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China Supplement 2012
PoST BoX President and Publisher: Ejvind Sandal
message from ambassador mr. Xie hangsheng
Chief executive: Jesper Nymark editor-in-Chief: Kevin McGwin
n the occasion of the Chinese Spring Festival and from Beijing, China, I wish to send my sincere greetings and best wishes to readers and friends. I wish you all health, happiness and success in the year of the Dragon! I concluded my term in Denmark as Chinese Ambassador at the end of 2011, waving goodbye to six memorable years living and working in Copenhagen. My life in Denmark has left me with many precious memories and interesting experiences.
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Reasons to believe
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In the eyes of many Chinese people, Denmark is a kingdom of fairy tales, well known for its beautiful landscape as well as for being a modern, developed country with a tremendous social welfare system. To many Chinese people, Denmark is about as close to the ideal communist society that we would have; one where social justice and equality prevail thanks to responsible development. I once read in a newspaper that more than 90 percent of Danes are satisfied with their life: high living standards, a good social welfare system, the gentle pace of daily life and an environmentally-friendly approach to development all contribute to this sense of contentment. My time in Denmark has allowed me to see first-hand why Danes have good reason to feel satisfied.
if you would like to contact us or leave a comment: email@example.com This supplement is published by The Copenhagen Post in co-operation with The Chinese Embassy, Copenhagen, please refer to our disclaimer on page 2 of the newspaper.
Meanwhile, in comparison with Denmark, China is in sharp contrast in so many ways; though a vast territory, there is limited arable land; it has a large population still struggling with poverty in many areas, and a multi-ethnic society with a diversity of cultures and religions. In solely economic terms, there is a huge gap between these two countries; China’s per capita GDP is less than one-twenty-fifth that of Denmark’s. It is a stark reality that China still has a long way to go before its people can enjoy the kind of comfortable life taken for granted by so many in the developed world.
What I admire Denmark is a land of miracles. Although it is a small country lacking in many natural resources, over the centuries it has cultivated a wealth of talents and expertise in many different fields. Denmark ranks among the best in the world in many fields, including agriculture, biopharmacy, food safety, energy-saving and environmental protection. Many Danish brands and enterprises enjoy international recognition and reputation. Meanwhile China is carrying out its 12th Five Year Plan and accelerating its sustainable scientific development; in this key area Denmark has a clear role to play, and can expect considerable benefits in return. Given the economic balances and different stages of development, the potential for Sino-Danish co-operation is great.
Something to contemplate
The world today is undergoing profound and complex changes and developments. Along with the rapid trends toward multi-polarisation and economic globalisation, interdependence is growing so fast that not a single nation can survive all on its own. This also means that it is becoming more and more necessary for people of different lands to get to know each other and what is happening in the real world. Although far from Denmark in distance, China is more closely connected to Denmark than you might think. There is a growing desire among the Danish population to find out more about the real China. Frankly speaking, however, the Danish media has not been so forward-thinking in this regard, and some media coverage has been counterproductive by misleading the public with guesswork, supposition and even prejudice. This kind of attitude appears to stem from the fact that China has adopted a different social system from the West; this outdated Cold-War mentality obviously constitutes a negative force and stands in the way of mutual understanding and co-operation in today’s world. However, thanks to the increasing development of bilateral exchanges, I am happy to note that more and more Danes are acquiring a real understanding of China.
Why we should look forward My experience in Denmark has told me that China and Denmark, as well as Chinese and Danes, have many things in common: both have long histories and rich heritages, both love peace and cherish independence as well as the right of equality, both value honest ways of expression and simple ways of living, both believe in teamwork, community spirit and collaboration, and we even share a similar sense of humour!
Meanwhile, we two nations and peoples are vastly different in terms of size and population, social system, cultural traditions, our economic and social levels of development, etc. These differences could help us to open our eyes to the variety of potential development models for democracy and offer us the chance of mutually beneficial, “win-win” co-operation; they can help us to really appreciate and enjoy the diversity of our twin cultures. Either in looking back on the significant achievements we have already had, or looking ahead to the existing potential and coming opportunities, it gives us the confidence and enlightenment to expect a brighter future for the Sino-Danish relationship. Nothing cheers me more than the fact that the bilateral relationship and co-operation between China and Denmark has maintained a sound momentum of growth, which is in the interest of our two countries and peoples as well as the world at large. I would like to take this opportunity to express my great appreciation for all the co-operation, friendship, goodwill and kindness that Danes and their friends have bestowed upon China.
HAPPY CHINESE SPRING FESTIVAL!
China Supplement 2012
china’s Peaceful Development
Recently, there has been a lot of interest in China’s “rise”. Some people see the rise more as an opportunity, while others regard it more as a threat; some have even suggested containing China! The pros and cons of the “China phenomenon” is the subject of heated debate
hina has declared to the rest of the world on many occasions that its route is one of peaceful development and is committed to upholding world peace and promoting development and prosperity for all countries. Peaceful development is a strategic choice made by China to realize modernization, make itself strong and prosperous, and contribute further to the progress of human civilization. China will unswervingly follow the path of peaceful development.
1. What is the path of peaceful development? The path of peaceful development is defined as follows: China should develop itself through upholding world peace and contribute to world peace through its own development. It should achieve development through its own efforts and by carrying out reform and innovation; at the same time, it should open itself to the outside and learn from other countries. It should seek mutual benefit and common development with other countries in keeping with the trend of economic globalisation, and it should work together with other countries to build a harmonious world of durable peace and common prosperity.
2. Why has China chosen to stick to the path of peaceful development? Firstly, peaceful development carries forward the Chinese historical and cultural tradition. The Chinese people have always cherished a world view of “unity without uniformity”. This belief has had a lasting impact on the thought and acts of the Chinese nation, and a desire for peace is deeply ingrained in the Chinese character. The world-renowned Silk Road and the famous Ming Dynasty navigator Zheng He’s seven voyages to the West Seas (1405-1433A.D), for example, spread the cream of Chinese culture and technology as well as a message of peace and friendship. In the mid-19th century, Western powers invaded China with gunboats. Internal turmoil and foreign aggression gradually turned China into a semi-colonial and semi-feudal society. The country became poor and weak, and the people suffered from wars and chaos. This miserable period of history makes the Chinese further understand the preciousness of peace, independence and freedom. We have inherited the fine tradition of an over 5,000 year-old culture and added a new dimension: peaceful development. Secondly, peaceful development is determined by China’s basic national conditions. China’s per capita GDP in 2010 was about US 4,400, ranking around 100 in the world. By the United Nations standard of one US dollar a day, 150 million Chinese are still living below the poverty line. Today in China, 10 million people have no access to electricity, and each year employment must be provided for 24 million Chinese over 4.3 times the entire Danish population. China is still at the low end of the value chain in both international division of labour and trade. “Made in China” is in fact “Assembled in China”. Pascal Lamy, the Director-General of the World Trade Organization, took the iPod assembled in China as an example: Of the iPod retail price, the United States receives 15 percent of the patent royalties, Japan receives 40 percent of the added value
while China earns only 5 percent of the income for assembling. So China will remain a developing country for a long time to come, which means that China must dedicate itself to development and improving its people’s livelihood. This calls for maintaining a peaceful and stable international environment. China could become strong in the future, yet peace will remain critical for its development, and China has no reason to deviate from its path of peaceful development. China’s basic conditions, its cultural traditions, its fundamental national interests and its long-term interests – all these factors have created the innate force that drives China’s peaceful development. Thirdly, Peaceful development is a choice that represents the global trend. Countries of different systems and different types and at various development stages are in a state of mutual dependence, with their interests intertwined. This has turned the world into a community that shares a common fate and whose members are closely interconnected. Global challenges and common security issues are becoming ever more severe and no country can handle these issues on its own. At the same time, the global trend towards multi-polarity is irresistible. The emerging economies and regional groups, such as Asia, are becoming stronger, and various non-state actors are growing fast. Taking advantage of economic globalisation and the information age, these actors have expanded their influence to become an important force in many countries as well as internationally. In response to increasing risks and challenges, the international community has opted for peace, development and co-operation, the irresistible trend of the times. It is against this historical background that China has chosen the path of peaceful development.
3. What achievements has China made by pursuing peaceful development? China has gone through an extraordinary journey in the 63 years since its civil war ended, particularly over the past 34 years of reform and increased openness. Some examples are: China is now the second largest economy, the largest exporter and the biggest
The Chinese people have always cherised a world view of “unity without uniformity” emerging market in the world. China’s total economic output reached US 5.88 trillion in 2010, over 16 times that of 1978, rising to 9.3 percent of the world’s total from 1.8 percent in 1978. The share of China’s per capita income comparable to the world average grew from 24.9 percent in 2005 to 46.8 percent in 2010. The country’s total import and export volume worth grew from US 20.6 billion in 1978 to US 2.974 trillion in 2010. More than 300 million people in the rural areas have been lifted out of poverty. The average life expectancy has increased from 35
China Supplement 2012
in 1949 to 73.5 years in 2010. The living standards, educational and cultural levels of the Chinese people have greatly improved.
4. How has China put the belief of peaceful development into practice? From the domestic perspective, in order to achieve modernisation and common prosperity for its people, China introduced the policies of reform and openness to the outside world in the late 1970s, adopting and implementing a three-step strategy for achieving modernisation. The goals of the first two steps have been met. The third step aims to make the per capita GNP reach the level of that of the medium-developed countries, thus bringing about general prosperity and modernisation. It hopes to build China into a rich, strong, democratic, civilized, harmonious and modern socialist country by the 100th anniversary of the People’s Republic of China in the mid-21st century. Last year, the Chinese Government adopted the Outline of the Twelfth Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development of the People’s Republic of China (2011-2015). Guided by this plan, China will pursue scientific development, accelerate the shift of the growth model, advance scientific and technological innovation and deepen reform and openness. It will promote steady economic development as well as social harmony and progress, thus enabling the Chinese people to live a happier and more dignified life and for its society to become more progressive and harmonious. From the international perspective, the belief of China’s peaceful development is reﬂected in the following aspects:
China serves as a ﬁ rm promoter for world peace and security China pursues a national defense policy which is defensive in nature, and has always stood for the complete prohibition and thorough destruction of nuclear weapons. China is the only nuclear-weapon country that has publicly stated that it will not be the first to use nuclear weapons, or use or threaten to use nuclear weapons against non-nuclear-weapon states or nuclear-weapon-free zones. China has taken an active part in international peacekeeping operations. We have sent 21,000 personnel to 30 UN operations, more than any other permanent member of the UN Security Council. China has played a constructive role in addressing international and regional hotspot issues, such as the Korean nuclear issue, the Iranian nuclear issue and other hotspot issues through peaceful talks, and has helped to establish the Six-Party Talks mechanism on the Korean nuclear issue. China is committed to maintaining peace and stability in the Asia-Pacific, and has settled historical boundary issues with 12 land neighbours. It calls for settling disputes over territory and maritime rights and interests with neighboring countries through dialogue and negotiation.
country in the world that has halved the number of people living in poverty ahead of schedule. Since 1978, the number of Chinese living in absolute poverty has been lowered by over 200 million, accounting for 75 percent of the total population lifted out of poverty in developing countries. As a developing country, China provides assistance to other countries and regions as its capacity permits. By the end of 2009, China had given assistance worth RMB 256.3 billion to 161 countries and over 30 international and regional organisations, reduced and cancelled 380 debts incurred by 50 heavily indebted poor countries and less-developed countries, trained 120,000 people for other developing countries and sent 21,000 medical personnel and nearly 10,000 teachers abroad to help other countries. China encourages the least-developed countries to expand exports to China and has pledged zero tariff treatment to over 95 percent of the exports to China by all the less-developed countries which have diplomatic relations with China. Sharing the pain of the countries and people in the Horn of Africa hit by famine in 2011, China provided RMB 443.2 million in emergency food assistance and cash for purchasing food to these countries to help them overcome the famine.
China opposes terrorism in all manifestations, and takes an active part in international co-operation on anti-terrorism and non-proliferation. It deploys naval escort fleets to combat piracy in the Gulf of Aden and off the coast of Somalia.
China serves as an important builder of international systems and regimes China is a member of over 100 intergovernmental international organisations, attends over 300 international conventions and is an active participant in building the international system. China supports multilateralism, enhanced UN authority and global governance mechanism reform to bring about a more just and equitable international political and economic order. China has actively participated in the G20 process, encouraging it to move from a crisis responding mechanism to a platform for international economic governance, in order to better reflect the aspirations and interests of the developing countries. China’s increase in the quota and voting power in the World Bank and the IMF will enable us to play a more constructive role in improving world economic governance and economic rebalancing. China will continue to speak against all forms of trade protectionism, and support the Doha round of talks for a balanced and win-win multilateral trading system with universal benefit.
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China serves as an important contributor to world growth and prosperity China’s rapid development has not only delivered tangible benefits to Chinese people, but also made important contributions to the development and prosperity of the world as a whole. China has contributed more than 10 percent to world economic growth and more than 12 percent to international trade growth every year in recent years. China contributed more than 30 percent to world economic growth in 2010 and more than 50 percent in 2009, when the world was under the greatest impact of the financial crisis. Since its entry into the WTO in 2001, China has imported goods worth nearly USD 750 billion every year and created more than 14 million jobs for those exporting countries and regions. Over the past decade, foreign-funded companies in China have remitted a total of USD 261.7 billion of profits, with an annual increase of 30 percent. During the decade, thanks to imported goods from China, American consumers saved more than USD 600 billion in spending. By the same token, each family in the EU saves up to EUR 300 every year. The more China develops, the better it will be for the world. Over the next five years, China’s imports will reach 10 trillion US dollars, providing further opportunities to the rest of the world.
China serves as an active player to promote mutual development China conscientiously meets the Millennium Development Goals of the United Nations, and is the only
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China Supplement 2012
Welcoming the year of the
What is the dragon? The dragon is the totem of the Chinese ancestors. The early Chinese people had no rational explanations for many natural phenomena. As a result, they imagined that there must be some supernatural animal that controlled all the other animals. They combined characteristics of various animals to create the dragon: the head of a camel, body of a snake, horns of a stag, eyes of a tortoise, scales of a fish, paws of a tiger, claws of an eagle and ears of a cow. This combination of features indicated the dragon’s status as an omnipotent deity and chief of all animals.
What does a dragon symbolize? In contrast to the dragon in the west which is evil, the dragon in Chinese culture is a symbol of power, strength, good luck and success. In feudal times, the dragon symbolized superior power and the allmighty; only the emperors could wear the clothes decorated with the designs of the dragon. According to ancient legend, the Yellow Emperor and the Yan Emperor, the ancestors of the Chinese people, were Sons of the Dragon. The Chinese people are therefore called “Descendants of the Dragon”.
Festivals or customs about the Dragon Longtaitou Festival (Dragon-Head-Raising Festival) The Longtaitou Festival or Dragon-Head-Raising Festival falls on the 2nd day of the 2nd month of the Chinese lunar calendar around the solar term of Jīngzhé ( ). The traditional East Asian calendars divide a year into 24 solar terms. Jīngzhé ( ) is the 3rd solar term. It begins when the Sun reaches the celestial longitude of 345° and ends when it reaches the longitude of 360°. More often, and more specifically, it refers to the day when the Sun is exactly at the celestial longitude of 345°. In the Gregorian calendar, it usually begins around March 5 and ends around March 20.
2012 is the year of the dragon - the only animal in the Chinese zodiac that does not exist in the natural world
China Supplement 2012
Chinese Mugwort The time of year of the Dragon Boat Festival, the fifth lunar moon, has more significance than just the story of Qu Yuan. Many Chinese consider this time of year an especially dangerous time, when extra efforts must be made to protect their family from illness. Families will hang various herbs, called Chinese Mugwort, on their door for protection. The drinking of realgar wine is thought to remove poisons from the body. Sachets of Xiang Bao are also worn: containing a variety of fragrant, medicinal herbs, they are thought to protect the wearer from illness.
The word means the awakening of hibernated insects: means ‘startling’, and is ‘hibernated’ (insects). According to traditional Chinese farming culture, during Jingzhe, thunderstorms will wake up the hibernated insects, which also means the weather is getting warmer. According to Chinese cultural tradition, the dragon is believed to be the king of all insects. It is also believed that the dragon is responsible for bringing rain, which is very important to a prosperous year and good harvest. Today, Longtaitou Festival is celebrated in various ways, most of which are still identical to those practiced in the ancient times, including eating Chinese pancakes and noodles. Perfume bags filled with the powder of fragrant, ground herbs are made, to be carried by women and children for good fortune, though they are no longer used as insect repellent as in ancient times. Dragon Boat Festival The Dragon Boat Festival, also called Double Fifth Festival, is celebrated on the fifth day of the fifth moon of the lunar calendar. It is one of the most important Chinese festivals, the other two being the Autumn Moon Festival and the Chinese New Year. The origin of this summer festival centres around a scholarly government official named Qu Yuan. He was a good and respected man, but because of the misdeeds of jealous rivals he eventually fell into disfavour in the emperor’s court.
Dragon Boat Race Traditions: At the centre of this festival are the dragon boat races. Competing teams drive their colourful dragon boats forward to the rhythm of beating drums. These exciting races were inspired by the villager’s valiant attempts to rescue Qu Yuan from the Mi Lo River. This tradition has remained unbroken for centuries.
Unable to regain the respect of the emperor, in his sorrow Qu Yuan threw himself into the Miluo River. Because of their admiration for Qu Yuan, the local people living next to the river rushed into their boats to search for him while throwing rice into the waters to appease the river dragons. Although they were unable to find Qu Yuan, their efforts are still commemorated today during the Dragon Boat Festival.
Zong Zi A very popular dish during the Dragon Boat festival is Zong Zi. This tasty dish consists of rice dumplings with meat, peanut, egg yolk, or other fillings wrapped in bamboo leaves. The tradition of Zong Zi is meant to remind us of the village fishermen scattering rice across the water of the Miluo River in order to appease the river dragons so that they would not devour Qu Yuan.
Nine-Dragon Wall There are three 9-dragon walls in China dating from the Ming dynasty. The most splendid one is located in Beihai Park, Beijing. The 9-Dragon Wall is sculpted in seven colours of glazed tile. Screen walls were common in traditional architecture for giving privacy to an entrance as well as serving as a symbol of rank. The number 9 and the dragon are both symbols of the Emperor.
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China Supplement 2012
China’s transformation into a dynamic economy and its integration into the global economy has been among the most dramatic economic developments of recent decades
hina’s growth performance over the last three decades has been spectacular. With GDP growth averaging almost 8 percent, China now ranks as the second largest economy in the world. During the decade after China joined the World Trade Organisation (WTO) in particular, the economy has achieved rapid development. From 2001 to 2010, the GDP climbed from 11 trillion US dollars to 40 trillion, with an average annual growth of more than 10 percent. As of end 2010, foreign exchange reserves had soared to 2.85 trillion US dollars, up 12 times from 212.2 billion US dollars in 2001.The trade in goods scale climbed from 509.8 billion to almost 3 trillion, increasing fivefold in exports and 4.7 times in imports. The expansion of China’s role in the world trading system has been no less remarkable, with its overall share in global export trade rising from less than 1 percent in 1979 to about 10.4 percent in 2010. More specifically, in 2010, the Chinese textile export totalled 77 billion US dollars, a 31 percent share of the entire global amount; likewise, apparels export turnover was 130 billion US dollars, making up a 37 percent share of the world market. Chinese car sales have ranked no. 1 in the world for two consecutive years to become one of the leading industries boosting China’s economic growth. China’s car market overtook its American rivals in sales volume in 2009, and sales for 2012 are anticipated to be more than 18 million. All this data shows that the performance of China’s economic development in the past decade deserves an A+. Over the past 10 years, China has continually lowered its tariff level and become more open, transparent and market-oriented. China’s overall tariff level has dropped to 9.8 percent from 15.3 percent
in 2001 and 43.2 percent in 1986, fulfilling its commitment to the WTO. By the end of 2010, China had been the world’s largest exporter and second-largest importer for two consecutive years.
billion U.S. dollars, with a much milder year-on-year contraction than the world average annual decrease in foreign trade, despite the negative impact of the global financial crisis.
The fast growing foreign trade has boosted China’s economic growth. Meanwhile, China’s strong trade growth has also shored up the world’s economy. The country’s imports have averaged 750 billion US dollars annually during the past 10 years, creating more than 14 million jobs for its trading partners. During the international financial meltdown, China’s foreign trade was among the first to stabilise; a great boost to the recovery of the world economy.
No longer solely dedicated to attracting foreign investments, China has also been the biggest emerging investor to the world. There are more and more Chinese companies, both state-owned and private, establishing production, sales, research and development centres abroad. China realises the economy difference with other countries and tries to make this an opportunity for mutual benefits.
Pascal Lammy, director general of WTO, says that, “China has contributed to the world trade system by opening up its economy, improving the stability, predictability and transparency of a number of
Over the past 10 years, China has continually lowered its tariff level and become more open, transparent and market-orientated. rules that favour trade and economic activities, even as it enhanced employment and growth”. On December 11, 2011, China commemorated the 10th anniversary of its entry to WTO, with President Hu Jintao pledging to implement a more proactive opening up strategy and open more areas to the world. By sharing the common ‘Economic Language’ with the world, in the last 10 years China has attracted about 700 billion US dollars in foreign investment, and 480 of the world’s top 500 enterprises have established a presence in China. In 2010, FDI in China reached 106
In 2010, with 68.8 billion US dollars in outbound investment and a 5.2 percent share of the global FDI, China was ranked as the fifth biggest international investor in the world. By the end of 2010, the total amount of Chinese investment abroad reached more than 310 billion US dollars. It is heartening to see that private companies are increasingly active in outbound investment, which is truly a positive contribution to the economic development of both China and its partners. There is no doubt that China’s stable economic growth is a major contribution to the worldwide economy, especially during the ongoing European debt crisis. However, during this difficult time, China will not intentionally seek a trade balance. The top priority of China is to promote balanced and sustainable growth and reach win-win outcome with her partners. The Chinese government has adopted a series of policies to curb ‘overheated’ surplus growth, has actively advocated a balanced trade system and strived to establish a fair and equitable new international economic and trade order. In addition to the above, in its 12th Five-Year Plan period (20112015) China will also further promote industrial upgrading and restructuring, develop new channels for institutional and technological innovations, make its service sectors more open to foreign markets and optimise the foreign investment environment.
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China Supplement 2012
and economic relations
in Beijing, China in September 1999 with its mission to become the premier scientific partner to the global research community. The goal of BGI is to make cutting-edge genomic science easily accessible through its investment in infrastructure, to procure the best available technology and expert bioinformatics resources. BGI has established a proven track record of excellence, delivering results with high efficiency and accuracy for innovative, high-profile research that has generated over 170 publications in influential journals such as Nature and Science. In 2010, BGI Europe established headquarters in Copenhagen. As
ince the establishment of diplomatic ties between Denmark and China 62 years ago, the two countries have been enjoying good economic and trade co-operation that continues to develop. In recent years, despite the impact of a global financial crisis, the overall development of bilateral co-operation is in good shape. As the world economy recovers, bilateral trade between our two countries has picked up again and Denmark is now an important trading partner for China, its biggest source of technology imports among the Nordic countries. China is Denmark’s biggest trade partner in Asia. In 2010 the total trade volume between China and Denmark reached 7.83 billion US dollars, an increase of 20.2 percent from the previous year. In the same year, China’s export to Denmark increased by 22.7 percent to 5.18 billion US dollars while China’s import from Denmark totalled 2.65 billion US dollars, an increase of 15.6 percent. This growth in imports from Denmark suggests that China will remain an important and viable market for a wide range of products. From January to October 2011, the trade volume increased by 18.4 percent to total 7.74 billion US dollars, of which export was about 5.13 billion US dollars (an increase of 24.6 percent). Over the same period, China imported more products from Denmark; the total import volume increased by 6.6 percent to 2.31 billion US dollars. The vast majority of products exported from China to Denmark are: garments and clothing accessories including fabrics and yarn, furniture and furniture parts, automatic data processing equipment and components, containers, auto parts and footwear. China’s main imports from Denmark meanwhile are: agricultural products, pharmaceuticals, measuring instruments and apparatus, technical and engineering parts, Medical apparatus and instruments. In addition to trade, two-way investment has achieved continuous and new development since Denmark started to investment directly in China in 1982. According to the Ministry of Commerce’s statistics, there were 711 Danish invested projects in China by the end of October 2011 with a total capital of over 2.12 billion US dollars. Maersk, Novo Nordisk, Carlsberg, Danfoss and Vestas are the key Danish investors in China. More and more Danish small and medium size enterprises are also showing interest in the Chinese market as well, and China is now an important destination for Danish outward direct investment. Furthermore, at the end of October 2011, China had invested 46.8 million US dollars in Denmark, including Penta Shipping, BGI, Huawei, CITS, Air China, etc.
the European branch of BGI, BGI Europe has built up collaborations At the same time, technology co-operation between the two countries keeps growing healthily. The contract value was about 30.6 billion US dollars invested in 600 projects by the end of October 2011, showing the strength of Danish innovation. The structure of technology export to China is still in good shape. Here are some examples of successful Chinese investment in Denmark as well as some of the Danish law firms and accounting firms willing to provide good services for Chinese investors:
with leading academic and government research institutions, as well as global biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies. On February 10 2012, BGI European Genome Research Center will open at Copenhagen Bio Science Park. The centre will strengthen global genomics research and development in areas of human health, agricultural breeding and environmental protection.
3. CITS Travel
As China’s largest travel agency, CITS Travel are experts on China.
Bech-Bruun offers specialised legal advice concerning the Chinese market and employs a team of experienced Chinese and Danish lawyers. We assist both Chinese companies with outbound investments and Danish companies already operating, or considering establishing, business in China.
4.HUAWEI Huawei is the biggest Chinese investor in Europe. It is a key direct employer that supports thousands of other jobs across Europe and sources EUR 4 billion annually from European suppliers.
As the first Danish law firm in China, we have established a representation office in Shanghai to ensure that we are ideally placed to assist our clients.
2.BGI New genomics research centre opens in Copenhagen BGI, one of the largest genomics centres in the world, was founded
Huawei is committed to broadband for all and to the successful implementation of the Digital Agenda in Europe. Huawei is working with customers and partners in Europe to promote harmonious and sustainable development of the economy, society and environment, to support recovery from the global recession and to create the foundation for the new digital economy. Huawei is committed to environmentally sustainable growth in Europe and is working with customers to help them deliver on their sustainability commitments as well. In 2010, a Danish student delegation visited China and Huawei and the company celebrated ‘Ten Years of Connecting Europe’ in 2011.
5.KPMG China Practice Being a market leading provider of audit, tax and advisory services, KPMG Denmark ensures your investment success by providing a full range of high quality services to both inbound and outbound investors in China, Denmark and Greenland. We support and assist investors with:
• Market entry feasibility studies • Investment structuring • Tax planning and compliance • Post-deal integration advice • Global supply chain management • Corporate governance • Mergers and acquisitions kpmg.dk/chinapractice
China Supplement 2012
New Year Greeting from Nils Foss Danish-Chinese relations have again scaled new heights in 2011, and I am convinced that this tendency will continue in the Year of the Dragon. Danish companies are strongly interested in the Chinese market, and with the political paradigm shift established by the new Five-Year Plan - the foundation has been set for more green co-operation between Danish companies and China. China will thus remain an attractive chance for enhancing profitability in the eyes of Danish business investors. It is Danish-Chinese Business Forum’s opinion that the number of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) active in China will rocket in the New Year. These companies can offer innovative and smart solutions to China, and China is a unique business opportunity for SMEs. - We encourage them to use this opportunity. Denmark is also an excellent place to do business, and the Chinese are increasingly opening their eyes to the many business opportunities Denmark can offer. Danish-Chinese Business Forum has already detected a slow but growing interest in the Danish market from Chinese investors. The year 2011 was also the year where Danish-Chinese Business Forum welcomed the first Chinese investment delegation. There are many reasons to think that this tendency will increase in 2012, as the World Bank has recently announced Denmark to be the best place for business in Europe. And we at Danish-Chinese Business Forum are always ready to welcome high-level Chinese governmental and commercial delegations and introduce them to our members. The increased interaction between China and Demark is illustrated by the steady demand for direct flight routes between our two countries. This has resulted in more routes planned to open in 2012, and I am sure that this will make new possibilities available – both for private travellers and especially for business partners. We welcome the new routes between Copenhagen and Shanghai operated by our member SAS, operational from 1 March, 2012. In addition, Chinese talents have also set their foot in Denmark, and we recognise that the highly educated Chinese can be the key to overcoming the challenges of the changing Danish demographic. Chinese professionals are needed in Danish business, and we must expect the demand to increase in the coming years. Chinese talents can be the solution to the problem of finding highly qualified and competent employees and to improving our business relations to China, being at the same time a driver for economic growth in Denmark. Besides, Denmark needs also to continue to warmly welcome Chinese students, and help them develop close relationships with Danish businesses. I am therefore excited about the launch in 2012 of two new joint Chinese-Danish master programmes in Public Management and Social Development, and in Innovation Management at the new Sino-Danish University Center in Beijing. It is important that the relationships between Danish and Chinese professionals develop as much as possible. I look forward to follow the development of this initiative. Danish-Chinese Business Forum looks forward to a continued close Chinese-Danish co-operation in 2012. I hope that we can increase the co-operation between China and Denmark even further in the coming year. I am very optimistic about that, as it is, after all the Year of the Dragon we are entering into. Happy New Year to all Chinese people in Denmark - Long Nian Kuai Le! Nils Foss Chairman, Danish-Chinese Business Forum
Niels Steensen Gymnasium Chinese classes for all students in the primary school and a Chinese study program in the high school Niels Steensens Gymnasium (NSG) is a private school with a primary and a high school section. Students are admitted from the 6th. class. NSG is part of a worldwide network of Jesuit-schools with more than 1 million students from universities, high schools and primary schools in more than 69 countries. All are characterized by catholic values, a high professional standard and the development of students to become reflecting individuals that take care of their fellow human beings. International activities The international dimension is an important part of the NSG profile. The students are exposed to the international dimension during education, but also by interacting with teachers and staff from many different countries. In addition, the students have diverse national, religious and cultural backgrounds.
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The students take part in study tours and are invited across classes to visit some of NSG’s partner schools in Germany and France. In addition, they can participate in two-week exchange programs at schools in Kentucky and Ohio during the 2nd year in high school.
ChINeSe AT NSG
Chinese culture is of special importance for NSG as a Jesuit school. The Jesuits were present early in China and made significant contributions to the exchange of science and culture between east and west. Inspired by this work, and in order to provide the students with optimal qualifications, everybody in primary school attend Chinese classes. We are proud to say, that our school is among the most experienced in Denmark in providing Chinese and that we are the Danish school with the highest number of students attending Chinese. The NSG high school section offers Chinese both at the basic and at the advanced level and additionally, in cooperation with the Confucius Institute at Copenhagen Business School (CBS) a course that includes Chinese A, social science A and mathematics B and an exchange program with The High School Affiliated with Renmin University in Beijing. Training and education take place in Danish. However, NSG has considerable experience in teaching students of non-Danish origin.
During the summer vacation preceding the 3rd year in high school, students are selected for participation in Global Young Leaders Conference in Washington and New York where students selected around the world receive training for some weeks to develop leadership and management skills based on dialogue and international understanding.
Access a Free Info Workshop, a Free Video series, and Free Webinar to learn more. We start our Quan-
Niels Steensens Gymnasium · Sankt Kjelds Gade 3 · 2100 København Ø · Telefon: 16 23 • More information can be found at www.nsg.dk tum39Leap on 40 January 9, 2012 • www.globalgoddessschool.com
China Supplement 2012
TOURIST ATTRACTIONS China is a vast and varied country that, even with months or even years to explore it, is almost unpossible to experience to its full. Thanks to its rich and varied history and heritage, however, its culture will leave a lasting impression upon you whichever region you choose to explore. By Jane Graham
From the Great Wall to the Terracotta Warriors, China has some of the most important attractions in the world. The good news for tourists is that many of them are located in or near Beijing, and can be explored using the capital as hub. Here’s our top 10, from the unmissable tourist hotspots visited by millions each year to the lesser-known jewels in China’s priceless cultural crown.
First-time visitors to China should spend at least a few days easing into their new cultural surroundings in Beijing before exploring China’s remoter regions. Modern, vibrant Beijing has been China’s capital for more than a thousand years and offers something for all classes of traveller – from luxury restaurants for the business class visitor to the narrow alleyways known as ‘huytongs’ that should be on every backpackers’ must-see list. Beijing offers both ancient temples and a modern infrastructure, implemented for the 2008 Olympics. ToP TiP: Top of the list of Beijing’s tourist attractions is the Forbidden City, where China’s emperors held court from the 1400s right up until 1911. A city within a city, this vast complex consists of almost 1,000 buildings.
tHe Great Wall oF CHIna
While you might not actually be able to see The Great Wall of China from the Moon, it remains one of the most amazing wonders of the ancient world, spanning over 5,500 miles and dating back as far as the 5th century BC. We’ve all seen pictures of it, but to stand
next to it and touch the brickwork is the only way to truly appreciate its magnitude. ToP TiP: For visitors staying in Beijing, the nearest sections of the Great Wall (and its busiest) are at Badaling and Mutianyu. Both are well-preserved sections that are easy to reach without a hiking kit.
Shanghai is China’s answer to New York: sophisticated, fashionable, buzzing with shops and never appearing to sleep. China’s most modern city is known for its business district, boutiques and nightlife – shopping street Nanjing Road puts London’s Oxford Street to shame for its crowds of fashionable shoppers. Other modern attractions include the 1535-feet high landmark building Oriental Pearl Tower, finished in 1994 as part of a major facelift to the popular waterfront district The Bund. ToP TiP: In contrast, visitors looking for ancient artefacts can find them even here. Shanghai is home to the Museum of Ancient Chinese Art and the Jade Buddha Temple, site of some of Buddhism’s most important relics.
One of the world’s most spectacular architectural sites is the Terracotta Army near Xi’an, accidentally unearthed by local farmers in 1974 and comprising some 7,000 warriors, chariots and horses. While most tourists overlook the historic city of Xi’an, capital of the Shaanxi province in their rush to see the Terracotta Army, this attractive city’s other attractions include the Big Wild Goose Pagoda, one of the most well-preserved ancient Buddha temples in the world.
China Supplement 2012
Tiger, Hidden Dragon. The mountains are popular with both rock climbers and those looking for less arduous pursuits, and there are more than 60,000 stone steps carved into Huangshuan’s mountainside, believed to be over 1,500 years old.
YanGtZe rIver CrUISe
Hong Kong is often described as Asia’s Manhattan, a busy, packed island of futuristic skyscrapers that can boast one of the best city skylines in the world. Visitors looking for a breath of fresh air can take the tram up to Victoria Peak or take a boat ride on the historic Star Ferry to nearby Kowloon.
tHe lI rIver
A cruise along the Li River in Southern China is a photographer’s dream, passing through breathtaking karst peaks and rural scenes of farmers working traditionally in the fields with water buffalo or fishermen in bamboo rafts. Cruises start in the attractive town of Guilin and end in the ancient township of Yangshuo, a popular destination for backpackers. The area offers an opportunity for contemplation and relaxation after the bustle of big cities Beijing, Shanghai and Hong Kong, with clean air and a minimum of traffic.
Steeped in myths and legends, the Yangtze is the third longest river in the world, described as both the life blood of China and the cradle of its nation’s culture. The almost 4,000 mile-long river flows from the Tibetan Plateau in Qinghai eastward across 11 provinces before pouring into the East China Sea at Shanghai. A cruise along the Yangtze is one of China’s most popular tourist attractions, particularly between Chongqing and Shanghai: this section includes the majestic Three Gorges and offers stunning scenery and a relaxing way to experience the amazing Chinese landscape.
HUanGSHan (YelloW) moUntaIn
For many people, the Huangshan Mountains (Huangshan means ‘yellow’ in Chinese) are the most beautiful in China, quite possibly in the world, and the sunrise above these peaks is spectacular. The distinctive scenery of Huangshan, with its granite peaks shrouded in mist and twisted pine trees perched on the edge of sheer rock faces, has been captured in countless photographs, in Chinese scroll paintings and more recently in movies like Crouching
The township of Suzhou was built around a latticework of 24 canals, giving it the nickname ‘Venice of the East’. Its main tourist attractions are its classical Chinese gardens: numbering around 60 in total, these public gardens are intricately designed and utterly photogenic. Nine of them have been named as UNESCO World Heritage sites. Suzhou is less than an hour from Shanghai by train.
Ever since Tibet was opened for tourism in the 1980s its spiritual connection has had an almost magnetic pull on tourists, from backpackers in search of adventure to jet setting film stars. You will have to trek far out of your way to add Tibet to your itinerary, but the sublime beauty of the mountains and its Buddhist people will linger for a lifetime. Of the region’s Buddhist sites, Potala Palace is the most well-known: Located on Red Hill in Tibet’s capital city Lhasa, it was the home of the Dalai Lama until 1959 and the highest ancient palace in the world, reaching more than 12,300 feet at its highest point.
Educational Export to china and ViEtnam coopEration agrEEmEnts and ExchangE programs with morE than 80 Educational institutions worldwidE Danish business college Niels Brock has been a pioneer in business education for over 125 years. In an increasingly globalized world we offer internationally recognized degrees based on the Danish method of teaching. Our aim is to teach our students where and how to seek the right information and to navigate in an ever-changing global market. We know the importance of cultural and linguistic understanding. Students from more than 100 countries have benefitted from our special vision of teaching that is based on an international mindset aswell as modern/moti-
Niels Brock: At the forefroNt of AN everchANgiNg world vating teaching strategies. At Niels Brock we focus on the student’s needs and the demands of the world outside the educational system. In addition to our schools in Denmark, we have branched into China forming partnerships with seven Chinese universities. And we are currently continuing our global expansion into Vietnam. Our Asian venture shows that we are at the forefront of the international development, and that we are willing and able to adapt. We always strive to tailor programs to prepare our students for business life in the real world. 13
China Supplement 2012
ness and has - in accordance with the specifics of China’s social and economic development - provided foreign investors with a series of preferential policies. To enhance the quality of legal administration, China has energetically improved the political and legal environment for foreign investment. As part of China’s commitments for joining the WTO, China will further improve the legal system of absorbing foreign investment, maintain the stability, consistency, dependability and feasibility of its policies and laws of foreign investment, and try to create a united, steady, transparent and stable environment for foreign investment. China has opened up its service industry still further. In accordance with China’s self-development and its commitment to the WTO, China will open this field vigorously, steadily and systematically, providing clear rules and regulations for the service industry and formulating a united and standard system for accession into the market of foreign investment service. China will encourage the import of modern service concepts and advanced management experiences, technologies and modes of modern market operation to improve the structure of the service industry in China. The Chinese government pays high attention to Intellectual Property protection and sees it as an important component in enhancing investment environment. So far, China has built an IPR legal system compatible with international rules and joined almost every international organisation within IPR protection. The Chinese governments at different levels hold the IPR Protection Publicity Week regularly and organise a variety of regular activities to raise awareness about IPR protection. 3. Introduction to etdZ (Economic and Technological Development Zone) An ETDZ is an integral part of the opening-up of China’s many regions. In the opening-up of cities, the local governments have constructed a sound infrastructure in designated areas to create an investment environment that is in line with international standards. By attracting and utilising foreign capitals, an ETDZ builds a modern industrial structure, with high-tech industries as the core, and builds itself into a key area to develop international trade and economy in the host city and surrounding areas. So far there are 127 approved Statelevel Economic and Technological Development Zones in China (including Suzhou Industrial Park, Shanghai Jinqiao Export Processing
Opening up to international investors is one of the fundaments of China’s national policies
Zone, Ningbo Daxie Economic and Technological Development Zone, Xiamen Haicang Investment Zone and Hainan Yangpu Development
Zone, which all enjoy the same preferential policies.)
ince 1978, when China began to reform and open up to the world, its economy has been developing rapidly and the living standards of the Chinese people notably improved. At the heart of this reform and openness is the desire to attract foreign direct investment (FDI). Since the law on Sino-Foreign Equity Joint Ventures was passed in 1979, followed by the first approval from foreign investors to set up enterprises in China in 1980, China has achieved rapid development in FDI absorption and has gradually become a hot spot for international investment. This has been helped by the constant improvements in China’s investment environment and the continuous perfecting of foreign-related economic laws. 1. attracting FdI is an important element of the basic state policy of opening up China’s sustained and rapid economic growth is attributed to its strategy of openness and its effective utilisation of foreign direct investment. The past 31 years of foreign investment has resulted in more than 690,000 companies in China, covering virtually all sectors including agriculture, manufacturing and services. They have become an indispensable factor in China’s economic growth. At the end of 2010, China had accumulatively attracted more than 700 billion USD of FDI, ranking No.1 for 17 consecutive years among developing countries. Active FDI utilisation facilitates the creation of an open economy in China. Through efficient and active use of foreign capital, China has brought in a large amount of advanced technology, talents, investment, management expertise, marketing models and international competition mechanisms, as well as international rules and standards. This has further freed and updated people’s mindset and accelerated the creation of an open economy on the back of technological advancement and industrial restructuring and upgrading. 2. Investment environment in China and preferential policies for FdI China has been committed to the cultivation of a favourable investment environment since it began its period of reform and open-
Economic and Technological Development Zone guide http://www.cadz.org.cn/en/etdz.jsp?ItemID=558&ItemID2=900
China Supplement 2012
CHINESE POLICIES ON IPR
here is no doubt that IPR plays an important role in scientific advancement and economic growth. Throughout history, creative ideas have fuelled the cultural splendor of China. Today, with the accelerating development of technology and a burgeoning knowledge-based economy, IPR has increasingly become a strategic resource for national development and a key element for international competitiveness. China therefore shares with its partners the goal of IPR protection to serve the common interest, and has always attached great importance to IPR protection. Along with its reforms and policies for more openness, China has made remarkable progress in the field of IPR protection, and has always maintained that IPR protection is first and foremost an urgent need for its own development.
• The national strategy on IPR protection is being effectively implemented. The outline of this strategy specifies the long-term plan for IPR protection until 2020, stipulating key strategies, special tasks and strategic measures. This outline is a landmark in China’s history of IPR development and opens a new chapter in its IPR protection.
• The legal system of IPR is being improved to meet the requirements of the national IPR strategy outline as well as the needs of domestic economic and social development. In addition, through a programme of co-operation between China and the EU (China-EU
IPR2), a high-quality database on China IPR Laws has been put in place, providing rapid access to relevant legal documents for the public in China, Europe and beyond.
• Enforcement of IPR protection is being intensified. China has continuously intensified enforcement and built a double-track system of both administrative and judicial enforcement. On the administrative enforcement side, more than 10 departments of Chinese government are involved in the protection. One example is within industry and commerce administrations. By the end of June 2011, more than 3.97 million IPR officers had been sent to inspect over 9.22 million businesses at all levels across the country and more than 800 thousand markets of all kinds, leading to the revoking of 1745 licences. Some 90,700 cases of infringement and counterfeiting have been filed and processed, of which 79,003 cases have been closed and 757 cases handed over to judicial authorities. Almost 5000 sites of producing and selling counterfeits have been smashed. On the side of judicial protection of foreign-involved IPR cases, local level courts across China were used to complete the trials’ civil cases; these numbered 815 administrative cases (lawsuit to the administrative procedures) in the first group of trials and 240 in the second. As for criminal IPR cases (domestic as well as foreign-
involved), in the first trial 3942 cases were completed and 6000 criminal suspects were found guilty.
• Public awareness about IPR is growing. The Chinese government attaches great importance to IPR outreach and publicity: central as well as local governments organise a variety of activities, including IPR Protection Week, staged around the World Intellectual Property Day (April 26) throughout the country. Some 25 Ministry-level departments have hosted a series of outreach and educational events. Through a diverse range of activities such as the China IPR Achievements Show, and by means of launching the China IPR protection website, the government has been spreading the key IPR message of “respecting knowledge, encouraging innovation, honouring credit-worthiness and abiding by the law”. In the face of the escalating financial crisis, there is an increasing international consensus on strengthening co-operation and resisting trade protectionism. IPR is a key topic of mutual interest to both China and its trade partners. China will continue to take measures to intensify the protection and enforcement of the IPR. We will share with our partners the opportunities presented by China’s development, and work very hard at building an environment of fair competition for foreign companies as well as an open and transparent legal framework and a number of efficient and convenient administrative procedures.
China Supplement 2012
nATionAL PLAn FoR meDiUm AnD LonG-TeRm hUmAn ResoURces DeVeLoPmenT
cultural business management and cultural technologies. This special funding will allow them to be part of major research projects, performances, creative research, exchanges, shows, monographs and publications. 6. “Health Talents Programme”. Initiated by the Ministry of Health, this programme hopes that by 2020 it will have fostered an elite of high calibre medical personnel, thus securing special funds for related earmark research. Efforts will be made to standardise residency training and to train a total of 50,000 resident physicians within different disciplines. Under the programme, some 300,000 general practitioners will also be trained. 7. “High Calibre overseas Talents Programme”. The programme is sponsored by the CPC Central Committee Organisation Department to implement a range of related programmes and projects, including a “Thousand Talents Programme” at the central level, short as well as long-term innovation projects, humanities and social sciences projects, a “thousand young talents programme”, a “thousand foreign experts programme” and business pioneering projects. The programme’s goal is to attract high calibre talent from overseas to establish businesses in China within 5 to 10 years.
he Chinese government attaches great importance to scientific and technological development, and has pursued “the strategy of rejuvenating the country through science and education” since 1995. In order to establish an innovative nation, the Chinese government has launched the National High-tech R&D Programme (863 Programme), National Key Basic Research Programme (973 Programme), National Key Technology R&D Programme, National Natural Science Foundation and other national programmes and foundations. It has also built the National Engineering Research Centre and the National Engineering Laboratory, implemented the Skills Training Plan of the “Hundred-Thousand-Ten Thousand Project,” Changjiang Scholars Programme and a number of other major human resources-related programmes. In addition, it has invested more in science and technology and implemented the Project on Upgrading the Knowledge of Technical Professionals. As a result, it has trained a large number of scientific and technical professionals with high qualifications, and attracted high-calibre personnel from overseas. Through a variety of ways, China and Denmark have benefitted from exchanges and co-operation in the fields of science and education, which is conducive to the scientific and educational development of both sides. China recently released a detailed outline to implement 12 major talents projects defined by the National Plan for Medium and Long- term Human Resources Development (2010-2020), aiming at the following objectives: 1. “innovation Talents Programme”. Led by the Ministry of Science and Technology, the programme has specific aims to reach by 2020. These are: to establish 100 scientist’s studios, produce 3,000 young and middle-aged technical innovators, finance 1,000 qualified entrepreneurial talents on an annual basis, establish 500 innovation teams in the priority areas and build 300 innovation role model training and demonstration centres. 2. “Young Talents Development Programme”. The programme is created by the CPC Central Committee Organisation Department in order to nurture some 2,000 top-notch young talents under the age of 35, screen out 1,200 top-notch students from renowned research universities on an annual basis and select a further 2,000 outstanding high school and college graduates to complete their training at renowned universities overseas. 3. “Capacity Building of Business Management Personnel “. This programme is sponsored by the state-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission and hopes that by 2020 it can produce 500 entrepreneurs with global vision, strategic thinking, innovative spirit and business ability. In addition, the programme hopes to nurture 10,000 high calibre business management personnel, all of whom will be good at strategic planning, capitalisation, human resources management, accounting and legal matters. 4. “High-Quality educator Training Programme”. Initiated by the Ministry of Education, the programme plans to train 20,000 school teachers, disciplinary leaders and principals on an annual basis, as well as nurturing educators, eminent teachers and disciplinary leaders for primary and secondary schools (including kindergartens), vocational schools and universities. 5. “Famous Cultural Talents Programme”. Led by the CPC Publicity Department, this programme has been created to fund some 2,000 renowned specialists in the areas of philosophy, social sciences, journalism, publishing, radio and television, arts and culture, cultural heritage protection,
8. “Professional knowledge Updating Project”. This project is a large-scale knowledge-up dating campaign established by the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security, in order to train 100 million senior specialists within 12 different fields, including equipment manufacturing, information technology, bio technology and new materials. At the same time efforts will also be made to establish a number of national further education centres for professionals and technical personnel. 9. “Highly Skilled Personnel Programme”. Created by the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security, this programme aims to train 3.5 million new technicians and one million senior technicians by the year 2020, bringing the total number of technicians and senior technicians in the country to 10 million. Another goal of the programme is to build 1,200 training centres to cultivate even more high-skilled personnel. 10.“Modern agriculture Talents Programme”. This programme is initiated by the Ministry of Agriculture to finance 300 high calibre researchers within the field of agriculture by 2020, as well as to support 10,000 personnel who have made outstanding contributions to the diffusion of advanced agricultural techniques. 11.“Human resources Support Programme for remote, Poverty-stricken, ethnic and Veteran revolutionary areas”. Sponsored by the CPC Central Committee Organisation Department, this programme has high hopes for the year 2020. By this date it aims to have guided some 100,000 outstanding teachers, doctors, scientists, technical personnel, social work ers and cultural workers to work in or provide services to the most remote, poverty-stricken, ethnic, and veteran revolutionary areas in China on an annual basis. Efforts will also be made to train 10,000 urgently needed experts annually for work in these areas.
12. “College Graduates Training at Grass-roots Programme”. This programme has been created by the CPC Central Committee Organi sation Department to work on a range of subprogrammes for college graduates, such as being a village official, creating ad hoc posi tions for rural school teachers, free teacher education and training, free medical student training, and help and support for college graduates working in the rural areas as well as those student volunteers providing services to the western region. Of the above twelve programmes, “High Calibre Overseas Talents Programme” is the most influential one implemented by the Chinese government. The programme, also known as “Thousand Talents Scheme”, has been sponsored by the Chinese government in order to attract some 2,000 high calibre overseas talents into establishing their own businesses in China within the next five to ten years. By September 2011, the scheme had lured 1510 professionals to China, of which 1161 were scientists and 349 entrepreneurs. The programme was launched by Central Organisation Department of the Chinese Communist Party (CPC) in December 2008, and co-implemented by around 20 ministries, including the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security, Ministry of Education, Ministry of Science and Technology, Ministry of Finance. It aims to attract four diﬀerent groups of outstanding talents: 1. Talents who have an academic title equivalent to professor at well-known universities and institutions. 2. Talents who work as senior managing staff within well-known international companies or banking institutions. 3. Talents who have developed technologies and patents and established their own businesses abroad. 4. Other talents in demand. Talents chosen by this programme could enjoy not only material incentives, but also a good research and business environment, as well as the high reputation they would gain from both central government and the local areas they chose to work in. Non-Chinese professionals and their families can apply for permanent residence or multiple-entry visas valid for two to five years. For all professionals selected by the scheme, the central government will provide each of them with one million RMB as a one-time subsidy in addition to their salaries, which should be comparable to the remuneration of their previous job. Moreover, the selected talents and their families will be able to enjoy a variety of social security benefits.
pleaSe note! China welcomes Danish talents. At present, not only the central government but also many local governments have launched talents programmes of their own. As the Chinese saying goes, “well begun is half done”. If you are interested in starting your enterprise in China, the participation in these talents programmes will surely accelerate your career development. You may consult your Chinese co-operative partners directly on how to participate in these talents programmes. If you need to, you can also contact the Chinese Embassy in Denmark via firstname.lastname@example.org
China Supplement 2012
DaneS looK To While many Danes may hold outdated viewpoints about China, one Copenhagen restaurateur turned to the country’s rich and varied cuisine for inspiration
tig Andresen has no personal connection to China, and most of what he knew about the country was based on what he’d read in newspapers and what he’d been told. As a qualified accountant, he was aware of China’s huge potential in the fields of science and industry, and describes the country as ‘booming’ – but what interests him most is its food culture – and how this rich and varied gastronomic heritage has been so demeaned in Denmark. “In Denmark, the Chinese kitchen has become a low class kitchen offering poor quality,” explains Andresen. “We (himself and his business partner Allan Huynh) thought this was a mistake, and unfair to the many varieties of local Chinese cuisine. The Sichuan kitchen in the northern part of China, for example, is known for its spicy, unusual dishes.” Together with Allan Huynh, a trained waiter with a shared Vietnamese/Chinese heritage and ample business contacts in both Denmark’s Chinese community and China itself, Stig Andresen opened the modern, stylish Chinese restaurant The Red Box in Copenhagen’s exclusive Frederiksstaden district in May 2010. In doing so, they hoped to alter Danish perceptions of the Chinese kitchen as little more than greasy take-out food. “With The Red Box, we hoped to avoid a ‘mainstream’ restaurant and instead base it on a new concept, at least for our Danish guests,” says Andresen. The food can best be described as ‘fusion’ between European and Asian kitchens, the decor is smart, modern and minimalistic and the waiters dress informally in jeans.
We have a different dining culture in Denmark, so we chose the ﬁ ne dining concept to satisfy the Danish customers
This is quite different to restaurants Andresen and Huynh have visited in China, but then – as they are quick to point out – the way of living over there is so different to Denmark’s.
“We chose the Sichuan kitchen, which is one of the largest of the eight major Chinese kitchens,” explains Andresen. “The Sichuan kitchen is based heavily on the strong flavours of chilli, garlic and pep-
“Allan has Chinese parents but personally, I have only been to China once. People in China do dine out a lot, but not at expensive restaurants. We have a different dining culture in Denmark, so we chose the fine dining concept to satisfy the Danish customers – but another group of customers compared to those who might visit a traditional, cheaper Chinese restaurant in Copenhagen.” Although the dishes at The Red Box cross over styles and regional cuisines, the menu is predominantly Sichuan, perhaps the best known style of Chinese cooking to most Europeans, primarily because of its links to French cooking.
per. We developed our initial concept into a French-Chinese fusion kitchen using the characteristic ingredients from Sichuan, which are also familiar flavours in French cooking.” The Red Box might not make you forget all your preconceptions about China, but it should at least teach you that the Chinese kitchen has more to offer than mushroom chop suey, and that it can be healthy as well as tasty. The Red Box is situated at Store Kongensgade 42, and is open every evening except Sunday.
China Supplement 2012
Since 1949, when the People’s Republic of China was founded, the Chinese government has always attached great importance to education
he country has made a series of laws and regulations to promote the right to education of its population, especially the education right of ethnic groups, children, women and the disabled.
China has set up an education system with the government as its major investor and with social institutions, mass organisations and individuals as co-investors. The Ministry of Education is responsible for implementing related laws, regulations and policies of the central government, planning development, co-ordinating education programmes and guiding educational reform. 1. Various types and levels of education in China Basic education, vocational and polytechnic education, regular higher education and adult education are the four major types of education in China. Basic education refers to pre-school education, primary and general secondary education. Primary education usually covers a period of six years, while secondary education involves three years of junior and three years of senior secondary schooling. Students start primary education at the age of six, and gain a nine-year compulsory education covering primary and junior secondary education, as is stipulated by the Law of Compulsory Education implemented in 1986. 2. Achievements of Chinese education since 1949 For more than six decades and especially during the last three decades of reform and openness, China has made unremitting efforts to explore a path of educational development with Chinese characteristics in this large developing country of 1.3 billion people. China has scored remarkable achievements from various aspectsestablishing the world’s largest education system to ensure the people’s right to education, offering universal free compulsory
education in urban as well as rural areas, promoting the rapid development of vocational education, popularizing higher education, achieving equal access to education and improving educational quality. By 2009, the primary school enrollment rate had reached 99.4 percent, and the gross enrollment rate in junior middle schools had increased to 99.1 percent . Illiteracy in the young and middle-aged population meanwhile has fallen from over 80 percent down to less than 4 percent. China has had a major expansion in education, increasing the number of undergraduates and people who hold doctoral degrees fivefold in just 10 years. In 2009, China supported 2,305 institu-
tions of higher learning (colleges and universities). There are over 100 National Key Universities, including Peking University, Tsinghua University and Beijing Normal University. Today, gross enrollment at universities and colleges has reached 24.2 percent, and over 70 million Chinese have completed a higher education programme. In 2009, in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), a worldwide evaluation of 15-year-old school pupils’ scholastic performance by the OECD, Chinese students from Shanghai achieved the best results in mathematics, science and reading. The continuous development of education has greatly improved the overall aptitude of the population, promoted scientific and technological innovation and cultural prosperity and facilitated China’ s efforts to build itself into a country with rich human resources. 3. Problems and Prospects of Chinese educational development It is undeniable that are still a lot of challenges facing Chinese education: for example, a large inequity between cities and remote areas, the exam-oriented teaching and education in many schools as a result of a highly competitive college entrance examination system, heavy homework burden for students, etc. To better solve the problems and supply a guideline for education, China announced its Outline of China’s National Plan for Medium and Long-term Education Reform and Development (2010-2020) in July 2010, presenting a blueprint for achieving the modernization of education in the next 10 years in accordance with China’s overall strategy of reform, openness and socialist modernization. It sets its goals for the year 2020 thus: basically realizing education modernization and building a learning society, to become a country with rich human resources . (Editor: Li Wang & Xiaoshan Huang from Confucius Institute for Innovation & Learning in Aalborg University)
China Supplement 2012
Welcome to Copenhagen Business Confucius Institute
Named after the well-known Chinese philosopher Confucius who lived in ancient China in about 500 B.C, Confucius Institutes are non-profit institutions aimed at promoting Chinese language and facilitating cultural exchanges between China and the rest of the world
tarting in 2004, China has supported the establishment of more than 350 Confucius Institutes and 400 Confucius Classrooms worldwide. In Denmark, Copenhagen Business Confucius Institute (CBCI), which is the second business Confucius Institute in the world, was inaugurated at Copenhagen Business School (CBS) in September 2008. CBCI is a co-operation between CBS and The Renmin University of China, Beijing, within the framework of the Office of Chinese Language Council International under China’s Ministry of Education. The mission of CBCI and Confucius Institutes in general is to offer academic courses on the Chinese language as well as public lectures, seminars and conferences on Chinese affairs, business, culture and language. Language teachers of CBCI come from renowned Chinese universities and are educated to teach Chinese as a foreign language. As a business Confucius Institute, an additional mission of CBCI is to promote business relations between Denmark and China, to support Danish companies wishing to enter and grow in the Chinese market, and to support Chinese companies coming to Denmark. During the last three years, CBCI has made great efforts to promote business co-operations and build the language and cultural bridge between Denmark and China. It has conducted various talks and conferences on the development of Chinese society, media, economy, legal and educational systems, literature and art, all of which have received an enthusiastic audience response. Recent examples are: a B2C business seminar in 2011 with the main topic “Marketing and Branding on the Chinese Consumer Market”, which attracted more than 100 people from the Danish business world; the 2011 International Conference on Business Chinese Teaching; and the China Education Exhibition 2010, which CBCI hosted.
CBCI has arranged several business trips to China for groups of Danish high school leaders and educational officers from Danish municipalities. Through these trips, the Danish educators have gained more knowledge about differences in educational systems and teaching philosophies between the two countries. Furthermore, the trips have promoted partnerships and further co-operation opportunities between the Danish and Chinese schools. In Denmark, CBCI has helped Danish universities to establish student exchange programmes with Chinese universities. It has also helped Danish schools offering courses in Chinese studies by establishing Confucius Classrooms. Co-ordinated by CBCI, Chinese language teachers, who are educated in Denmark and interested in improving their teaching qualities and skills, have participated in different types of training programmes held by renowned universities in China. CBCI has also provided training courses in Denmark for local Chinese language teachers. CBCI is currently the only institution in Denmark where you can take the standard Chinese Proficiency Test for non-Chinese speakers. CBCI has co-arranged Chinese proficiency competitions for Danish secondary school and college students, giving them the opportunity to win a trip to China, learn more about modern Chinese society and culture and make friends with Chinese students. Additionally, CBCI introduces traditional as well as modern Chinese values, culture, customs and artworks, etc. to Danish people through numerous activities, e.g. language clubs, gatherings and celebrations in connection with special events. Article provided by the Copenhagen Business Confucius Institute
our teachers and students, but also for students, teachers and business life in the countries and regions that we cooperate with. A good example of this is our graduates from Shanghai, who are extremely sought after in the corporate world. They can boast of an employment rate of 97 percent, which is really quite remarkable, explains Morten S. Petersen, who is Vice-President at Niels Brock.
a number of partner universities in China - the world’s most populated country – as well as in Vietnam and in California, USA. We are extremely pleased with our international partnerships. We gain so much from co-operating with our foreign partners. We continually get new inspiration, knowledge and a better understanding of cultures that are different from our own. In return we offer quality education with a strong international profile, explains Anya Eskildsen.
Brock’s International adventure continues
Niels Brock’s international expansion gained further momentum in 2011. The Copenhagenbased Business College opened its fourth education program in China, a new High School programme in America and a Danish Centre in Shanghai is on the drawing board, and set to open in the near future.
uring the past decade Niels Brock has enjoyed great success exporting educational know-how to Asia. A lot has happened since the first so-called joint program was established in 2000, and by now Niels Brock has
Prepared for an international market The key to Niels Brock’s international success lies in its special brand of Scandinavian teaching. Scandinavian teaching focuses on the individual student and helps develop independent thought and group-work skills – a combination that has proven to be hugely popular, because it prepares the students for academic studies as well as business life all over the world. Danish export of education definitely makes a difference. Not only for us here in Denmark, where it helps us develop the global mindset of
Niels Brock abroad • • • •
More than 10 years of experience with tailoring education to fit different cultures Educational partnerships in Vietnam, China and the USA More than 1,500 students outside of Denmark - in addition to over 20,000 students and course participants in Denmark Plans to start educational partnerships in Brazil
Arrive in comfort with Air China
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China Supplement 2012
“Happy Chinese New Year”
this festival with the world and let the world know more about the Chinese festival culture, the Ministry of Culture of the People’s Republic of China, together with other departments, initiated the overseas “Happy Chinese New Year” Celebrations. As an important trademark cultural activity in 2010 and 2011, “Happy Chinese New Year” successfully launched over 100 cultural programs across more than 60 countries on five continents. Programmes included temple fairs, parades, song and dance entertainment, handicraft demonstrations, special exhibitions, film screenings, cultural lectures, and more, giving the world a giant feast of China’s culture. What are “Happy Chinese New Year” Celebrations? The Chinese New Year, or the Spring Festival, is the most important traditional Chinese festival for the Chinese. In order to celebrate
What “Happy Chinese New Year” Celebrations take place in Denmark? For 10 years, Chinese New Year celebrations in Denmark have been
arranged by the Chinese Embassy. Each year around the Chinese New Year period, a Chinese performing troupe will visit and perform in Denmark. These troupes are from different parts of China with different characteristics and different arts styles, but all bring their Danish audiences a taste of the rich, colourful and dynamic Chinese culture. The “Happy Chinese New Year” performances in Denmark have greatly promoted the cultural exchanges between our two countries, as well as the mutual understanding between our two peoples and cultures. What “Happy Chinese New Year” Celebrations can be expected in Denmark in 2012? To celebrate the Chinese New Year of the Dragon of 2012, Shanghai Jazz Big Band will perform in Copenhagen, Aarhus and Sønderborg in late January of 2012. Since its establishment in 2006, Shanghai Jazz Big Band has been very active, participating in every year’s
China Supplement 2012
Shanghai Jazz Festival as well as the Countdown Performance for the World Expo 2010 in Shanghai.
Grand CeleBratIon oF tHe CHIneSe neW Year
As China’s sole accompaniment band for Laura Fygi, its performances in Beijing, Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Hong Kong were welcomed with great enthusiasm. The band has also visited Canada and the Netherlands. With the Swedish conductor Mats Holmquist who joined the band in 2011 and the world-class musicians in Shanghai, Shanghai Jazz Big Band, one of the most lively and important jazz big bands in China, is attracting more attention from both China and abroad.
organised by Copenhagen’s Chinese community and students
Besides the above performances, a Chinese Film Festival will be held respectively in Sønderborg and Greenland Cultural Center in Nuuk, Greenland. Eight of the latest Chinese feature films, all with quite different themes, will be screened.
Chi performance and drum ensemble.
download our “Happy Chinese new Year” Celebrations app now. You can download a fun and free “Happy Chinese New Year” interactive application for iPad and iPhone at the Apple Store online now. This app has five components: “Happy Chinese New Year”, “Chinese Shows in the World”, “Greeting”, “Cultures” and “Link”.
on January 22, the Chinese community will hold a grand celebration of the Chinese new Year to express wishes for peace, happiness and prosperity in the Year of the dragon. the celebration consists of outdoor activities, an indoor performance and a firework show. the outdoor activities (from 12:00-13:00) will be held at Copenhagen’s rådhuspladsen, and include a dragon and lion dance, tai
the indoor performance (from 13:30-16:50) at tivoli’s Glassalen is a combination of traditional Chinese culture and modern art; participating in the performance are a group of overseas Chinese and students in denmark, joined by a number of danish artists. the climax of the performance will be the firework show (from 17:0017:20) in the evening at tivoli Gardens. this is the 11th celebration of the Chinese lunar new Year organised by the Chinese community and students in Copenhagen. the Chinese new Year’s day falls this year on January 23, marking 2012 as the year of the dragon.
With multimedia texts, images, video, animation, sound files and other media, the application introduces the overseas “Happy New Year” activities and offers information about Chinese performing arts troupes entertaining across the world during the first half of 2012, as well as introductions to Chinese traditions and customs for celebrating the Spring Festival, such as how to make dumplings and holiday papercuts, and how to wish people a Happy New Year. Each interface can toggle instantly between Chinese and English languages. The App also provides a Chinese New Year electronic greeting card that users can send to friends by email or on social networking sites. If you want to know more about it, please check “Happy Chinese New Year” App at Apple Store.
WHEN IN DENMARK, DO AS THE DANES DO ... learning the local language of a country is never an easy process – that’s why picking the right school equipped with the right tools is crucial. By Shawna Braberry
入乡随俗” says Shanghai-born Zhue, which is the Chinese equivalent of ‘when in Rome, do as the Romans do’, who fell in love with Denmark while visiting a friend and made the executive decision to settle down here and call it home. To be able to call it home, one of the top to-do things on Zhue’s list was to learn Danish and the Københavns Sprogcenter (Copenhagen Language Center) was one of her vital stops to help her fully integrate herself and do as the Danes do in Denmark. Zhue immediately signed up with the Københavns Sprogcenter when she landed on her new home-ground and attended classes faithfully for a month or two. However, she chose to put the Danish language classes on hold to spend more time with her new-born daughter. Some time on , and now Zhue speaks basic Danish but feels that being ‘just okay’ in Danish is not good enough and looks toward being highly proficient, with the belief that it will secure her a job as a pædagog (educator) quickly, as she has trained for this for the last three-and-a-half years. Although currently it may be her second time attending a sprogcenter, Zhue picked the Københavns Sprogcenter, which is one of the largest
for her made her feel comfortable and assured – that attention is always given to her progress, learning needs and wishes, and the only thing left for her to do was to concentrate on learning Danish.
Zhue speaks basic Danish but feels that being ‘just okay’ in Danish is not good enough institutions in Copenhagen for learning Danish and teaches over 90 nationalities. Equipped with a language lab, computer lab, conducive classrooms, a library and a cafeteria, they are all ready to help out to maximise any student’s potential. Within a short period of joining the Københavns Sprogcenter , Zhue had to switch classes twice because Københavns Sprogcenter saw that she was quick to progress and also had a wider knowledge of Danish vocabulary. What they did
Working in pairs, groups or individually, students participate in discussions, roleplay, interviews and dialogue. The school’s flexibility encourages students to not hesitate about asking the school to tailor the curriculum to best-suit the way they learn and their pace of learning, regardless of their educational background. Although, classes are designed to match the educational level of the students and students of the same educational background are grouped to form a class. Hence, all levels of Danish classes are held both in the daytime and evenings – catering to everyone and anyone who yearns to speak Danish. The school also highly encourages students to practice Danish outside the classroom. During the festive season, Zhue and her school mates were invited to experience Denmark outside the classroom environment, visiting museums and appreciating Danish architecture. Zhue says “when you are learning to speak Danish and when you connect it with the culture and architecture, it makes [the learning experience] more real.”
With Københavns Sprogcenter’s aim of making their school environment most conducive not only for learning but for socialising, students are given the opportunity to feedback about the school compound, even down to bringing their students to the respective areas of the school to get ‘live’ feedback. This pleasantly surprised Zhue, “They want the school to feel like our own home where we can comfortably socialise .” Zhue says. Hence, to really do as the Danes do in Denmark, perhaps start out with getting a hang of the Danish language, then proceed to have some smørrebrød and a schnapps or two along with some friends – Hygge!
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Published on Jan 20, 2012