for tracking your DXCC status etc so is well worth taking the time to register and get your log uploaded. To update your log with the next set of contacts (SSB, CW or Data) you can simply upload your whole log again and the system will take care of the duplicates. Alternatively you can export the bits you want from your own log and just upload that. The tables we’ll publish here will be the club, filtered by the current year, so everyone starts a new year at 0 contacts.
In the pictures you can see two voltmeters connected to both the control board and the HV rectifier board B- point.
While the amplifier was working, the output was being short circuited. During testing, a small wisp of smoke was released.
After setting the bias (it takes a few iterations between two operating states to do this), its time to put some RF in and see what happens! Nothing.! It seems that something else is wrong, so back to the hunt for the problem. Two issues were found after several hours hunting. One was the broken joint on the resistor across an inductor at the anode connections (see picture), the other was more important.
On the RF output stage there’s a multi-tap coil wound on a toroid former which is bolted to the chassis. To insulate the coil, the winding is Teflon coated, and the coil is mounted on a rubber mat. But the mat is compressed by the holding bolt, and in this case had been thinned enough to arc through to the chassis. This means that RF is short circuited to earth at a point electrically near the outlet SO239.
Now, we all know that most electronic devices contain smoke, and if released, the devices won’t work anymore. So quick action to shut down before excessive smoke was released seemed to save the day. Making a new insulator for this coil and fitting it fixed this issue. Soldering the broken resistor leg solved that, and nothing else could be found. So, time for another test. Choosing the 40m band, I started at about 5W drive, and saw several hundred watts out. Increasing to 20W, then further, the output meters in use showed a much healthier situation. Eventually topping off at over 2kW peak, this linear looks like it will see comfortable service in the next contest its due to operate in. Now it’s the end of September as I write and in a few weeks CQWW SSB will be along, so that might be the marathon that it runs in next. Meantime a few sprints at home are order of the day to ensure that all’s well.
A receiver is being designed to receive a medium wave 6. broadcast on 1.000MHz. The local oscillator is set to a. 1.465MHz. For the same IF, what other frequency b. could the local oscillator be set to?
A "trap" in a trap dipole antenna consists of a parallel tuned circuit a high pass filter
a voltage divider
A transmitter is connected to a length of feeder of loss of 3dB and an antenna with a return loss of 15dB. What return loss will be seen at the transmitter?
a. b. c. d.
A transmitter is connected by a feeder to the ATU, which is sited close to the antenna and remotely controlled. Adjusting the ATU will
allow the frequency of the transmitter to be adjusted without varying the frequency of the receiver
have minimal effect on the load impedance seen by the transmitter
allow the frequency of the receiver to be adjusted without varying the frequency of the transmitter
have minimal effect on the SWR between the transmitter and the ATU
vary the frequency of both receiver and transmitter
Allow the frequency of the receiver IF amplifier to be varied to avoid interference.
alter the SWR on the feeder between the antenna and the ATU
Alter the SWR on the feeder between the ATU and transmitter.
a. b. c. d.
The AGC signal from the demodulator is often fed to the
a. b. c. d.
local oscillator and IF amplifier
The purpose of the RIT control on a transceiver is to
An impedance transformer.
IF amplifier and signal strength meter IF amplifier and carrier insertion oscillator Carrier insertion oscillator and product detector.
An antenna has a feed impedance of 100R. A 位/4 feeder to transform this to 50R will have an impedance of 9. approximately
a. b. c. d.
To reduce the angle of radiation of a transmitted signal 10. the amateur should
a. b. c. d.
reduce the height of the antenna above the ground
70R 100R 200R
reduce the number of Yagi elements electrically isolate the antenna from the mast Increase the height of the antenna above ground.
a. b. c. d.
a. b. c. d.
12dB 15dB 21dB
The field strength (in V/m) of a radio wave decreases with the distance from the source in phase with the wavelength at a linear rate according to an inverse square law Except at frequencies below 3MHz.
Which one of the following is the lowest layer in the ionosphere? D E F1 F2
The economics of scale have given electronic devices some
'sarah-it', Ebay item number 270797992621, for the grand
bizarre relative costs: it can now be cheaper to buy an im-
total of £2.34 with free postage. At the time of writing, she
mensely complicated piece of consumer digital wizardry than
has hundreds still to sell.
to buy even a handful of individual components. Building from component-level up may be satisfying, but adapting cheap consumer gizmos can be much cheaper. This article takes this approach to make a digimode interface to an analogue transceiver, without tying up the computer soundcard, for less than £10. This simple design was giving me PSK31 conversations
with Germany and Spain within 5 minutes of my connecting it, even though I was using a 30-year old transceiver and I had never even seen digital operation beforehand.
Avoiding DC connections between computer and rig could be achieved by capacitors, but it is much easier, from the point of view of impedance matching across a range of frequencies, to use transformers. I used a pair of 600 ohm, 1:1 audio transformers, again from an Ebay supplier – item 190908653974 – at £2.49 each. My transceiver (a fully-analogue 30 year-old Tentech) has a sensitive audio input, so I built a simple potential divider from two 10k resistors, which attenuated the audio from computer to transceiver to values like those I could
Interfacing a computer to a transceiver for RTTY, PSK, Hell-
measure from my microphone. I preferred building this simple
schreiber, Throb etc., requires a way of connecting audio sig-
attenuator to the alternative of altering the audio pre-amp
nals to and from the rig. This should ideally be done without
settings of the transceiver when I moved to digital modes,
providing a DC path between the devices, without over mod-
because I am too absent-minded to remember to make this
ulating the transmitter, without allowing RFI to loop round
adjustment every time - I would be sure to forget one day,
from the transmitter back into the audio stream and, ideally,
and end up splattering over-modulation all over the band.
without messing up the other things that computer might
Much better to have the interface provide mic-level signals in
normally do. The last two requirements can be satisfied by the the first place! I put the resistors on the primary (computer) use of a remote “sound card”, located near the rig and con-
side of the transformer, as I am not bothered about imped-
nected to the computer by a long USB lead: small amounts of
ance matching that side: the computer will not care. Using an
RFI getting into the digital signals in a USB lead will not matter 18:1 transformer would have been a more elegant solution, (they will not end up in the audio), and this arrangement leaves the computer's internal sound card unaffected. This is where re-purposing cheap consumer gizmos comes in. Ebay is full of USB '3D channel audio sound adaptors', sold in large numbers by headphone-wearing computer game players who want the illusion of hearing sounds coming from a particular place in space. I bought mine from the commercial seller
but a more expensive one too. The whole circuit diagram, such as it is, is shown in Fig 1. I mounted the transformers and resistors on a stripboard offcut, though they could just as easily have been connected 'ugly-style'. However you mount them, cut off the centre taps on the transformers (the middle legs on each side) as they are (Continued on page 9)
(Continued from page 8)
show multiple digital conversations, some clearly about 30Hz wide on the waterfall, so good candidates for being PSK31. I
not needed. Audio interconnection leads between stick and
selected that mode and for a few minutes I just eavesdropped
stripboard were made by buying a cheap 3.5mm stereo jack-to on other people's conversations to get a feeling for how PSK -jack interconnection lead for £1 and cutting it to make two
conversations are made: pretty much like CW, it turned out. I
jack-to-bare-wire leads. Connections from the transformers to
then saw DB1NWA calling CQ, and replied. I typed my mes-
the transceiver were made with an old RCA-RCA interconnec-
sage, clicked my mouse over 'TX' in the Fldigi window, heard
tion lead, again cut in half. The USB lead was a USB extension,
the transmit relay click over in the transceiver as the Vox cir-
another £1. I superglued the components to the inside surface cuit detected signals from the computer, and out went the of a plastic box (Fig 2), and filed notches in the side-walls of
signal. DB1NWA confirmed my signals were fine (with no out-
the box so that the cables could exit when the lid was placed
of-range splatter) and, after exchanging the usual information,
on it. The box I used was plastic, so there was no issue about
I thanked him for my first digital QSO. EB5DZC kindly provided
earthing: if you use a metal box, ground it either to computer
my second, moments later.
ground or radio ground, but not both (or you will provide an unwanted direct connection between the devices).
Building this device would be a trivial task for anyone who has done the Intermediate Course practicals, or who has learned
On the computer side, some kind of digital modem program is
to solder for any other reason. If you own an older transceiver,
needed. On my own machines, I run only software that is Free
there can't be many other ways you could spend £10 to
(Free as in 'freedom' – see www.fsf.org for more information
achieve such a dramatic increase in the number of operating
on the Free software movement). Fldigi is an obvious choice,
modes available to you!
as it is easy to use and supports most digital modes. Being a user of GNU/Linux, I got Fldigi from a Linux repository: if you use OSX or Windows you can get it from http://w1hkj.com/
Fig 2: the ugly reality! Jamie MM0JMI
download.html in a self-
installing form. With the box built, all that remained was to plug the RCA leads into the back of the transceiver, check the transceiver still worked normally on voice SSB, plug the USB lead into the desktop, check that both computer and transceiver were still happy, tune the transceiver to 7.140MHz, turn the output drive down to
30W (because digimodes have a much higher duty cycle than SSB voice and I did not want to overheat my PA), switch the transceiver to 'Vox', and fire up Fldigi. At once, Fldigi's waterfall display lit up to
Friday 27th September
We then headed back to Port Seton and the Ship Inn car park where we met up with Cephas and Alex who also said they This year again we had our normal two DF Nights in the events didn’t hear him at all. That certainly made us feel a lot better. calendar, this being our second one. Weather wise was an We also noticed that Bob’s car was still sitting where he had excellent evening where it felt like a summer’s night which left it so did Paul and him find Cambell. It turns out no but made the event more enjoyable. The days leading up to the they had passed within 3 feet of Cambell twice in Haddington Friday were poor to say the least so it was a major worry it and never even noticed him... observation skills, well no comwas going to stay that way, but it didn’t. The difference bement. Anyway those who could made a retreat to the tween or first DF night in May and this one was this time it Thorntree and the debrief... was done in the darkness. That in itself certainly added to the fun of trying to find that elusive fox. The fox again for this This is the first year that I can remember that the “fox” has event was Cambell MM0DXC. Like the other previous DF won in both the May and September DF Nights with no one nights the fox was given notification, this time a text, before finding it. Well done Cambell a great achievement. The Hythe event started informing the “fox” of how many cars were bszer trophy stays with Cambell as in fact he was the winner. taking part. A massive thank you from us all to Cambell for taking on the Well the 3 teams that took part this time assembled as in past role of the fox and once again producing another fun packed years, at the Ship Inn Car Park. The teams consisted of Bob night. Also thanks to everyone who turned up I know from all GM4IKT and Paul MM0VPR in car 1, Cephas MM0INS and Alex your comments you all seemed to enjoy it so hopefully you MM3ZQX in car 2, and lastly Robbie MM3RBC, young Fraser will all come back for the next DF night in May 2014. SWL and his dad Cammy and me GM4UYZ in car 3. All of the Those of you who do not take part you do not know what you teams for this DF Hunt used a 2 element beam. It was a pity a are missing. Believe you me DF’ing is not as easy as you think, few more hadn’t turned up excluding those who did inform give it a try and you will see what I mean. me due to personal reasons they couldn’t manage. Over the Congratulations again to the fox for winning and commiserayears a lot of people have really enjoyed taking part but alas you all seem to be now missing…… It was a pleasure though to tions to the rest of us. see some new faces in the starting line up who have hopefully now got the DF bug...fingers crossed At the pre-requisite time of the 19:00 start we all went our separate ways to try and catch the elusive fox. We headed this year to Birsley Brae, Tranent but nothing heard. We headed then to the Gladsmuir car park where we took our next bearing, nothing heard. We then moved to Haddington, nothing heard then to the Garlton Hill, nothing heard, to Drem, to Dirleton, to North Berwick, to Gullane and still nothing heard. By this time it was all over with the total confusion of why hadn’t we heard anything and was the equipment faulty. (Note: Since then the equipment has been tested and it is all ok.) What made it even worse is when Cambell informed us that he was in Haddington and he had been heard from the Gladsmuir car park by Bob and Paul and we heard nothing and also where we DF’d at Haddington we certainly should have heard him but still heard nothing. Such is the life of the DF fox hunters....
Thanks for responding to the Christmas Night out.
If you can’t make it then let me know as well, please
Out of all the replies then 98% of them opted for a Chinese meal so to that end I have booked the following:
How many in your party: i.e. Wife/Partner/Girlfriend, yourself and anyone else?
DRAGON WAY CHINESE RESTAURANT
Need full money by 7th December at the extreme latest.
Saturday: 14th December 2013
I am not sure if you have all seen the email I sent out from the Club’s Website or not, although it has been advertised in the club newsletter, anyway if I am honest my gut feeling is saying that emails from the club’s distribution list are not working 100% but I can’t prove it. It is a subject for another day.
Time: 20:00 To make my life easier I am going to make it the same cost as last year which was £25 per head. If we go over then will ask for the rest, if there is money left then I will distribute it amongst those who paid. So what I am looking from you all is to respond to this article with: Definite conformation (will accept a maybe but need confirmation one way or another by the 7th December as I need to confirm numbers then)
Can you let me know one way or another by answering the above questions? Many thanks Bob GM4UYZ
No TV aerial at CQWW? No problem, just make one!
General correspondence, training and contest entries Bob Glasgow 7 Castle Terrace Port Seton East Lothian EH32 0EE Phone: 01875 811723 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
1 November 2013
2 November 2013
2nd Foundation Course part 1
9 November 2013
2nd Foundation Course part 2
16/17 November 2013
GM100RSGB from Barns Ness Lighthouse
22 November 2013
Talk GM4UYZ Special Events—the whole story
23 November 2013
Intermediate Course 2
30 November 2013
Intermediate Course 2
30 November 2013
6 December 2013
7 December 2013
Intermediate Course 2
12 December 2013
Geminids Meteor Shower
14 December 2013
Christmas Night Out
31 December 2013
January Newsletter Deadline
10 January 2014
HF Contests Cambell Stevenson email@example.com VHF Contests John MacLean firstname.lastname@example.org
Club Tables Bob Purves email@example.com Contest Reports Robin Farrer firstname.lastname@example.org Newsletter, website, event calendar John Innes email@example.com
1 MM0DXH+5 2 GM4IKT 3 MM0GZZ 4 GM2T 5 M0RNR+2 6 GM2Y 7 MM0XXW+1 8 GM4UYZ+1 9 GB2VEF 10 GB2LBN 11 GB2MOF 12 2M0BEC+1 13 MM0CPS 14 MM5AHO
160 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
80 33 0 8 42 0 30 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 0
60 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
40 75 0 58 57 34 43 32 32 19 32 16 8 0 3
30 8 0 58 0 0 0 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
20 135 86 85 80 54 62 47 58 59 53 48 24 0 1
17 4 5 29 0 0 0 36 0 0 0 0 2 0 0
15 112 63 23 64 40 41 31 26 0 18 5 6 0 0
12 0 0 10 0 0 0 10 0 0 0 0 5 0 0
10 52 18 44 21 3 16 23 0 0 0 0 27 0 1
6 DXCCs ▼ Slots Range 0 172 419 10 yrs 0 131 172 9 yrs 24 116 339 3 yrs 14 94 278 14 yrs 0 79 131 14 yrs 0 76 192 3 yrs 2 72 214 7 yrs 0 66 119 33 yrs 0 62 78 0 yrs 0 60 103 18 yrs 0 51 69 12 yrs 0 49 72 7 yrs 9 9 9 15 yrs 0 5 5 18 yrs
1B, 2B, 3B, 4B, 5D, 6A, 7D, 8D, 9B, 10A Answers from November 2013 newsletter “Test Your Knowledge”.