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Spring 2014 Third issue 主编

王 海莹 Gloria Wang

执行编辑 姚 霆 Ting Yao 胡 浩淼 Heidi Hu 陈 逸宸 Chris Chen 赵 媛 Tina Zhao

VISIBILITY Business & Economics

Politics

Career

Culture

CAREER

最难就业季 简析中国留学生回国就业形势

BUSINESS & ECONOMICS

新三板 银行家与企业家们的饕餮盛宴

Bitcoin 网络资本时代的泡沫与狂欢 CULTURE

守望孔子

By china public affairs and social service society


Welcome Dear Readers: Welcome to this edition of Visbility. As Head of the Economics Department here at Warwick University, I think this magazine is an excellent way of helping students to think about how the work and research that we do in a university is relevant to real world challenges facing us today. Whether in the sphere of culture, science, or economics this magazine allows students to share information and ideas and, ultimately, to see how the knowledge acquired in academia can be used to influence the world in which we live. I'm fortunate in the Economics Department to have fantastic students from a wide range of countries, including many undergraduates and postgraduates from China. A key part of our curriculum involves learning about the global relationships that bind all of us together; yes, areas like trade, financial services and international politics but also in areas like tourism, education and leisure. China plays a central role in this new global order. I look forward to seeing how Visbaiity will continue to shed different perspectives on some of these issues, provide diverse insights and opinions and, through all of that, foster a better understanding of some of the public policy and other issues facing China and its international partners over the coming years. Abhinay Muthoo Head, Department of Economics 致亲爱的读者们: 欢迎来到最新一期的Visibility!回想刚接手杂志的时候,志存高远,野心勃勃,未曾想一系列问 题接踵而至,不夸张地说,我确实是“夙夜忧叹,恐托付不效,以伤先人之明”。还好终于,历经几个

CONTENTS Business & Economics 会猎新三板

4

投行与中小小企业家们的饕餮盛宴

上海自贸区

6

时代节点上的意义与展望

浅谈比特币

9

庞氏骗局 or 新金融主宰?

Politics Explaining the Contrar y Position: Busting the Bully Caricature

12

Realism and Sino

16

月,Visibility新鲜出炉。 办这本杂志的初衷,从杂志名字中便可窥一二,大概是为了在英国的大背景下用留学生的视角来 发现新世界。于我而言,这是一个信息传递的载体和思维碰撞的媒介。陈独秀先生创办的《新青年》 宣传赛先生和德先生,同样地,我也希望通过这本杂志来倡导辩证地看待问题,自由地交流思想。 最后,我必须感谢参与杂志制作的编辑们以及所有帮助过杂志成长的朋友们,特别感谢中国社科 院户晓辉先生的支持,还要感谢正在看这段文字的您,您的阅读、您的思考已经让我们杂志的存在有 所意义。 王海莹 Publication Group Officer

4

7 9

12 1


Welcome Dear Readers: Welcome to this edition of Visbility. As Head of the Economics Department here at Warwick University, I think this magazine is an excellent way of helping students to think about how the work and research that we do in a university is relevant to real world challenges facing us today. Whether in the sphere of culture, science, or economics this magazine allows students to share information and ideas and, ultimately, to see how the knowledge acquired in academia can be used to influence the world in which we live. I'm fortunate in the Economics Department to have fantastic students from a wide range of countries, including many undergraduates and postgraduates from China. A key part of our curriculum involves learning about the global relationships that bind all of us together; yes, areas like trade, financial services and international politics but also in areas like tourism, education and leisure. China plays a central role in this new global order. I look forward to seeing how Visbaiity will continue to shed different perspectives on some of these issues, provide diverse insights and opinions and, through all of that, foster a better understanding of some of the public policy and other issues facing China and its international partners over the coming years. Abhinay Muthoo Head, Department of Economics 致亲爱的读者们: 欢迎来到最新一期的Visibility!回想刚接手杂志的时候,志存高远,野心勃勃,未曾想一系列问 题接踵而至,不夸张地说,我确实是“夙夜忧叹,恐托付不效,以伤先人之明”。还好终于,历经几个

CONTENTS Business & Economics 会猎新三板

4

投行与中小小企业家们的饕餮盛宴

上海自贸区

6

时代节点上的意义与展望

浅谈比特币

9

庞氏骗局 or 新金融主宰?

Politics Explaining the Contrar y Position: Busting the Bully Caricature

12

Realism and Sino

16

月,Visibility新鲜出炉。 办这本杂志的初衷,从杂志名字中便可窥一二,大概是为了在英国的大背景下用留学生的视角来 发现新世界。于我而言,这是一个信息传递的载体和思维碰撞的媒介。陈独秀先生创办的《新青年》 宣传赛先生和德先生,同样地,我也希望通过这本杂志来倡导辩证地看待问题,自由地交流思想。 最后,我必须感谢参与杂志制作的编辑们以及所有帮助过杂志成长的朋友们,特别感谢中国社科 院户晓辉先生的支持,还要感谢正在看这段文字的您,您的阅读、您的思考已经让我们杂志的存在有 所意义。 王海莹 Publication Group Officer

4

7 9

12 1


封面话题

31

20

CONTENTS Career 封面:最难就业季

Culture 31

守望孔子

24 a Good CV and Cover Letter

34

在青瓦混凝土墙背后

28 对话赵跃

36

Thought on Photography as Fine Ar t

20

简析中国留学生回国就业形势 Tips for Producing

2


封面话题

31

20

CONTENTS Career 封面:最难就业季

Culture 31

守望孔子

24 a Good CV and Cover Letter

34

在青瓦混凝土墙背后

28 对话赵跃

36

Thought on Photography as Fine Ar t

20

简析中国留学生回国就业形势 Tips for Producing

2


Visibility Business & Economics

Visibility Business & Economics

会猎新三板 中国投行与中小小企业家们的饕餮盛宴

”更重要的是,企业一旦登录 新三板,一旦取得达到了上市 所需的盈利资格就可通过转板 机制直接登录主板或者创业

图片来源: 《证券时报》

  “新三板”市场与柜台交易市场共同构筑一个立体的全国统一监管下的场外市场,将是最终发展方向。

板,为企业提供了更好的上升 通道。“

4

5


Visibility Business & Economics

Visibility Business & Economics

会猎新三板 中国投行与中小小企业家们的饕餮盛宴

”更重要的是,企业一旦登录 新三板,一旦取得达到了上市 所需的盈利资格就可通过转板 机制直接登录主板或者创业

图片来源: 《证券时报》

  “新三板”市场与柜台交易市场共同构筑一个立体的全国统一监管下的场外市场,将是最终发展方向。

板,为企业提供了更好的上升 通道。“

4

5


Visibility Business & Economics

Visibility Business & Economics

上海自 贸区 :

时代节点上的意义与展望 2

013年7月3日 , 国 务 院 总 理 李 克 强 主 持 召

上海自由贸易区成立的跨时代意义

开了国务院常务会议,通过了《中国(上

中国经济发展的动力源于改革开放,经济特区

海)自由贸易试验区总体案》。自此,中国政

作为改革开放的先锋与试验田发挥了 巨大的

府建立上海自由贸易区的政策从行政提案到立

作用。上海自由贸易区被媒体誉为“新一轮改

法 程 序 都 进 入 了 稳 步 推 进 的 轨 道 。 经 过 30多

革开放突破的支点”,它通过进一步的深化改

年的改革开放,依靠资源消耗和无限要素投入

革,加快政府职能转变,先行先试的方法,既

的发展模式已经难以为继,中国迫切需要一场

可以探索政府经贸和投资管理模式创新,扩大

变革来释放新的增长能量,上海自由贸易区建

服务业开放;又能防范各类风险,推动建设具

立的意义正在于此。在自由贸易方面,中国相

有国际水准的投资贸易便利、监管高效便捷、

对落后的地位与其全球第二大经济体和第一贸

法制环境规范的自由贸易试验区,使之成为推

易大国的地位很不相称。据汇丰银行的相关研

进改革和提高开放型经济水平的“试验田”,形

究 称 , 全 球119个 国 家 和 地 区 已 经 建 立 超 过 了

成可复制、可推广的经验,发挥示范带动、服

2300个 自 由 贸 易 区 , 出 口 总 额 超 过2000亿 美

务全国的积极作用,促进各地区共同发展。这

元 , 创 造 超 过4000万 直 接 就 业 岗 位 , 间 接 就

将有利于培育我国面向全球的竞争新优势,构

业 岗 位6000万 。 放 眼 世 界 , 印 度 在 过 去 的 三

建与各国合作发展的新平台,拓展经济增长的

年批准了500多个自由贸易区,阿联酋的36个

新空间,打造“中国经济升级版”。

自由贸易区对拉动直接投资和经济增长做出了

6

重要贡献。自由贸易区已经在国家和国家之间

上海自由贸易区未来发展展望

的竞争中发挥起了重要作用。上海自由贸易区

在即将推出的创新试点领域中,金融领域试点

则 是 继 中 国 加 入WTO后 又 一 次 更 高 层 级 的 开

最惹人关注。上海自由贸易区的试点 内容涉

放,它将远超越特区、新区争取优惠政策的层

及金融方面的包括利率市场化、汇率自由汇

面,探索要素市场开放、政府边界厘清和行政

兑、金融业的对外开放、产品创新等,也涉及

管制放开,成为“中国经济升级版”的新引擎。

一些离岸业务。同时人民币资本项目下的开放

7


Visibility Business & Economics

Visibility Business & Economics

上海自 贸区 :

时代节点上的意义与展望 2

013年7月3日 , 国 务 院 总 理 李 克 强 主 持 召

上海自由贸易区成立的跨时代意义

开了国务院常务会议,通过了《中国(上

中国经济发展的动力源于改革开放,经济特区

海)自由贸易试验区总体案》。自此,中国政

作为改革开放的先锋与试验田发挥了 巨大的

府建立上海自由贸易区的政策从行政提案到立

作用。上海自由贸易区被媒体誉为“新一轮改

法 程 序 都 进 入 了 稳 步 推 进 的 轨 道 。 经 过 30多

革开放突破的支点”,它通过进一步的深化改

年的改革开放,依靠资源消耗和无限要素投入

革,加快政府职能转变,先行先试的方法,既

的发展模式已经难以为继,中国迫切需要一场

可以探索政府经贸和投资管理模式创新,扩大

变革来释放新的增长能量,上海自由贸易区建

服务业开放;又能防范各类风险,推动建设具

立的意义正在于此。在自由贸易方面,中国相

有国际水准的投资贸易便利、监管高效便捷、

对落后的地位与其全球第二大经济体和第一贸

法制环境规范的自由贸易试验区,使之成为推

易大国的地位很不相称。据汇丰银行的相关研

进改革和提高开放型经济水平的“试验田”,形

究 称 , 全 球119个 国 家 和 地 区 已 经 建 立 超 过 了

成可复制、可推广的经验,发挥示范带动、服

2300个 自 由 贸 易 区 , 出 口 总 额 超 过2000亿 美

务全国的积极作用,促进各地区共同发展。这

元 , 创 造 超 过4000万 直 接 就 业 岗 位 , 间 接 就

将有利于培育我国面向全球的竞争新优势,构

业 岗 位6000万 。 放 眼 世 界 , 印 度 在 过 去 的 三

建与各国合作发展的新平台,拓展经济增长的

年批准了500多个自由贸易区,阿联酋的36个

新空间,打造“中国经济升级版”。

自由贸易区对拉动直接投资和经济增长做出了

6

重要贡献。自由贸易区已经在国家和国家之间

上海自由贸易区未来发展展望

的竞争中发挥起了重要作用。上海自由贸易区

在即将推出的创新试点领域中,金融领域试点

则 是 继 中 国 加 入WTO后 又 一 次 更 高 层 级 的 开

最惹人关注。上海自由贸易区的试点 内容涉

放,它将远超越特区、新区争取优惠政策的层

及金融方面的包括利率市场化、汇率自由汇

面,探索要素市场开放、政府边界厘清和行政

兑、金融业的对外开放、产品创新等,也涉及

管制放开,成为“中国经济升级版”的新引擎。

一些离岸业务。同时人民币资本项目下的开放

7


Visibility Business & Economics

Visibility Business & Economics

也有可能进入试点,而且这一改革方向不会因

低税率,其中将包括对自由贸易区内符合条件

为短期的流动性变化、热钱流向的变化而变

的企业减按15%的税率征收企业所得税。

化。另外,上海自贸区将构建离岸金融中心 。离岸金融业务是自由贸易区的重要组成部 分,也是与人民币资本项目开放一脉相承的, 它将使能更好地实现资金周转,提高人民币使 用的效率。

首先可以完善出口退税制度,改变现行对本土 上游产品歧视性的出口退税制度;其次,努力 打造国际研发、国际制造、国际贸易、国际物 流、国际结算和国际维修中心等“六大中心; 其三,继续深化有管理的浮动汇率机制改革;

在贸易领域,上海自贸区将实施“场分界线”,

其四,开展贸易投资便利化改革,不同监管部

也就是自由贸易区空间分界线。“一线放开,

门联合查验,降低收费,提升通关效率,降低

二线管住”正是目前国内各个保税区探索升级

贸易成本;最后,结合垄断性行业改革,在存

成自由贸易区主流思路。在 监管模式方面应

在进口特许权领域放松进口权管制,引入更多

有突出创新,要将一线监管集中在对人的监

竞争。

管,口岸单位只做必要的检验检疫等工作;特 别是海关方面将不再采用批次监管的模式,而 采用集中、分类、电子化监管模式。上海自贸

Chris Wang University of Pennsylvania Electrical & Systems Engineering

比特币 庞氏骗局 or 新金融主宰? 2014年2月7日上午,比特币的全球大型网络交易平台Mt.Gox遭挤兑,比特币兑换价暴跌达跌幅高达25%;8日,俄罗 斯政府宣布全面禁用比特币,新加坡首台比特币ATM机即将亮相——风起云涌中,比特币将路向何方?

区通过这种模式,可以达到自由贸易区内人与 货物的高效快捷流动。总之,就是简化手续, 降低成本,在自由贸易区实现“境内关外”。

起比特币,大多数人把意见为两派:

何谓比特币?

一派认为,比特币似乎就是一种庞氏骗

上海自由贸易区未来可以实行15%企业所得税

局;另一派则认为其是一种创新;但对更多的

比特币出现于2008年,是一种分散化,匿名,只能

优惠。通过推动税收创新,包括离岸贸易、金

人来说,它仍然为一个较为陌生的词汇。笔者

在 数 字 世 界 使 用 的 货 币,它 不 属 于 任 何 国 家 和

融采用低税率,对境外投资收益采用分期缴纳

此文目的在于浅谈比特币,希望能在简略介绍

金 融 机 构,并 且 不 受 地 域 限 制,可 以 在 世 界 上 的

所得税等优惠政策支持自由贸易园区内企业发

这一概念的同时抛砖引玉,希望引发更多人对

任何地方进行兑换。 ���特币出现于大约5年之

展。为鼓励企业发展,上海将在税收方面采取

比特币的关注和认识。

前,是一种分散化,匿名,只能在数字世界是

8

9


Visibility Business & Economics

Visibility Business & Economics

也有可能进入试点,而且这一改革方向不会因

低税率,其中将包括对自由贸易区内符合条件

为短期的流动性变化、热钱流向的变化而变

的企业减按15%的税率征收企业所得税。

化。另外,上海自贸区将构建离岸金融中心 。离岸金融业务是自由贸易区的重要组成部 分,也是与人民币资本项目开放一脉相承的, 它将使能更好地实现资金周转,提高人民币使 用的效率。

首先可以完善出口退税制度,改变现行对本土 上游产品歧视性的出口退税制度;其次,努力 打造国际研发、国际制造、国际贸易、国际物 流、国际结算和国际维修中心等“六大中心; 其三,继续深化有管理的浮动汇率机制改革;

在贸易领域,上海自贸区将实施“场分界线”,

其四,开展贸易投资便利化改革,不同监管部

也就是自由贸易区空间分界线。“一线放开,

门联合查验,降低收费,提升通关效率,降低

二线管住”正是目前国内各个保税区探索升级

贸易成本;最后,结合垄断性行业改革,在存

成自由贸易区主流思路。在 监管模式方面应

在进口特许权领域放松进口权管制,引入更多

有突出创新,要将一线监管集中在对人的监

竞争。

管,口岸单位只做必要的检验检疫等工作;特 别是海关方面将不再采用批次监管的模式,而 采用集中、分类、电子化监管模式。上海自贸

Chris Wang University of Pennsylvania Electrical & Systems Engineering

比特币 庞氏骗局 or 新金融主宰? 2014年2月7日上午,比特币的全球大型网络交易平台Mt.Gox遭挤兑,比特币兑换价暴跌达跌幅高达25%;8日,俄罗 斯政府宣布全面禁用比特币,新加坡首台比特币ATM机即将亮相——风起云涌中,比特币将路向何方?

区通过这种模式,可以达到自由贸易区内人与 货物的高效快捷流动。总之,就是简化手续, 降低成本,在自由贸易区实现“境内关外”。

起比特币,大多数人把意见为两派:

何谓比特币?

一派认为,比特币似乎就是一种庞氏骗

上海自由贸易区未来可以实行15%企业所得税

局;另一派则认为其是一种创新;但对更多的

比特币出现于2008年,是一种分散化,匿名,只能

优惠。通过推动税收创新,包括离岸贸易、金

人来说,它仍然为一个较为陌生的词汇。笔者

在 数 字 世 界 使 用 的 货 币,它 不 属 于 任 何 国 家 和

融采用低税率,对境外投资收益采用分期缴纳

此文目的在于浅谈比特币,希望能在简略介绍

金 融 机 构,并 且 不 受 地 域 限 制,可 以 在 世 界 上 的

所得税等优惠政策支持自由贸易园区内企业发

这一概念的同时抛砖引玉,希望引发更多人对

任何地方进行兑换。 比特币出现于大约5年之

展。为鼓励企业发展,上海将在税收方面采取

比特币的关注和认识。

前,是一种分散化,匿名,只能在数字世界是

8

9


Visibility Business & Economics

Visibility Business & Economics

Market Capitalisation

用的货币,她不属于任何国家和金融机构,并

学 可 以 登 录Preeve网 站 了 解 比 特 币 的 实 时 报

且不受地域限制,可以在世界上的任何地方兑

价。此外,比特币还可以用于兑换现金。用户

换 它 。2008年 , 一 笔 名 为 “ 中 田 聪 (Satoshi

可以与比特币交易机构取得联系进行兑换,其

Nakamoto)”发表了一篇论文,论文中描述

中 Mt.Gox是 目 前 最 为 流 行 的 比 特 币 交 易 平

了 比 特 币 的 使 用 方 法 ,1年 后 , 比 特 币 的 首 笔

台,除此之外,一些规模较大的交易所也能够

交易完成。

进行比特币的兑换和交易。

比特币从何而来?

比特币升值速度?

比特币既可以直接被用户购买,也可以使用计

北京时间2013年11月19日9时12分,比特比价格

算机依照算法进行大量运算来被“开采”。在开

突破900美元大关,而在7月6日价格仅为65美

采比特币时,用户需要用计算机搜寻64位的数

元,涨幅高达1384%!

字,然后通过反复解谜与其他淘金者相互竞

数据来源:Blockchain.com

2014年4月至2013年4月世界市场上比特币行情波动情况

争,为比特币网络提供所需的数字,如果用户

比特币有哪些交易平台?

CPU,后来是显卡,现在则是“矿机”,即专为

制,是一种用户能够随时随地进行自由兑换的

的电脑成功创造出一组数字,

目前有许多全新的比特币交易平台涌现出来,

“挖矿”而研发的特种计算机。简单的说,“挖

货币。目前,美国司法部和美国证交会的代表

那 么 就 将 会 获 得25个 比 特 币 。

现在已经有了近50家活跃平台。

矿”流程是:比特币客户端从互联网接受最新

已将比特币视为一种合法的金融工具,这一说

由于比特币系统采用了分散化

交 易 量 前 几 位 的 是BTC China,

的比特币交易数据,与之前所有的交易数据对

法无疑将会推进比特币合法化的进程。同时,

编 程 , 所 以 目 前 在 每10分 钟 内

MtGox和 BTC-e, 国 内 的 则 有

比,并打包计算,生成新的“历史总帐单”。首

德国,加拿大等过业已承认其合法化。对于这

只 能 获 得 25个 比 特 币 , 而 到

OkCoin和火币网等。此外,目前

先准确完成这一计算,并得到比特币网络认可

种新鲜切前景一片大好的货币形式,我们又有

2140年 , 流 通 的 比 特 币 上 限 将

还可以通过多种渠道了解到关于

的人将得到一些比特币作为奖励。

什么理由不去关注它呢?

会 达 到2100万 。 换 句 话 说 , 比

比 特 币 的 信 息 , Bitcoin

目前,每次成功“挖矿”可获得25个比特币的奖

特币系统是能够实现自给自足的,通过编码来

subreddit和 Bitcoin Magazine都 是 获 得 比 特

励,按照设计原理,单位产量将继续减少。到

抵御通胀,并防止他人对这些代码进行破坏。

币的消息源。

2140年,最后一枚比特币被开采后这种电子货 币的总供给量将达到2100万个。

比特币价值几何?

如何获取比特币?

在刚刚出现的时候,比特币几乎一文不值, 1美元平均能够买到1309.03个比特币,但如今

具体到获取方法归结有二,其一是在各大比特 币交易平台上直接进行购买,其二则是购买设

1比特币的价值相当于135.3美元,感兴趣的同

备自行生产,亦即“挖矿”。挖矿工具最初是

10

我们为何要关注比特币?

Ovelia Chen

比特币代表了一种完全匿名而且无需成本的交

The University of Bristol

易方式,它不属于任何国家,并且不受地域限

Accounting and Finance

11


Visibility Business & Economics

Visibility Business & Economics

Market Capitalisation

用的货币,她不属于任何国家和金融机构,并

学 可 以 登 录Preeve网 站 了 解 比 特 币 的 实 时 报

且不受地域限制,可以在世界上的任何地方兑

价。此外,比特币还可以用于兑换现金。用户

换 它 。2008年 , 一 笔 名 为 “ 中 田 聪 (Satoshi

可以与比特币交易机构取得联系进行兑换,其

Nakamoto)”发表了一篇论文,论文中描述

中 Mt.Gox是 目 前 最 为 流 行 的 比 特 币 交 易 平

了 比 特 币 的 使 用 方 法 ,1年 后 , 比 特 币 的 首 笔

台,除此之外,一些规模较大的交易所也能够

交易完成。

进行比特币的兑换和交易。

比特币从何而来?

比特币升值速度?

比特币既可以直接被用户购买,也可以使用计

北京时间2013年11月19日9时12分,比特比价格

算机依照算法进行大量运算来被“开采”。在开

突破900美元大关,而在7月6日价格仅为65美

采比特币时,用户需要用计算机搜寻64位的数

元,涨幅高达1384%!

字,然后通过反复解谜与其他淘金者相互竞

数据来源:Blockchain.com

2014年4月至2013年4月世界市场上比特币行情波动情况

争,为比特币网络提供所需的数字,如果用户

比特币有哪些交易平台?

CPU,后来是显卡,现在则是“矿机”,即专为

制,是一种用户能够随时随地进行自由兑换的

的电脑成功创造出一组数字,

目前有许多全新的比特币交易平台涌现出来,

“挖矿”而研发的特种计算机。简单的说,“挖

货币。目前,美国司法部和美国证交会的代表

那 么 就 将 会 获 得25个 比 特 币 。

现在已经有了近50家活跃平台。

矿”流程是:比特币客户端从互联网接受最新

已将比特币视为一种合法的金融工具,这一说

由于比特币系统采用了分散化

交 易 量 前 几 位 的 是BTC China,

的比特币交易数据,与之前所有的交易数据对

法无疑将会推进比特币合法化的进程。同时,

编 程 , 所 以 目 前 在 每10分 钟 内

MtGox和 BTC-e, 国 内 的 则 有

比,并打包计算,生成新的“历史总帐单”。首

德国,加拿大等过业已承认其合法化。对于这

只 能 获 得 25个 比 特 币 , 而 到

OkCoin和火币网等。此外,目前

先准确完成这一计算,并得到比特币网络认可

种新鲜切前景一片大好的货币形式,我们又有

2140年 , 流 通 的 比 特 币 上 限 将

还可以通过多种渠道了解到关于

的人将得到一些比特币作为奖励。

什么理由不去关注它呢?

会 达 到2100万 。 换 句 话 说 , 比

比 特 币 的 信 息 , Bitcoin

目前,每次成功“挖矿”可获得25个比特币的奖

特币系统是能够实现自给自足的,通过编码来

subreddit和 Bitcoin Magazine都 是 获 得 比 特

励,按照设计原理,单位产量将继续减少。到

抵御通胀,并防止他人对这些代码进行破坏。

币的消息源。

2140年,最后一枚比特币被开采后这种电子货 币的总供给量将达到2100万个。

比特币价值几何?

如何获取比特币?

在刚刚出现的时候,比特币几乎一文不值, 1美元平均能够买到1309.03个比特币,但如今

具体到获取方法归结有二,其一是在各大比特 币交易平台上直接进行购买,其二则是购买设

1比特币的价值相当于135.3美元,感兴趣的同

备自行生产,亦即“挖矿”。挖矿工具最初是

10

我们为何要关注比特币?

Ovelia Chen

比特币代表了一种完全匿名而且无需成本的交

The University of Bristol

易方式,它不属于任何国家,并且不受地域限

Accounting and Finance

11


Visibility Politics

Visibility Politics

Explaining the Contrar y Position Busting the Bully Caricature

Explaining the Contrary Position: Busting the Bully Caricature China, Japan, The Disputed Islands & their Histor y

W

ith greater power than has been

been innocuous: circling coastguard patrol

Zone (ADIZ) over the area- outwardly

war crimes apologist) is attempting to

wielded at any point in the last 150

vessels and water cannon battles have

c o n t ro v e r s i a l p e r h a p s , b u t a n o r m a l

rewrite the pacifist, Post-war Constitution

years, China is today much more able to

become the relative norm. The Japanese

practice around the world. In spite of all of

which forbids (with good reason; see

pursue its national interests. In terms of

have claimed, however, that a Chinese

this, Japan's record is hardly clean: they

below) any standing army, navy or air

territorial

disputed

frigate has 'locked' weapons-guiding radar

have asser ted that 'unauthorised' aircraft

force.

sovereignty of the Diaoyu/Senkaku Islands

on a helicopter. This claim is vehemently

will be shot down. Moreover, as if in

in the East China Sea is perhaps top

denied by the Chinese. China has also

response to the dispute, right-leaning

China: a recluse on the world stage for

priority. As of yet, island incursions have

enforced an Air Defence Identification

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe (also a Japanese

most of its existence and a single-par ty

12

interest,

the

13


Visibility Politics

Visibility Politics

Explaining the Contrar y Position Busting the Bully Caricature

Explaining the Contrary Position: Busting the Bully Caricature China, Japan, The Disputed Islands & their Histor y

W

ith greater power than has been

been innocuous: circling coastguard patrol

Zone (ADIZ) over the area- outwardly

war crimes apologist) is attempting to

wielded at any point in the last 150

vessels and water cannon battles have

c o n t ro v e r s i a l p e r h a p s , b u t a n o r m a l

rewrite the pacifist, Post-war Constitution

years, China is today much more able to

become the relative norm. The Japanese

practice around the world. In spite of all of

which forbids (with good reason; see

pursue its national interests. In terms of

have claimed, however, that a Chinese

this, Japan's record is hardly clean: they

below) any standing army, navy or air

territorial

disputed

frigate has 'locked' weapons-guiding radar

have asser ted that 'unauthorised' aircraft

force.

sovereignty of the Diaoyu/Senkaku Islands

on a helicopter. This claim is vehemently

will be shot down. Moreover, as if in

in the East China Sea is perhaps top

denied by the Chinese. China has also

response to the dispute, right-leaning

China: a recluse on the world stage for

priority. As of yet, island incursions have

enforced an Air Defence Identification

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe (also a Japanese

most of its existence and a single-par ty

12

interest,

the

13


Visibility Politics

Visibility Politics

socialist state no stranger to suspicion, has

experimentation and mass rape, amongst

been given an unnecessarily hard time.

other war crimes. With this colonial histor y

What international media (who give far too

in mind, and the fashion in which Japan

much coverage to the Japanese position)

acquired all other islands and territor y, the

have yet to acknowledge, is that this- to

legitimacy of Japan's claim to the Islands is

put it bluntly- is how you 'play the game.'

weak. Having been treated in much the

In this case, power-play (or in others,

same way for the most of recent histor y,

armed conflict) is under taken by states to

China has no taste for intimidation or

stake their claim on disputes that have a

undue conflict. It is simply untrue for

zero-sum outcome (in other words: one

commentators and hypocritical for Japan

winner and one loser). Anything from trade

to claim that China poses any militar y

disagreements to re-interpretations of

threat. China is no longer a sick man; it is

histor y are subject to this natural law; such

strong and seeking justice. But China is no

are the foundations of this unforgiving

bully.

international system. For the uninitiated, it is easy to confound this logic with belligerent intent on the par t of the Chinese, who have been caricatured as being inter-war Germany: emboldened by a sense of entitlement and drunk on power. The strength of the Chinese position lies in its histor y with Japan. In the 19th centur y, Japan modernised successfully and began a g g re s s i v e e x p a n s i o n . F o re i g n p o l i c y embodied a taste of nationalism (and later, fascism); the Japanese militar y acquired sophisticated Western technology. China, on the other hand, resisted the revolution to modernity, and gained notoriety as the

14

source:dreamstime.com

MICHAEL YIP

'sick man of Asia'. Indeed, after fighting the

defeated German competition in China

Qing Empire in 1894-5, Japan annexed

and the Asia-Pacific during WWI, and

Taiwan and choice por tions of China.

acquired the entire nor theast territor y of

Although uninhabited, control of the

China during the inter-war years. In WWII,

Diaoyu/Senkaku Islands was also ceded to

Japanese tyranny expanded fur ther : forces

the Japanese. Fur thermore: Japan

captured most of the eastern seaboard and

colonised the Korean Empire in 1910,

committed

genocide,

2nd year student of Politics with International Studies University of War wick

human

15


Visibility Politics

Visibility Politics

socialist state no stranger to suspicion, has

experimentation and mass rape, amongst

been given an unnecessarily hard time.

other war crimes. With this colonial histor y

What international media (who give far too

in mind, and the fashion in which Japan

much coverage to the Japanese position)

acquired all other islands and territor y, the

have yet to acknowledge, is that this- to

legitimacy of Japan's claim to the Islands is

put it bluntly- is how you 'play the game.'

weak. Having been treated in much the

In this case, power-play (or in others,

same way for the most of recent histor y,

armed conflict) is under taken by states to

China has no taste for intimidation or

stake their claim on disputes that have a

undue conflict. It is simply untrue for

zero-sum outcome (in other words: one

commentators and hypocritical for Japan

winner and one loser). Anything from trade

to claim that China poses any militar y

disagreements to re-interpretations of

threat. China is no longer a sick man; it is

histor y are subject to this natural law; such

strong and seeking justice. But China is no

are the foundations of this unforgiving

bully.

international system. For the uninitiated, it is easy to confound this logic with belligerent intent on the par t of the Chinese, who have been caricatured as being inter-war Germany: emboldened by a sense of entitlement and drunk on power. The strength of the Chinese position lies in its histor y with Japan. In the 19th centur y, Japan modernised successfully and began a g g re s s i v e e x p a n s i o n . F o re i g n p o l i c y embodied a taste of nationalism (and later, fascism); the Japanese militar y acquired sophisticated Western technology. China, on the other hand, resisted the revolution to modernity, and gained notoriety as the

14

source:dreamstime.com

MICHAEL YIP

'sick man of Asia'. Indeed, after fighting the

defeated German competition in China

Qing Empire in 1894-5, Japan annexed

and the Asia-Pacific during WWI, and

Taiwan and choice por tions of China.

acquired the entire nor theast territor y of

Although uninhabited, control of the

China during the inter-war years. In WWII,

Diaoyu/Senkaku Islands was also ceded to

Japanese tyranny expanded fur ther : forces

the Japanese. Fur thermore: Japan

captured most of the eastern seaboard and

colonised the Korean Empire in 1910,

committed

genocide,

2nd year student of Politics with International Studies University of War wick

human

15


Visibility Politics

Visibility Politics

Realism and Sino-American Relation

M

orgenthau firstly established several core principles of realism systematically in the modern era. His theory relied heavily on the concept of power, balance of power and rationality. He argued that international politics can be understood by assuming the statesmen 'think and in terms of interest defined as power' and struggle for power. However, some accused him of being unable to create a consistent and convincing theory and or coherent definitions of power and balance of power. Eventually, the intellectual hegemony of realism was succeeded by Kenneth Waltz's structural realism, which scholars often equated as neo-realism. Neo-realism is different from the classical realism in three ways. First, classical realism is an inductive theory-makes generalizations based on individuals and neo-realism is reductive theory-to assign a simple cause to the complex system. Second, classical realists treat power as an end itself while neo-realist treat it as combined capabilities of a state. Third, neo-realists suggested that anarchy defines the international system rather than being a mere condition. Waltz attempts to develop a theory of international politics on the systemic level and introduce a scientific

framework into the field. Dismissing the role of human nature in analysing international politics, He argued that if we cannot explain the alternation of war and peace by human nature, then we should treat it as a constant and look for a dominant cause on the syste mi c l e ve l . R e a l i sts co n si d e r th e stability in the post-war era was a result of the dominance of the United States. One could argue that 'co-operation' emerges because that specific action fits certain actors' interest and the international regime is a mere reflection of the sate calculation basing on distribution of power in the international system. President Obama has actively promoted and expanded its membership of TransPacific Partnership. From the institutional liberals' view points, it is a platform to promote trade and reduce 'transactional costs.' However, the realist will theorize it by taking into the calculated interest in a self-help system. The trace partnership pact included the main actors in East and South Asia, but China was excluded from it. Previous to the proposal from the US, China was originally signed a trade pact with ASEAN, but to a certain extent, it became

17


Visibility Politics

Visibility Politics

Realism and Sino-American Relation

M

orgenthau firstly established several core principles of realism systematically in the modern era. His theory relied heavily on the concept of power, balance of power and rationality. He argued that international politics can be understood by assuming the statesmen 'think and in terms of interest defined as power' and struggle for power. However, some accused him of being unable to create a consistent and convincing theory and or coherent definitions of power and balance of power. Eventually, the intellectual hegemony of realism was succeeded by Kenneth Waltz's structural realism, which scholars often equated as neo-realism. Neo-realism is different from the classical realism in three ways. First, classical realism is an inductive theory-makes generalizations based on individuals and neo-realism is reductive theory-to assign a simple cause to the complex system. Second, classical realists treat power as an end itself while neo-realist treat it as combined capabilities of a state. Third, neo-realists suggested that anarchy defines the international system rather than being a mere condition. Waltz attempts to develop a theory of international politics on the systemic level and introduce a scientific

framework into the field. Dismissing the role of human nature in analysing international politics, He argued that if we cannot explain the alternation of war and peace by human nature, then we should treat it as a constant and look for a dominant cause on the syste mi c l e ve l . R e a l i sts co n si d e r th e stability in the post-war era was a result of the dominance of the United States. One could argue that 'co-operation' emerges because that specific action fits certain actors' interest and the international regime is a mere reflection of the sate calculation basing on distribution of power in the international system. President Obama has actively promoted and expanded its membership of TransPacific Partnership. From the institutional liberals' view points, it is a platform to promote trade and reduce 'transactional costs.' However, the realist will theorize it by taking into the calculated interest in a self-help system. The trace partnership pact included the main actors in East and South Asia, but China was excluded from it. Previous to the proposal from the US, China was originally signed a trade pact with ASEAN, but to a certain extent, it became

17


Visibility Politics

useless as it is replaced by the TransPacific Partnership. The Chinese interpret this as an offensive action and claimed the trade pact contains a political purpose to constrain China's rise'. This argument is sensible if we look at Obama's 're-balancing strategy' in Pacific Asia. It is not important whether China or the US is in the right.

However, we have a much clearer picture on the strategic calculation behind for analysing purpose if we treat the balance of power as the independent variable in the self-help system. States are considered as political units that engage in balancing acts. A developed state has to worry about whether its relative position in the

18

Visibility Politics

international system can be maintained or not. Realists emphasise that the relative gains do not mean that co-operation is impossible, but the consideration of relative gains will make cooperation more difficult. In the self-help system, states are compelled to ask not "Will both of us gain?' but "Who will gain more?” Thus,

international regimes such IMF and World Bank are just tools to exploit gains. Other empirical records include failure of the League of Nations, failure of institutions to prevent or stop war in Bosnia, etc. Due to limited space, I cannot present all cases but in short, the neo-liberals have failed to provide relatively sound support for their

theories of the international regime; on the other hand, neo-realism provides a convincing explanation of state behaviour as a systemic theory in this regard. China and the United States are facing new opportunities in building a new type of relations between major powers. Indeed, the Obama administration views its rebalancing strategy as a ground breaking diplomatic event, different from the legacies already left behind by initiating troop withdrawal from Iraq and Afghanistan. As such, it is exceptionally high profile. While in Japan, Obama once called himself “America's first Pacific President”, saying that “as an Asia Pacific nation, the United States expects to be involved in the discussions that shape the future of this region”. Former Secretary of State Clinton proposed a series of catchphrases such as “back in Asia”, “America's Pacific Century”, “strategic transformation” and “Asia Pacific strategic pivot”. The stability of Sino-American relationship is vital to the whole world. Politics are games of wits, sometimes humour. Whether

the structural forces will collide in the Asia Pacific is going unfold soon. I hope the people and the leaders of both countries would have sufficient wisdoms to realize the importance of SinoAmerican relationship and willing to takes steps contributively that beyond strategic calculations. In order to defuse suspicion, the two countries need more than just a common vision. They must also take concordant actions. Strategic trust will take time, but opportunities have emerged for building a new type of relations between the two major powers.

Marco Ford Politics with International Studies University of Warwick

19


Visibility Politics

useless as it is replaced by the TransPacific Partnership. The Chinese interpret this as an offensive action and claimed the trade pact contains a political purpose to constrain China's rise'. This argument is sensible if we look at Obama's 're-balancing strategy' in Pacific Asia. It is not important whether China or the US is in the right.

However, we have a much clearer picture on the strategic calculation behind for analysing purpose if we treat the balance of power as the independent variable in the self-help system. States are considered as political units that engage in balancing acts. A developed state has to worry about whether its relative position in the

18

Visibility Politics

international system can be maintained or not. Realists emphasise that the relative gains do not mean that co-operation is impossible, but the consideration of relative gains will make cooperation more difficult. In the self-help system, states are compelled to ask not "Will both of us gain?' but "Who will gain more?” Thus,

international regimes such IMF and World Bank are just tools to exploit gains. Other empirical records include failure of the League of Nations, failure of institutions to prevent or stop war in Bosnia, etc. Due to limited space, I cannot present all cases but in short, the neo-liberals have failed to provide relatively sound support for their

theories of the international regime; on the other hand, neo-realism provides a convincing explanation of state behaviour as a systemic theory in this regard. China and the United States are facing new opportunities in building a new type of relations between major powers. Indeed, the Obama administration views its rebalancing strategy as a ground breaking diplomatic event, different from the legacies already left behind by initiating troop withdrawal from Iraq and Afghanistan. As such, it is exceptionally high profile. While in Japan, Obama once called himself “America's first Pacific President”, saying that “as an Asia Pacific nation, the United States expects to be involved in the discussions that shape the future of this region”. Former Secretary of State Clinton proposed a series of catchphrases such as “back in Asia”, “America's Pacific Century”, “strategic transformation” and “Asia Pacific strategic pivot”. The stability of Sino-American relationship is vital to the whole world. Politics are games of wits, sometimes humour. Whether

the structural forces will collide in the Asia Pacific is going unfold soon. I hope the people and the leaders of both countries would have sufficient wisdoms to realize the importance of SinoAmerican relationship and willing to takes steps contributively that beyond strategic calculations. In order to defuse suspicion, the two countries need more than just a common vision. They must also take concordant actions. Strategic trust will take time, but opportunities have emerged for building a new type of relations between the two major powers.

Marco Ford Politics with International Studies University of Warwick

19


Visibility Career

Visibility Career

最难 就 业 季 简析中国留学生回国就业形势

录 的 699万 , 就 业 岗 位 却 比 2012年 减 少 了

齐,不少海归虽然拿到了国外文凭,但由于选

15%。在这种形势下,不论对本土学生还是海

择的专业、就读的院校和实际能力等方面的差

归来说,就业竞争的压力都很大。这种供大于

异,不少海归的综合素质和竞争能力与国内大

求的人才市场状况使国内的许多用人单位越来

学生相比并无明显优势,甚至还不如国内名校

越倾向于以冷静而务实的态度来挑选人才。海

毕业生熟悉国情、了解市场。相比于学历,国

10年来,作为全球最大的留学生输

“ 史 上 最 大 的 海 归 潮 ” 。 在 过 去 的5年 间 , 回 国

归的优势在于有海外学习生活的背景、开阔的

内企业往往更看重海归在海外企业职场中培养

出国,中国的整个留学形势和人数

的留学人数有近80万,接近前30年的3倍。未

视野、外语口语较好,但对工作和薪资等的过

的工作方法和职业态度,而这些恰恰又是多数

发生了巨变。教育部的数据显示,近年海归人

来的5年内,中国将迎来回国人数多于出国人

高期望在很大程度上限制了他们的选择。西方

年轻海归所不具备的素质。所以,超七成的国

数以每年45%的速度增长,其中自费留学生占

数的历史拐点,2015年,海归人数将达到40万

思维方式的教育也使他们在融入本土企业文化

内企业人力资源或管理人士表示,在同等条件

90%。《中国海归发展报告(2013)》蓝皮书

至44万。

时会有种种不适应。仅有海归的光环早已不足

下,他们不会优先录用海归。

的数据也表明,2013年,中国海归人数达28万

比 较 而 言 , 继 2012年 的 “ 最 难 就 业 季 ” 之

以构成在国内求职的显著优势。由于近年来留

由此看来,海归在工作环境和薪金标准方

至29万,2014年���达到33.5万至35.8万,形成

后,2013年中国国内大学毕业生人数达到创纪

学门槛有所降低,留学生的素质和层次参差不

面也需要和国内大学毕业生一样降低期望值。

20

21


Visibility Career

Visibility Career

最难 就 业 季 简析中国留学生回国就业形势

录 的 699万 , 就 业 岗 位 却 比 2012年 减 少 了

齐,不少海归虽然拿到了国外文凭,但由于选

15%。在这种形势下,不论对本土学生还是海

择的专业、就读的院校和实际能力等方面的差

归来说,就业竞争的压力都很大。这种供大于

异,不少海归的综合素质和竞争能力与国内大

求的人才市场状况使国内的许多用人单位越来

学生相比并无明显优势,甚至还不如国内名校

越倾向于以冷静而务实的态度来挑选人才。海

毕业生熟悉国情、了解市场。相比于学历,国

10年来,作为全球最大的留学生输

“ 史 上 最 大 的 海 归 潮 ” 。 在 过 去 的5年 间 , 回 国

归的优势在于有海外学习生活的背景、开阔的

内企业往往更看重海归在海外企业职场中培养

出国,中国的整个留学形势和人数

的留学人数有近80万,接近前30年的3倍。未

视野、外语口语较好,但对工作和薪资等的过

的工作方法和职业态度,而这些恰恰又是多数

发生了巨变。教育部的数据显示,近年海归人

来的5年内,中国将迎来回国人数多于出国人

高期望在很大程度上限制了他们的选择。西方

年轻海归所不具备的素质。所以,超七成的国

数以每年45%的速度增长,其中自费留学生占

数的历史拐点,2015年,海归人数将达到40万

思维方式的教育也使他们在融入本土企业文化

内企业人力资源或管理人士表示,在同等条件

90%。《中国海归发展报告(2013)》蓝皮书

至44万。

时会有种种不适应。仅有海归的光环早已不足

下,他们不会优先录用海归。

的数据也表明,2013年,中国海归人数达28万

比 较 而 言 , 继 2012年 的 “ 最 难 就 业 季 ” 之

以构成在国内求职的显著优势。由于近年来留

由此看来,海归在工作环境和薪金标准方

至29万,2014年将达到33.5万至35.8万,形成

后,2013年中国国内大学毕业生人数达到创纪

学门槛有所降低,留学生的素质和层次参差不

面也需要和国内大学毕业生一样降低期望值。

20

21


Visibility Career

Visibility Career

根据最近的一项薪酬调查,77.5%的海归都认

多,约占71.2%,就职于外企的仅有11.3%,还

为实际薪资比理想薪资低,只有1.8%的海归表

有8%就 职 于 事 业 单 位 、 大 学 和 科 研 机 构 。 国

示实际薪资高于自己的期望值。大多数海归都

内大学生多喜欢当公务员或者在国企工作,尽

将 第 一 份 回 国 工 作 可 接 受 的 最 低 月 薪(税 前 月

管竞争也更加残酷因而成功的机率很低。

薪 )标 准 降 到 了 4000元 到 5000元 , 也 有

当然,每个海归学生的实力和机遇都不一

14.5%的海归表示愿意接受2000元到4000元的

样,求职的结果也各不相同,正所谓“出去时

月薪。实际上,中国海归回国后第一份工作的

千挑万选,回国后千差万别”。

年 薪 普 遍 不 高 , 其 中 36.5%起 薪 不 足 4万 , 67.2%起 薪 不 足6万 。 目 前 海 归 拿 到 的 薪 水 与 国内的211重点大学毕业生的水平持平。 在专业方面,赴英国留学的学生们大多选 择会计、金融、工商管理等热门专业,回国择 业就造成了局部专业人才拥挤的现象,这类学 生的求职竞争力正在减弱,而机械、工程材

户晓 辉 Hu Xiao Hu Ph.D. Senior Research Fellow in Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS).

料、新能源和制造业等专业的留学生很少,其 就业竞争力在加强。从目前经济、管理和营销 等专业的招聘情况来看,顶着“海归”头衔的毕 业生并没有国内985名校同类专业的毕业生吃 香。据调查,目前中国海归在私企就职的最

22

26


Visibility Career

Visibility Career

根据最近的一项薪酬调查,77.5%的海归都认

多,约占71.2%,就职于外企的仅有11.3%,还

为实际薪资比理想薪资低,只有1.8%的海归表

有8%就 职 于 事 业 单 位 、 大 学 和 科 研 机 构 。 国

示实际薪资高于自己的期望值。大多数海归都

内大学生多喜欢当公务员或者在国企工作,尽

将 第 一 份 回 国 工 作 可 接 受 的 最 低 月 薪(税 前 月

管竞争也更加残酷因而成功的机率很低。

薪 )标 准 降 到 了 4000元 到 5000元 , 也 有

当然,每个海归学生的实力和机遇都不一

14.5%的海归表示愿意接受2000元到4000元的

样,求职的结果也各不相同,正所谓“出去时

月薪。实际上,中国海归回国后第一份工作的

千挑万选,回国后千差万别”。

年 薪 普 遍 不 高 , 其 中 36.5%起 薪 不 足 4万 , 67.2%起 薪 不 足6万 。 目 前 海 归 拿 到 的 薪 水 与 国内的211重点大学毕业生的水平持平。 在专业方面,赴英国留学的学生们大多选 择会计、金融、工商管理等热门专业,回国择 业就造成了局部专业人才拥挤的现象,这类学 生的求职竞争力正在减弱,而机械、工程材

户晓 辉 Hu Xiao Hu Ph.D. Senior Research Fellow in Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS).

料、新能源和制造业等专业的留学生很少,其 就业竞争力在加强。从目前经济、管理和营销 等专业的招聘情况来看,顶着“海归”头衔的毕 业生并没有国内985名校同类专业的毕业生吃 香。据调查,目前中国海归在私企就职的最

22

26


Visibility Career

Tips for Producing a Good CV & Cover Letter

I

The Curriculum Vitae Reflect on and distill the experience you have to offer Establish the skills the employer is looking for in a successful applicant. Now identify the examples you have within your own experience which can demonstrate you are the right

n any application it is impor tant to address the requirements of the

employer. You must understand what the par ticular job sector is all about, and research the company's position within the sector. Be aware of the skills and

candidate: use all experience, including internships, full and part time working, volunteering, and society roles. Even leisure interests can illustrate relevant skills.

Be concise and don't waffle Avoid clichĂŠs and long explanations. Be concise and clear and cut out the unnecessary detail. Remember that 'claiming' you have a skill doesn't prove it. Try to 'show' rather than simply 'tell'. Check spelling and try to stick to straightforward, simple phrasing to avoid confusion. You want them to get the message, so send a clear one.

experience needed to be successful in the job role or training program on

Tailor your CV to the application

offer.

Nothing irritates a recruiter more than receiving a huge pile of 'stock' CVs – all formatted in exactly the same way and obviously being used to send out in a scatter-gun approach to cover any

Understand the role specification – use

company, any job and any eventuality. Make sure the CV the employer receives from you is one

the information provided with the

that you have prepared for their organisation and the job they have to offer.

vacancy, and research the generic job

Format and present your CV appropriately

role.

You don't have long to make a positive impression when it comes to your CV being read. Ensure

Once you have identified the qualities

everything you want the employer to read is on the first page if you're submitting a 2-page CV

they seek, you can then make reference to most, if not all, in your application.

24

and at the top of the page if you're going for a single page version. Check which is the most appropriate before you submit, and look at different formats before deciding on the most appropriate for that particular application.


Visibility Career

Tips for Producing a Good CV & Cover Letter

I

The Curriculum Vitae Reflect on and distill the experience you have to offer Establish the skills the employer is looking for in a successful applicant. Now identify the examples you have within your own experience which can demonstrate you are the right

n any application it is impor tant to address the requirements of the

employer. You must understand what the par ticular job sector is all about, and research the company's position within the sector. Be aware of the skills and

candidate: use all experience, including internships, full and part time working, volunteering, and society roles. Even leisure interests can illustrate relevant skills.

Be concise and don't waffle Avoid clichĂŠs and long explanations. Be concise and clear and cut out the unnecessary detail. Remember that 'claiming' you have a skill doesn't prove it. Try to 'show' rather than simply 'tell'. Check spelling and try to stick to straightforward, simple phrasing to avoid confusion. You want them to get the message, so send a clear one.

experience needed to be successful in the job role or training program on

Tailor your CV to the application

offer.

Nothing irritates a recruiter more than receiving a huge pile of 'stock' CVs – all formatted in exactly the same way and obviously being used to send out in a scatter-gun approach to cover any

Understand the role specification – use

company, any job and any eventuality. Make sure the CV the employer receives from you is one

the information provided with the

that you have prepared for their organisation and the job they have to offer.

vacancy, and research the generic job

Format and present your CV appropriately

role.

You don't have long to make a positive impression when it comes to your CV being read. Ensure

Once you have identified the qualities

everything you want the employer to read is on the first page if you're submitting a 2-page CV

they seek, you can then make reference to most, if not all, in your application.

24

and at the top of the page if you're going for a single page version. Check which is the most appropriate before you submit, and look at different formats before deciding on the most appropriate for that particular application.


Consider the length Ideally your cover letter should be no longer than one side of A4. It should have enough detail about you to stand out from the rest and interest the employer sufficiently to want to know more and call you for inter view. It also needs to be concise enough to keep their interest: they won't have time to read your life stor y.

Clear and concise There's nothing worse for an employer than to be asked to read a series of overly convoluted sentences, with little real meaning. Stick to clear, plain language and say exactly what you want to say – and where possible use the language of the company or sector : don't say firm when you mean company, or company when you mean organisation, for example. And do tr y to be consistent, whichever you choose!

Why you? The company has a need and so do you. But when it comes to applications, their need to find the best candidate outweighs your need to get a job. So don't write a cover letter that is self-absorbed or self-centred. Think and re-draft: 'What are the employer's requirements – and how do I show I

Keep up to date with the latest thinking on making applications at http://careersblog.warwick.ac.uk/

26

The Cover Letter 27


Consider the length Ideally your cover letter should be no longer than one side of A4. It should have enough detail about you to stand out from the rest and interest the employer sufficiently to want to know more and call you for inter view. It also needs to be concise enough to keep their interest: they won't have time to read your life stor y.

Clear and concise There's nothing worse for an employer than to be asked to read a series of overly convoluted sentences, with little real meaning. Stick to clear, plain language and say exactly what you want to say – and where possible use the language of the company or sector : don't say firm when you mean company, or company when you mean organisation, for example. And do tr y to be consistent, whichever you choose!

Why you? The company has a need and so do you. But when it comes to applications, their need to find the best candidate outweighs your need to get a job. So don't write a cover letter that is self-absorbed or self-centred. Think and re-draft: 'What are the employer's requirements – and how do I show I

Keep up to date with the latest thinking on making applications at http://careersblog.warwick.ac.uk/

26

The Cover Letter 27


Visibility Career

, , 对话 赵跃

我:你所在的部门主要是在处理什么业务?

认识到你获得了哪些对自己有意义的东西。总

学长 :我所在的部门处理的业务是结构出口融

的来说电面很注重self reflexion和学习能力,

资,主要是帮助发展中国家通过出口信贷机

HR部门会有专门的答题问卷,並且根据公司

构 , 世 界 银 行 , 国 际 信 贷 组 织 等 public

.自.己的价值观对你的答案进行评估。

sector以 更 低 的 利 率 和 更 长 的 还 款 期 获 得 贷

电面过了以后是公司面试。这部份的面试会由

款。

你申请部门的manager进.行。同样的会有关

我 : 当 时 拿 到offer的 除 了 渣 打 还 有 別 的 公 司

于 自 己 经 历 的 问 题 , 但 是 这 部 份 相 对 于 电.面

吗?

不会很死板,答案沒有对错,重点基本上在于

学 长 : 当 时 除 了 渣 打 , 另 外 有 一 间

你 給 对.方 留 下 的 印 象 是 怎 样 的 , 你 是 否 适 合

marketing公司也有给我offer。

这个部门的职位,是否能够与自己共事。

我:当时为什么选择去渣打实习?

我:实习的时候有什么感想?

学长:因为渣打的主营业务是在亚洲,这

学长 :在平时.工作的时候所有的task都不难,

点.比 较 吸 引 我 。 同 时 也 比 较 喜 欢 渣 打 国 际 化

但是每一件事情尽量多想一步,不要墨守成

的氛围。

规。同时也要多想想老板和自己部门周围的人

我:能分享一下当时面试渣打的过程吗?

需要什么,哪怕是周围同事让你去帮一些小忙

学长 :当时实习的时长是十周,

学长:跟其他公司沒有什么不同,先是有电话

也要做到尽善尽美。

我 被 分 配 到 一 个7人 的 团 队 里 ,

(简称:电面)面试,电话面试基本上是一些

我:实习的时候有压力吗?工作量大吗?

其他人都是正式员工。虽然

很死板的问题,第一部份是问我有什么感兴趣

学长 :每天的工作是从早八点到晚八点,工作

是实习生,但我都是以正式

的 时 事 新 闻 , 要 求 我 讲 述 一 下 。 第.二 部 份 是

的时间内一直都会有事情在忙。平时公司会一

analyst的身份去工作,公司不会

问我为什么申请渣打,为什么要申请这个部

次性布置几件事给你,然后自己要有计划地

让我去做杂事。平时我会协助

门。紧接着的第三部份对方有询问我个人以前

在.一 定 时 间 内 去 完 成 。 但 是 如 果 老 板 要 叫 你

我的团队计算模型,风险回报

的 经 历 。 对 于 个 人 经 历 ,HR的 面 试 人 员 会 根

去帮忙做其他事情也要随叫随到。

率,也会写.一些文件等等。实习

据自己感兴趣的部份继续追问,这一部份连续

我:中国人与其他的intern相比在平时工作或

期间除了正常的工作以外,公

问了

交流过程中有什么不同吗?

司 的 HR部 门 也 会 定 期 把 所 有 的

將 近20分 钟 。 在 答 第 三 部 份 时 我 个 人 的 体 会

学长 :���国人与本地员工的话题性不是很强,

intern组 织 起 來 对 全 公 司 的 部 门

是:1:你的內容要真实;2:敘述要.非常有条

这有可能是因为文化背景不同。但是由于渣打

进行了解

理;3:你要明确在自己的各种经历过程中能

的氛围比较国际化,相比于其他公司来说这个

渣打银行作为实习申请比较热.门 的公司之.一,编者专程邀请了前 CPASS社 团 主 席 , 大 三 经 济 专 业 的赵跃同学分享他在渣打的夏季 实习经历。

我:实习期间在渣打的哪一个部 门? 学 长 : 是 在 渣 打 银 行 的 corporate finance 部 门 的 project finance 做实习。 我:能介绍下实习期间的工作细 节吗?

28

Visibility Career

29


Visibility Career

, , 对话 赵跃

我:你所在的部门主要是在处理什么业务?

认识到你获得了哪些对自己有意义的东西。总

学长 :我所在的部门处理的业务是结构出口融

的来说电面很注重self reflexion和学习能力,

资,主要是帮助发展中国家通过出口信贷机

HR部门会有专门的答题问卷,並且根据公司

构 , 世 界 银 行 , 国 际 信 贷 组 织 等 public

.自.己的价值观对你的答案进行评估。

sector以 更 低 的 利 率 和 更 长 的 还 款 期 获 得 贷

电面过了以后是公司面试。这部份的面试会由

款。

你申请部门的manager进.行。同样的会有关

我 : 当 时 拿 到offer的 除 了 渣 打 还 有 別 的 公 司

于 自 己 经 历 的 问 题 , 但 是 这 部 份 相 对 于 电.面

吗?

不会很死板,答案沒有对错,重点基本上在于

学 长 : 当 时 除 了 渣 打 , 另 外 有 一 间

你 給 对.方 留 下 的 印 象 是 怎 样 的 , 你 是 否 适 合

marketing公司也有给我offer。

这个部门的职位,是否能够与自己共事。

我:当时为什么选择去渣打实习?

我:实习的时候有什么感想?

学长:因为渣打的主营业务是在亚洲,这

学长 :在平时.工作的时候所有的task都不难,

点.比 较 吸 引 我 。 同 时 也 比 较 喜 欢 渣 打 国 际 化

但是每一件事情尽量多想一步,不要墨守成

的氛围。

规。同时也要多想想老板和自己部门周围的人

我:能分享一下当时面试渣打的过程吗?

需要什么,哪怕是周围同事让你去帮一些小忙

学长 :当时实习的时长是十周,

学长:跟其他公司沒有什么不同,先是有电话

也要做到尽善尽美。

我 被 分 配 到 一 个7人 的 团 队 里 ,

(简称:电面)面试,电话面试基本上是一些

我:实习的时候有压力吗?工作量大吗?

其他人都是正式员工。虽然

很死板的问题,第一部份是问我有什么感兴趣

学长 :每天的工作是从早八点到晚八点,工作

是实习生,但我都是以正式

的 时 事 新 闻 , 要 求 我 讲 述 一 下 。 第.二 部 份 是

的时间内一直都会有事情在忙。平时公司会一

analyst的身份去工作,公司不会

问我为什么申请渣打,为什么要申请这个部

次性布置几件事给你,然后自己要有计划地

让我去做杂事。平时我会协助

门。紧接着的第三部份对方有询问我个人以前

在.一 定 时 间 内 去 完 成 。 但 是 如 果 老 板 要 叫 你

我的团队计算模型,风险回报

的 经 历 。 对 于 个 人 经 历 ,HR的 面 试 人 员 会 根

去帮忙做其他事情也要随叫随到。

率,也会写.一些文件等等。实习

据自己感兴趣的部份继续追问,这一部份连续

我:中国人与其他的intern相比在平时工作或

期间除了正常的工作以外,公

问了

交流过程中有什么不同吗?

司 的 HR部 门 也 会 定 期 把 所 有 的

將 近20分 钟 。 在 答 第 三 部 份 时 我 个 人 的 体 会

学长 :中国人与本地员工的话题性不是很强,

intern组 织 起 來 对 全 公 司 的 部 门

是:1:你的內容要真实;2:敘述要.非常有条

这有可能是因为文化背景不同。但是由于渣打

进行了解

理;3:你要明确在自己的各种经历过程中能

的氛围比较国际化,相比于其他公司来说这个

渣打银行作为实习申请比较热.门 的公司之.一,编者专程邀请了前 CPASS社 团 主 席 , 大 三 经 济 专 业 的赵跃同学分享他在渣打的夏季 实习经历。

我:实习期间在渣打的哪一个部 门? 学 长 : 是 在 渣 打 银 行 的 corporate finance 部 门 的 project finance 做实习。 我:能介绍下实习期间的工作细 节吗?

28

Visibility Career

29


Visibility Culture

Visibility Career

守望孔子

曾经深深地迷恋庄子的不羁与超脱,“若夫乘天地 之正,而御六气之辩,以游无穷者,彼且恶乎待

哉?故曰:至人无己,神人无功,圣人无名!”这种超凡 于尘世功名之外的心态,使他能够无拘无束自由自在地 行走于世间而不受世俗之烦扰。

问题不是很大,氛围还是相对很轻松。建议中

我:有什么其他办法留在渣打?

国人多融入和学习本地人的工作社交方式,这

学 长 : 渣 打 有 一 个international graduate的

个在实习过程中是非常有帮助的。

计划,申请之后会在你国籍所在的地区给你

我:在实习完成之后公司会对你有一个系统性

graduate scheme的 offer, 当 你 完 成 了 一 年

的评估吗?

的rotation之后,全世界的办公室都会对你开

学长 :有。公司会对你的工作努力程度、工作

放申请,那时候你可以得到visa去任何一个你

质量、与其他部门的合作关系、还有领导能力

想去的国家。我目前已经进入申请渣打中国分

和表现能力方面进行评估。前三项我的评估分

公司的fast lane,只需要.一个面试就可以在渣

风味,对孔子其人也是有了新的认识。在《沂水春

数都很不错,但是后两项我的得分相比本地的

打的中国办公室工作了。当然渣打英国也有很

风》,孔子与学生谈论人生志向,其中三位分别想做军

实习生还有所欠缺。这也算是亚洲人的通病,

多 中 国 人 , 都 是 完 成 了 international

事家、经济家和政治家。而当曾点谈到希望能在暮春三

在平時的工作当中亚洲人更多的是去附和,沒

graduate之后來到英国工作的。

月去沂水河畔洗澡,在树荫下乘凉歌唱时,孔子喟然而

然而印象里的孔子却是一个被一群弟子围着讲学传统礼 教、繁文缛节的古板老头,毫无好感可言。在高中时代 为了应付考试学习《论语》, 就是记住翻译与背诵名句, 将深辟字的解构烂熟于胸,然而说来有些惭愧的是,我 并不深谙其思想文化的精髓。 最近,再读《论语》这本圣人之言,确读出了新的一番

有.足 够 的 自 信 和 强 势 的 态 度 去 说 服 其 他 人 工

叹:“我与曾点的想法一样”。孔子的这一叹,给这位圣人

作中实行你的想法。而这一点往往是被西方公

平添了几分亲切感,人物形象反而也显得更加丰满了。

司的老板所看重的。

读着,让我发现孔子的思想里也有很豁达的一面。而我

我:评分够高的情況下,渣打会给你正式工作 offer吗? 学 长 : 我 的 评 估 分 数 已 经 满 足 成 为 正 式 员.工 的标准,但因为我不是本地人,且渣打英国沒 有 sponser visa的习惯,所以我目前不能留下 來成为正式员工。

Chris Chen Computer Science University of War wick

不明白,这是孔子仕途不顺时的无奈之叹,还是圣人确 实藏有一颗未受纤染的心灵,能够在入世中做着出世的 梦?再深入探究,孔子虽不如庄子一般驰骋万物,但确 实有其非常洒脱的一面,当有人嘲讽他相貌如丧家之狗 时,他能笑着说“然哉!然哉!”当有人嘲讽他博学而无所 专的时候,他也能咧开嘴自嘲以赶马车为专长。读罢, 让我等今人自愧不如。 前些日子,去一个久未见面的朋友家小聚。朋友住在伦 敦一个高层公寓里,公寓周围挤满了各种各样的投行。 虽然曾今对投行的“魔鬼式”生活略有耳闻,但当亲眼所见 午夜灯火通明的办公室和埋案伏笔的工作人员时,我心 中还是有些震惊。这让我想起了电影《金钱永不眠》里 的一个场景:当股票交易员杰克问害死了他导师的布雷 顿,你到底要赚多少才肯罢休?布雷顿想了很久,说了

30

31


Visibility Culture

Visibility Career

守望孔子

曾经深深地迷恋庄子的不羁与超脱,“若夫乘天地 之正,而御六气之辩,以游无穷者,彼且恶乎待

哉?故曰:至人无己,神人无功,圣人无名!”这种超凡 于尘世功名之外的心态,使他能够无拘无束自由自在地 行走于世间而不受世俗之烦扰。

问题不是很大,氛围还是相对很轻松。建议中

我:有什么其他办法留在渣打?

国人多融入和学习本地人的工作社交方式,这

学 长 : 渣 打 有 一 个international graduate的

个在实习过程中是非常有帮助的。

计划,申请之后会在你国籍所在的地区给你

我:在实习完成之后公司会对你有一个系统性

graduate scheme的 offer, 当 你 完 成 了 一 年

的评估吗?

的rotation之后,全世界的办公室都会对你开

学长 :有。公司会对你的工作努力程度、工作

放申请,那时候你可以得到visa去任何一个你

质量、与其他部门的合作关系、还有领导能力

想去的国家。我目前已经进入申请渣打中国分

和表现能力方面进行评估。前三项我的评估分

公司的fast lane,只需要.一个面试就可以在渣

风味,对孔子其人也是有了新的认识。在《沂水春

数都很不错,但是后两项我的得分相比本地的

打的中国办公室工作了。当然渣打英国也有很

风》,孔子与学生谈论人生志向,其中三位分别想做军

实习生还有所欠缺。这也算是亚洲人的通病,

多 中 国 人 , 都 是 完 成 了 international

事家、经济家和政治家。而当曾点谈到希望能在暮春三

在平時的工作当中亚洲人更多的是去附和,沒

graduate之后來到英国工作的。

月去沂水河畔洗澡,在树荫下乘凉歌唱时,孔子喟然而

然而印象里的孔子却是一个被一群弟子围着讲学传统礼 教、繁文缛节的古板老头,毫无好感可言。在高中时代 为了应付考试学习《论语》, 就是记住翻译与背诵名句, 将深辟字的解构烂熟于胸,然而说来有些惭愧的是,我 并不深谙其思想文化的精髓。 最近,再读《论语》这本圣人之言,确读出了新的一番

有.足 够 的 自 信 和 强 势 的 态 度 去 说 服 其 他 人 工

叹:“我与曾点的想法一样”。孔子的这一叹,给这位圣人

作中实行你的想法。而这一点往往是被西方公

平添了几分亲切感,人物形象反而也显得更加丰满了。

司的老板所看重的。

读着,让我发现孔子的思想里也有很豁达的一面。而我

我:评分够高的情況下,渣打会给你正式工作 offer吗? 学 长 : 我 的 评 估 分 数 已 经 满 足 成 为 正 式 员.工 的标准,但因为我不是本地人,且渣打英国沒 有 sponser visa的习惯,所以我目前不能留下 來成为正式员工。

Chris Chen Computer Science University of War wick

不明白,这是孔子仕途不顺时的无奈之叹,还是圣人确 实藏有一颗未受纤染的心灵,能够在入世中做着出世的 梦?再深入探究,孔子虽不如庄子一般驰骋万物,但确 实有其非常洒脱的一面,当有人嘲讽他相貌如丧家之狗 时,他能笑着说“然哉!然哉!”当有人嘲讽他博学而无所 专的时候,他也能咧开嘴自嘲以赶马车为专长。读罢, 让我等今人自愧不如。 前些日子,去一个久未见面的朋友家小聚。朋友住在伦 敦一个高层公寓里,公寓周围挤满了各种各样的投行。 虽然曾今对投行的“魔鬼式”生活略有耳闻,但当亲眼所见 午夜灯火通明的办公室和埋案伏笔的工作人员时,我心 中还是有些震惊。这让我想起了电影《金钱永不眠》里 的一个场景:当股票交易员杰克问害死了他导师的布雷 顿,你到底要赚多少才肯罢休?布雷顿想了很久,说了

30

31


Visibility Culture

Visibility Culture

句:“更多”,便转身离去。

的孔子体现了一个人完整的人格,在入世中做着出世

每个人都能清楚地看到,当下,我们正生活在一个物

的梦,这难道不正是当下我们最需要的生活与处世态

质过剩却精神匮乏的世界里。摩天大楼和超大型商场

度么?

像堆积木一样把城市塞得透不过气来;街道上,地铁

近些年,孔子被拍成电影搬上了荧幕,依稀还记得周

站,夹着公文包的人们踏着箭步,从你身边经过的时

润发在朝堂舌战群儒的动人心魄的场景。此外,越来

候,甚至还带着“嗖嗖”的风声;以麦当“劳”为首的快

越多的孔子学院在海外开设成立,越来越多的人对儒

餐文化席卷了全球。整个世界就是一个以“速度”为主

家经典开始感兴趣。如此宣传力度,让孔子其人及儒

题的主题“乐”园,人们乐在其中。白天,所有的人都

学思想在全世界范围内掀起了一股潮流。从表面上

在努力工作,拼命赚钱,然后再从超大型购物商场买

看,这是在给儒学文化打广告,是在给中外文化的交

回各式各样的新款奢侈品。夜晚,当你想打开电视休

流与融合创造新平台,也是在向世界彰显中国的文化

息娱乐的时候,琳琅满目地广告又是扑面而来。

软实力。然而,除此之外,我觉得孔子对于当今世

尽管有人说,我们选择过怎么样的生活那是我们的自

界,却有着其他一些更加深远的影响和意义。

由,我们所赚所获皆为辛勤劳作之所得,何罪之有?

毕竟,庄子的《逍遥游》太过虚幻缥缈,对这个高速

尽管我们不愿承认,但我们这个时代的人确实得了一

发展的世界也太过不现实,庄子对待生活的态度也只

种叫“物欲症”的病,人们擅长谋生,却不擅长生活。

能作为我们“乌托邦”式的理想,而孔子的儒学文化在

不知什么时候起,人们连性生活都敷衍了事,睡觉和

经历了道道“劫数”后“卷土重来”,并以一种前未有过

做爱都要靠吃药才行。人们对利益的欲望却无时无刻

的速度在全世界范围内扩张,或许正是人们开始逐渐

在膨胀,生活的质量在不断萎缩。

关注如何在入世与出世中寻找一种平衡。我们不能忘

孔子一方面确实积极倡导入世哲学,但在他眼里,读

记艰苦奋斗,因为时代需要我们汗水结晶的智慧,历

书做官的目的只是为了兴国安邦,为民谋福利。而如

史的车轮才会滚滚向前;我们同样不能忘记如何生

今的达官显贵的动机却有些不单纯了,我不知道,在

活,因为我们内心的一隅在呼唤简单的生活,沂水河

这个崇尚马克思主义的社会主义中国,还有多少体制

畔,缕缕微风清拂着树叶婆娑,小石子激起了层层水

内的人始终信奉共产主义?始终带有理想主义的色

漂,和煦的日光暖暖地抚摸着大地,一对依偎的恋人

彩?他们击退了红色恐怖,开辟了改革开放的道路,

浅浅相吻。这世间,还有什么比这更美的画面?

却击退不了心中的私欲的膨胀,越来越多的高官落 马,他们在监狱里除了忏悔自己的罪���外,是否也后 悔当初忘记了如何生活?我始终认为《沂水春风》中

赵乾凯 MORSE University of War wick

32

33


Visibility Culture

Visibility Culture

句:“更多”,便转身离去。

的孔子体现了一个人完整的人格,在入世中做着出世

每个人都能清楚地看到,当下,我们正生活在一个物

的梦,这难道不正是当下我们最需要的生活与处世态

质过剩却精神匮乏的世界里。摩天大楼和超大型商场

度么?

像堆积木一样把城市塞得透不过气来;街道上,地铁

近些年,孔子被拍成电影搬上了荧幕,依稀还记得周

站,夹着公文包的人们踏着箭步,从你身边经过的时

润发在朝堂舌战群儒的动人心魄的场景。此外,越来

候,甚至还带着“嗖嗖”的风声;以麦当“劳”为首的快

越多的孔子学院在海外开设成立,越来越多的人对儒

餐文化席卷了全球。整个世界就是一个以“速度”为主

家经典开始感兴趣。如此宣传力度,让孔子其人及儒

题的主题“乐”园,人们乐在其中。白天,所有的人都

学思想在全世界范围内掀起了一股潮流。从表面上

在努力工作,拼命赚钱,然后再从超大型购物商场买

看,这是在给儒学文化打广告,是在给中外文化的交

回各式各样的新款奢侈品。夜晚,当你想打开电视休

流与融合创造新平台,也是在向世界彰显中国的文化

息娱乐的时候,琳琅满目地广告又是扑面而来。

软实力。然而,除此之外,我觉得孔子对于当今世

尽管有人说,我们选择过怎么样的生活那是我们的自

界,却有着其他一些更加深远的影响和意义。

由,我们所赚所获皆为辛勤劳作之所得,何罪之有?

毕竟,庄子的《逍遥游》太过虚幻缥缈,对这个高速

尽管我们不愿承认,但我们这个时代的人确实得了一

发展的世界也太过不现实,庄子对待生活的态度也只

种叫“物欲症”的病,人们擅长谋生,却不擅长生活。

能作为我们“乌托邦”式的理想,而孔子的儒学文化在

不知什么时候起,人们连性生活都敷衍了事,睡觉和

经历了道道“劫数”后“卷土重来”,并以一种前未有过

做爱都要靠吃药才行。人们对利益的欲望却无时无刻

的速度在全世界范围内扩张,或许正是人们开始逐渐

在膨胀,生活的质量在不断萎缩。

关注如何在入世与出世中寻找一种平衡。我们不能忘

孔子一方面确实积极倡导入世哲学,但在他眼里,读

记艰苦奋斗,因为时代需要我们汗水结晶的智慧,历

书做官的目的只是为了兴国安邦,为民谋福利。而如

史的车轮才会滚滚向前;我们同样不能忘记如何生

今的达官显贵的动机却有些不单纯了,我不知道,在

活,因为我们内心的一隅在呼唤简单的生活,沂水河

这个崇尚马克思主义的社会主义中国,还有多少体制

畔,缕缕微风清拂着树叶婆娑,小石子激起了层层水

内的人始终信奉共产主义?始终带有理想主义的色

漂,和煦的日光暖暖地抚摸着大地,一对依偎的恋人

彩?他们击退了红色恐怖,开辟了改革开放的道路,

浅浅相吻。这世间,还有什么比这更美的画面?

却击退不了心中的私欲的膨胀,越来越多的高官落 马,他们在监狱里除了忏悔自己的罪行外,是否也后 悔当初忘记了如何生活?我始终认为《沂水春风》中

赵乾凯 MORSE University of War wick

32

33


Visibility Culture

Visibility Culture

在天安门广场往升旗台方向看,你很难想象现

效益至上的开发,它正在无可阻挡地引发一些

在被大会堂,国家剧院等现代建筑取而代之

列文化传统、自然生态和社会关系的危机。

的,从前完整的,方圆百里的门楼殿宇,是何

以当今社会与经济发展来看,进一步的城市化

等辉煌。也许你能体会到一些梁思成当年‘保

是必然的方向。而如何寻找“现代”与“传统”的

住了奈良,却没能保住最爱的北京城墙’的痛

交合点,是中国建筑师以及每一个个体所需要

心。而普通如我们每一个老百姓,生活的某些

思考的问题。我们不禁要问,有没有一种“现

珍贵片段一定因大大小小的拆迁而支离破碎,

代”,不再站在“传统”的对立面,而是相互包

小时候乡下的木结构老房子、拆了又建的学

容并存;有没有一种“现代”,它不仅仅是玻璃

校,于是我们生活在了一个没有回忆的地方,

幕墙,高楼大厦,它让你自由穿行其中,不再

一个生活过,却如此陌生的地方。

感 到 压 抑 , 陌 生 ;3.有 没 有 一 种 ‘ 现 代 ’ , 它 来

如果说已经失去的历史是难以补救的,痛心疾

自自己脚下的泥土、尊重自己即使是最卑微的

首是缺乏实际意义的,难么更应该让人担忧的

记忆,而且用自己社会中最底层的人都听得懂

是中国未来的建筑风格、城市规划将何去何

的语言来解释他,定义它;在青瓦混凝土墙的

从 。2.不 得 不 说 , 在 各 界 对 “ 传 统 ” 的 呼 声 之

背后,是更广袤的天空,那里有我们的文化记

为什么要以王澍作为这篇关于‘建筑与文化’为

下,中国建筑的主导倾向干脆回避“传统与现

忆,有我们的历史传统,在那里,建筑是我们

主题的文章的切入点?不仅仅因为他是2012年

代”的问题,进入一种无根漂浮状态:要么完

生命的承载,是对永恒最庄重的承诺。

如果读者对王澍的建筑有一定的了解,那么就

建筑界最高奖普利兹克奖第一位中国国籍得

全无视传统的存在,忙于各种没有文化立足

一 定 会 想 起 他 的 代 表 作 之 一-宁 波 博 物 馆 。 此

主,而是因为他的建筑之所以在国际上获得高

点、任意性的工作,这体现在中国建筑界一波

馆处于宁波CBD中心,这是一个什么样的地方?

度的认可,最重要的恰恰就是由于他的建筑中

又一波的对国外流行理论和风格的盲从;要么

是的,就是你能想象到的中国大中城市随处可

所体现的,传统与现代的高度结合;更是因为

将传统夸张装扮成令人目眩神迷的文化奇观,

见的商业中心,玻璃幕墙,高楼大厦,而建筑

中国社会处在一个剧烈变革的时代-30年的经

或将传统贬值为廉价的商业文化符号,如流行

师以他对传统深刻的理解,以当地古村落拆迁

济飞速发展,30年的迅速城市化,于是有人开

全国的主题公园式仿古建筑,这种种趋势都体

所剩的砖瓦废料与混凝土技术相结合形成的外

始思考,我们的城市失去了什么,那些不复存

现出对传统认识的蒙昧状态。尤其是商业化仿

墙,可以说为这座城市保留了一些回忆。

在的建筑从我们的生活中带走了什么。

古,实际上是以粗鄙的手段扼杀传统。用德语

而很明显的,它还是一个意象,一个关于传统

说到中国近代建筑史,几乎无法避开‘拆’字。

与现代的冲突、结合的意象。在这堵墙的背

从上世纪50年代建国后实行社会主义计划经济

后 , 留 给 了 我 们-建 筑 师 与 每 一 个 普 通 的 建 筑

开始,我们的城市逐渐受到大规模的改造,大

使用者,一个庞大的课题。

刀阔斧之下,为首的正是首都北京。1.如果你

在青瓦混凝土墙的背后 首

34

先要解释一下所谓青瓦混凝土墙。

Cissy Liao MORSE University of War wick

中 一 个 有 趣 的 词 ‘Kitsch’来 形 容 再 合 适 不 过 。 (Kitsch即“媚俗”,意指为讨好而产生的一系列 缺 乏 思 考 , 流 于 表 面 的 行 为 。)不 得 不 说 , 这 种种建筑的媚俗,很大一部分归因于短期经济

1 参见《城记》,王军著 2、3参见《南方都市报》朱涛采访记录

35


Visibility Culture

Visibility Culture

在天安门广场往升旗台方向看,你很难想象现

效益至上的开发,它正在无可阻挡地引发一些

在被大会堂,国家剧院等现代建筑取而代之

列文化传统、自然生态和社会关系的危机。

的,从前完整的,方圆百里的门楼殿宇,是何

以当今社会与经济发展来看,进一步的城市化

等辉煌。也许你能体会到一些梁思成当年‘保

是必然的方向。而如何寻找“现代”与“传统”的

住了奈良,却没能保住最爱的北京城墙’的痛

交合点,是中国建筑师以及每一个个体所需要

心。而普通如我们每一个老百姓,生活的某些

思考的问题。我们不禁要问,有没有一种“现

珍贵片段一定因大大小小的拆迁而支离破碎,

代”,不再站在“传统”的对立面,而是相互包

小时候乡下的木结构老房子、拆了又建的学

容并存;有没有一种“现代”,它不仅仅是玻璃

校,于是我们生活在了一个没有回忆的地方,

幕墙,高楼大厦,它让你自由穿行其中,不再

一个生活过,却如此陌生的地方。

感 到 压 抑 , 陌 生 ;3.有 没 有 一 种 ‘ 现 代 ’ , 它 来

如果说已经失去的历史是难以补救的,痛心疾

自自己脚下的泥土、尊重自己即使是最卑微的

首是缺乏实际意义的,难么更应该让人担忧的

记忆,而且用自己社会中最底层的人都听得懂

是中国未来的建筑风格、城市规划将何去何

的语言来解释他,定义它;在青瓦混凝土墙的

从 。2.不 得 不 说 , 在 各 界 对 “ 传 统 ” 的 呼 声 之

背后,是更广袤的天空,那里有我们的文化记

为什么要以王澍作为这篇关于‘建筑与文化’为

下,中国建筑的主导倾向干脆回避“传统与现

忆,有我们的历史传统,在那里,建筑是我们

主题的文章的切入点?不仅仅因为他是2012年

代”的问题,进入一种无根漂浮状态:要么完

生命的承载,是对永恒最庄重的承诺。

如果读者对王澍的建筑有一定的了解,那么就

建筑界最高奖普利兹克奖第一位中国国籍得

全无视传统的存在,忙于各种没有文化立足

一 定 会 想 起 他 的 代 表 作 之 一-宁 波 博 物 馆 。 此

主,而是因为他的建筑之所以在国际上获得高

点、任意性的工作,这体现在中国建筑界一波

馆处于宁波CBD中心,这是一个什么样的地方?

度的认可,最重要的恰恰就是由于他的建筑中

又一波的对国外流行理论和风格的盲从;要么

是的,就是你能想象到的中国大中城市随处可

所体现的,传统与现代的高度结合;更是因为

将传统夸张装扮成令人目眩神迷的文化奇观,

见的商业中心,玻璃幕墙,高楼大厦,而建筑

中国社会处在一个剧烈变革的时代-30年的经

或将传统贬值为廉价的商业文化符号,如流行

师以他对传统深刻的理解,以当地古村落拆迁

济飞速发展,30年的迅速城市化,于是有人开

全国的主题公园式仿古建筑,这种种趋势都体

所剩的砖瓦废料与混凝土技术相结合形成的外

始思考,我们的城市失去了什么,那些不复存

现出对传统认识的蒙昧状态。尤其是商业化仿

墙,可以说为这座城市保留了一些回忆。

在的建筑从我们的生活中带走了什么。

古,实际上是以粗鄙的手段扼杀传统。用德语

而很明显的,它还是一个意象,一个关于传统

说到中国近代建筑史,几乎无法避开‘拆’字。

与现代的冲突、结合的意象。在这堵墙的背

从上世纪50年代建国后实行社会主义计划经济

后 , 留 给 了 我 们-建 筑 师 与 每 一 个 普 通 的 建 筑

开始,我们的城市逐渐受到大规模的改造,大

使用者,一个庞大的课题。

刀阔斧之下,为首的正是首都北京。1.如果你

在青瓦混凝土墙的背后 首

34

先要解释一下所谓青瓦混凝土墙。

Cissy Liao MORSE University of War wick

中 一 个 有 趣 的 词 ‘Kitsch’来 形 容 再 合 适 不 过 。 (Kitsch即“媚俗”,意指为讨好而产生的一系列 缺 乏 思 考 , 流 于 表 面 的 行 为 。)不 得 不 说 , 这 种种建筑的媚俗,很大一部分归因于短期经济

1 参见《城记》,王军著 2、3参见《南方都市报》朱涛采访记录

35


Visibility Culture

Visibility Culture

T h oughts on Ph otogra ph y as F ine Ar t Int ro du c i ng Edwa r d Wes ton a nd R in ko K awa u ch i

O

ne day, I was walking around in the

through photography? Does photography

u n i v e r s i t y l i b r a r y, l o o k i n g f o r

g o b e y o n d a m e re re p ro d u c t i o n of

p h o t o g r a p h y b o o k s . To m y s u r p r i s e ,

o b s e r v a b l e re a l i t y? To a n s w e r t h e s e

instead of finding them at the ar t section, I

questions, we must first understand the

found them sitting on the Engineering

ver y

bookshelves. This reminds me that

photography: reality.

2 3

4

1:Edward Weston-First Nude 1918 2:Rinko Diary 3:Rinko Diary 4:Edward Weston-Nude 1936

36

source:http://cognitivecake.wordpress.com

being

reproduced

by

photography is commonly known as a

When we are speaking of reality, most

mechanical mean for the reproduction of

would immediately think of objective

obser vable reality, where what we see is

reality, of the physical univer se and

reproduced through photographic images,

external world existing independently from

in

representational

our minds. In photography, we define

photography such as photojournalism and

objective reality as the obser vable external

documentar y photography. We are all

world, of things that could be seen with our

experiencing this form of photography in

eyes. This is photography as science,

day-to-day life, for example, when we are

where it is used mechanically to reproduce

taking snapshots of our best mates making

obser vable reality. However, is this all of

silly faces or seeing photos of riots on

what reality is?

the

form

of

newspapers.

1

thing

I believe reality do not only exist

Photography was regarded by André

objectively, but also subjectively. Our

Bazin, a renowned French film theorist, to

different perceptions of the world, our

be extraordinar y realistic, to a fur ther

emotions, feelings and imaginations, are

extent than any other forms of ar t such as

all belong to the subjective reality. Reality

paintings and drawing. However, knowing

is a spectrum, with objectivity on one end,

that photography is a representation of

and subjectivity on the other ; both are real,

re a l i t y, w h a t i s a c t u a l l y re p re s e n t e d

and one is not more real than the other.

37


Visibility Culture

Visibility Culture

T h oughts on Ph otogra ph y as F ine Ar t Int ro du c i ng Edwa r d Wes ton a nd R in ko K awa u ch i

O

ne day, I was walking around in the

through photography? Does photography

u n i v e r s i t y l i b r a r y, l o o k i n g f o r

g o b e y o n d a m e re re p ro d u c t i o n of

p h o t o g r a p h y b o o k s . To m y s u r p r i s e ,

o b s e r v a b l e re a l i t y? To a n s w e r t h e s e

instead of finding them at the ar t section, I

questions, we must first understand the

found them sitting on the Engineering

ver y

bookshelves. This reminds me that

photography: reality.

2 3

4

1:Edward Weston-First Nude 1918 2:Rinko Diary 3:Rinko Diary 4:Edward Weston-Nude 1936

36

source:http://cognitivecake.wordpress.com

being

reproduced

by

photography is commonly known as a

When we are speaking of reality, most

mechanical mean for the reproduction of

would immediately think of objective

obser vable reality, where what we see is

reality, of the physical univer se and

reproduced through photographic images,

external world existing independently from

in

representational

our minds. In photography, we define

photography such as photojournalism and

objective reality as the obser vable external

documentar y photography. We are all

world, of things that could be seen with our

experiencing this form of photography in

eyes. This is photography as science,

day-to-day life, for example, when we are

where it is used mechanically to reproduce

taking snapshots of our best mates making

obser vable reality. However, is this all of

silly faces or seeing photos of riots on

what reality is?

the

form

of

newspapers.

1

thing

I believe reality do not only exist

Photography was regarded by André

objectively, but also subjectively. Our

Bazin, a renowned French film theorist, to

different perceptions of the world, our

be extraordinar y realistic, to a fur ther

emotions, feelings and imaginations, are

extent than any other forms of ar t such as

all belong to the subjective reality. Reality

paintings and drawing. However, knowing

is a spectrum, with objectivity on one end,

that photography is a representation of

and subjectivity on the other ; both are real,

re a l i t y, w h a t i s a c t u a l l y re p re s e n t e d

and one is not more real than the other.

37


Visibility Culture

Visibility Culture

America photographers in the 20th

exceptional vision for the aesthetic forms

c e n t u r y,

of the objects he was photographing, in

and

photography

he by

revolutionized bringing forth

a

the form of landscapes, still lifes, por traits

modernistic approach. He star ted his

a n d n u d e s . T h ro u g h a b s t r a c t i o n , h e

career first as a studio photographer

allowed ever yday objects in the world to

Once I was asked by a friend to

Therefore, photography is more than a

p r a c t i c i n g p i c t o r i a l i s m p h o t o g r a p h y,

speak for themselves, and this was clearly

photograph a cover image for the music

m e re re p ro d u c t i o n of t h e o b j e c t i v e ,

creating images that were manipulated to

displayed in his work “Pepper No. 30”. In

be like paintings or drawings. However,

this sharply focused and detailed

later on in his career, he discovered the

photograph, most of the space was filled

realistic proper ty of photography is what

up by a uniquely shaped green pepper that

makes it a unique ar t form, and the

was set against a dim and plain

i n d u s t r i a l a rc h i t e c t u re s of t h e r a p i d

background. The lighting from top clearly

growing American urban scene at his time

outlined the sensuous shape, cur ves and

was better suited to be photograph in the

form that reminisce the human figure.

“Take off” (2012) © Conan Pok Hin Wan

books of an original guitar composition

obser vable reality; it could also represents

she was selling. After hearing her ideas and

the subjective reality, being an ar tistic and

listening to her composition being played,

creative tool for photographers, where

I visualized a paper plane taking off,

feelings, thoughts, visions and ideas were

mystically frozen in mid-air, with its

expressed freely and communicated to

shadow projected under it. Subjective

others. This is photography as fine ar t, in

reality existed here in the form of an image

contrar y to representational photography.

constructed

through

To fur ther explore the nature of fine ar t

introspection, and all I did is recreating it

photography, I would introduce two fine

through the photographic medium. How

ar t photographers who have deeply

could flashes of intuition, lucid imagination

inspired me: Rinko Kawauchi and Edward

constructed in a photographer's creative

Weston.

in

my

mind

mind, be any less real than what appears in his eyes?

Edward Weston (1886-1958) was one of t h e m o s t p ro m i n e n t a n d i n n o v a t i v e

modernism context. Therefore, he

denied

proceeds to modernistic

experiencing any emotional

photography

arousals or psychological

and

e s t a b l i s h e d

a

attributes

during

the

photographic style that is

process of photographing

honest,

“ Pe p p e r

direct

and

uncompromising.

No.

3 0 ”,

and

claimed its only taken with

Edward Weston is a

f o c u s o n t h e p e p p e r 's

minimalist: He stripped

aesthetic form. However, in

away all the excess in

this photograph, we could

photography and created

see there are symbolic

a

o f

elements that are found

photography that reveals

universal in the natural

n e w

f o r m

its realistic nature. His works are highly abstract and simplistic with an

38

Weston

world, where the pepper “Pepper No. 30” (1930), by Edward Weston © Center for Creative Photography, Arizona Board of Regents

depicted here was telling us something about human

39


Visibility Culture

Visibility Culture

America photographers in the 20th

exceptional vision for the aesthetic forms

c e n t u r y,

of the objects he was photographing, in

and

photography

he by

revolutionized bringing forth

a

the form of landscapes, still lifes, por traits

modernistic approach. He star ted his

a n d n u d e s . T h ro u g h a b s t r a c t i o n , h e

career first as a studio photographer

allowed ever yday objects in the world to

Once I was asked by a friend to

Therefore, photography is more than a

p r a c t i c i n g p i c t o r i a l i s m p h o t o g r a p h y,

speak for themselves, and this was clearly

photograph a cover image for the music

m e re re p ro d u c t i o n of t h e o b j e c t i v e ,

creating images that were manipulated to

displayed in his work “Pepper No. 30”. In

be like paintings or drawings. However,

this sharply focused and detailed

later on in his career, he discovered the

photograph, most of the space was filled

realistic proper ty of photography is what

up by a uniquely shaped green pepper that

makes it a unique ar t form, and the

was set against a dim and plain

i n d u s t r i a l a rc h i t e c t u re s of t h e r a p i d

background. The lighting from top clearly

growing American urban scene at his time

outlined the sensuous shape, cur ves and

was better suited to be photograph in the

form that reminisce the human figure.

“Take off” (2012) © Conan Pok Hin Wan

books of an original guitar composition

obser vable reality; it could also represents

she was selling. After hearing her ideas and

the subjective reality, being an ar tistic and

listening to her composition being played,

creative tool for photographers, where

I visualized a paper plane taking off,

feelings, thoughts, visions and ideas were

mystically frozen in mid-air, with its

expressed freely and communicated to

shadow projected under it. Subjective

others. This is photography as fine ar t, in

reality existed here in the form of an image

contrar y to representational photography.

constructed

through

To fur ther explore the nature of fine ar t

introspection, and all I did is recreating it

photography, I would introduce two fine

through the photographic medium. How

ar t photographers who have deeply

could flashes of intuition, lucid imagination

inspired me: Rinko Kawauchi and Edward

constructed in a photographer's creative

Weston.

in

my

mind

mind, be any less real than what appears in his eyes?

Edward Weston (1886-1958) was one of t h e m o s t p ro m i n e n t a n d i n n o v a t i v e

modernism context. Therefore, he

denied

proceeds to modernistic

experiencing any emotional

photography

arousals or psychological

and

e s t a b l i s h e d

a

attributes

during

the

photographic style that is

process of photographing

honest,

“ Pe p p e r

direct

and

uncompromising.

No.

3 0 ”,

and

claimed its only taken with

Edward Weston is a

f o c u s o n t h e p e p p e r 's

minimalist: He stripped

aesthetic form. However, in

away all the excess in

this photograph, we could

photography and created

see there are symbolic

a

o f

elements that are found

photography that reveals

universal in the natural

n e w

f o r m

its realistic nature. His works are highly abstract and simplistic with an

38

Weston

world, where the pepper “Pepper No. 30” (1930), by Edward Weston © Center for Creative Photography, Arizona Board of Regents

depicted here was telling us something about human

39


Visibility Culture

Visibility Culture

Š Rinko Kauwauchi

or death in the form of slaughtered

medium, photographers should be honest

chickens hanging on a shelf, they are all

to the subjective truth, to their inner worlds

depicted as beautiful as one another.

where emotions and feelings exist, and

Existential in nature, Kawauchi's works look

believe in their creative vision.

into the human condition in the context of

Ironically, while I am now writing about

contemporar y urban life through ever yday

photography, I believe photography should

details, and seek to reconcile the

never be verbalized. The sickness of the

separation between human and nature.

contemporar y fine ar t photographic scene

existence and emotions. Through Weston's

on her exploration of the extraordinar y in

works, one is often absorbed into deep

the urban daily life. With her child-like

So what do the works of Edward Weston

is the verbalization of photography, where

introspection to the inner reality, and is

curiosity and playfulness, Kawauchi opens

and Rinko Kawauchi tell us about fine ar t

many feel insecure without explaining their

brought into a mystical journey on the

up a new world for us to see: a magical

photography? On the surface, they are

works through written or verbal definitions.

search for spirituality alongside with

world filled with fantasies and fair y tales,

distinct photographers with their own

What use are words in photography, when it

Weston.

where the disturbing, unease and

established style. However, even with a

already stands alone as a powerful tool of

Rinko Kawauchi was born in 1972, and she

grotesque are resolved into harmony.

centur y apart in time, something

communicating both the subjective and

fundamental is shared between their works

objective truth?

is one of the best-known figures among

Her works speaks as a collection, as a

the rising generation of Japanese female

whole, where individual images joins in a

photographers. At first glance, one would

sequential flow in her books. While

be immediately attracted by the distinct

individual images could be exquisite, they

visual quality of her photographic works:

mattered less and less in the series, in the

weightless, subtle and transparent with

collective existence. This resonance with

pale washes of pastel colours.

her view on the theme of life and death;

Expressed with poetic sensibility,

where bir th, life and death go in a circle as

Kawauchi's works are like personal diar y

different stages of the natural cycle.

entries showing intimate emotions,

Whether it is life and bir th taking place as a

feelings, and imaginations, as reflections

newborn chick bursting out from its shell,

40

and is common to all forms of fine ar t

Ar t is for ever yone, and is open to

photography. First, it is a universal theme

interpretations; nothing but the photograph

in fine ar t photography to see the

itself should stand in between the ar tist and

extraordinar y in the ordinar y. Different

the audience. Go and see for yourself.

from other forms of ar t, photography is an ar t of reduction; through a process of careful selection, fine ar t photographers are interpreting the inexpressible by reflecting upon the physical outer world.

Conan Pok Hin Wan

Fur thermore, like Weston and Kawauchi,

2nd year Psychology undergraduate,

when working with the photographic

University of War wick

41


Visibility Culture

Visibility Culture

Š Rinko Kauwauchi

or death in the form of slaughtered

medium, photographers should be honest

chickens hanging on a shelf, they are all

to the subjective truth, to their inner worlds

depicted as beautiful as one another.

where emotions and feelings exist, and

Existential in nature, Kawauchi's works look

believe in their creative vision.

into the human condition in the context of

Ironically, while I am now writing about

contemporar y urban life through ever yday

photography, I believe photography should

details, and seek to reconcile the

never be verbalized. The sickness of the

separation between human and nature.

contemporar y fine ar t photographic scene

existence and emotions. Through Weston's

on her exploration of the extraordinar y in

works, one is often absorbed into deep

the urban daily life. With her child-like

So what do the works of Edward Weston

is the verbalization of photography, where

introspection to the inner reality, and is

curiosity and playfulness, Kawauchi opens

and Rinko Kawauchi tell us about fine ar t

many feel insecure without explaining their

brought into a mystical journey on the

up a new world for us to see: a magical

photography? On the surface, they are

works through written or verbal definitions.

search for spirituality alongside with

world filled with fantasies and fair y tales,

distinct photographers with their own

What use are words in photography, when it

Weston.

where the disturbing, unease and

established style. However, even with a

already stands alone as a powerful tool of

Rinko Kawauchi was born in 1972, and she

grotesque are resolved into harmony.

centur y apart in time, something

communicating both the subjective and

fundamental is shared between their works

objective truth?

is one of the best-known figures among

Her works speaks as a collection, as a

the rising generation of Japanese female

whole, where individual images joins in a

photographers. At first glance, one would

sequential flow in her books. While

be immediately attracted by the distinct

individual images could be exquisite, they

visual quality of her photographic works:

mattered less and less in the series, in the

weightless, subtle and transparent with

collective existence. This resonance with

pale washes of pastel colours.

her view on the theme of life and death;

Expressed with poetic sensibility,

where bir th, life and death go in a circle as

Kawauchi's works are like personal diar y

different stages of the natural cycle.

entries showing intimate emotions,

Whether it is life and bir th taking place as a

feelings, and imaginations, as reflections

newborn chick bursting out from its shell,

40

and is common to all forms of fine ar t

Ar t is for ever yone, and is open to

photography. First, it is a universal theme

interpretations; nothing but the photograph

in fine ar t photography to see the

itself should stand in between the ar tist and

extraordinar y in the ordinar y. Different

the audience. Go and see for yourself.

from other forms of ar t, photography is an ar t of reduction; through a process of careful selection, fine ar t photographers are interpreting the inexpressible by reflecting upon the physical outer world.

Conan Pok Hin Wan

Fur thermore, like Weston and Kawauchi,

2nd year Psychology undergraduate,

when working with the photographic

University of War wick

41


Spring 2014 Third issue 主编

王 海莹 Gloria Wang

执行编辑 姚 霆 Ting Yao 胡 浩淼 Heidi Hu 陈 逸宸 Chris Chen 赵 媛 Tina Zhao

VISIBILITY Business & Economics

Politics

Career

Culture

CAREER

最难就业季 简析中国留学生回国就业形势

BUSINESS & ECONOMICS

新三板 银行家与企业家们的饕餮盛宴

Bitcoin 网络资本时代的泡沫与狂欢 CULTURE

守望孔子

By china public affairs and social service society


Visibility-Spring 2014 Third Issue-Warwick CPASS