Page 1

Self-Sustaining Street Light

Reid Berdanier Tim Hatlee Karen Hernandez Christopher Horvath Laura Graham Chuck Raye MEE 471/472 Fall 2009 L.C. Smith College of Engineering and Computer Science Syracuse University


Table of Contents

Self-Sustaining Street Light

Abstract ............................................................................................................................................4 Acknowledgements..........................................................................................................................5 Chapter 1: Introduction ....................................................................................................................6 Chapter 2: LED Lights...................................................................................................................11 Chapter 3: PV Cells .......................................................................................................................16 Chapter 4: Wind Turbine ...............................................................................................................22 Chapter 5: Energy Storage .............................................................................................................42 Chapter 6: Site Locations...............................................................................................................51 Chapter 7: Sizing............................................................................................................................56 Chapter 8: Stress Analysis .............................................................................................................58 Chapter 9: Conclusion and Future Work .......................................................................................68 Appendices Appendix A: E-mail Correspondence......................................................................................71 Appendix B: Meeting Minutes.................................................................................................80 Appendix C: PowerPoint Presentations PPT-1. CoE/Se’lux Proposal Presentation.......................................................................93 PPT-2. Final Presentation ................................................................................................97 Appendix D: Gantt Charts Fig. D-1. Original Gantt Chart.......................................................................................103 Fig. D-2. Final Gantt Chart ............................................................................................104 Appendix E: Graphs Fig. E-1. Power curve for GL-PMG-500A PMG (Ginlong)..........................................105 Fig. E-2. Power curve for GL-PMG-1000 PMG (Ginlong)...........................................105 Fig. E-3. Voltage and amperage curves for DC-520 (WindBlue) .................................105 Fig. E-4. Voltage and amperage curves for DC-540 (WindBlue) .................................105 Fig. E-5. Generator matching for predicted performance at three wind speeds ............106 Fig. E-6. Ginlong PMG-500A, including predicted performance at higher wind speeds .........................................................................................106

2


Table of Contents

Self-Sustaining Street Light

Appendix F: Engineering Drawings Fig. F-1. Rotor................................................................................................................107 Fig. F-2. Rotor and housing assembly ...........................................................................108 Fig. F-3. Utility box assembly .......................................................................................108 Fig. F-4. Scaled assembly representation ......................................................................109 Fig. F-5. Zoomed full housing assembly .......................................................................110 Appendix G: CFD Results Fig. G-1. Introduction to CFD analysis .........................................................................111 Fig. G-2. Grid generation for CFD analysis with 15º housing slope .............................111 Fig. G-3. Total pressure contours ..................................................................................112 Fig. G-4. Coefficient of torque vs. time for Savonius rotor, λ=1.0, 0º housing slope ...112 Fig. G-5. Coefficient of torque vs. time for Savonius rotor, λ=1.0, 15º housing slope .113 Fig. G-6. Coefficient of power vs. tip-speed ratio for Savonius rotor under various conditions..........................................................................................113 Appendix H: Pictures Fig. H-1. View of the alley between the Dome and ESF, Facing Southward ...............114 Fig. H-2. Poles next to the dome, potential placement for prototype ............................114 Fig. H-3. Skytop Field, Facing North ............................................................................115 Fig. H-4. Skytop Field, Facing North East ....................................................................115 Fig. H-5. Skytop Field, Facing East – Pole potential for anemometer ..........................115 Fig. H-6. Skytop Field, Facing South ............................................................................115 Fig. H-7. Mounting the anemometer in parking lot behind Lawrinson Hall .................116 Fig. H-8. The anemometer mounted on the pole, close-up............................................116 Fig. H-9. Mounting the anemometer at Skytop .............................................................116 Fig. H-10. The anemometer mounted on top of the pole at Skytop...............................116 Appendix I: Syracuse University Lightpost Installation Estimate.........................................117 Appendix J: Wind Speed Data Analysis Fig. J-1. Retscreen wind speed data for Syracuse, NY (Hancock International Airport) ......................................................................118 Fig. J-2. Histogram for CoE anemometer data (7/21/2006 – 10/5/2009) ......................118 Fig. J-3. Histogram for Skytop area anemometer data (11/13/2009 – 12/15/2009) ......119 Fig. J-4. Histogram for Standart lot anemometer data (11/13/2009 – 12/15/2009).......119 Appendix K: MATLAB Code ...............................................................................................120

3


Abstract

Self-Sustaining Street Light

ABSTRACT The ultimate goal of this project was to design and manufacture a product that would provide lighting to off-grid areas using energy sources of wind and solar; this product would be adaptable to highways, parks, or anywhere it is applicable. The methods used for progress of this project involved research of current competitors and components to use in building a prototype lightpost. Components needed to be matched specifically to the needs, constraints, and parameters of this specific application, with the following researched areas: photovoltaic options, rotor/housing size and design, LED lights, charge controllers, batteries, and generators. Through appropriate decision-making with group input and consensus, potential testing locations were identified, sizes were decided upon, and sources of components were named. The rotor type was matched to the application and would be constructed in house along with the housing. The various components would come from the individual manufacturers discussed in this document. Through CFD modeling of the converging section of the housing, it was determined that an increased Cp value results. As a result of the research done by the team, it was determined that building a prototype is worthwhile, and thus will be built, assembled, and tested in the next semester.

4


Acknowledgements

Self-Sustaining Street Light

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Our most sincere gratitude goes to everyone who has taken part and made an impact in this project. First, we would like to thank Dr. Thong Dang and Prof. Michael Pelken for their guidance and support throughout the project, as well as their optimistic ideas and suggestions during our weekly meetings. We also sincerely thank Prof. Frederick Carranti, who taught the fundamentals of developing a senior design project and served as an important resource for our project. We express a deep thanks to Prof. Basman el Hadidi for his recommendations on wind power based on his previous experience with a senior design project, “Wind Screw,� he supervised during 2008-2009. To David A. Schragger, who gave us suggestions and advice on the design and manufacturing of the housing for our lightpost. Special thanks to Nhan Huu Phan for analyzing the flow effects on our rotor and housing with computational fluid dynamics (CFD). To Ryan K. Dygert, for his counsel on the system overview of energy storage components. To Eng. Paul Mahaney, who gave us his opinion about our lightpost, especially LED light fixtures, based on his expertise with Syracuse University lightposts. To Norman Traino, from BetaLED, who gave our team a presentation about LED street lights. A special thank goes to Jeff Ellison and the SU Physical Plant staff, who put up anemometers around Syracuse University to obtain wind data, and gave us his valuable advice. The Project Team

5


Chapter 1: Introduction

Self-Sustaining Street Light

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Street Lighting Street lighting is essential for both pedestrian and vehicle safety. For the last half century, cities like New York City have utilized both High Pressure Sodium (HPS) and metal halide fixtures for their street lights, which are very inefficient by today’s standards [1.1]. Regardless of their efforts to install more efficient luminaries, NYCDOT still purchases 259.2 million kWh (approx. $31.1 million) annually just to power street lights [1.2]. The standard luminaries used for street lighting by NYCDOT are the 100W and 150W high pressure sodium cobra (HPS) cobra head and the standard luminaries used for pedestrian lighting are 100W and 70W HPS. Reducing the energy consumed by streetlights in NYC by 50% utilizing LED luminaries would considerably reduce CO2 emissions. It could be reduced to zero if selfsustaining street lights were implemented. The main challenge is to obtain a balanced sizing for the street light to obtain enough solar and wind energy.

1.2 Current Self-Sustaining Street Lighting Several companies such as Loopwing, Neolux LED lightings, and Panasonic, and Tangarie Alternative Power have attempted to develop self-sustaining street lights, as shown in Fig. 1.1. These street lights have one thing in common: they are grid-independent. To function off the grid they need an energy storage system that will efficiently utilize the amount of energy needed by the light, and store the excess energy that is not utilized. The goal of all these installations is to reduce carbon footprint and make this device cost effective by eliminating cabling and trenching.

6


Chapter 1: Introduction

Self-Sustaining Street Light

Fig. 1.1. Top-left: Loopwing TRONC Streetlight, Top-right: Neolux Hybrid LED Light, Bottom-left: Panasonic Kazekamome, Bottom-right: Tangarie GUS Hybrid Light Pole.

The Loopwing TRONC Streetlight utilizes a 1.5 m diameter Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT) with arch shaped blades that generates output power of 11 Watts at 4 m/s. Two LED lamps, requiring 13.8W each, are powered with a HAWT producing 11 W at 4 m/s and Solar Modules generating up to 142 Watts. The cost of Loopwing TRONC Streetlight is $35,000 as it is not yet in mass production [1.3]. The Neolux Hybrid Street Lighting is composed of a 1.6 meter diameter HAWT that generates 400W at 12m/s wind speed, and significantly lower at 4 m/s wind speed [1.4]. The 60W LED light is powered by wind turbine and solar modules which together generate up to 60W [1.5]. The cost of Hybrid Street Light ranges between $2,500-3,500.

7


Chapter 1: Introduction

Self-Sustaining Street Light

The Panasonic Kazekamome is most similar to the group’s intended design because it uses a Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) with 1.22 m² swept area and rated output of 30W at 2.5m/s. It uses a Type 20 Fluorescent lamp that is powered by the wind turbine and two Photovoltaic cells that generate up to 84W each, or 168W together. The cost of this product is approximately $14,158 [1.6]. Tangarie’s GUS Hybrid Light Pole is also composed of a VAWT with 0.3 m² swept area. It is rated at a wind speed of 18 m/s producing 1 kW. Three 45 watt solar panels assembled in an umbrella package, along with Vertical Axis Wind Turbine, generate power for 50 Watt LED light. The cost is estimated to be $9,949 [1.7]. Most of these self-sustaining street lights are designed to be installed in places with average wind speeds of 12 m/s, because wind power varies with velocity cubed, or are otherwise large to generate enough electricity for the street lights, such as the Panasonic Kazekamome. This group faced the challenge of designing for low wind speed in Syracuse, 4.6m/s [1.8]. To solve this problem, the vertical axis wind turbine includes a housing that converges and creates an increase in velocity. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) is being performed to analyze this effect.

1.3 Our Design This senior design group was given a preliminary design of a self-sustaining street light developed by Dr. Thong Dang, from Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, and Prof. Michael Pelken, from the School of Architecture. The main idea of the design was to create a self-sustaining street light utilizing a VAWT and photovoltaic (PV) solar cells, fully integrated and aesthetically pleasing; these components are combined in a patent pending street

8


Chapter 1: Introduction

Self-Sustaining Street Light

light design, called “Wind Powered Device.� Preliminary sketches of the idea and design of self-sustaining lightpost were provided, as seen in Fig. 1.2. This original design was composed of a Savonius VAWT with PV cells on top. What makes this design different from other selfsustaining street lights is the converging section created by the housing which is included to increase the effective velocity wind that enters the wind turbine. The team researched for appropriate LED lights and PV cells to use in this application, and examined necessary dimensions and design for the wind turbine and housing that replaced preliminary ones. Moreover, an energy storage system was designed that will filter all energy that comes from wind and solar, store it, and then transfer it to the LEDs when appropriate. Through the use of a photocell, this device will turn on during the night, and turn off during the day. The collaboration with Engineering and Architecture faculty members has been crucial to this senior design project. After sizing calculations of the area needed for the PV cells and the wind turbine alike, the architecture team came up with a final design that made the street light aesthetically pleasing, also shown in Fig. 1.2.

Figure 1.2. Preliminary design (Pelken); Engineering design; Final future design (Pelken).

1.4 Project Objectives The purpose of this project was to research, design, and manufacture a system of components that will provide a highly integrated self sustaining street light. To achieve this 9


Chapter 1: Introduction

Self-Sustaining Street Light

purpose thorough research was conducted on photovoltaic cells, low-energy LED lighting, and VAWTs. This street light will be independent of the grid, and adjustable to different sites. Because of low wind speed available in Syracuse, the start-up requirements should be low. Finally, and most importantly, we intend to achieve these purposes while maintaining an affordable competitive pricing.

References: [1.1] Bloomberg, Michael R. Green Light: Sustainable Street Lighting for NYC. Rep. 2009. Web. <www.nyc.gov/html/dot/downloads/pdf/sustainablestreetlighting.pdf>. [1.2] Mayor’s Management Report 2008. Total electricity in kilowatt hours purchased by New York City in 2008 <http://www.nyc.gov/html/ops/downloads/pdf/2008_mmr/0908_mmr.pdf>. [1.3] "Loopwing Co.,Ltd. - Products." Loopwing. Loopwing Co. Web. 14 Dec. 2009. <http://www.loopwing.co.jp/en/01wind/02tronc_03.html>. [1.4] "Wind/Solar Hybrid Street Lamp - China Lamp in Street Light." Made-in-China.com China manufacturer directory, China products, China suppliers, China trade, China factory. Web. 14 Dec. 2009. <http://www.made-in-china.com/showroom/hailitecn/productdetailsqLxRbnHszcG/China-Wind-Solar-Hybrid-Street-Lamp.html>. [1.5] Wind and Solar Hybrid LED Street Light. Shanghai: NeoLux LED Lightings Co., LTD. Neolux LED Lightings. NeoLux LED Lightings Co., LTD. Web. 14 Dec. 2009. <http://www.neoluxled.com/Eng/admin/UploadFiles/20099816179210.pdf>. [1.6] “Hybrid Tower” Kazekamome. “Environmental Systems Products & Solutions Panasonic Global.” Panasonic Global Home. Web. 14 Dec. 2009. <http://www.panasonic.net/pes/products/env/windseagull/lineup_02.html>. [1.7] GUS-Solar, Wind Light Pole Commercial. Tangarie. Tangarie Alternative Power LLC. Web. 15 Dec. 2009. <www.tangarie.com>. [1.8] “Retscreen Clean Energy Project Analysis Software.” December 10 2009. <http://www.retscreen.net/ang/home.php>.

10


Chapter 2: LED Lights

Self-Sustaining Street Light

CHAPTER 2: LED LIGHTS Currently most streetlights are made using incandescent or metal halide lighting. These lights emit a large amount of greenhouse gasses such as Carbon-dioxide (CO2e). Switching to Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) reduces the carbon-dioxide emissions. As well as being environmentally friendly, LED lights use much less energy, cutting energy costs nearly in half. Another advantage to LED streetlights is that they have five times longer lifetime than metal halide streetlights. Because the lights last longer, the maintenance cost of the lights is much lower. The city of Ann Arbor is attempting to switch completely to LED streetlights, with the initial implementation; they are replacing 1400 metal halide streetlights with LED streetlights. This install reduces annual greenhouse gas emissions by 267 tons of CO2e in the city. The city estimates that each light fixture switching to LED lights will average $942 in maintenance savings, and $169 in energy savings every 10 years, this is a $1,111 savings per light fixture [2.1]. LED lights were chosen for this project, because less wattage is needed for the lights to perform, therefore the turbine and the PV panel can decrease in size, making the lightpost smaller and more aesthetically pleasing. Another reason LED lights were chosen is because they are directional, meaning the direction of the light can be planned by the array of the LED lights. This allows for the prediction of where light is supplied and will not waste light on somewhere that does not need to be lit. Also, it is easy to dim LEDs or shut them on and off depending on the time of the day, making a photocell motion sensor important in the design in order to preserve energy when the light is not necessary. If this lightpost is to be taken into mass production, the optimal light fixture will be a panel of LEDs surrounding the base of the housing in a circular pattern, as seen in Fig. 2.1,

11


Chapter 2: LED Lights

Self-Sustaining Street Light

passing light around all sides of the light pole. This design can be used in pathways and in parks to illuminate a large area. However, it is quite hard to design the layout of LEDs to create a ring of illumination on the ground since LEDs are very unidirectional. For the sake of this project, and the creation of a working prototype, an already designed LED streetlight was picked to meet the requirements of the lightpost.

Fig. 2.1. Production Array of LED Lights [2.2].

The most efficient LED light that has enough illumination to light the ground from 25 feet high is a streetlight from LEDway, a BetaLED brand. This light fixture is the Type IVLEDway Streetlight. There are four different types of LED light fixtures that produce four different patterns of illumination on the ground that are applicable to this self-sustaining lightpost design. The four different types are type II, type III, type IV and type V. The different spreads are seen in the Fig. 2.2.

12


Chapter 2: LED Lights

Self-Sustaining Street Light

Type II

Type III

Type IV

Type V

Fig. 2.2. LED Fixture Type Illumination Spread [2.4].

Type IV light fixture was chosen for this project because it is most efficient in producing the largest amount of illumination on the ground with the same initial delivered lumens, shown in the graph comparison of Fig. 2.3.

Fig. 2.3. Comparison of the four Types.

13


Chapter 2: LED Lights

Self-Sustaining Street Light

For a height of 25 ft, it is only necessary that the streetlight has 30 LEDs. This light produces a spread of approximately 5000 ft-squared of illumination on the ground. This measurement is taken by measuring the area that is illuminated by 0.2 foot-candles or more. This array is shown in Fig. 2.4. Mississippi State Facility Management states that the illumination on the ground of a pedestrian walkway must not be lower than 0.2 foot-candles [2.3]. The light performs at 525 mA, 6000K color temperature, using 56 watts of power. The specifications for how the LED streetlight performs are shown in Fig. 2.5.

Fig. 2.4. Type IV LED streetlight Isofootcandle plot [2.4].

Fig. 2.5. 30 LED Performance Specs [2.4].

14


Chapter 2: LED Lights

Self-Sustaining Street Light

References: [2.1] ICLEI CLIMATE INNOVATION INVITATIONAL: ANN ARBOR'S LED STREETLIGHT PROGRAM. (n.d.). 4. [2.2] Pelken, P. M. (2009). VAWT Wind Power: Self-Sustaining Street Light. [2.3] Campus Lighting Standards. (n.d.). Retrieved December 5, 2009, from Mississippi State University Facility Management: http://www.fm.msstate.edu/plandescon/files/Construction%20Standards/Division%2002 %20Site%20Work/Lighting_Standards_%28Campus%29.pdf [2.4] LEDway Streetlights. (2009). Retrieved September-December 2009, from BetaLED : http://www.ledwaystreetlights.com/product-selection.html

15


Chapter 3: Photovoltaic Cells

Self-Sustaining Street Light

CHAPTER 3: PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS 3.1 Introduction to Photovoltaic Technology The tilt angle of the panel must be optimized based on site location. In order to maximize power production, the solar panel should be tilted at an angle approximately equal to the latitude of the site and facing within 15 º of due south. Optimally, the panel would be tilted an additional 15º in the winter, and tilted less an additionally 15º in the summer [3.1]. For a site in Syracuse, New York (such as those investigated on the Syracuse University campus), the latitude is 43.04°, indicating that the tilt angle, in order to maximize power output, should be designed around this tilt angle [3.2]. This can be viewed in the Pro-Engineer computer aided design (CAD) drawings in Appendix F. In many instances, design constraints often limit the tilt angle for a photovoltaic panel to angles that deviate from the optimal angle (for example, a height constraint on a lightpost, or the angle on a pre-existing rooftop). Deviation from this optimum angle would obviously result in a loss of power produced from that panel. It becomes very important, consequently, to evaluate the power loss to a change in both tilt angle, and in the direction due south, as introduced above. Fig. 3.1 is a demonstration of approximately the percentage of power produced based upon deviations from the optimum tilt and direction angle. Note that this is for latitudes of 35°. The portion of which falls within the 100% maximum power percentage is very small, an indication that even very small deviations from the optimum tilt and direction angle (less than 1°) inhibits the ability of the photovoltaic panel to produce as much power as designed [3.3].

16


Chapter 3: Photovoltaic Cells

Self-Sustaining Street Light

Fig. 3.1. Approximate power produced with deviation from optimum tilt and directional angle [3.3].

Equally as important as the tilt and direction angles is the necessity to eliminate any shading effects on the entirety of the photovoltaic panel. The cells in a photovoltaic panel are connected to each other in a series configuration. For this reason, partial shading of even one cell can significantly reduce the power output of the entire panel. The partial shading of one cell (or a row of cells) results in the rest of the panel reducing its power production down to that of the weakened cell. This reaction is shown below in Fig. 3.2.

Fig. 3.2. Examples of partial-cell shading affecting PV output power.

17


Chapter 3: Photovoltaic Cells

Self-Sustaining Street Light

An additional concern is the complete shading of a cell, or row of cells. In such a case, the photovoltaic panel reroutes the power around the entire series string, attempting to produce as much power as possible. Produced power can be reduced by 50% if one complete cell is shaded. If the complete bottom row of cells in a photovoltaic panel is shaded, the power produced can be reduced by 100%. Both of these cases are shown below in Fig. 3.3.

Fig. 3.3. Examples of full-cell shading affecting PV output power.

The original intent of the photovoltaic cell design was to maximize flexibility and integration with the light post housing. With that objective in mind, three different options were available: flexible solar panels, individual solar cells, and a PV panel. Each of these three types of designs is shown below in Table 3.1.

Uni Solar

Silicon Solar

Kyocera

Table 3.1. Applicable solar cell products.

18


Chapter 3: Photovoltaic Cells

Self-Sustaining Street Light

A flexible solar panel offers the best solution for matching the aesthetically-pleasing curvature of proposed housing designs without having to individually place individual cells around the housing. These types of panels, however, are far more expensive than the other options (too expensive for both a prototype and, potentially, for mass production). They operate at efficiencies significantly lower than a traditional solar panel (less than eight percent) and consequently require more photovoltaic material to match the power output of a similar solar panel. Individual solar cells similarly offer a potential solution for matching the tapering of the housing. The cells could be individually placed to maximize the optimal angle of inclination for maximum power production. However, these cells would need to be connected in series via ribbon wire to the junction box. Not only does this present a significant opportunity for power losses and inefficiencies, but would also prove entirely too difficult and time consuming for a prototype. The cells would have to be wired together and individually placed in the housing; this creates design issues for the housing. Moreover, a weather protection system would have to be designed in order to protect the individual cells and the whole system. At the very least, for prototype purposes, a photovoltaic panel offers a solution to each of the above problems. Multicrystalline photovoltaic panels operate at efficiencies in the twelve to eighteen percent range, and have had enough market exposure to be affordable for constructing a prototype. A photovoltaic panel can produce the required amount of power in a panel size that is feasible for the housing. It would be easy to integrate into the housing as a single unit, and has a pre-designed and integrated weather-protection structure. A photovoltaic panel offers the best solution for building a prototype, and potentially for mass production.

19


Chapter 3: Photovoltaic Cells

Self-Sustaining Street Light

It is important to note that the power produced by a photovoltaic cell or panel is computed by the following relation in (3.1).

Power = Voltage â&#x2039;&#x2026; Current

(3.1)

A panel is most commonly classified by its power output in watts, which can be computed as the voltage (volts) of the cell in operation multiplied by the rated current (amps). When researching photovoltaic panels or cells, all three of the preceding quantities are provided by the manufacturer. In operation, however, the working voltage of a photovoltaic panel or cell is lower when connected to a battery. This dictates that the power output reported by the manufacturer will be greater than that of the panel or cell in operation.

3.2 Product Comparison Having chosen, for simplicity of design and integration, the inclusion of a rigid photovoltaic panel over individual cells and a flexible solar panel (for the reasons listed above), a number of manufacturers were researched: BP, Evergreen, GE, AEE, Kaneka, Mitsubishi, Kyocera, Sanyo, Sunwize, Suntech, Sharp, and Uni Solar. The size of the top housing constrained the size of the photovoltaic panel. Because the power produced by a panel is directly related to the size, the amount of power produced is also constrained by the size of the housing. With these criteria in mind, Table 3.2 shows photovoltaic panels that meet the preceding requirements. Parameter Rated Power Voltage Current Length Width Height Weight

Unit Watts Volts Amps Inches Pounds

BP BP Evergreen Kyocera Sunwize 340 350 ES-C-70 ES-C-80 KC50T KC65T SW50A SW55A 40 50 70 80 54 65 50 55 17.3 17.5 17.5 17.5 17.4 17.4 16.4 16.7 2.30 2.90 4.00 4.00 3.10 3.75 3.05 3.30 25.8 33.0 42.9 42.9 25.2 29.6 35.1 35.1 21.10 21.10 25.67 25.67 25.70 25.70 22.60 22.60 1.97 1.97 1.60 1.60 2.10 2.10 1.30 1.30 12.7 13.2 19.0 19.0 11.2 13.2 13.2 13.2 Table 3.2. Photovoltaic panels meeting the appropriate design criteria.

SW60A 60 16.7 3.60 35.1 22.60 1.30 13.2

20

Yingli YL85 85 17.5 4.9 39.8 26.00 1.38 17.0


Chapter 3: Photovoltaic Cells

Self-Sustaining Street Light

3.3 Photovoltaic Panel Selection The constraints on the size of the photovoltaic panel restrict the above choices down to the BP 340, the BP 350, the Kyocera KC50T, and the Kyocera KC65T. For a comparable size, the Kyocera KC65T produces the largest amount of power. Moreover, the Kyocera modules operate at efficiencies above 16%, a higher efficiency that the BP modules. For this reason, the Kyocera KC65T offers the best possible solution for the proposed design.

References [3.1] “Solar Electric Modules.” Kyocera. 8 Dec. 2009. <www.kyocerasolar.com>. [3.2] “Your National Weather Service Forecast- Syracuse NY.” National Weather Service. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 8 Dec. 2009. <http://forecast.weather.gov/MapClick.php?CityName=Syracuse&state=NY&site=BGM &textField1=43.0446&textField2=-76.1459&e=0>. [3.3] “The Effect of Tilt Angle and Orientation.” Viridian Solar. 8 Dec. 2009. <http://www.viridiansolar.co.uk/Technology%205%20Tilt%20and%20Orientation.htm>.

21


Chapter 4: Wind Turbine

Self-Sustaining Street Light

CHAPTER 4: WIND TURBINE 4.1 Rotor Type Selection For this project, the vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT) was selected as the method of producing wind energy. Many existing products implement horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWTs) as unaesthetic add-ons; however, the axial symmetry provided by a VAWT makes it ideal for inclusion in the design of a light post such as this which emphasizes system integration and aesthetics. Moreover, VAWTs provide significant benefits from their ability to accept wind from any direction; there is no need for a VAWT to change orientation through the use of a directional vane, as with a HAWT. Beyond the decision to use vertical-axis wind turbines, though, there are two distinct types of turbines: lift-based designs (e.g., Darrieus rotors and Hrotors) and drag-based designs (e.g., Savonius rotors). After researching both types of VAWTs, benefits and downfalls of each design were identified. Perhaps most notably, the Darrieus-type rotors offer significant efficiency benefits over their Savonius-type counterparts; moreover, the Darrieus-type rotors are able to maintain peak efficiency over a wider range of tip-speed ratios than Savonius-type rotors (see Fig. 4.1). Additionally, Savonius rotors rotate at much lower rotational speeds (drag-based designs generally operate at tip-speed ratios closer to unity). As a result, Savonius rotors have not yet proven themselves worthy of producing electricity on a large scale like Darrieus rotors have. Contrastingly, however, Savonius rotors are capable of producing higher values of torque than Darrieus rotors. In fact, Savonius rotors are sometimes incorporated into Darrieus rotor designs as “start-up” rotors, capable of overcoming the starting requirements of the attached generator. Despite the apparent shortcomings of Savonius designs, this drag-type rotor was selected as the most fitting rotor type for this project. This selection was made on the basis of the Savonius rotor’s simplicity of design (there are no requirements for airfoil sections and the 22


Chapter 4: Wind Turbine

Self-Sustaining Street Light

aerodynamics governing the rotation are less complicated) and the fact that LED lights (the type of lights under investigation for this light post design) maintain low power requirements.

Fig. 4.1. Power coefficient curves for various wind turbine designs [4.1].

4.2 Savonius Rotor Principles As explained previously, Savonius rotor designs function through the application of drag forces. From fundamental fluid mechanics, it is known that the drag force on an object can be defined through the use of a drag coefficient, as shown in (4.1). From (4.1), it can be deduced that for objects of equivalent area and in similar flow conditions (density, velocity), that a higher value of drag coefficient, CD, will correspond directly to a higher value of drag force, D. A Savonius design implements two semicircular buckets to create a difference in drag forces. This difference in drag forces, DRETREATING and DADVANCING (for retreating and advancing buckets, as shown in Fig. 4.1), is created by the difference in relative values of CD: C D , RETREATING ≈ 2.3 ;

C D , ADVANCING ≈ 1.2 [4.2]. D=

1 ρV 2 AC D 2

(4.1)

23


Chapter 4: Wind Turbine

Self-Sustaining Street Light

Fig. 4.2. Savonius rotor principle design definitions [4.3].

In terms of the advancing and retreating rotor blades, the drag force can be further described according to (4.2). Moreover, the velocity term in (4.1) needs to be appropriately defined for these rotating blade cases. As a result of the rotor rotation, the velocity components are functions of flow incidence angle, θ, and angular velocity, ω; these relations are shown integrated with the drag forces in (4.3) and (4.4). By introducing the important quantity of tipspeed ratio, λ, defined by (4.5), the relation of (4.6) is acquired and further simplified to (4.7) [4.3]. D = D RETREATING − D ADVANCING

D=

(4.2)

1 1 ρAC D , RETREATING (V sin θ − ωR) 2 − ρAC D , ADVANCING (ωR + V sin θ ) 2 2 2

(4.3)

1 ρA C D , RETREATING (V sin θ − ωR) 2 − C D , ADVANCING (ωR + V sin θ ) 2 2

(4.4)

D=

[

]

24


Chapter 4: Wind Turbine

Self-Sustaining Street Light

λ =

D=

ωR V

⇒ ωR = λV

(4.5)

1 ρA C D , RETREATING (V sin θ − λV ) 2 − C D , ADVANCING (λV + V sin θ ) 2 2

[

D=

1 ρAV 2 C D , RETREATING (λ − sin θ ) 2 − C D , ADVANCING (λ + sin θ ) 2 2

[

]

(4.6)

]

(4.7)

Furthermore, the torque applied to the rotor is known through (4.8) and can be applied to the above equations for drag. Through the relation for power and torque, P = Tω , the average power coefficient defined in (4.9) can be alternatively expressed by (4.10). After completing the integration in this equation and defining a new drag coefficient, C D ,1 , in (4.11), the final equation of interest for power coefficient is provided in (4.12). By assuming that C D ,1 ≈

1 2

from the

values of C D , ADVANCING and C D , RETREATING defined previously, an appropriate approximation is defined in (4.13) [4.3]. π

T = ∫ (D ⋅ R )dθ

(4.8)

0

CP = π

1 2

Tω ρV 3 Aπ

(4.9)

1 ρAV 2 Rω ∫ C D , RETREATING (λ − sin θ ) 2 − C D , ADVANCING (λ + sin θ ) 2 dθ 2 0 CP = 1 ρV 3 Aπ 2

{[

]}

C D ,1 =

CP =

C D , ADVANCING C D , RETREATING

λ C D , RETREATING {[6λ2 − 3λ (π − 1) + 4] − C D ,1 [6λ2 + 3λ (π − 1) + 4]} 3π

(4.10)

(4.11)

(4.12)

25


Chapter 4: Wind Turbine

Self-Sustaining Street Light

CP =

λ C D , RETREATING [3λ2 − 1.5λ (π − 1) + 2] 3π

(4.13)

From (4.13), the theoretical values of CP can be calculated given values for λ and

C D , RETREATING . Furthermore, it is possible to compare these theoretical values of CP to experimental results in order to determine the appropriateness of approximating

C D , RETREATING ≈ 2.3 and C D , ADVANCING ≈ 1.2 , as previously explained. These theoretical data were compared to the experimental results acquired by Ushiyama et al. to provide the information in Table 4.1. From this information, it is apparent that the approximated values of C D , RETREATING and

C D , ADVANCING are appropriate only for small λ (λ ≤ 0.4 ) , an expected result. λ 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4

CP expt 0.040 0.069 0.090 0.110 0.130 0.152 0.173 0.190 0.207 0.220 0.210 0.180 0.125 0.040

CP theory CD, RETREATING 0.042 2.30 0.072 2.30 0.096 2.30 0.117 2.30 0.133 2.20 0.154 2.10 0.172 1.90 0.189 1.65 0.206 1.40 0.218 1.15 0.208 0.85 0.173 0.55 0.120 0.30 0.040 0.08

Table 4.1. Variations of power coefficient and tip-speed ratio with C D , RETREATING [4.3].

4.3 Rotor Design Characteristics

In the years since the developmental work of S.J. Savonius, many have done research on alterations of the original design for performance enhancement, including Bach [4.4], Modi [4.5], and Menesh [4.6], with particular interest rising from the promising results of Bach. Upon further investigation of the Bach rotor design, Ushiyama et al. [4.7] found promising results in

26


Chapter 4: Wind Turbine

Self-Sustaining Street Light

terms of decreased static torque distributed across a range of airflow incidence angles, higher rotational speed, and increased power characteristics, when compared to those of the general semi-circular Savonius rotor. Moreover, recent Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) studies comparing the two design models have found similar benefits. Ishimatsu et al. [4.8] confirmed the results of Ushiyama et al. by showing that Bach designs maintain higher values of dynamic torque and power coefficients over Savonius designs, as a result of both two-dimensional and three-dimensional CFD analyses. One of the most prominent benefits of the Bach design, though, is its ability to avoid negative values of static torque â&#x20AC;&#x201C; a problem that appears at certain flow incidence angles for Savonius designs [4.6]. For both traditional Savonius rotors and Bach rotors, notable research has been conducted on the ideal parametric characteristics to provide for best performance. In particular, Ushiyama et al. [4.7] investigated the number of buckets for the rotor, as well as the effects of varying bucket overlaps and aspect ratios. Due to the interference caused by the presence of more buckets, two buckets were found to be ideal. The results of this inquiry have been recently reinforced by results from a similar study performed by Menet et al. [4.9]; the authors were able to define many parameters, including rotor height and attached endplate radius, as functions of rotor radius. One of the disadvantages of these drag-type rotors, though, is the large fluctuation patterns of static torque. In order to counteract these negative effects, a number of options have been investigated, including the implementation of inlet guide vanes beyond the outer radius of the rotor, and stacking of multiple, phase-offset rotor stages [4.7,4.10]. By incorporating such design additions to a traditional Savonius rotor, it has been shown that fluctuations in static torque can be considerably mitigated, while allowing for the development of other benefits, such

27


Chapter 4: Wind Turbine

Self-Sustaining Street Light

as higher rotational speed [4.7]. Of these two conceptual additions, however, the stacking of multiple phase-offset stages is most applicable, due to the limited range of tip-speed ratio for which the inclusion of inlet guide vanes provides a benefit; outside of this range, the presence of guide vanes is found to be a hindrance to rotor performance [4.10]. By incorporating promising results from Bach and Hayashi et al., it is believed that the performance characteristics, notably power and torque, of this wind turbine can be increased. Perhaps more importantly, though, the multiple-stage application would allow for the avoidance of negative static torque values, as previously described. In particular, it was decided to implement two stages of Bach-type rotors, oriented orthogonally to one another and connected by a common shaft. Although three stages would probably provide better performance and static torque leveling (à la Hayashi et al.), aesthetic sizing constraints limit the maximum number of stages to two. For wind turbine analysis, a series of non-dimensional parameters are defined for comparison of independent cases. Notably, power coefficient, CP, and the previously mentioned torque coefficient, CT, and tip-speed ratio, λ, are defined by (4.14-4.16), respectively. In these equations, the following variable definitions apply [4.5]:

P = power

R = rotor radius =

T = torque

ρ = air density

U = free stream wind velocity

d 2

ω = rotor angular velocity h = rotor height d = rotor diameter

CP =

CT =

P 3 1 2 ρU hd

(4.14)

T ρU 2 hdR

(4.15)

1 2

28


Chapter 4: Wind Turbine

Self-Sustaining Street Light

Îť=

dĎ&#x2030; 2U

(4.16)

Understandably, the power output by a wind turbine can be determined by rearranging the information in (4.14). Utilizing this information, combined with the power requirement of the LED lights utilized in this project and the power output of the photovoltaic solar cells, sizing requirements (hd) were determined for the rotor design; initial conservative approximations were made utilizing an estimated coefficient of performance, C P = 0.2 . From these calculations, it was determined that the overall value of wind-swept area, hd â&#x2030;Ľ 1.25 . However, given the dualstage design of this wind turbine, each individual stage needed to have a wind-swept area equal to half of this value. During the design phase of the rotor for this project, experimental results were utilized to appropriately predict the performance characteristics. In particular, the results of Modi et al. were used due to the relative similarity of the experimental design to the foreseen rotor design of this project. Modi et al. closely analyzed the performance effects caused by changes in rotor aspect ratio, AR, defined by (4.17), blade geometry parameter, BGP, defined by (4.18) (from dimensional parameters defined in Fig. 4.3), and more. These dimensional relations were then utilized to determine important design characteristics for the rotor of this project [4.5].

AR =

h d

ARideal = 0.77 BGP =

p q

BGPideal = 0.2

(4.17a) (4.17b) (4.18a) (4.18b)

29


Chapter 4: Wind Turbine

Self-Sustaining Street Light

Fig. 4.3. Rotor design parameters [4.5].

By designing the rotor for this project with these ideal parametric values in mind and the rotor geometry utilized by Modi et al., it was possible to predict the performance of the prototype rotor with some confidence. In particular, Modi et al. implemented geometric parameters defined by Fig. 4.4. Due to the fact that the relative rotor size of Modi et al. shown in Fig. 4.4 is similar to that of the prototype design in mind for this project, it was felt that this process of comparison is appropriate. Moreover, through geometric similarity, these dimensions were extrapolated to the exact size prescribed by the relations describing minimum wind-swept area and ideal aspect ratio (4.17b).

Fig. 4.4. Basis for extrapolation of rotor dimensions [4.5].

30


Chapter 4: Wind Turbine

Self-Sustaining Street Light

4.4 Converging Section

According to the United States Patent Application, one of the fundamental design points of this lightpost is the inclusion of “…a series of plates located above and below each turbine for focusing and converging the wind inwardly. The plates are aerodynamically-designed to converge the wind onto the turbine and provide a strong wind current” [4.11]. This convergence is applicable to the design, not only for aesthetic improvement, but for increasing the velocity of the useful air flow. By rearranging (4.14) for power output, P, it is apparent that wind turbine power output varies with velocity raised to the third power, U 3 . Accordingly, an increase of wind velocity by a factor of two would correlate to an increase of power by a factor of eight. Thus, a wind turbine designed for air flows of higher velocity could function even in environments or conditions of wind speed below design. The principle of velocity convergence is derived from the assumption of a flow tube theory for one-dimensional isentropic flow. From this assumption, the continuity equation can be applied as shown in (4.19). Through the visual representation displayed in Fig 4.5 and the application of (4.19) for steady-state flows, the simple relation of (4.20) is attainable. For the low velocity, incompressible flows under consideration for this project, it can be assumed that the density at state one is equal to the density at state two, leading to the reduction provided in (4.21). Rearranging the formula of (4.21) leads to the final result in (4.22) showing that the velocity at state two is a function of the area ratio. Moreover, this leads to the determination that a velocity increase is attainable through the desirable condition described in (4.23).

r r ∂ ρ d V + ρ V ∫CS dA = 0 ∂t ∫CV

(4.19)

ρ1V1 A1 = ρ 2V2 A2

(4.20)

V1 A1 = V2 A2

(4.21) 31


Chapter 4: Wind Turbine

Self-Sustaining Street Light

V2 = V1

A1 A2

∴V2 >V 1 , ∀

ρ1 V1

A1

(4.22)

A1 >1 A2

(4.23)

A2

ρ2 V2

Fig. 4.5. Visual representation of flow convergence principles.

4.5 Computational Fluid Dynamics

Through the implementation of useful data from Modi et al., a first approximation of the performance of the prototype rotor design was created. Understandably, however, further predictions are necessary before statistical surety can be ensured. The experimental results of Modi et al. were realized through wind tunnel efforts. As a result, performance effects are somewhat greater in experimental results than those which would be observed in open-air environments such as the ones to which this prototype would be exposed. The errors caused by experimentation in a wind tunnel environment – known as blockage effect – are difficult to predict. However, Modi et al. suggest a series of empirical formulae to correct their experimental results for open-air environments. These formulae could have been investigated

32


Chapter 4: Wind Turbine

Self-Sustaining Street Light

for further application, but instead, computational fluid dynamics results were applied to more accurately predict the performance and power output of the prototype rotor. In order to effectively confirm results of CFD simulations, a series of tests were performed; in these tests, CP was investigated as a function of 位, and CT was investigated as a function of flow incidence angle, 胃. First, two-dimensional (infinitely-long rotor) calculations were performed to provide an initial understanding of rotor performance for a general Savonius rotor design and ensure relative accuracy of CFD codes. Second, this same calculation grid was expanded to include three-dimensional end effects and the inclusion of rotor end plates. By comparing the two-dimensional and three-dimensional results to the simulated results reported by Ishimatsu et al., the results of their experimentation could be appropriately confirmed. Through this process, any minor changes to the simulation grid and the CFD code could be adjusted appropriately prior to extensive simulation. Third and finally, the appropriate dimensions for the prototype rotor were implemented into CFD analysis with a threedimensional grid, including the converging and diverging sections surrounding the rotor and the two-stage design. In this manner, the angle of convergence (and, accordingly, divergence) could be adjusted to determine the most efficient angle for implementation. Laminar flow theory suggests that flow separation occurs in diffusers above diffusion angles of approximately seven degrees. However, by simply ensuring that flow separation does not interfere with the air through-flow (thus decreasing the effective fluid flow area), the benefits observed by an increase of convergence would not be hindered by the diverging section; this theory is shown in Fig. 4.6.

33


Chapter 4: Wind Turbine

Self-Sustaining Street Light

Air Flow

Flow Separation

(a)

Air Flow

Flow Separation

(b) Fig. 4.6. Rotor cross-sectional view flow separation cases: (a) small diffusion angle, low flow interference; (b) large diffusion angle, high flow interference.

4.6 Generator Matching

For this project, it was decided to investigate permanent magnet generators (PMGs) for the production of power from the wind turbine. Preliminary research showed that PMGs are suitable for the type of conditions to which this project would be subjected because of their ability to output high power at low rotational speed (i.e., RPM). However, further study proved that there is a wide array of PMGs available in the marketplace, only some of which would be appropriate for this application; due to the extremely low rotational speed of the drag-type VAWT design, only a select few available PMG models are capable of outputting necessary amounts of power. Ultimately, four PMG models from two manufacturers were selected for analysis: WindBlue DC-540, WindBlue DC-520, Ginlong GL-PMG-500A, and Ginlong GL-PMG-1000. All four of these PMGs produce three-phase AC currents and operate in the rotational speed

34


Chapter 4: Wind Turbine

Self-Sustaining Street Light

regime applicable to this project design. In order to analyze these generators for appropriate fit, however, the power curve for each PMG needed to be plotted with rotor performance; an example power curve is shown in Fig. 4.7a. As explained previously, the performance for the rotor design was predicted by the experimental results yielded by Modi et al.; these experimental data are shown in Fig. 4.7b. The data from Fig. 4.7b relates CP, which was converted to power in watts through the relation described in (4.14).

Fig. 4.7. (a) Power curve for Ginlong GL-PMG-500A permanent magnet generator [4.12]; (b) Power coefficient vs. tip-speed ratio for various wind speeds [4.5].

The overlain power curves for the four PMGs and the predicted rotor wind performance are shown in Fig. 4.8 (the MATLAB code utilized to create these plots is provided in the Appendix). In Fig. 4.8, the black curves represent data retrieved from manufacturer power curves and the red curves represent extrapolated power data for values of rotational speed not given by the manufacturer. Because this rotor was designed for an average wind speed of 4.5 m/s (approximately the lowest performance curve in Fig. 4.8), it would be inappropriate to select either of the WindBlue PMGs based on extrapolated data. In addition to this observation, it is visible from Fig. 4.8 that the power curve for the Ginlong GL-PMG-500A PMG is most

35


Chapter 4: Wind Turbine

Self-Sustaining Street Light

appropriate for this application due to the fact that this curve crosses the performance curves nearest to the relative peak efficiency points for each. As a result, this Ginlong PMG was selected to be used for application with this project. In addition to the good fit of this generator relative to rotor performance, however, this PMG also boasts low start-up torque (TS â&#x2030;¤ 0.5 N â&#x2039;&#x2026; m). Utilizing the data from Fig. 4.8 for the Ginlong GL-PMG-500A PMG, a few operation points can be predicted for the coupling of the rotor design with this PMG; these approximate operation points are shown for the given wind speeds in Table 4.2.

Fig. 4.8. Power vs. rotational speed for all investigated PMGs.

Wind Speed (m/s)

RPM

Power (W)

4.40

82

15.5

5.70

125

38.5

6.76

162

66.5

Table 4.2. Predicted operating points.

36


Chapter 4: Wind Turbine

Self-Sustaining Street Light

4.7 Ball Bearing

There exist three locations along the rotating axis of the rotor in which a ball bearing is necessary for protecting the rotary motion of this particular component. In order to support the rotor, to minimize unacceptable vibrations, and to protect the vital connection points of the rotor to the lightpost housing, ball bearing placement is necessary for the locations at which the rotor is connected to the housing on the top surface of the bottom housing, to the middle housing, and to the bottom surface of the top housing. These three locations are reflected below in Fig. 4.9.

Fig. 4.9. Locations of bearings in turbine assembly.

The expected environmental conditions experienced by the lightpost are varied to include nearly every possible scenario. For example, a lightpost on the Connective Corridor of Syracuse, New York, experiences all four seasons. The temperatures can extreme from regular occurrences of ninety degrees in the summertime with relative humidity approaching one hundred percent to well below zero degrees in the wintertime with the inevitable threat of snow

37


Chapter 4: Wind Turbine

Self-Sustaining Street Light

and ice. For this reason, these three unions must be totally protected against particulates, contaminants, water, ice, and other such environmental assailants. Keeping this goal in mind, the two types of ball bearings best suited, according to McMaster-Carr, a leading manufacturer of nearly half a million precision mechanical parts, are the double sealed and the double shielded ball bearings. A double sealed ball bearing has seals on both sides, blocking out environmental contaminants, preserving lubricants, and reducing noise from the rotary motion. A double shielded ball bearing has shields on both sides, preserving lubricants and protecting bearings from environmental contaminants. The two types of bearings are shown below in Table 4.3.

Double Sealed

Double Shielded

Perma-Lube • lubricant fills space between balls. • eliminates need for maintenance • lubricant blocks out contaminants, extending life Self-Aligning • two rows of balls permit high load capacity • low-friction allows higher speeds

Clean Wearing • ultra thing coating reduces metal particles released from normal wear • adds to corrosive resistance • ideal for clean room environments

Table 4.3. Suitable bearing designs.

In either case, a number of design options are available. Stainless steel is an obvious choice due to its higher corrosive resistance over that of plain steel. Additional design options are shown above in the preceding table. The double shielded option appears to be a better choice for this design; thus, the following bearings are available from McMaster-Carr, with the respective prices in Table 4.4. 38


Chapter 4: Wind Turbine

Self-Sustaining Street Light

Table 4.4. Bearing price list.

The selection of the ball bearing from the preceding table is entirely dependent on the diameter of the shaft around which the rotor is to be rotating. The bearings shown above reflect the design goals listed aboveâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;to support the rotor, to minimize unacceptable vibrations, and to protect the vital connection points of the rotor. It is crucially important that these bearings be more than adequate so as to not render these three connections as weak points for the entire lightpost.

39


Chapter 4: Wind Turbine

Self-Sustaining Street Light

References: [4.1] “Darrieus wind turbine analysis - Introduction.” 6 November 2002. 17 November 2009

<http://www.windturbine-analysis.netfirms.com/index-intro.htm>. [4.2] Çengel, Yunus A. and John M. Cimbala. Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications.

New York: McGraw-Hill, 2006. [4.3] Phan, Nhan. “Power Coefficient and Drag Coefficient in Savonius-Type Wind Turbines.” [4.4] Bach, Von G. “Untersuchungen über Savonius-Rotoren und verwandte

Strömungsmaschinen.” Forschung im Ingenieurwesen. 2.6 (1931): 218-31. (Translated into English by The Brace Research Institute, Quebec, Canada, 1964) [4.5] Modi, V.J. and M.S.U.K Fernando. “On the performance of the Savonius wind turbine.”

Journal of Solar Energy Engineering. 111 (1989): 71-81. [4.6] Komatinovic, Nemanja. “Investigation of the Savonius-type Magnus Wind Turbine.”

Master Thesis. Technical University of Denmark, 2006. [4.7] Ushiyama, Izumi, et al. “Experimentally determining the optimum design configuration for

Savonius rotors.” Bulletin of JSME. 29.258 (1986): 4130-38. [4.8] Ishimatsu, K., et al. “Simulation for the Flow around Cross Flow Turbine with End Plates.”

14th JSCFD Symposium. C06-2 (2006). [4.9] Menet, Jean-Luc, Nachida Bourabaa. “Increase in the Savonius rotors efficiency via a

parametric investigation.” Proc. of European Wind Energy Conference. London, 2004. [4.10] Hayashi, Tsutomu, et al. “Wind Tunnel Tests on a Different Phase Three-Stage Savonius

Rotor.” JSME International Journal Series B. 48.1 (2005): 9-16.

40


Chapter 4: Wind Turbine

Self-Sustaining Street Light

[4.11] Pelken, Michael Paul and Thong Dang. “Wind Powered Device.” U.S. Patent Pending:

Pub. No. US 2009/0244890 A1. Publication Date 1 October 2009. App. No. 12/059,231. Application Filed 31 March 2008. [4.12] “Windmill PM (permanent magnet) Generator Alternator.” 2006. 15 October 2009.

<http://ginlong.com/wind-turbine-pmg-pma-permanent-magnet-generator-alternator-GLPMG-500A.htm>.

41


Chapter 5: Energy Storage

Self-Sustaining Street Light

CHAPTER 5: ENERGY STORAGE 5.1 Energy Storage

Understandably, a PV panel only generates power when the sun is shining. The power generated from the wind can occur at any point in the day, even when the light is not being used. For these reasons, the power generated from both sources needs to be stored efficiently at all times of the day for use at night when the light must be on. The storage of the energy created by the PV panel and the permanent magnet alternator consists of three main components: 1. Charge Controller 2. Battery Bank 3. DC/AC Voltage Inverter Each of these components is an integral part of harnessing the power generated and utilizing it in the most efficient manner. Fig. 5.1 shows a layout of how the electricity generated by the PV panel and the alternator flows through the system. Power from PV Panel Power from Alternator

Power to LED Light

3

1

2 Fig. 5.1. Energy storage system.

5.2 Charge Controller Selection

First, the energy goes into a charge controller and instead of purchasing two separate charge controllers (one for the alternator and one for the PV panel) a hybrid solar/wind charge controller was considered. The charge controller is vital for maintaining good battery life. It 42


Chapter 5: Energy Storage

Self-Sustaining Street Light

limits the rate at which current can be drawn from or added to the batteries thus leading to extended battery life. The controller can sense when the battery is near full charge or discharge and allows the appropriate amount of current to flow to the batteries. This helps prevent battery damage and leads to a more efficient design. After researching the available products on the market, it was decided that a hybrid charge controller from WindMax would be ideal for our design. The charge controller is capable of charging the batteries from PV and wind simultaneously, has overcharge protection, short circuit protection and can be directly connected to the batteries. Table 5.1 shows the specifications of the WindMax charge controller. Controlle r Model Rate d DC Voltage (V)

WindMax - 12V -550W 12V DC 400 for Wind Wind/Solar Input Power (W) 150 for Solar 600 for Wind Surge Powe r Peak (W) 225 for Solar Overcharge Voltage Thre shold (V) 14.1V DC Self Consumption < 10 mA Operation Ambient Temperature -20째C to 50째C Size in Inches (L x W x H) 15" x 7" x 6" Table 5.1. WindMax charge controller specifications [5.1].

Table 5.1 shows that the charge controller should be used with 12V DC systems, meaning the battery bank should be around 12V DC and no more than 14.1V DC (the overcharge voltage threshold). The maximum wind and solar input is 400 Watts and 150 Watts, respectively. This is well under the estimated power generated by both sources in our application and the controller will be able to handle the loads from both. The controller itself has small LED lights which help monitor battery level and signal that the solar and alternator is charging the battery. These LED lights draw less than 0.01 Amps which is 50 times less amperage than the LED light requires (0.5 Amps); this loss becomes negligible. The wide operating temperature range adds versatility to the design because the controller can virtually be used in any climate within the continental 43


Chapter 5: Energy Storage

Self-Sustaining Street Light

US. It does not work as well in colder climates (less than -5 째F), but can withstand temperatures up to 120 째F; figure 5.2 shows a picture of the WindMax charge controller.

Fig. 5.2. WindMax charge controller [5.1].

5.3 Battery Bank Selection

There are numerous energy storage options when it comes to batteries. For the sake of this application, deep-cycle batteries were looked at because of their inherent design. Deepcycle batteries are designed to discharge deeper and provide electricity over a longer period of time. They are generally designed to discharge about 80% of their capacity allowing for less recharging required [5.2]. This is contrary to the design of conventional car batteries. Car batteries are known as shallow-cell batteries and are designed to discharge no more than 20%. This is because a car battery supplies a larger amount of initial amperage to start a car, then gets recharged by the alternator and never discharges more than 20% of the capacity. Deep-cycle batteries are ideal for creating a stand-alone light pole (one that is not connected to the grid) because of the amount of discharge that can occur without ruining the battery. If there are several days of little wind and little sun, the batteries will be able to keep the light working and not be damaged.

44


Chapter 5: Energy Storage

Self-Sustaining Street Light

Research was done to compare the various companies producing deep-cycle batteries and the company which provided the most resources and information about specifications, applications, and sizing was Sun Xtender batteries. Sun Xtender is the renewable battery division of Concorde Battery designed for stand-alone, renewable energy solutions. Using the sizing equations provided by Sun Xtender documents, the appropriate battery with the appropriate Amp-hour (Ah) was found. The Ah rating helps determine how long the battery can last. The larger the Ah, the more the battery can be discharged without having to be recharged. Sizing the battery requires first calculating the daily DC load, which is the amount of Ah required daily to run the system [5.3].

(5.1)

(5.2)

(5.3) (5.3) provides the Ah/day required of the LED light (known as the load). The next thing that is taken into consideration was the number of days of autonomy. This is comparable to a factor of safety, taking into account days in which the sun may be blocked by clouds, precipitation, etc and not providing as much sunlight as normal. Sun Xtender only takes into account days without sunlight, but for this system, there is also power generated from wind; therefore, the days of complete autonomy will decrease because it is highly unlikely that the sun will not shine and the wind will not blow for an extended period of days. For this reason, a conservative estimate of three days of autonomy was chosen.

45


Chapter 5: Energy Storage

Self-Sustaining Street Light

The temperature conditions are another factor that is taken into consideration when sizing batteries. The colder the temperature, the less efficient the batteries are. Table 5.2 is used, from the Sun Xtender sizing document, to determine how the temperature affects the batteries. A design factor is used in accordance with the average temperature on the coldest day.

Table 5.2. Temperature effect on battery bank [5.3].

Using the number of days of autonomy and the design factor, the battery capacity in Ah can be calculated using (5.4). Using 3 days of autonomy, a design factor of 1.84, and an inverter efficiency of 90%, a daily DC load of 50 Ah was found for the 56 Watt LED light. This resulted in a total battery capacity requirement of 276 Ah. This is a rather large capacity and the Sun Xtender battery which nearly met this capacity is the PVX-2240T model. This particular battery is a 6 Volt battery with a 256 Ah rating. Since the battery is only 6V, another 6V battery must be used in series to generate 12V, yet maintaining 256 Ah. Fig. 5.3 shows the connection needed to create the appropriate battery bank for the system.

(5.4)

46


Chapter 5: Energy Storage

Self-Sustaining Street Light

Series Hookup: Increases Voltage Maintains Capacity 2 x 6V = 12V 2 @ 256Ah = 256Ah

Fig. 5.3. Sun Xtender battery and batteries in series [5.3].

One reason two 6V batteries were chosen is for ease of use. The 6V battery is 67 pounds where as a comparable 12V battery is 136 pounds. Two 12V batteries could be connected in parallel to double the capacity, but a 122 Ah 12V battery weighs 70 pounds. This is about the same as the 6V weight but has a less Ah capacity (only 244 Ah). For the designing of a functioning test model these batteries will be sufficient.

5.4 Inverter Selection

The inverter is the component that takes the 12V DC output of the battery bank and turns it into conventional 120V AC, which can be used with most appliances. Inverters are not 100% efficient and there are losses incurred when converting from DC to AC, but this loss is taken into 47


Chapter 5: Energy Storage

Self-Sustaining Street Light

account in (5.2) when calculating the total daily load. An inverter from McMaster-Carr Supply Company was found with an efficiency of 90%, as assumed in the battery sizing calculations. The inverter has a DC input of 10-15V and an output of 110V AC at a maximum current of 3.6A (well above the .5A required by the LED light). Thus, the peak power output is around 400W, well above the wattage necessary to run the light. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s important that the peak power output is larger than the required power output because the inverter has built in safety features such as low battery shut down. Since the operating conditions are well below the maximum, the shut down features should not be triggered unnecessarily. The inverter has 2 AC outlets, one for the light and another free one, as well as an on/off switch on the front panel. The inverter size is only 2 inches x 5 inches x 7 inches and, therefore, will not take up a lot of space.

Fig. 5.4. DC/AC voltage inverter [5.4].

5.5 Wiring Schematic and Electrical Enclosure Fig. 5.5 is a wiring schematic of how the entire system is wired together. All of the energy storage components discussed in Chapter 5 will be contained in a fiberglass electrical enclosure which will be researched in more depth next semester when the time comes to build a functioning model.

48


Chapter 5: Energy Storage

Self-Sustaining Street Light

Light R

B

W

Photo cell R B W

Turbine

Inverter Solar Panel

+ A

A

B

-+

+ -

+

-

BC

+

-

Battery

+

-

Battery

WindMax Charge Controller

+ -

+ -

A

B

C

Fig. 5.5. Wiring block diagram.

49


Chapter 5: Energy Storage

Self-Sustaining Street Light

References [5.1] WindMax. WindMax Wind & Solar Hybrid Charge Controller. Magnets4Less. <http://www.magnet4less.com/images/WindMax%20Wind_charge_controller_L.pdf>. [5.2] Energy, US Department of. Batteries for Stand-Alone Systems. US Department of Energy Energy Savers. <http://www.energysavers.gov/your_home/electricity/index.cfm/mytopic=10630>. [5.3] Batteries, Sun Xtender. Sun Xtender Batteries. Application Guide. <http://www.sunxtender.com/otherpdf/sunextenderbatterysizingtips.pdf>. [5.4] BundleCity.com. <http://images.channeladvisor.com/Sell/SSProfiles/23000024/Thumbs/ 14/tn3_374376.jpg>.

50


Chapter 6: Site Locations

Self-Sustaining Street Light

CHAPTER 6: SITE LOCATIONS An important task was to decide on locations where the light-pole prototype could eventually be placed. This location would be of great importance as the location would define the design variables for energy availability from the wind and sun. At the start, general wind data was found for the city of Syracuse, showing average wind speeds per month and year, along with additional data relevant to the availability of sunlight. Table 6.1 displays the information. This information was found through the program RetScreen, which was researched in collaboration with NASA [6.1]. This location of this data was eventually traced to have been measured at the Syracuse Airport. Notably, the availability of solar power is greatest in the summer months, trailing off into the fall and winter months. Fortuitously, the value of wind speed was found to be greatest in the winter months and lower in the summer, providing a natural balance in energy distribution with solar. The average value throughout the year was found to be approximately 4.5 meters/second or 9.4 mph.

Table 6.1. Natural Resources for Syracuse, NY [6.1].

51


Chapter 6: Site Locations

Self-Sustaining Street Light

Thus, with a location in Syracuse several possible locations on and off campus were considered and explored for best wind potential before further narrowing it down to fewer sites. Preliminary sites included: the stairs by the SU Law Building; SU’s Mount Olympus, which is home to Flint and Day Halls; areas by the SU Carrier Dome, ESF, and Lawrinson Hall (notably, Standart parking lot); the SU “Skytop” area near South Campus; and the new Syracuse Center of Excellence (CoE) building by Interstate 81. Locations with uncertain potential were eliminated because areas with good energy resources are needed to prove the feasibility of the light pole. The area by the Law Building was eliminated because there were viewable obstructions in the form of parking garages which would make for unsteady or unreliable winds from the south and west. Similarly, the area on the mount was eliminated due to obstruction of winds by the trees that visibly line the perimeter. The Center of Excellence was a particularly promising location, as the building was designed with sustainability in mind, and thus a prime spot for the light pole. With data that the group believed was representative of the location’s anemometer, an average wind speed of 4.5 m/s, this was thought to be a good option for both groups. Furthermore, the Center had available funds for installing lights, which could have been used for the development of the sustainable light-post. As a result, this option was pursued with vigor, and a meeting was arranged between the design group and Dr. Suresh Santanam, Deputy Executive Director of the CoE. Following this meeting, the opportunity for a possible future joint effort with the CoE still exists. Anemometer data from the CoE recorded at a height of 25 feet over the course of a three year period (July 2006 – October 2009) was received compliments of the CoE staff and analyzed. In addition to the CoE, two other on-campus sites were considered for future placement of the prototype. The first, the location between the Dome and the ESF campus building was

52


Chapter 6: Site Locations

Self-Sustaining Street Light

further looked inspected. Visually, it appeared to be a good location; a tunneling effect between the two buildings, and no obstructions looking down towards the source of the wind from the south. Additionally, it felt to have a steady wind amount at ground level. Appendix I, Fig. I-1 and Fig. I-2 show the layout of the area. Unfortunately, after contact with the Syracuse University maintenance, it was found that this particular area was maintained solely by the Dome, and the poles under consideration were used during games for broadcasting and related purposes. As a result, this too was left in favor of other options. Near the same location, and still promising, was the Standart parking lot on the west side of the SU Campus. This location was selected because it provided a similar wind effect to the locations adjacent to the Carrier Dome while maintaining relatively unobstructed air flows. In addition to the Standart lot location, the location on South Campus was further investigated; despite the fact that there were trees around the perimeter of the lot it felt as though there was steady wind, and the size of the lot implied that it may still have great potential for wind energy. The data from these other two locations (Skytop and Standart) were recorded by Better Generation Power Predictor anemometers, also at a height of 25 feet, for a one-month period (November â&#x20AC;&#x201C; December 2009). These anemometers were installed with the help of Jeff Ellison and the Syracuse University Physical Plant staff. Appendix I shows pictures of the installation and operation of these two anemometers. The data from these three anemometers will provide a better idea of what resources the light-post would potentially have to work with. While the light-post will be designed based around a 4.5 m/s wind average for calculations of input energy, it would be best to use a location with higher winds. Once these two locations have recorded data for long enough, the data will

53


Chapter 6: Site Locations

Self-Sustaining Street Light

be compared, and the best location of the two will be chosen as the site to test the prototype in the upcoming spring semester. Given the rotor operating conditions at various wind speeds (e.g., the data from Table 4.2), it is possible to predict the power output of the rotor and the appropriateness of the rotor for the conditions of its geographic location. This process is accomplished by analyzing wind data recorded from anemometers over a period of time. By creating histograms of wind speed, the mode of the data can be determined; a histogram representing wind speeds at the CoE is shown in Fig. 6.1; similar figures for Skytop and Standart lot are shown in Fig. 6.2 and Fig. 6.3, respectively. For ideal wind turbine design, the mode wind speed should be above the cut-in speed of the turbine to ensure power production for a majority of applied wind speeds. Furthermore, by adjusting the histogram bins to correspond to the operating point wind speeds (such as the ones in Table 4.2), calculations can be made to determine the average output of the turbine and monetary payback for predetermined time intervals. Understandably, the overall time period of anemometer data collection should be sufficiently long to provide accurate measurements (i.e., the CoE data in Fig. 6.1 is sufficient, the Power Predictor results in Fig 6.2 and Fig. 6.3 are not). Moreover, this process requires predicted turbine results at many wind speeds. Due to the fact that only three operating wind speeds could be predicted from the utilized experimental results, such a process was not applied for these data. Further analysis of future CFD results would likely yield the ability to make such calculations with an appropriate amount of statistical surety.

54


Chapter 6: Site Locations

Self-Sustaining Street Light

Fig. 6.1. Wind speed histogram utilizing CoE anemometer data.

Fig. 6.2. Wind speed histogram for Skytop anemometer data.

Fig. 6.3. Wind speed histogram for Standart anemometer data.

References: [6.1] â&#x20AC;&#x153;Retscreen Clean Energy Project Analysis Software.â&#x20AC;? December 10 2009. <http://www.retscreen.net/ang/home.php>.

55


Chapter 7: Sizing

Self-Sustaining Street Light

CHAPTER 7: SIZING After working to find an optimal balance between energy collected in Solar and that from Wind, the sizes of the rotor, housing, converging section, and height of the pole were determined. The sizes of particular components are found below in Table 7.1, and are also further detailed in the CAD drawings (Appendix G). Also displayed below in Table 7.1 are the constraints that are relevant to the determination of how much power is required and would be collected on a daily basis. Size Parameters Wind Swept area (m2) Solar Area (ft2) Pole Height (ft) Constraints Avg Night (hrs) Avg wind speed (m/2) Cp Solar Cell Efficiency Solar Capacity Wind Capacity

1.25 5.2 25 10 4.5 0.4 0.18 0.4 0.9

Table 7.1. Sizes and Parameters of light pole.

It is important to note that the value of wattage for the Solar Panel is taken from the manufacturer, Kyocera, and is understood to already include the efficiency of the cells, as this would be calculated from the maximum voltage and current produced during maximum solar radiation exposure (see Chapter 3 for more information). A conservative value of 40% for solar capacity was used to calculate WattHours (Wh). This means that the lightpost would be expected to collect solar energy for 40% of daytime hours. A wind power value of 15.5 Watts was taken from Table 4.2, as the expected power at a wind velocity of 4.5 m/s, which is close to the average wind speed value from wind data collected at the airport. A high value of wind

56


Chapter 7: Sizing

Self-Sustaining Street Light

capacity was chosen because unlike typical wind turbines which rate their power at the highest running wind speed, this application is rated at the average. From anemometer data that collected wind and solar resources for 5 years, it was calculated that 39% of the time wind was blowing at a speed greater than the average of 4.5 m/s, and 50% of the time between 1.3 m/s and the average. Therefore, a wind capacity of 90% is a good, conservative estimate. The calculation of power is shown below in (7.1). P [Wh] = Watts * 24 Hours * Capacity Factor

(7.1)

= 15.5 * 24 * 0.9 = 334.80 An average night of 10 hours was used to estimate how much power would be needed to supply the LED lights. The overall values of power are given below. LED Power (W) Necessary Power (Wh) Solar Power (W) Solar Power (Wh) Wind Power (W) Wind Power (Wh)

56.00 560.00 65.00 364.00 15.50 334.80

Table 7.4. Expectations of Power.

The CP value of 0.4 was used because the CFD results showed that the effects of the converging section could be defined through an increased CP value. This was found for when the angle of the housing was at 15 degrees.

57


Chapter 8: Stress Analysis

Self-Sustaining Street Light

CHAPTER 8: STRESS ANALYSIS 8.1 Preliminary Calculations

As a piece of technology that would be placed in locations surrounded by people, it was important to build it with safety in mind. As such, it was decided that stress analysis would need to be carried out on the light pole, using SolidWorks. It turned out that it would be easier and more efficient to break up the analysis into the separate components, and analyze separately. Consequently, the force of the wind needed to be summed from the impact of the rotor and translated to the housing and then to the pole. To begin, a simple case was assumed; a stationary rotor and wind perpendicular to it. The picture of the lightpost shows the points where the forces are applied, Fig. 8.1.

Incoming wind with velocity V [m/s]

A

Mz

B

C

Z

D X

Y Fig 8.1. CAD image showing resultant force vectors on housing and pole.

58


Chapter 8: Stress Analysis

Self-Sustaining Street Light

The dynamic pressure caused by the wind was calculated first, to find the pressure on the rotor in relation to wind speed, as shown in (8.1).

1 Ď V3 ; 2 kg Ď = 1.23 3 ; For V = 4 m / s P = .5 (1.23) (4) 3 = 9.84 Pa m

(8.1)

PV

From the dynamic pressure, the force about the central Z Axis was computed, which also resulted in a moment about the Z axis, which is the input torque on the rotor resulting in power. This was estimated here as a flat plate for the rotor as shown in Fig. 8.2, and calculated in (8.2-4). The actual value of torque will be determined by CFD modeling which is likely to be found in future work next semester. The procedure used a method that is similar to a one dimensional method, but applied here for two dimensions [8.1].

D [m] W [N/m] PV [Pa] MZ [Nm]

WX [N]

H [m]

Fig. 8.2. Dynamic pressure to linear force along axis of rotor and housing.

W = PV * Diameter WX = W * height M Z = .5 * WX * Radius

(8.2) (8.3) (8.4)

59


Chapter 8: Stress Analysis

Self-Sustaining Street Light

The rotor is broken into two equal sections, and the forces at A, B, and C shown in Fig. 8.3 are calculated below. W [N/m]

Ax [N] .5 H [m]

.5 WX [N]

MZ Bx [N][N]

W [N/m]

Bx [N] .5 H [m] Cx [N]

.5 WX [N]

MZ [N]

Fig. 8.3. Linear forces equated to the forces on housing.

h h ΣFX = 0 ; Ax + B x − .5 W x = 0 ; Σ M B = 0 = − AX * + .5 W x * ; 2 4 h h h Ax = .25 W x = W ; B X = .5 W x − .25 W X = .25 W x = W ; C x = W 4 4 4

From a similar diagram including the bottom of the housing, the force at the point of the pole, point D, is estimated similarly. The sum of the forces also results in a moment about the y direction.

W [N/m] A

H B MZ [N] [m]

WX [N]

C L [m] Dx [N] MY [N]

Fig. 8.4. Forces calculated at the pole.

60


Chapter 8: Stress Analysis

Self-Sustaining Street Light

ΣF X = 0 ; D x − W x = 0 ; D X = W X h  h  Σ M D = 0 = Wx *  + L  − M Y ; M Y = Wx *  + L  2  2  As such, the equations for forces at the points A,B,C, D, and moments are as follows, and were used with an excel file to find the stresses to apply at different wind speeds: h Ax = W 4 h BX = W 4 h Cx = W 4

(8.5)

DX = WX

(8.8)

(8.6)

M Z = .5WX * Radius

(8.9)

(8.7)

h  M D = WX  + L  2 

(8.10)

Table 8.1 shows the dimensions used for the stress analysis, and Table 8.2 shows all the values calculated for perpendicular wind speeds of 1-30 m/s.

Density Height of full rotor Diameter of Rotor Radius of Rotor Length from rotor to pole

1.23 1.205992 1 0.5 0.348234

kg/m^3 m m m m

Table 8.1. Stress analysis dimensions.

61


Chapter 8: Stress Analysis

Wind Dynamic Speed Pressure (Pa) (m/s) 1 0.615 2 2.46 3 5.535 4 9.84 5 15.375 6 22.14 7 30.135 8 39.36 9 49.815 10 61.5 11 74.415 12 88.56 13 103.935 14 120.54 15 138.375 16 157.44 17 177.735 18 199.26 19 222.015 20 246 21 271.215 22 297.66 23 325.335 24 354.24 25 384.375 26 415.74 27 448.335 28 482.16 29 517.215 30 553.5

Self-Sustaining Street Light

W(N/m)

Wx (N)

0.62 2.46 5.54 9.84 15.38 22.14 30.14 39.36 49.82 61.50 74.42 88.56 103.94 120.54 138.38 157.44 177.74 199.26 222.02 246.00 271.22 297.66 325.34 354.24 384.38 415.74 448.34 482.16 517.22 553.50

0.74 2.97 6.68 11.87 18.54 26.70 36.34 47.47 60.08 74.17 89.74 106.80 125.34 145.37 166.88 189.87 214.35 240.31 267.75 296.67 327.08 358.98 392.35 427.21 463.55 501.38 540.69 581.48 623.76 667.52

Torque around Central Axis (Nm) 0.19 0.74 1.67 2.97 4.64 6.68 9.09 11.87 15.02 18.54 22.44 26.70 31.34 36.34 41.72 47.47 53.59 60.08 66.94 74.17 81.77 89.74 98.09 106.80 115.89 125.34 135.17 145.37 155.94 166.88

Ax, Bx, Cx (N)

Dx (N)

0.19 0.74 1.67 2.97 4.64 6.68 9.09 11.87 15.02 18.54 22.44 26.70 31.34 36.34 41.72 47.47 53.59 60.08 66.94 74.17 81.77 89.74 98.09 106.80 115.89 125.34 135.17 145.37 155.94 166.88

0.62 2.46 5.54 9.84 15.38 22.14 30.14 39.36 49.82 61.50 74.42 88.56 103.94 120.54 138.38 157.44 177.74 199.26 222.02 246.00 271.22 297.66 325.34 354.24 384.38 415.74 448.34 482.16 517.22 553.50

Moment at D (Nm) 0.59 2.34 5.27 9.36 14.63 21.06 28.67 37.44 47.39 58.50 70.79 84.24 98.87 114.66 131.63 149.76 169.07 189.54 211.19 234.00 257.99 283.14 309.47 336.96 365.63 395.46 426.47 458.65 491.99 526.51

Table 8.2 Various forces calculated for stress analysis.

62


Chapter 8: Stress Analysis

Self-Sustaining Street Light

8.2 Further Analysis

The ultimate goal of performing the stress analysis was addressing the physical strength of the individual components of the lightpost, and being able to properly size the pole supporting the light; this procedure included optimizing the size of the pole so that it is heavy enough to support the light and the various dynamic wind forces but avoiding making the post unnecessarily large in order to minimize production costs. Like before, this stress analysis was performed using the simulation analysis of SolidWorks, a computer aided design software package produced by Dassault Systems SolidWorks Corporation. This program allows the loading of a particular component with various mechanical loadings, including forces, torques, pressures, and even the gravitational force based upon the constraints of that component in the total assembly, whether that constraint be a fixed support, a bearing, or otherwise. Five different components of the lightpost required stress testing: the top, middle, and bottom housings, the rotor, and the pole. The housing sections cannot be tested until the convergence angle of the housings is verified by computational fluid dynamics. The results of the rotor and the pole stress analyses are presented below. The simulation program works by breaking the component down into a smaller grid, or mesh, and analyzes each portion of that grid. The grid for the rotor is shown below in Fig. 8.5.

63


Chapter 8: Stress Analysis

Self-Sustaining Street Light

Fig. 8.5. Mesh for the structural analysis.

Fig. 8.5 also demonstrates the mechanical loading of the rotor. The red arrows indicate a dynamic pressure loading on the blades of the rotor from the wind. This pressure (in Pascals) is calculated from the wind speed and the density of the air. In order to ensure that the rotor withstands high wind speeds, the rotor was loaded with a pressure corresponding to a wind of 25 meters per second and the gravitational force was included, as indicated by the large red arrow at the center of the rotor. The green arrows indicate a fixed support, simulating maximum torque when the rotor is just about to start spinning, but not yet moving. The result of the stress analysis is shown below in Fig. 8.6.

Fig. 8.6. Rotor stress.

64


Chapter 8: Stress Analysis

Self-Sustaining Street Light

The material for the rotor was chosen as 1060 aluminum alloy, with yield strength of 27.5742 MPa. The point of highest stress on the rotor is located where the blades connect with the top portionâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;where the stress diagram is yellow. This stress is only around 300 kPa, several orders of magnitude lower than the yield strength of the aluminum. Therefore, this indicates that, as designed, the rotor is strong enough. Fig. 8.7 presents the displacement results of the rotor:

Fig. 8.7. Rotor displacement.

The maximum displacement of the rotor occurs at the center of the rotor, and is approximately 10.31 millimeters. This is well within the bounds of what is acceptable, and therefore, as designed, the rotor can withstand these wind speeds. A similar analysis was performed for the pole in order to determine if the pole, as designed, will handle both the load from the weight of the lightpost and the dynamic load. The result of the stress analysis is shown below in Fig. 8.8.

65


Chapter 8: Stress Analysis

Self-Sustaining Street Light

Fig. 8.8. Pole stress.

The material for the pole was chosen as plain carbon steel, with a yield strength of 220.594 MPa. The point of highest stress on the pole is located at the bottom of the poleâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; where the stress diagram is red. This stress is only around 1.300 MPa, several orders of magnitude lower than the yield strength of the carbon steel. Therefore, this indicates that the pole, as designed, is too strong, and the size can be reduced, eliminating unnecessary material.

Fig. 8.9. Pole displacement.

66


Chapter 8: Stress Analysis

Self-Sustaining Street Light

The maximum displacement of the pole occurs at the top of the pole, and is approximately 60.34 millimeters. This is also well within the bounds of what is acceptable. As previously mentioned, the stress analysis on the top, middle, and bottom sections of the housing cannot be tested until the convergence angle is verified by computational fluid dynamics.

References [8.1] Beer, Ferdinand P., Jr., and John T. DeWolf. Mechanics of Materials. New York:

McGraw-Hill Science/Engineering/Math, 2005. Print. 540 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 541.

67


Chapter 9: Conclusions and Future Work

Self-Sustaining Street Light

CHAPTER 9: CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK Through daily meetings with faculty advisors and group members, we concluded the following:

9.1 LED lights

Type IV LED lights from BetaLED will be purchased, consuming a total of 56 Watts; this LED light is composed of 30 LED that deliver 3,210 initial lumens. A photocell device will be utilized to sense light and turn on LED lights when it is dark outside.

9.2 PV Cells

Pre-built photovoltaic panels from Kyocera will be purchased; these will provide 65 Watts (or 312 Wh) and will be tilted 43º facing South for optimized performance.

9.3 Wind Turbine

A Savonius type vertical-axis wind turbine was chosen that will consist of a two-phase rotor offset by 90º for optimal performance, and swept area hd

1.25 m². The permanent

magnet alternator will be purchased from Ginlong (see Bill of Materials), after matching its performance with our wind turbine performance. The rated power output depends on site location of our wind turbine. At 4.50 m/s wind speed rated power output is 15.5W (or 334.8 Wh), at 5.7 m/s is 38.5 Watts (or 831.6 Wh), and at 6.76 m/s is 66.5 Watts (or 1436.4 Wh).

9.4 Energy Storage

For prototype purposes, energy storage components will be purchased from various manufacturers. A permanent magnet alternator and PV cells will be connected to the WindMax charge controller, which is then connected to battery bank (composed of two 6V deep cycle cell batteries connected in series). The battery bank is connected to a DC/AC inverter that connects

68


Chapter 9: Conclusions and Future Work

Self-Sustaining Street Light

to LED lights. Refer to the following Bill of Materials for descriptions and vendors of the electrical components.

9.5 Stress Analysis

Stress analysis on the pole shows that the pole can be designed to be smaller. The highest stress experienced is a factor of 200 times lower than that of the yield strength. The maximum displacement of the rotor occurs at the top of the pole, and is 0.00006034 meters. Stress analysis performed on the rotor shows that the highest stress experienced is a factor of 100 times lower than that of the yield strength. The maximum displacement of the rotor occurs at the center axis, and is 0.00001031 meters.

9.6 Bill of Materials

69


Chapter 9: Conclusions and Future Work

Self-Sustaining Street Light

9.7 Future Work

During spring 2010, our team intends to build a prototype self-sustaining street light. The following steps will be taken: (1) Build housing and rotor according to optimal dimensions (2) Test housing and rotor in a wind testing facility to analyze the design and confirm results obtained from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) (3) Perform further stress analysis for the housing and rotor (4) Assemble energy storage components (5) Install prototype street light

70


Appendix A: E-mail Correspondence

Self-Sustaining Street Light

APPENDIX A: E-MAIL CORRESPONDENCE INVOICE FROM GINLONG

RE: GL-PMG-1000 From:

Ginlong Technologies (sales@ginlong.com) Sent: Saturday, December 05, 2009 8:33:18 PM To: Karen Hernandez (karenhernandez06@hotmail.com) Cc: Ginlong Technologies (sales@ginlong.com) Hi Karen, Thanks for your email. For single unit shipping, DHL door to door service is the best choice even considering cost. Best regards, Paul ---------------------------------------------------Sales Department Ginlong Technologies

No. 57 Jintong Road, Seafront(Binhai) Industrial Park, Xiangshan Economic Development Zone, Xiangshan, Ningbo, Zhejiang, 315712 China Tel: (+86) 574 6578 1806 Fax: (+86) 574 6578 1606 E-mail: sales@ginlong.com Web: www.ginlong.com -------- Original Message -------Subject: RE: GL-PMG-1000 From: Karen Hernandez <karenhernandez06@hotmail.com> Date: Sat, December 05, 2009 3:04 pm To: <sales@ginlong.com> Hi, Thank you for your reply. Can you also give me a quote for the cheapest shipping method? And the amount of time it will take to get here? Thank you, Karen -Karen E. Hernandez Syracuse University 2010 LC Smith College of Engineering and Computer Sciences Mechanical Engineering kahernan@syr.edu (787)614-3569

71


Appendix A: E-mail Correspondence

Self-Sustaining Street Light

From: sales@ginlong.com To: karenhernandez06@hotmail.com CC: sales@ginlong.com Subject: RE: GL-PMG-1000 Date: Wed, 2 Dec 2009 22:44:22 -0700 Hi Karen, Thanks for your email. The unit price of GL-PMG-1000 is 590 USD and DHL door to door service cost is 250 USD. Best regards, Paul ---------------------------------------------------Sales Department Ginlong Technologies No. 57 Jintong Road, Seafront(Binhai) Industrial Park, Xiangshan Economic Development Zone, Xiangshan, Ningbo, Zhejiang, 315712 China Tel: (+86) 574 6578 1806 Fax: (+86) 574 6578 1606 E-mail: sales@ginlong.com Web: www.ginlong.com -------- Original Message -------Subject: GL-PMG-1000 From: Karen Hernandez <karenhernandez06@hotmail.com> Date: Wed, December 02, 2009 10:41 pm To: <sales@ginlong.com> Hi, I am interested in buying 1 GL-PMG-1000 Permanent Magnet Generator from Ginlong. My Contact Address/ Delivery Address is 223 Link Hall, Syracuse, NY 13244. Contact Person Name: Karen Hernandez Contact Telephone #: 787-614-3569 Thank you, Karen E. Hernandez Syracuse University 2010 LC Smith College of Engineering and Computer Sciences Mechanical Engineering kahernan@syr.edu (787)614-3569 72


Appendix A: E-mail Correspondence

Self-Sustaining Street Light

MEETING WITH CoE AND SELUX

RE: CoE From:

Michael Pelken (mpelken@syr.edu) Sent: Monday, November 02, 2009 8:47:56 AM Karen Hernandez (karenhernandez06@hotmail.com); David A Schragger To: (daschrag@syr.edu)

Karen, Dave, could you please both send copies of the drawings - Thanks! Michael Pelken From: Karen Hernandez [mailto:karenhernandez06@hotmail.com] Sent: Monday, November 02, 2009 1:21 AM To: Michael Pelken Subject: RE: CoE

Hi Prof. Pelken, I have a drawing with dimensions, but is not up to scale. In the last meeting, Dave brought a scaled drawing of the housing with dimensions. It might be better if you use his drawing. Let me know if you need anything else. Best, Karen -Karen E. Hernandez Syracuse University 2010 LC Smith College of Engineering and Computer Sciences Mechanical Engineering kahernan@syr.edu (787)614-3569 From: mpelken@syr.edu To: karenhernandez06@hotmail.com CC: tqdang@syr.edu; cpraye@syr.edu Date: Sat, 31 Oct 2009 14:57:10 -0400 Subject: RE: CoE Karen, Thanks for the PPT. Could you please send me the latest drawing with dimensions also? It is very relevant for the discussions. Thanks, Michael Pelken

73


Appendix A: E-mail Correspondence

Self-Sustaining Street Light

From: Karen Hernandez [mailto:karenhernandez06@hotmail.com] Sent: Friday, October 30, 2009 6:46 PM To: Michael Pelken Cc: Thong Quoc Dang; Charles Raye Subject: RE: CoE

Hi Pelken, Attached is the PowerPoint presentation. Chuck is not available on Tuesday, so I will tell someone else from the group to join the meeting. Let me know if anything changes. Have a good weekend. Sincerely, Karen -Karen E. Hernandez Syracuse University 2010 LC Smith College of Engineering and Computer Sciences Mechanical Engineering kahernan@syr.edu (787)614-3569

> From: mpelken@syr.edu > To: cpraye@syr.edu; tqdang@syr.edu; karenhernandez06@hotmail.com > Date: Fri, 30 Oct 2009 15:17:10 -0400 > Subject: RE: CoE > > Charles, Karen, > > This will be at least 8-9 people, if the two of you (or someone else from the group) join in (Dr.Dang, Jeong Oh, two people from Selux, Dave, MP, and maybe one more from Tech Transfer) - this is reaching the maximum capacity of such a meeting from my professional experience. Whereas I do not want to exclude anyone, the entire group will be bringing it up to 14 or 15, which is way too much to handle (plus we would need a room to configure that, and would like to stick to Link+). As the manufacturer is eager to decide whether to work with us or not, the set up needs to allow for the discussions to be very focused. > > I would like to suggest to have two people that represent the study group and that are fully prepared to talk about all components and development steps that the group is going through. > > Karen, could you please send me a copy of all presentation material that was used for Dr. Santanam's conference call. I would like to prepare the presentation for Tuesday by bringing in some of the things they saw last time, to hark back to that discussion. >

74


Appendix A: E-mail Correspondence

Self-Sustaining Street Light

> Please let me know your thoughts. Thanks, > > Michael Pelken > -----Original Message----> From: Charles Patrick Raye [mailto:cpraye@syr.edu] > Sent: Friday, October 30, 2009 10:11 AM > To: Thong Quoc Dang; Michael Pelken; Karen Hernandez > Subject: RE: CoE > > Yes, it should be possible to put the model back together, I will take a look at it later today. It's only going to be for display purposes right? Is Selux coming Tuesday or Wednesday? > > Chuck > ________________________________________ > From: Thong Quoc Dang [tqdang@syr.edu] > Sent: Thursday, October 29, 2009 8:31 PM > To: Michael Pelken; Karen Hernandez > Cc: Charles Patrick Raye > Subject: RE: CoE > > Hello Chuck: > > Selux, the company interested in the lightpost, will be here next week on Tuesday afternoon. Prof. Pelken would like to have the wind tunnel model ready to show to them. Would it be possible for you to put the thing back together and bring it to Link+ 4th floor? Do get others to help if you need. > > > > Dr. Dang

75


Appendix A: E-mail Correspondence

Self-Sustaining Street Light

MEETING WITH BetaLED and RESPONSE FROM PAUL MAHANEY

Norman Traino [ntraino@ferrinikonarski.com] Sent: Wednesday, September 30, 2009 4:31 PM To: Laura M Graham Norman Traino [ntraino@ferrinikonarski.com] Sent: Tuesday, October 13, 2009 5:36 PM To: Laura M Graham BLD STR T4 025-R $375.00 ----- Original Message ----From: "Laura M Graham" <lmgraham@syr.edu> To: <ntraino@ferrinikonarski.com> Sent: Tuesday, October 13, 2009 4:28 PM Subject: RE: LED Light pricing Type 4, streetlight, like the one you brought in. ________________________________________ From: ntraino@ferrinikonarski.com [ntraino@ferrinikonarski.com] Sent: Tuesday, October 13, 2009 11:02 AM To: Laura M Graham Subject: Re: LED Light pricing What style fixture? Sent from my Verizon Wireless BlackBerry ________________________________ From: Laura M Graham <lmgraham@syr.edu> Date: Tue, 13 Oct 2009 14:19:42 +0000 To: Norman Traino<ntraino@ferrinikonarski.com> Subject: LED Light pricing Hello, Thanks for meeting with us last week, it was very helpful. We are interested in how much a 30 LED type 4 light fixture would cost us. Thanks, Laura Graham â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;

Hi LauraMy name is Norman Traino I am the local rep for Beta Led Lighting. Beta Lighting informed me that you were looking for some pricing. The cost on a 40 Led fixtures is $510 and the cost of a 60 Led fixture is $720.00. If you are interested in seeing the sample I would be happy to bring it by. Also, the Village of Solvay has installed a couple hundred fixtures.

76


Appendix A: E-mail Correspondence

Self-Sustaining Street Light

Regards, Norman Traino Norman Traino Ferrini-Konarski Syracuse Office 315-635-3232-P 315-635-3458-F 315-506-3512-C -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

RE: Self-Sustaining Street Light From:

Ritter, Josef (jritter@cazenovia.edu) You may not know this sender.Mark as safe|Mark as junk Sent: Thursday, October 08, 2009 1:29:24 PM To: Paul Mahaney (pemahane@syr.edu); Karen Hernandez (karenhernandez06@hotmail.com) Michael Pelken (mpelken@syr.edu); Thong Quoc Dang (tqdang@syr.edu); Lightpost Cc: Project (lightpostdesign@hotmail.com) Hi Paul, This is very interesting as I just got back from my sabbatical trip to France and found a street lights at the Train station in Avingnon that was using LED's powered by wind energy. I have photos etc. and I am trying to find out who made them.

Joe From: Paul Mahaney [mailto:pemahane@syr.edu] Sent: Tue 10/6/2009 10:44 AM To: 'Karen Hernandez' Cc: Michael Pelken; Thong Quoc Dang; Lightpost Project Subject: RE: Self-Sustaining Street Light

Karen, It was my pleasure to be part of you meeting yesterday. I have attached an estimate sheet that I use when estimating installations costs for street lighting. After our meeting I thought more about this project and I have a couple of things that might be helpful to you when trying to figure out how to complete such an interesting project. 1. Figure out the size of the batteries required to energize the luminaire for between 14 and 15 hours. In Central New York typical exterior lights are on in the winter time from between 5pm to 7am. The reason behind having batteries that will be able to handle the entire load for this period is there may be a time frame when there is no wind/solar power available. I am seeing in that most companies require the batteries be sized for a couple of days to ride through storms where there is no light and snow that may keep the turbine from moving. 2. Once you have the batteries sized then you can figure out the size of your generator/turbine/photovoltaic requirements. I am not sure how long it takes to reenergize batteries completely with what is available in the industry today. 77


Appendix A: E-mail Correspondence

Self-Sustaining Street Light

3. You will also want to incorporate a photo cell to turn the light on and off (dusk to dawn). Your group may want to talk to a company called Cree LED, their web site is http://www.cree.com/ they are the world’s leading experts in LED technology. This is one of just a couple of companies who you can trust for LED’s. They may be able to help you in obtain LED’s and other components for this project. In yesterday’s meeting I mentioned a professor from Cazenovia College who does a lot of work with lighting design. His name is Josef Ritter and he can be reached at jritter@cazenovia.edu. He should be able to help you out on this as well. If you have any questions or need additional information please let me know. Thank you Paul Paul E. Mahaney. LEED-AP Senior Project Engineer Syracuse University - Campus Planning, Design and Construction Skytop Office Building Syracuse, NY 13244 Phone # (315)-443-5328 Fax # (315)-443-4969 Email: pemahane@syr.edu From: Karen Hernandez [mailto:karenhernandez06@hotmail.com] Sent: Monday, October 05, 2009 9:54 PM To: Paul Mahaney Cc: Michael Pelken; Thong Quoc Dang; Lightpost Project Subject: Self-Sustaining Street Light

Hi Paul, Thank you for attending the meeting today about the "Self-sustaining Street Light" project. Your suggestions and opinions were very helpful to us. I wanted follow-up on some things that were discussed in the meeting. You mentioned you had information about the cost of trenching and cable work for a conventional street light, approximately 20-25 ft. tall. Can you provide us those numbers, so that we can compare them to the cost of our "Self-sustaining street light"? This would be very useful for our project. Please let us know if you have any other questions or suggestions. Once again, thank you for your help.

78


Appendix A: E-mail Correspondence

Self-Sustaining Street Light

Sincerely, Karen -Karen E. Hernandez Syracuse University 2010 LC Smith College of Engineering and Computer Sciences Mechanical Engineering kahernan@syr.edu (787)614-3569

INFORMATION FROM NEOLUX Date: Fri, 9 Oct 2009 16:26:10 +0800 From: sophie.ma@neoluxled.com To: kahernan@syr.edu CC: james.zuo@neoluxled.com Subject: reply: Business Message from Karen Hernandez

Dear Karen, This is Sophie from Neolux, we are very glad to receive your enquiry. Since the wind speed and sunshine ,and rainning days is different in places, the information on the web is not for everywhere. We can do max 5 days rainning without charging. And we need to know more details before we could make detailed spec with quotation to you: -where to install? double arm or single arm? -how many rainning days? -how many hours lighting per day? -do you need pole and arm? -what about the wind speed there? We need to know these basic info to calculate how many watt need to generate to afford the light to work at the certain period. Attached is the specification file for your reference, this is for commonly used. Please let me know how many quantity you are going to purchase, and we can also produce according to your spec. Best regards, Sophie Ma NeoLux LED Lightings Co., Ltd. Room 507, Taiping life Tower, #1399, Minsheng Rd, Shanghai, P.R.C, 200135 Phone: +86.21.5138 6766 ext 865 Fax: +86 21 5138 6755 http://www.neoluxled.com Email: sophie.ma@neoluxled.com MSN: Neoluxled-America@live.cn

79


Appendix B: Meeting Minutes

Self-Sustaining Street Light

APPENDIX B: MEETING MINUTES Team Meeting Tuesday, 9/22/09 8:30 -9:30 AM Members Present: Chuck Raye, Laura Graham, Reid Berdanier, Timothy P Hatlee, Karen Hernandez, Christopher Horvath Location: Link 369 Meeting Minutes:

Agenda Item 1 | Special Tools| Team • Discussion: Need anemometer, generator, batteries, charge controller • Decisions: Meet with Carranti, Thursday, September 24, at 9:00am Agenda Item 2 | Wind Tunnel Testing, Clarkson | Team • Discussion: Talk to Dang about time and dates for wind tunnel testing at Clarkson • University. • Decisions: Discuss with Dang on Thursday, September 24, at 9:30am Agenda Item 3 | CFD | Team • Discussion: Ask Dang to get a grad student to make CFD analysis for angle • optimization. Also talk to Dang about changing rotor design from • Savonius to Darrieus. • Decisions: Discuss with Dang on Thursday, September 24, at 9:30am Agenda Item 4 | Site | Team • Discussion: Possible site locations for Self-sustaining street light: Lawrinson, Skytop • Decisions: Discuss with Dang on Thursday, September 24, at 9:30am

Team Meeting Tuesday, 9/29/09 8:30 -9:30 AM Members Present: All Minutes: • Need to assemble presentation for Prof Dang, and Design class, both Thursday, 10/1/09 • Who will present current progress in Carranti’s class? - Chuck was designated, since he knows most at this point • For Dang presentation: o Gantt Chart

80


Appendix B: Meeting Minutes

Self-Sustaining Street Light

o List of Components – will present in an excel document, of different tabs for each component, listing the best company product options o What each of us have done • For Carranti Presentation: o Explanation of the project statement and approach o Printout of idea design as imagined by architects o Gantt Chart • Chuck has located good anemometers • Tim has comparison list of PV cells, and Outputs – different voltages and currents, need to choose one with good maximum capacity • Laura reports on LED findings: LED pad on its own will not work, too direct of a light source, the housing is essential. Will need to build a housing into the bottom of the wind turbine structure, for effective lighting • Battery and Charge Controller – Chuck has choices of product on each of these • For battery, which type is best? o Deep Cycle says requires maintenance, but will last longer depending on how short the cycle lasts o Needs further investigation • Decide on official team scribe – Chris Horvath • Reid briefly discusses his research on rotor design which he will share at meeting Thursday • Skytop location discussed, Dang deemed unworthy, but will still go down and check out for certain: Chris, Chuck, Reid • Chris has put together the place for data location using Windows live – Skydrive: o Username: lightpostdesign@hotmail.com o Password: designsenior o Everyone is linked in, and has access to documents o Will ask Dang and Pelken if they would like to be included To Do: • Each person uses PPt template and uploads copy with own slides, with initials at the end, compile together later, and turn to PDF • Take the papers down to Engineering office to make projector slides – Karen • Components list template & Gantt Chart – Karen • Finish assembling recommended list for products, and add to components list – Tim(PV), Chuck(Anemometer, Charge Capacitor) Laura (LED lights) • Check out the Skytop site – Reid, Chris, and/or Chuck

Advisor-Team Meeting Tuesday, 10/01/09 9:30 -10:35 AM Members Present: All team members, Prof Pelken, Prof Dang, Nian, Dave Minutes: • Chris presents first, on Site locations(Dome/ESF, Mount, Skytop)

81


Appendix B: Meeting Minutes

Self-Sustaining Street Light

Discussed that would Dome and Skytop likely best locations For future – take a flag on a pole for investigating wind For sizing purpose – take picture with person next to subject Need to ask if we can place anemometer on top of existing light, and needs to be about 6 feet above lights, so as to avoid turbulence Reid Presents Rotor Designs and Parameters o First design – Savonius without shaft in middle (improved efficiency) Supported by casing top and bottom, and by the sides  More stages are better for this design, 2 is good, but 3 is better – increases static coefficient of torque Cts  Cp value? Reid has at home o Lenz design – combination airfoil/drag type  Windstuffnow.com – homemade designs  Can email and ask about usage for project  Good power outputs • 2’ X 2’ @ 7.1 mph (3.3W), @ 9.5 mph (6.78 W), • 3’ X 4’ @ 12 mph (12 W) – use directly in ours? Tim presents on PV Cell o Suggests to keep the current around 1 A, because higher hurts the battery o The rated values per cell don’t seem to include efficiencies o Need estimates on costs and better power ratings(given efficiencies) Chuck/Karen present information of component costs (see presentation for details) o Still need info on mounting pole cost, rotor, housing o Housing will be manufactured on site - Dave o Rotor, if using Lenz design would likely be done in house, otherwise could be ordered or manufactured o Anemometers – Have a clear winner here – the British made one  Just need Chuck to check on total cost(shipping, tax, customs) before ordering  Likely to buy 3 of them – Dang for funding and ordering Laura – LED’s o Need housing for dispersal of light – be done and connected with overall wind housing o 100 ft diameter of light at 30 foot height for 3000 lumens about 72 W o Need to purchase 40-60 LED’s $510 - $720 total o Manufacturer/distributer is located locally (Baldwinsville) and put up a large amount recently in a nearby town/city – Dang would like to visit o Could ask if they have an interest in working to develop product with us – Pelken to ask? o o o o

Karen/Chuck o Electrical Components diagram drawn, Karen is working on more specific details of connections o Current existence of 2 similar Solar/Wind street lights, still different, but could provide useful specs on Power supplied by solar and its area, and area swept by turbine for power output – Karen to contact for more detailed information

82


Appendix B: Meeting Minutes

Self-Sustaining Street Light

o Permanent magnet Alternator for wind power generator  Small, compact, $130 – Chinese product, but distributed here?  Output 24 V, 100 W @ 1000 RPM To Do: • Determine approximate size of fixture, using necessary input power, and possible power outputs from solar/wind and their variale values (i.e. at this windspeed what size rotor, at this solar radiation level this area) – All attempt/contribute and collaborate on Tuesday meeting • On profile of project include more information – overview, goals, pictures, etc - Chris • Find Cp values of adjusted Savonius Rotor – Reid • Send link to Pelken for homemade turbine – Reid • Share details/curves for rotor designs and discuss best solution with Dang - Reid • Run CFD for optimizing flow angle on wind housing –Nian • Make a mock-up of casework, to get sizing idea and bring to next meeting – Dave, Pelken • PV costs and power output numbers(with efficiencies etc) – Tim • Does the anemometer need a transformer, and all costs included – Chuck • See if LED manufacturer(in Baldwinsville) would like to work together – Pelker or Laura? • Find where exactly LED’s were put up in large quantity – Laura? • Contact company of current solar/wind lightpost for specs – Karen • Check where the permanent magnet alternator distributes from – Karen

Advisor-Team Meeting Thursday, 10/15/09 9:30 -10:35 AM Members Present: All team members, Prof Dang, Nhan, Dave Minutes: • Chuck shows electrical components manual o Included with LED’s are driver AC to DC o Need this included to ramp voltage up to required value o Very good efficiency, about 95 % • For now, aiming for most efficient system, not necessarily the longest lifespan yet. • Total estimated losses in system – 10% • Generator choice – about 97 % efficient, but still need to match one specifically to rotor tip speed • Typical performance of a battery – Reid says a bell curve. Will bring different curve types next time to compare the efficiencies • Size dimensions – 2 rotors, @ 2.25 by 2.25 ft each • For LED - $375 with 30 LEDs, plan to take off(like led light shown to us) and attach to our project, but will not use that way for manufacturing, just as a demonstration. • A/C generator – need the power, voltage, current curves - Chuck • To match correct rotor to generator, o To find our rotor RPM, know the lamda for each rotor, and our wind speed – 4 m/s, and match with proper curve.

83


Appendix B: Meeting Minutes • •

• •

• •

• • •

Self-Sustaining Street Light

From the Center of Excellence – Dr Suresh Santana suggested a site location, downtown with lots of wind, in an alleyway. Will need to be checked out. For PV o Charge out – 1 A, .55 W, 168 Cells($458), use ribbon wire, and solder cells together. o John downstairs in shop is good at it, Dang will speak with him. o Chuck has some familiarity with it. o How to protect it, if we are making ourselves? Attach film glass on top? o Are there thin film/flexible solar arrays with comparable specs? - Tim will take a look o Panel sizing – on top of housing, no one can see anyway, can have just one array on top of it, facing at the optimal angle for elevation, maybe around 3 feet long by 2 feet wide. – Tim have a look through the solar companies for comparable specs. Pole can be arbitrary, the housing just connects to the top and the majority of the guts is in the bottom. Maybe have a box at the base of the pole which holds the battery, rather than below the ground surface Still need 3D, 2D drawings, confirming components and sizes – Dave, but first needs the optimum angle, for now, will assume up to 15 degrees. Housing material – for mockup, will be of foam, wood, fiberglass. Use an airfoil technique of building a frame, filling it, and then skinning overtop? Ryan Dieger can help us to figure out the method of assembly. Laura/Dang will speak with and have come to the next meeting. In the future, housing will be made of a metal sort Need to perform stress analysis, for strength of the pole, and for understanding of constraints, how much it deforms and when. – Use Catia, Chris with help of Tim. o Dave has a copy of program. o Run for optimal running torque(Design Point), and for the maximum torque. o Chuck, Karen, Laura have a ProE file, will find a way to import, and then work with the file. Inverter component – From Silicon Solar - $56 For better use of energy – integrate motion sensor, turns on other 2 lights when someone walks by. Our Approximate cost for the components, the assembly, etc – about $2,500, but does not include cost for rotor material (sheet metal), and housing. Better estimate is to multiply by 2. Funding opportunity – Center of Excellence – need to present our current standing to get money from the steward o Need a proposal – 25 slides, for next week want a draft. About 30 minutes o Include budget, costs, what we are aiming for, sustainability, places without infrastructure, o Show previous sloppy designs and then our integrated design. o Mention the wind speed – 4.5 m/s, based on collected data. Also, have anemometers to measure specific data and better calculate our estimated performance. o Turbine – detailed design of how the housing supports itself and the shaft. 84


Appendix B: Meeting Minutes •

Self-Sustaining Street Light

Reid mentioned heat sink idea for the LED lights – 3 support struts on housing, and 3 LED lights, place the LEDs below the housing, and behind the strut, putting the heat sink fins right behind the posts, for least amount of obstruction to air flow.

Action Items: • Bring different typical performance curves for batteries – Reid • A/C generator – need the power, voltage, current curves – Chuck • Are there existing Thin Film/flexible panels with comparable specs? – Tim • Proposal draft PowerPoint presentation – All group members • Order the Anemometer – Dang/Pelken • Speak with Ryan to come to next meeting – Dang • Find optimal angle from CFD – Nhan • Stress analysis on lightpole – Chris & Tim

Team Meeting Tuesday, 10/20/09 9:30 -10:00 AM Members Present: All team members Minutes: • Pelken will give files on Thursday that we need to include in the report • Reid shares info on aspect ratio and performance o Best ratio of height/diameter is .77, for a Cp value of .22. We will squish our height a bit and expand diameter to compensate - change housing sizes, middle to 4.25 ft and 3.75 ft for top. • Generator – hard to find with the correct RPM to run at, most don’t give data for lower than 130 RPM – Reid will email them to ask about it. o Reids curves include bearing loss • 30” x 25” – PV panel – 65W ~ 2 x 3 ft • Chuck & Karen working on timeline • Presentation – put sizing stuff up + site pics w/ campus map – Chris • Reid is talking with Dang on the new values he found • For presentation – still need the optimal angle

Advisor Meeting Thursday, 10/22/09 9:30 -10:30 AM Members Present: All team members, Pelken, Dang, Dave, Nhan, and Prof Basman Minutes: • On anemometers – Pelken has the order form

85


Appendix B: Meeting Minutes •

• • • •

• • • • • •

• • • • • • •

Self-Sustaining Street Light

4.6 m/s is the reported average wind speed – found by the CoE o Need to know how the wind fluctuates, the distribution – jet, from our own data we will record. – Reid will work on analyzing the data PV – 30” by 25” LED type 4, 36 W or 40 W For our presentation to present to Dr. Suresh from CoE, about 20-25 minutes Basman is here to help talk about choosing an appropriate generator o May have to include gears – to have a minimum torque, and be able to run at lower wind speeds o Can’t have a large generator, because it will have a large back emf o Smaller ones with less toque, can place around the shaft gear like a planetary gear, and connect the generators in serioes. o However, a concern is the losses associated with using gear, Reid and other believe would be high For Data that Reid shares- Watts vs RPM o Data is extrapolated, because data is not provided before 130 RPM, however, it does not explicitly say that it doesn’t work below this point. o Reid may want to call and find out if this is true. o As suggested by Basman – the idea is to use small generators with a gear instead. Fixed gear idea could have very low losses VAWT’s are very picky with startup, higher torque required with a drag type as well. Need generator with low RPM and low torque Basman – can trick it with a nice controller, have turbine driving and variable resistance, slowly ramp up the generator with its torque We are in the range of 100-300 RPM Check into fixed gear systems – Chris Exactly how is the battery charged? o Will the battery even charge at such a low voltage? o Necessary to know for matching appropriately. The current timeline is shown o It is requested by Pelken/Dang, to allow time for debugging, to push everything 12 weeks earlier, but not everything can really be moved o Before installing for actually demonstration/testing, can ask an electrical engineer how to measure the voltage output, and how it changes based on input – to get a rough estimate. o Also, while in testing, will read the value before the light source, and monitor for the week, correlate wind speed with output from anemometer at the same time. Pole Height – now about 25 ft, and out LED can work up to 30 ft high anyway For the CoE presentation – want to include the CoE as one of the testing sites. Basman can help find the generators – will forward links and information to Dang/Reid Key – want the static torque to be low Can we use a motorcycle or moped alternator? There is a wind tunnel being build at Skytop, we can use it to test our actual product next semester, and use it to monitor output. 2-3 slides from Pelken’s presentation to include in ours

86


Appendix B: Meeting Minutes • • •

• • •

Self-Sustaining Street Light

Take out most of test site pictures, keep the best ones at the dome Need CoE pics – Chris Dave says regarding the housing – the turbine should be ~ ½ of the housing diameter, for aesthetic appeal o We need to see a to scale model, and figure aestheics o Send dimensions to Dave, and may need to increase the housing size, which is ok o Since the pole is high up, 4 to 6 feet diameter won’t look too large, however safety? Manufacturing the housing o Best for sheet metal, and form over top of the frame? o Don’t really need to do this for now, for testing purposes o Housing will have screws, flanges, and bolt together The LED consumption needs to be updated in the presentation to 56 W – Chris Costs – Add up to ~ 7 K, to include extra buffer, the machining hours, rotor and housing construction, etc – Karen & Chuck Want to have the presentation early next week.

Action Items: • Will the battery charge at such a low voltage – Chuck • Ask for data specifics from COE for actual wind data numbers – Dang • Continue working on generator choice and curves - Reid • Work on ProE model for the design – Chuck & Karen • Add in Pelken’s slides to the presentation – Karen • Order Anemometers – Pelken/Dang • CoE picture – Chris • Work on Structural Analysis – Chris & Tim • Send Rotor Dimensions & presentation to Dave – Karen • Update Costs of project/billing of materials - Karen • Update Power consumption and power production in Presentation - Chris

Advisor Meeting Thursday, 10/29/09 9:30 -10:30 AM Members Present: All team members, Pelken, Dang, Ryan Minutes: • Today, we will be having a phone conference with Dr. Santana o Email – ssantana@syracusecoe.org • Pelken brought a small scale mock-up, looks nice with the blue insulation foam • Wind Data with every 15 minutes – Reid has, just needs to analyze it • Regarding Electrical components – Questions from Ryan o Why AC to DC? And Inverter?, thinks would lose a lot of efficiency o It comes with the product, and is necessary to reach the correct levels

87


Appendix B: Meeting Minutes

• • • • •

Self-Sustaining Street Light

o Prob use an alternator now for testing, but later would probably make our own DC generator 2 companies interested as said by Pelken – 1 in NY, and 1 in Syracuse o In Berlin – a company is interested at this point where we are with the investigation – has worked with PV and LEDs o Local company – not currently working in the area yet, but interested Santana wants to know: o Wind cut in speed, about 3 m/s o What percentage of time is the wind speed below 3 m/s? o Also, PV solar radiation, what is the availability? o Will be able to tell these things from analyzing wind data, and also from anemometer Santana would like to see the system designed using all DC, without inverters Next Tuesday – site meeting, Pelken/Dang to meet with Suresh and Selux(interested company), and would like any of us able to attend the meeting as well. What is the weight of the metal frame? Dangerous or heavy? – Working on it, as well as structural analysis from Chris and Tim Lifetime of lights? – about 3 years. Santana would really like to see a concrete base with the components inside, to make it portable and movable within a certain site – doesn’t want to dig a hole, and nor bolt it to the ground. Could have a local company make the base. After the meeting, Nhan shows his current CFD results o A couple of things were noticed, and requested to review. o He will continue to work on it for next time. For the housing size – would like to have 5 ft in the middle, and increase the size on top and bottom – Chris will email Dave to request an update of scale.

Action Items: • Check availability for following week’s Selux meeting. • Work on the weight of the housing & structure • Structural Analysis – Chris & Tim • CFD results – Nhan • Analyze Wind readings from the CoE site - Reid

Team Meeting Tuesday, 11/03/09 9:30 -10:30 AM Members Present: All team members Minutes: • Selux meeting later today – Karen & Reid are attending • Housing original is put back together, but doesn’t have struts or pedestal as requested by Pelken, not deemed as completely necessary.

88


Appendix B: Meeting Minutes •

• • •

Self-Sustaining Street Light

A current problem encountered – upon analysis of the actual wind data from CoE, found that the average we had been presenting was not correct o Actual average speed is ~2.5 m/s, with a mode of 1.8 m/s. o To properly calculate power  P1(N1) + P2(N2) +… where P includes the Cp for each wind speed, N is the hours at that production For Class update on Tuesday – Data from Reid, talk about meetings with Selux and CoE for funding, and what we had included in the proposal. o Flat PV – changed from former cells o Changed dimensions of housing o Tim has offered to present After Meeting today, Karen will send out updates of what we need to do for Thursday meeting, if anything. Chuck and Karen and Laura will have update on rotor/housing for CAD drawing. Reid says we should wait on Generator until we are sure about our wind speed, and what we are designing for.

Action Items: • Attend Selux Meeting – Reid and Karen • Report on meeting to rest of group in email if necessary - Karen • Work on CAD drawing –Laura, Chuck, Karen

Advisor Meeting Thursday, 11/05/09 9:30 -10:30 AM Members Present: All team members, Nhan, Dang, Dave Minutes: • For the anemometers, need to get Duracell batteries to put inside before setting up, because the instructions recommend so • Jeff will mount them with Chuck and Reid • Critical Issues discussed: o Anemometers – where? Right away  Dang knows a guy who has a private backyard with lots of wind  Dome area – Chuck will talk with Jeff Ellison to mount it o Real Data of COE – bad results – 2.5 m/s average, 1.6 m/s mode  Decide that we will not pursue the COE as a possible site location  We will stick with our design for 4.5 m/s and pursue other possibilities • Each location that it will be put will need to be designed a little differently depending on the location resources. o We want to take out the CFD slide from our presentations. The one with 300% increase, because we feel it is inaccurate and out of context  Karen send an email to Pelken that the size has changed from this context, and that this needs to be taken out. CC Dang 89


Appendix B: Meeting Minutes •

Self-Sustaining Street Light

While we are waiting on a few issues – the CFD results from Nhan and funding o Figure out the weight of the structure – ProE – Chuck, Laura o Finish the drawings of the model o Structural Analysis – Chris, Tim Materials for building it – discussed with Dave o Skeleton, and filling, o To be explored - How will the housing connect to the pole, how the alternator fits in and bolts to the frame and housing? How LEDs will fit in? o LED can be slanted on the bottom, it has a rated angle o The alternator will likely need to be vented as well, because it should produce heat o How to connect a flat base to the pole, and then build the housing on top of it?

Action Items: • Structural Analysis – Chris, Tim • Finish Drawings – Karen, Chuck, Laura • Send an email to Pelken about the CFD slide, and CC Dang - Karen • Talk with Jeff about site locations, especially the Dome area - Chuck

Team Meeting Tuesday, 11/10/09 9:30 -10:30 AM Members Present: All team members Minutes: • Quick Meeting • Writing the report – Writing Style o When talking about numbers – use present tense o Talking about how things were done, and carried out – use the past o No we or I • Each person can help edit eachother’s parts • Talking with Jeff about how to put anemometers on post – Chuck is currently talking with him o Taking one and a bracket with him, zip ties? - likely not the best option o Pick up Duracell batteries o Need to get a 5 foot pole to put on top of existing poles • Meeting on Thursday with just Pelken, Dang is away

90


Appendix B: Meeting Minutes

Self-Sustaining Street Light

Advisor Meeting Thursday, 11/12/09 9:30 -10:30 AM Members Present: All team members, Dave, and Pelken late Minutes: • Conversation with Dave o Would be good to have – a diagram showing where the wires go, where components go, and how the size fits inside the housing, schematic layout of where stuff goes, and build in some tolerances o As it stands currently, due to the small angle, the thickness of each portion of the housing is very thin. o For building the rotor into the housing  Maybe mount rotors directly to bearing, to the housing, bearing with a flange o For each plate – made of mdf or wood about a quarter to a half inch thick  The plate would be inside the middle were we can screw into, and the foam goes around it. The plate provides the support of the housing o One strut needs to be hollow to be able to have the PV wires run down it. • With Pelken – updates o Putting up Anemometers – Jeff Ellison  Cannot put between the dome and ESF – belongs to and maintained by the dome, and satellites are placed on top of poles during games for broadcasting  Instead – will put behind lawrinson hall in the parking lot  Place on south – skytop  Place with Jhong? The private residence o For the stress analysis  Need to include a case which considers gusts that come from the bottom, which will affect things a bit differently  Have established that we cannot use Catia to modify and analyze the stress  Tim and Chris working with the Solidworks software to find stresses o The weight of the system – approximately 60 to 100 pounds o We would like to order components off the shelf before the end of the semester in order to have these to work with during the next semester o Aesthetics need to be updated given the changes in size - maybe change the look a bit o Struts – mdf and sand down, add resin and make own castings o Regarding Selux – they are not onboard for us. Action Items • Tomorrow with installing Anemometers, and take lots of pictures – Chuck and Reid • Continue with Stress Analysis – Tim and Chris • Work on new aesthetics of the housing and look – Pelken & Dave.

91


Appendix B: Meeting Minutes

Self-Sustaining Street Light

Advisor Meeting Thursday, 11/19/09 9:30 -10:30 AM Members Present: All team members, Dang, Pelken, Nhan Minutes: • Basman took a look at the pictures of location of Anemometers o He suggested adjusting them for optimal wind conditions  Remove the lightposts on either side of the anemometer at Skytop  Add a bracket that leads away from the pole in parking lot behind Lawrinson • Regarding the installation of the Anemometers – Jeff was very cooperative with 3 other helpers/technicians, and cherry pickers, available anytime to adjust, modify, or retrieve data. • About testing the prototype in the new wind chamber on south at the end of the year o Won’t work very well with the design, given the size of the chamber and the narrow airflow. o It would not flow correctly, and then the air would flow around the resistance of the rotor rather than flow through it. o Would not give an accurate implication of the converging housing o We could maybe build a box enclosure for our turbine, but it may be very complicated and difficult to build something appropriate • With the 3rd anemometer o Before decided to put it on top of the water tower on south as Jeff offered, would like to contact the Dome people about possibly putting it up around the dome • Showing the CAD drawings from ProE o It is quite tall – much in part due to the high angle needed for the PV, as a result of our high latitude, however, we can switch the length and the width, to make it a little shorter. Have the larger side go across the housing o Send the Drawings to Pelken – Chuck • For the Aesthetics – Pelken can work with the tallness – make it more of a lollipop shape, with the struts curved, can give the figure a different shape and appearance. After a rough sketch, we all agree that it looks promising • For ordering parts o Rotor will be made of sheet metal o Pelken is taking care of costs for rotor and housing? o Fill out order forms for the electrical components, and Dang will try to get them ordered  Likely that the costs for this will be around $1000 estimate • CFD results are very critical at this point, still waiting on these Action Items: • Send Drawings with dimensions to Pelken - Chuck • Stress analysis – Tim and Chris • Fill out Order forms – Chuck • Order the electrical components – Dang • CFD results - Nhan 92


Appendix C: PowerPoint Presentations

Self-Sustaining Street Light

APPENDIX C: POWERPOINT PRESENTATIONS PPT-1 CoE/Seâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;lux Proposal Presentation

93


Appendix C: PowerPoint Presentations

Self-Sustaining Street Light

94


Appendix C: PowerPoint Presentations

Self-Sustaining Street Light

95


Appendix C: PowerPoint Presentations

Self-Sustaining Street Light

96


Appendix C: PowerPoint Presentations

Self-Sustaining Street Light

PPT-2 Final Presentation

97


Appendix C: PowerPoint Presentations

Self-Sustaining Street Light

98


Appendix C: PowerPoint Presentations

Self-Sustaining Street Light

99


Appendix C: PowerPoint Presentations

Self-Sustaining Street Light

100


Appendix C: PowerPoint Presentations

Self-Sustaining Street Light

101


Appendix C: PowerPoint Presentations

Self-Sustaining Street Light

102


Appendix D: Gantt Charts

Self-Sustaining Street Light

APPENDIX D: GANTT CHARTS

Fig. D-1. Original Gantt Chart.

103


Appendix D: Gantt Charts

Self-Sustaining Street Light

Fig. D-2. Final Gantt Chart.

104


Appendix E: Graphs

Self-Sustaining Street Light

APPENDIX E: GRAPHS

Fig. E-1. Power curve for GL-PMG-500A PMG (Ginlong).

Fig. E-3. Voltage and Amperage curves for WindBlue DC-520 (Wind Blue).

Fig. E-2. Power curve for GL-PMG-1000 PMG (Ginlong).

Fig. E-3. Voltage and Amperage curves for WindBlue DC-540 (Wind Blue).

105


Appendix E: Graphs

Self-Sustaining Street Light

Fig.E-5. Generator matching for predicted performance at three wind speeds.

Fig. E-6. Ginlong PMG-500A, including predicted performance at higher wind speeds.

106


Appendix F: Engineering Drawings

Self-Sustaining Street Light

APPENDIX F: ENGINEERING DRAWINGS

Fig. F-1. Rotor.

107


Appendix F: Engineering Drawings

Self-Sustaining Street Light

Fig. F-2. Router and housing assembly.

Fig. F-3. Utility box assembly.

108


Appendix F: Engineering Drawings

Self-Sustaining Street Light

Fig. F-4. Scaled assembly representation.

109


Appendix F: Engineering Drawings

Self-Sustaining Street Light

Fig. F-5. Zoomed full housing assembly.

110


Appendix G: CFD Results

Self-Sustaining Street Light

APPENDIX G: CFD RESULTS (All CFD results compliments of Nhan Huu Phan)

Fig. G-1. Introduction to CFD analysis.

Fig. G-2. Grid generation for CFD analysis with 15ยบ housing slope.

111


Appendix G: CFD Results

Self-Sustaining Street Light

Fig. G-3. Total pressure contours.

Fig. G-4. Coefficient of torque vs. time for Savonius rotor, 位=1.0, 0潞 housing slope.

112


Appendix G: CFD Results

Self-Sustaining Street Light

Fig. G-5. Coefficient of torque vs. time for Savonius rotor, 位=1.0, 15潞 housing slope.

Fig. G-6. Coefficient of power vs. tip-speed ratio for Savonius rotor under various conditions.

113


Appendix H: Pictures

Self-Sustaining Street Light

APPENDIX H: PICTURES

Fig. H-1. View of the alley between the Dome and ESF, Facing Southward.

Fig. H-2. Poles next to the dome, potential placement for prototype.

114


Appendix H: Pictures

Self-Sustaining Street Light

Fig. H-3. Skytop Field, Facing North.

Fig. H-4. Skytop Field, Facing North East.

Fig. H-5. Skytop Field, Facing East â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Pole potential for anemometer.

Fig. H-6. Skytop Field, Facing South.

115


Appendix H: Pictures

Fig. H-7. Mounting the anemometer in parking lot behind Lawrinson Hall.

Self-Sustaining Street Light

Fig. H-8. The anemometer mounted on the pole, close-up.

Fig. H-10. The anemometer mounted on top of the pole at Skytop.

Fig. H-9. Mounting the anemometer at Skytop.

116


Appendix I: SU Lightpost Installation Estimate

Self-Sustaining Street Light

APPENDIX I: SU LIGHTPOST INSTALLATION ESTIMATE PROJECT NAME: PROJECT NUMBER: OPINION OF PROBABLE CONSTRUCTION COST TRADE: Division 26 -- Electrical

ITEM

DATE:

QTY

UNIT

20 50 1 50 50 2

lf lf ea lf lf ea

MATERIAL P/UNIT TOTAL

LABOR P/UNIT TOTAL

TOTAL COST

Site utilities Excavation(including backfill and tamping of soil) Undergound marking tape Concrete bases (precast 24"dia, 8'high 1" PVC schedule 80 #8 THHN conductor Misc. Connection with the pole

SUBTOTAL OVERHEAD AND PROFIT SUBTOTAL CONTINGENCY TOTAL

$0.95 $0.31 $850.00 $1.24 $0.75 $15.00

$19 $16 $850 $62 $38 $30

$1,014 21% 10%

$1.77 $0.33 $250.00 $2.53 $1.80 $60.00

$35 $17 $250 $127 $90 $120

$54 $32 $1,100 $189 $128 $150

$638

$1,652 $347 $1,999 $165 $2,165

Notes/legend: 1. Excavation costs are bast on standard soil and do not include road, parking lot, and sidewalk crossings 2. A 20 foot high pole with 250 watt metal halide cost approcimently $3000 to install. 3. Wire pricing is for 3 conductors (hot, neutral, and ground) lineal feet lf each ea 100 lineal feet clf lump sum ls

117


Appendix J: Wind Speed Data

Self-Sustaining Street Light

APPENDIX J: WIND SPEED DATA Air temperatur e

Relative humidity

°C

%

kWh/m2/d

kPa

m/s

°C

°C-d

°C-d

January

-6.5

78.9%

1.72

87.0

5.5

-6.8

754

0

February

-4.9

77.7%

2.49

87.0

4.9

-4.6

652

0

March

0.5

73.2%

3.45

86.9

4.4

1.8

546

1

April

8.4

53.8%

4.82

86.8

4.2

10.8

295

36

May

14.2

44.3%

5.74

86.7

4.2

17.4

142

130

June

19.1

37.7%

6.39

86.4

4.2

22.7

32

257

July

21.1

37.7%

6.19

86.2

4.1

24.5

9

329

August

19.7

35.5%

5.81

86.4

4.4

22.4

21

292

September

14.5

38.7%

4.73

86.8

4.4

16.7

116

143

October

7.4

55.1%

3.25

87.2

4.6

8.5

325

29

Month

Daily solar Earth Atmospheri Heating Cooling radiation Wind speed temperatur c pressure degree-days degree-days horizontal e

November

0.9

71.8%

2.06

87.2

5.5

1.0

503

0

December

-4.2

78.3%

1.44

87.2

5.5

-4.6

684

0

Annual

7.5

56.9%

4.01

86.8

4.6

9.1

4079

1217

10.0

0.0

Measured at (m)

Fig. J-1. Retscreen wind speed data for Syracuse, NY (Hancock International Airport).

Fig. J-2. Histogram for CoE anemometer data (7/21/2006 – 10/5/2009).

118


Appendix J: Wind Speed Data

Self-Sustaining Street Light

Fig. J-3. Histogram for Skytop area anemometer data (11/13/2009 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 12/15/2009).

Fig. J-4. Histogram for Standart lot anemometer data (11/13/2009 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 12/15/2009).

119


Appendix K: MATLAB Code

Self-Sustaining Street Light

%% MEE 471 Lightpost Project %% Reid Berdanier %% Rotor-Generator Matching clc close all %% WindBlue DC-540 Low Wind Permanent Magnet Alternator %% WB_N = [130:1:350]; %rotational speed, rpm WB_volts = 0.0818 .* WB_N + 1.3636; %voltage, V WB_amps = 0.0250 .* WB_N - 1.2500; %current, amps %calculated power, W WB_power = WB_volts .* WB_amps; (P=IV) %predicted values:: %rotational speed, WB_Np = [0:1:130]; rpm WB_powerp = 0.0021 .* WB_Np .^ 2 - 0.0862 .* WB_Np; %predicted calculated power, W (P=IV) % WindBlue DC=520 High Wind Permanent Magnet Alternator %% WB2_N = [130:1:350]; %rotational speed, rpm WB2_volts= 0.0352 .* WB2_N + 2.3900; %voltage, V WB2_amps = 0.0345 .* WB2_N - 1.4828; %current, amps WB2_power= WB2_volts .* WB2_amps; %calculated power, W (P=IV) %predicted values:: WB2_Np = [0:1:130]; %rotational speed, rpm WB2_powerp = 3e-09 .* WB2_Np.^4 - 3e-06 .* WB2_Np.^3 + 0.002 .* WB2_Np.^2 0.0629 .* WB2_Np; %predicted calculated power, W (P=IV) % Ginlong GL-PMG-500A PMG %% GL_N = [0:1:350]; rpm GL_power = 0.0027 .* GL_N.^2 - 0.0295 .* GL_N;

% Ginlong GL-PMG-1000 PMG %% GL2_N = [0:1:350]; rpm GL2_power = 0.0065 .* GL2_N.^2 - 0.0867 .* GL2_N;

%rotational speed, %approximate power, W

%rotational speed, %approximate power, W

%% Designed Rotor Performance %% lambda = [0.620; 0.710; 0.780; 0.850; 0.900; 0.960; 1.010; 1.070; 1.100; 1.150; 1.200; 1.260]; Dft = 3.00; %rotor diameter, ft Dm = Dft*12/39.37; %rotor diameter, m Hft = 2.25; %rotor height, ft Hm = Hft*12/39.37; %rotor height, m rho = 1.204; %air density at 20 deg C, kg/m^3

120


Appendix K: MATLAB Code Cp

Self-Sustaining Street Light

= zeros(12, 5);

Cp(:,1) = [0.200; 0.220; 0.235; 0.240; 0.245; 0.242; 0.241; 0.238; 0.233; 0.225; 0.215; 0.180]; Cp(:,2) = [0.232; 0.257; 0.270; 0.278; 0.281; 0.280; 0.279; 0.273; 0.271; 0.264; 0.252; 0.237]; Cp(:,3) = [0.250; 0.277; 0.288; 0.298; 0.301; 0.302; 0.301; 0.300; 0.295; 0.285; 0.275; 0.260]; Cp(:,4) = Cp(:,3); Cp(:,5) = Cp(:,3); U = [4.40; 5.70; 6.76; 8.00; 9.50]; omega = zeros(12, 5); omega(:,1) = 2 .* lambda .* U(1) ./ Dm; omega(:,2) = 2 .* lambda .* U(2) ./ Dm; omega(:,3) = 2 .* lambda .* U(3) ./ Dm; omega(:,4) = 2 .* lambda .* U(4) ./ Dm; omega(:,5) = 2 .* lambda .* U(5) ./ Dm; N = omega .* 60./(2.*pi); R_power = zeros(12, 5); R_power(:,1) = Cp(:,1) .* (1/2) .* rho .* 2.*(Dm .* %calculated rotor output power, W R_power(:,2)= Cp(:,2) .* (1/2) .* rho .* 2.*(Dm R_power(:,3)= Cp(:,3) .* (1/2) .* rho .* 2.*(Dm R_power(:,4)= Cp(:,4) .* (1/2) .* rho .* 2.*(Dm R_power(:,5)= Cp(:,5) .* (1/2) .* rho .* 2.*(Dm

%wind speed, m/s

Hm) .* U(1) .^3; .* .* .* .*

Hm) Hm) Hm) Hm)

.* .* .* .*

U(2) U(3) U(4) U(5)

.^3; .^3; .^3; .^3;

R_torque(:,1)= R_power(:,1) ./ omega(:,1); %calculated rotor output torque (dynamic), N-m R_torque(:,2)= R_power(:,2) ./ omega(:,2); R_torque(:,3)= R_power(:,3) ./ omega(:,3); R_torque(:,4)= R_power(:,4) ./ omega(:,4); R_torque(:,5)= R_power(:,5) ./ omega(:,5); omega_cut_in = [0:0.1:15]; N_cut_in = omega_cut_in .* 60./(2.*pi); Cp_cut_in = 0.20; U_cut_in_max = ((0.5 .* omega_cut_in) ./ ( Cp_cut_in .* (1/2) .* rho .* 2 .* (Dm .* Hm))).^(1/3);

%% Plot figure; plot( WB_N , WB_power ,'-.k', 'Linewidth', rotational speed for WindBlue DC-540 title('Power vs. Rotational Speed') xlabel('Rotational Speed (rpm)') ylabel('Power (W)') grid on hold on plot(WB_Np , WB_powerp ,'-.r', 'Linewidth', plot(WB2_N , WB2_power , ':k', 'Linewidth', plot(WB2_Np, WB2_powerp , ':r', 'Linewidth', plot(GL_N , GL_power ,'--k', 'Linewidth', plot(GL2_N , GL2_power , '-k', 'Linewidth', plot(N(:,1), R_power(:,1), '-b', 'Linewidth',

2.5)

%plot of power vs.

2.5) 2.5) 2.5) 2.5) 2.5) 1.5)

121


Appendix K: MATLAB Code

Self-Sustaining Street Light

plot(N(:,2), R_power(:,2), '-g', 'Linewidth', 1.5) plot(N(:,3), R_power(:,3), '-c', 'Linewidth', 1.5) legend('WindBlue DC-540','WindBlue DC-540 (extrapolated)', 'WindBlue DC520',... 'WindBlue DC-520 (extrapolated)','Ginlong GL-PMG-500A','Ginlong GLPMG-1000','U = 4.40 m/s',... 'U = 5.70 m/s','U = 6.76 m/s','Location','Northwest') axis([0,200,0,80]) set(gca,'XTick',[0:20:200]) set(gca,'YTick',[0:10:80]) figure; plot( GL_N , GL_power ,'--k', 'Linewidth', 2.5) %plot of power vs. rotational speed for Ginlong 500A title('Power vs. Rotational Speed') xlabel('Rotational Speed (rpm)') ylabel('Power (W)') grid on hold on plot(N(:,1), R_power(:,1), '-b', 'Linewidth', 1.5) plot(N(:,2), R_power(:,2), '-g', 'Linewidth', 1.5) plot(N(:,3), R_power(:,3), '-c', 'Linewidth', 1.5) legend('Ginlong GL-PMG-500A','U = 4.40 m/s','U = 5.70 m/s','U = 6.76 m/s','Location','Northwest') axis([0,200,0,80]) set(gca,'XTick',[0:20:200]) set(gca,'YTick',[0:10:80]) figure; plot( N(:,1), R_torque(:,1), '-b', 'Linewidth', 1.5) title('Torque vs. Rotational Speed') xlabel('Rotational Speed (rpm)') ylabel('Torque (N-m)') grid on hold on plot(N(:,2), R_torque(:,2), '-g', 'Linewidth', 1.5) plot(N(:,3), R_torque(:,3), '-c', 'Linewidth', 1.5) legend('U = 4.40 m/s','U = 5.70 m/s','U = 6.76 m/s','Location','Northwest') %axis([0,200,0,2.5]) %set(gca,'XTick',[0:20.00:200.0]) %set(gca,'YTick',[0: 0.25: 2.5]) %figure; %plot( N_cut_in, U_cut_in_max, '-k', 'Linewidth', 1.5) % title('Maximum Cut-In Wind Speed (m/s)') % xlabel('Rotational Speed (rpm)') % ylabel('Maximum Cut-In Wind Speed (m/s)') % grid on % axis([0,100,0,3.5])

122


Appendix K: MATLAB Code

Self-Sustaining Street Light

%% MEE 471 Lightpost Project %% Reid Berdanier %% CoE Wind Speed Analysis clc close all %% Data Input %% data = load('C:\Documents and Settings\Reid Berdanier\My Documents\7 - 09 SU Fall\MEE 471\General Research\CR1000_table15.txt'); index1= data(:,1); %original data point indices %new data point indices index = index1 - index1(1) + 1; %wind speed, mph V_mph = data(:,6); V_ms = V_mph ./ 2.237; %wind speed, m/s %average wind speed, m/s V_avg = mean(V_ms); points= length(index); hours = points/4; %% Histogram %% bins1 = [0:1:11]; n1 = hist(V_ms, bins1); figure; bar(bins1, n1) title({['Histogram of Wind Speed at Syracuse CoE'];['Average Wind Speed = ',num2str(V_avg),' m/s']}) xlabel('Wind Speed, (m/s)') ylabel({['Frequency, (# of 15-minute intervals over ',num2str(hours),' hours)']}) axis([-1,12,0,20000]) bins2 = [0:0.1:11]; n2 = hist(V_ms, bins2); figure; bar(bins2, n2) title({['Histogram of Wind Speed at Syracuse CoE'];['Average Wind Speed = ',num2str(V_avg),' m/s']}) xlabel('Wind Speed, (m/s)') ylabel({['Frequency, (# of 15-minute intervals over ',num2str(hours),' hours)']}) axis([0,11,0,2500])

123

Self-Sustaining Street Light Final Report Part A  

• Concept: Sustainable source of light, off-grid flexibility, utilize wind & solar resources, aesthetically pleasing • Research: Existing co...

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you