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CASE STUDY: HOUSING TYPOLOGIES

Dalia Cruz, Jessica Mora, Christa Frisco

ARC 3020: Housing and Urban Design Irma Ramirez


TABLE OF CONTEXT

1. Kanchanjunga Apartments, Charles Correa 2. Formosa 1140, Lorcan O’herlihy 3. Fleet Road Terrace Housing, Neave Brown 4. Unite d’Habitation, Le Corbusier

Dalia Cruz, Jessica Mora, Christa Frisco

ARC 3020: Housing and Urban Design Irma Ramirez


Dalia Cruz, Jessica Mora, Christa Frisco

ARC 3020: Housing and Urban Design Irma Ramirez


Kanchanjunga Apartments TOWER

1. Project Name: Kanchanjunga Apartments 2. Project Architect: Charles Correa Associates 3. Date built: 1970 - 1974 4. Location: 72 Peddar Rd, 400026 Mumbai, India 5. Cost if known: Unknown 6. Typology: Tower 7. Project Density: 32/.96 = 33.3 8. Number of units: 32 9. Number of unit type: 4 10. Private outdoor space per dwelling unit: 250 sqft 11. Parking spaces per dwelling unit: Unknown (Underground) Dalia Cruz, Jessica Mora, Christa Frisco

ARC 3020: Housing and Urban Design Irma Ramirez


Dalia Cruz, Jessica Mora, Christa Frisco

ARC 3020: Housing and Urban Design Irma Ramirez


Kanchanjunga Apartments Dalia Cruz, Jessica Mora, Christa Frisco

ARC 3020: Housing and Urban Design Irma Ramirez


Concept/ Idea

The Kanchenjunga Apartments designed by Charles Correa came from the idea and organization of the bungalow. Where the living space is centered and wrapped to serve as a protection space. The corners made into terraces enhances the protection aspect of the project as well due to the fact that the terrace protects the living area from too much sun and rain but also thrives on them. The units are inspired by Corbusier’s skip levels sections and the views surrounding the building are the cause of the corner terrace each unit gets. The name Kanchenjunga is taken from the second largest mountain of the Himalayan range. Therefore, the making it seem as a slim tall building consisting of 27 floors and 32 luxurious apartments of 3 to 5 bedrooms. The structure is built around the central service core. The large terraces serve as viewing ports as well as providing natural sunlight and

Human Safety The bungalow style of architecture was the main inspiration for the Kanchenjunga apartments. It provides an outdoor terrace area and at the same time protects the living space from harsh weathers. The center core of the plan is the living and dining where you get enough light but is pulled back from the edge of the building that you feel at ease and not in danger or fear of the exterior.

Kanchanjunga Apartments Dalia Cruz, Jessica Mora, Christa Frisco

Indoor/Outdoor

This model represents the building mass versus the voids that create terraces in the units. Each cut out along the face of the building resembles the modular square represented in this typology, evident in the shape of the windows as well as the balconies. Each unit contains two terraces and balconies.

Site Plan Logic + Pedestrian/Automobile

The Kanchenjunga Apartments are located in the center of the site and surrounded by landscape the Parking is mostly underground alongside the main entry. The Light green represents the landscape and common area for the residents. The yellow are the units, showing two units of one type mirrored. The Pedestrian and Mobil relationship are separated by landscape for a safer environment.

ARC 3020: Housing and Urban Design Irma Ramirez


Materials

Scale/Structure

The building stands in a centered position where it is surrounded with lower building and a distant tall building. The Kanchenjunga is 275 feet tall and compared to a person it is nearly a sky scraper. It stands majestically with its overview terraces and symmetry. The voids are clearly shown and represent the symmetry that surrounds the building due to the view it wants to face. The windows are aligned and come in 3 different sizes. The clear grid can be seen from this elevation view and is pleasant to the eye.

The whole structure of the building consists of reinforce cement concrete and masonry is used to resemble brick. The cantilever blocks provide shade for residents and has a sense of protection when in it. The durability of the building is high due to the fact that concrete can resist weather action and chemical attack and abrasion.

Kanchanjunga Apartments Dalia Cruz, Jessica Mora, Christa Frisco

ARC 3020: Housing and Urban Design Irma Ramirez


Natural Light/Ventilation Each unit in the apartments consist of a corner terrace that provides plenty of natural daylight and ventilation. The outside perimeter of the building has three different size windows that illuminate and ventilate the rooms and restrooms. As shown in section, the open floor plan and double ceiling heights allow for the wind to circulate in and out the units.

Circulation

The central stairs and elevator are the main vertical circulation that run across all the units to the top. It also serves as a separator between units and unit types. In plan, the circulation glides through the whole ground in a circular motion due to the corner terrace that has two entry sides thus allowing for the full rotational circulation.

Unit Analysis The Kanchenjunga Apartments is 27 floors tall and consists of 4 types of units. Each take up two stories and half of the floor ground space. Type A is repeated 5 times and is a 3-bedroom unit, Type B, 6 time with 3 bedrooms, Type C, 4 times with 5 bedrooms, and unit D, 2 times with 4 bedrooms. Dalia Cruz, Jessica Mora, Christa Frisco

SOURCES: https://identityhousing.wordpress. com/2009/12/03/charles-correa-kanchanjunga-apartments-cumballa-hill-mumbai-1970-1983/ https://www.scribd.com/document/279414350/Kunchanjunga-Apartments https://archnet.org/publications/7084

ARC 3020: Housing and Urban Design Irma Ramirez


Formosa 1140 COURTYARD

1. Project Name: Formosa 1140 2. Project Architect: Lorcan O’ Herlihy Architects 3. Date built: 2008 4. Location : West Hollywood 5. Cost: $240 per square foot 6. Typology: Courtyard 7. Project Density: 29.97 8. Number of units: 11 9. Number of types: 3 10. Private outdoor: 120 sqft per unit 11. Parking spaces: 23 Dalia Cruz, Jessica Mora, Christa Frisco

ARC 3020: Housing and Urban Design Irma Ramirez


Dalia Cruz, Jessica Mora, Christa Frisco

ARC 3020: Housing and Urban Design Irma Ramirez


EAST ELEVATION

Dalia Cruz, Jessica Mora, Christa Frisco

ARC 3020: Housing and Urban Design Irma Ramirez


Concept/Idea The concept for the Formosa building was to generate a courtyard area but have extended open space. Therefore, the center courtyard area was pushed back and this having a modified courtyard housing. The units are placed in one area and the rest is a pocket park where it is opened to the public but away from the private.

Site Plan Logic The site plan consists of plenty outdoor space in green and the ground of the project pushed towards the street. The units face the street and park across the street and are stacked on top of each other. The parking is underground and can be accessed by the right side of the building. Dalia Cruz, Jessica Mora, Christa Frisco

ARC 3020: Housing and Urban Design Irma Ramirez


Unit Analysis There are 11 units stacked on top of each other and 4 unit types. The first unit runs through the third floor as a single type. The 2nd through 5th unit are another type, where the 6th is a single type of unit. Lastly the last floor consist of 5 of the same unit types that all have roof deck access.

Materials The faรงade of the building is covered with red corrugated metal and coated with a 70% PVDF Fluropon Coating in a Coronado red to contrast with the greenery surrounding the building. this coating was tested for years to have the right color constancy and tested with extreme weathers and sun radiation to avoid color fading. This outside skin provides shade and lighting at the same time and is durable due to the coating that provides a soothing ambience and finish faรงade.

Dalia Cruz, Jessica Mora, Christa Frisco

ARC 3020: Housing and Urban Design Irma Ramirez


Scale The scale of this project is proportioned to a human scale, it is not a tall building but a slim long building. the building surrounding it are shorter to fairly the same as Formosa, but the elevation is much more extravagant and interesting to look at.

Circulation Formosa is a simple geometric shape with circulation surrounding the outside building. the entry ways are in front of the units and are covered by the outside skin for more privacy and lighting plus views to the park.

Private/Public + Ventilation The separation between private and public consists of a pocket park located on the back side of Formosa. The units and building itself is private and has private outdoor space, but the park is accessible to the public. As for ventilation and sunlight, the exterior skin allows for wind to travel through it and into the building and out the other side. Dalia Cruz, Jessica Mora, Christa Frisco

ARC 3020: Housing and Urban Design Irma Ramirez


Human Safety

Formosa provides for stairs that circulate the building and are easily accessible. The units have a set of stairs to get from one floor to another and out. The building is pushed back to create the front pocket park area to welcome the public, and for that the outside skin provides some privacy and safety for the residents.

28’

20’

20’

9’ 15’

Structure

Dalia Cruz, Jessica Mora, Christa Frisco

12’

Although it may look jagged and asymmetrical, the grid is still there followed by secondary grid and maybe even a possible third. The building itself is quite symmetrical, it is the outside skin wrapped around it that creates this illusion of the building being cut with voids.

ARC 3020: Housing and Urban Design Irma Ramirez


Lighting

Formosa provides natural sunlight through front and back windows. They have shared walls therefore the front and back are made to have views, ventilation and sunlight. The skin wrapped around the building provides some shade, but the corrugation and voids allow sunlight to penetrate the front and back of the units.

Pedestrian/ Automobile

The park is opened to the public therefore pedestrians are able to roam around it. As for the cars, they circulate the site for circular access and perhaps street parking as well.

SOURCES: http://www.toplacondos.com/Formosa-1140 https://www.architectmagazine.com/awards/ residential-architect-design-awards/formosa-1140-west-hollywood-calif_o https://www.archdaily.com/16194/formosa-1140-loha-architects

Dalia Cruz, Jessica Mora, Christa Frisco

ARC 3020: Housing and Urban Design Irma Ramirez


Fleet Road Terrace Housing Row Houses

1. Name: Fleet Road Terrace Housing 2. Architect: Neave Brown 3. Date: 1967 4. Location: London, England, UK 5. Cost if known: Unknown 6. Type: Row houses 7. Housing Density: 57.87 8. Units: 70 9. Unit type: 3 10. Ratio of indoor and outdoor space: 2:1 (indoor to outdoor private space) 11. Parking per unit: Unknown (Underground) Dalia Cruz, Jessica Mora, Christa Frisco

ARC 3020: Housing and Urban Design Irma Ramirez


FLOOR PLAN

Dalia Cruz, Jessica Mora, Christa Frisco

ARC 3020: Housing and Urban Design Irma Ramirez


UNIT FLOOR PLAN

SECTION Dalia Cruz, Jessica Mora, Christa Frisco

ARC 3020: Housing and Urban Design Irma Ramirez


AXONOMETRIC Dalia Cruz, Jessica Mora, Christa Frisco

ARC 3020: Housing and Urban Design Irma Ramirez


Concept/Idea

he parallel rows of low rise buildings are characteristics of a typical London terrace house. Fleet Road is evidently a more modern version of the terrace house. These houses are designed to be split-level, multiunit sections. He also adopted the ideas behind a large two-story unit above, flats below or small one units, with balconies above. A narrow space is provided to entrance to the lower units.

Public Private Undground Parking

Site Plan Logic

The site plan shows public vs private sequences, underground parking, and surrounding buildings. The units themselves are an individual space while the public and pedestrian access are a communal space. The parking spots per unit are unknown however they do not play a major role to the communal spaces.

Scale

As can be seen in the section, there are varying heights throughout the collection of housing. Which is due to the terraces, pedestrian access, underground parking, and double heighted units.

Dalia Cruz, Jessica Mora, Christa Frisco

ARC 3020: Housing and Urban Design Irma Ramirez


Circulation

One Bedroom Flats 1 story

Two Bedroom Maisonette 2 story

Circulation unit type A

upper level

unit type B

lower level

Circulation

Circulation

Materials The collection of row houses creates a sort of community within the pedestrian access of the terrace housing. This is both private to the owners of the units and public to the surrounding units. The placement of the units helps to create a communal space within the shared pedestrian access the houses are built with concrete block work creating a light and bright faรงade with timber windows, doors, balcony fronts and fences. Dalia Cruz, Jessica Mora, Christa Frisco

ARC 3020: Housing and Urban Design Irma Ramirez


Human Safety

The exit routes for the units are going to be the same as the entrances that lead into the pedestrian access with the exception of the outer rows of housing having an exit leading from the terrace to the street.

Unit Analysis The parallel rows of terrace housing are basically repeated four times. There are two alternative layouts to the one-bedroom flats, one-unit type for the two-bedroom two-story maisonette, and a three bedroom two story maisonette.

3 bedroom maisonette 2 bedroom maisonette 1bedroom flat

pedestrian access private terrace car parking

Egress

Pedestrian/Automobile With the parking being underground, there is not a strong pedestrian and automobile relationship. While there are concrete light wells punched through the center of the walkways providing light and security, they do not play a part in the communal space.

Dalia Cruz, Jessica Mora, Christa Frisco

ARC 3020: Housing and Urban Design Irma Ramirez


Public/Private

The public and private spaces are distinguished by changing the elevation or by the timber fences. As can be seen in the diagram, the public access is narrow since it squeezes between the rows.

Structure As shown in the structural diagram, the grid used for the units are two feet by five feet rectangle. The one bedroom and two-bedroom units are about forty feet in length. The interior space is shown in the diagram as the white space. One Bedroom Flats 1 story

Two Bedroom Maisonette 2 story

5’ 2’

unit type A

upper level

Ventilation for 1 bedroom flats

unit type B

lower level

Lighting/ Ventilation

Dalia Cruz, Jessica Mora, Christa Frisco

Since the row houses are pointing north the units receive natural lighting from east to west. The flats that are located on the ground level receive shading from the terraces from the two-story flats from above. As for ventilation, each unit receives fresh air from the terrace at the end of each floor. ARC 3020: Housing and Urban Design Irma Ramirez


Unite d’ Habitation SLAB

1. Project Name: Unite d’Habitation 2. Project Architect: Le Corbusier 3. Date built: 1945-1952 4. Location: Morseilles, France 5. Cost if known: Unknown 6. Typology: Slab 7. Project Density: 337/11.5 = 29.3 8. Number of units: 337 9. Number of unit type: 23 10. Private outdoor space per dwelling unit:150 sq ft 11. Parking spaces per dwelling unit: Unknown (Parking on Ground Level) Dalia Cruz, Jessica Mora, Christa Frisco

ARC 3020: Housing and Urban Design Irma Ramirez


Large Floor Plan Dalia Cruz, Jessica Mora, Christa Frisco

ARC 3020: Housing and Urban Design Irma Ramirez


ELEVATION

Dalia Cruz, Jessica Mora, Christa Frisco

ARC 3020: Housing and Urban Design Irma Ramirez


Concept/ Idea

The concept of this project was to address the high need for housing after the Second World War. As a result, Le Corbusier responded to that by focusing on enhanced yet efficient communal living for all inhabitants to shop, play, live, and come together in what he called a “Vertical Garden City”.

Site Plan Logic

The “Unité d'Habitation” is located in a large park in France, with its main ele¬vations facing East and West. The North elevation is completely closed off due to the cold winds generated from that side. This building really addresses the site in a unique way by centering the building within a massive park. Although the building itself appears large in scale, in relation to the building site, it has a minimal footprint. The interesting aspect is the entry sequence as one must engage the building first before entering, by a means of parking underneath the elevated super structure.

Scale Le Corbusier designed this project as a new series of housing ideas, in which to approach such a large-scale housing complex that accommodated roughly 1,600 residents. This building was built a such a substantial scale in comparison to the community. Normally, when designing for such a large-number of inhabitants, one would design horizontally over the landscape, however he designed this community such that one would interact with the neighborhood within its neighboring context as a modern, mixed-use, residential high-rise building. The building size is 165 m long, 24 m deep and 56 m high. As shown in the Diagram. This monolithic structure dominates the terrain and stands out In comparison to the context.

Dalia Cruz, Jessica Mora, Christa Frisco

ARC 3020: Housing and Urban Design Irma Ramirez


Circulation

This circulation of this building is very simple. Each unit has access through a double loaded corridor, accessible by a primary elevator location along with three stair ways. These units are interlocked in a pair of two that span from each side of the building, as well as creating double height living spaces thus reducing the amount of corridors needed. As a result, corridors are only required once every three floors, reducing the amount to Le Corbusier’s idea of the “vertical garden city” was total of five circulatory derived from bringing the single unit into a larger corridors. volume that allowed for each inhabitant to have their own private spaces, yet outside these private sectors they would have the ability to eat, exercise, shop, entertain, and gather together as they pleased.

Private/ Public

Dalia Cruz, Jessica Mora, Christa Frisco

He decided that public and private space were to be separated not only in but in floors. Surprisingly, Le Corbusier puts most of the Communal public space on the roof of the building but then slices the building almost in half, by having the 7th and 8th floor be filled with shops. Some of the public spaces include: a 300m athletics track, a club, a health center, a social space, an outdoor theatre, a nursery, and a covered gymnasium.

ARC 3020: Housing and Urban Design Irma Ramirez


Unit Analysis Each unit is L-shaped in section but divided with this main corridor, evident in the Unit Massing Diagram. The overall project using this project in all 337 units, although the unit type varies the repetition of the organization remains the same. The interior organization follows a repetitive layout as well. Due to the L-shaped units in section, the living areas can have double height spaces increasing comfort and pleasure. No matter the direction of the entrance you are always entering the semi-private space which is the Kitchen area. The ratio of units to unit types: 23:337 ( 7%)

Materials The materials used are reinforced concrete with a bright visible coating and glass. These basic materials are placed without any decoration or without any elegance, outside as well as inside. The Faรงade, however, is protected by canopies, that was prefabricated with elements of the same material. The image of the building is articulated using color variation on the faรงade: Red, Blue, Yellow, and Green.

Pedestrian/ Automobile

The pedestrian and the automobile share a unique relationship as the parking is located directly underneath the building on the ground floor. The elevated podium allows for covered garage spaces for each of the units. At a Glance the elevated super structure appears to create a leisure space for local pedestrians, however, it is utilized to accommodate the importance of the automobile, while also creating a space suitable for the pedestrians to occupy. This acts as a communication space between man and automobile. Dalia Cruz, Jessica Mora, Christa Frisco

ARC 3020: Housing and Urban Design Irma Ramirez


Lighitng/Ventilation

Natural lighting was carefully articulated in this project by extending the units to the span of the building, thus allowing for sunlight to penetrate the apartment on both sides of the unit. Apartments are interlocking around the access corridors to ensure said cross-ventilation – for the bedrooms at least. Ventilation and lighting are mostly c-dependent of each other. However, the kitchens and the guest toilet need ventilation the most and are located precisely where the airflow is worst.

= Unit type A Balcony = Unit type B Balcony = Circulation = Public = Unit type A = Unit Type B

Dalia Cruz, Jessica Mora, Christa Frisco

ARC 3020: Housing and Urban Design Irma Ramirez


Human Safety

There is a total of 4 main exit routs that each occupant may take in the event of an emergency. In addition, the surrounding streets, that run directly on the site, are low traffic streets that increase human safety. Due to the high density of this typology, the building proximity to the street face is very important. The relationship between building density and the distance away from the public domain should be relative to the amount of privacy needed for the units, but also to the ease of exiting the site in case of emergency. EXIT STRATEGY DIAGRAM

STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS DIAGRAM

Structure

This structural grid is laid out based on one block or slab, that is raised up on free standing reinforced concrete pillars that acts like a shelf over the top. These pillars were designed in a manner that increased permeability at the ground level. Le Corbusier showed the relationship between construction and the urban

10.2

33.0

0'

5'

SOURCES: https://en.wikiarquitectura.com/building/ unite-dhabitation-of-marseille/ https://www.architectural-review.com/ essays/views-on-le-corbusiers-unite-dhabitation/10008291.article https://pngtree.eu/when-dimensions-unite-fimfiction.html#gallery-25 https://www.archdaily.com/85971/ad-classics-unite-d-habitation-le-corbusier http://www.greatbuildings.com/buildings/ Unite_d_Habitation.html

Dalia Cruz, Jessica Mora, Christa Frisco

ARC 3020: Housing and Urban Design Irma Ramirez


LIVABILTY Kanchanjunga Apartments

Kanchenjunga Apartments is set to be a long tower than has at least two units per floor. Each has a terrace and balconies that allow the elevation view to have variation in their placements. The façade shows the variations of windows allowing for the scale of the building to look taller. The terraces in each floor consist of two main colors that include a mustard yellow and red. This gives it a more at secure feeling considering how you are high up in the sky in a big tower. The materials vary from concrete to masonry in the terrace to provide a more welcoming environment.

Fleet Road Terrace Housing The collection of row houses creates a sort of community within the pedestrian access of the terrace housing. The houses are built with concrete block work creating a light and bright façade with timber windows, doors, balcony fronts and fences. The placement of the units helps to create a communal space within the shared pedestrian access. This is both private to the owners of the units and public, to the surrounding units. The repetition of the row houses and the stacked units are adaptable and flexible to work with because of the shear walls and their strength for lateral loads. The parallel rows of low-rise buildings are characteristics of a typical London terrace house. Fleet Road is evidently a more modern version of the terrace house; therefore, it does not disrupt the existing urban context.

Formosa, 1140 The courtyard typology is intended to have a common open space for residents, the modified courtyard house that is the Formosa, has a common outdoor space intended for the residents and public. It interacts with the public by pushing the building back and allowing open greenery area for the public. This creates a unique view from the inside to the outside, where the residents are looking over the park and have some sort of visibility to what is going on in there surroundings.

Unite d’Habitation

Unite d’Habitation responds well to the idea of livability, as it creates a unique identity, characterizing this housing project as a perfect example of the slab typology. It is evidently personalized by the use of color on both sides of the façade. Giving each unit a different color across the face, allowing the separation of spaces to be clearly identifiable on the outside. As slab housing is very rectilinear, with a narrow width in respect to the height and length, helps create openings on the face of the building and eliminated the problem of units buried within the central portions of the floor plate. In addition, Le Corbusier increased Livability in this project by completely opening up the center slab floor for complete public use, dividing the private spaces in the center of the building, increasing occupant comfort and ease of living.

Dalia Cruz, Jessica Mora, Christa Frisco

ARC 3020: Housing and Urban Design Irma Ramirez


Typology Comparison Comparison Chart Typology

Density # of Units # of units Types

unit to unit type ratio

Common Outdoor Space

Private Outdoor space

Kanchanjunga Apartments

Tower

33.3

32

4

12.50%

No

250 sqft

Formosa, 1140

Courtyard

29.97

11

3

27%

Yes

120 sqft

Fleet Road Terrace House

Row

57.87

70

3

4%

Yes

2:1 of indoor space

Unite d'Habitation

Slab

29.3

337

23

7%

Yes

150 sqft

COURTYARD

Conclusion

In conclusion, the type of typologies evidently determines the degree of livability. However, the adaptation or modification of it, as Lorcan O’Herilhy demonstrated in Formosa 1140, can increase the generalized benefits or minimize the shortcomings to certain characteristics of the typology. In his case, he modified the Courtyard typology to maximize the site, and enhance the open space. This also relates to how Le Corbusier treats the public space. Although the Slab typology contrasts to the Courtyard Typology, the technique of creating public open space is present. O’Herilhy separates the public and private completely, where Le Corbusier connects them in building itself but separates them by putting them on different floor levels. In contrast, the tower typology hinders the architect’s ability to create communal outdoor space. Kanchanjunga has a minimal footprint thus utilizes no height limits but sacrifices the opportunity to create a space where the people in the community of the building can come together. The Row house address this public private space as well. However, the Fleet Road House is limited as well, as you can not building upward but required to build out. Each typology relates in some case, however, the issues that arise are sometimes in most cases inevitable of the characteristic of each: Tower, Courtyard, Row, and Slab. Dalia Cruz, Jessica Mora, Christa Frisco

ARC 3020: Housing and Urban Design Irma Ramirez

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