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NUR 641E Complete Class Advanced Pathophysiology and Pharmacology for

Nurse Educators

Click on the link below to download it: OR Email us at: OR Discussion Questions week 1-8 Week 1: Question 1= Find an article on a genetic disorder and summarize in two or three paragraphs the genetic component causing the disorder and any multifactorial inheritance components that may contribute to the disorder. Discuss the usual age of disease onset and if the sex-specific threshold model fits the disorder. What education could you present to high-risk patients to reduce the risk of disease onset if a multifactorial component exists?

Question 2= Genetic screening has become widely available to the public including prenatal screening of the fetus in utero to screening adults for genetic disorders, such as Parkinson's disease and breast cancer. Share your thoughts on the legal, ethical, and social implications that may be related to genetic screening. How would you educate your patient that is considering having genetic screening?

Week 2: Question 1= Choose an FDA-approved prescription medication and discuss the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the medication, including any differences that would be

expected based on the patient's age, a condition of pregnancy, or lactation. Address any adverse effects the medication may have based on age, pregnancy, or lactation.

Question 2= Active acquired immunity can be achieved through the use of childhood immunizations. Many parents voice concerns regarding the safety of vaccinations. What is your opinion on the current use of vaccinations? How would you educate parents regarding the safety and effectiveness of vaccinations? Defend your answers with evidence-based research.

Week 3: Question 1= Share a case study of an electrolyte imbalance from your practice or from the literature. Summarize the case study in 1-2 paragraphs. Then discuss the clinical manifestations of the imbalance, the pathophysiology behind the imbalance, normal cell membrane transport of the electrolyte(s), and any alterations in cell membrane transport caused by the imbalance. How was the electrolyte imbalance resolved? Analyze the case study to determine any areas in which patient or staff education may have helped to prevent the electrolyte imbalance. Use at least three scholarly, peer-reviewed resources less than 5 years old in addition to course materials Question 2= A widespread belief is that caffeine has a diuretic effect when consumed and will induce dehydration if used by athletes or those who perform strenuous exercise. Discuss the pathophysiology behind this belief. Share your thoughts on whether you agree or disagree that caffeine can induce dehydration. Support your answer with evidence-based literature.

Week 4: Question 1=

Compare and contrast the pathophysiology between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and pneumococcal pneumonia. Include any types of cellular injury or cellular adaptation that may occur. Evaluate if an inflammatory response is present and discuss the impact of that response. In the case of COPD, discuss the type of patient education you would implement to help with the patient's understanding of the disease and to improve compliance with a treatment plan.

Question 2= Find an evidence-based journal article on cystic fibrosis and summarize the article in one or two paragraphs. Address why you chose the article and how you might use the findings in your current or future practice setting.

Week 5: Question 1= Atherosclerosis is a common disorder of the arteries. A modifiable risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis is hypertension. Discuss the pathophysiology of both disorders and the mechanisms by which hypertension contributes to atherosclerosis. Discuss the current medications used to treat both disorders and the pharmacologic actions the medications have in altering the pathophysiology. How can you use this information in your current or future practice setting?

Question 2= Share a case from your personal practice or from the literature in which alternative therapies were used to facilitate the management of acute or chronic cardiovascular conditions. Week 6: Question 1= Find an article on an inflammatory condition of the lower genitourinary tract. Summarize the article in one or two paragraphs. Discuss the pathophysiology of the condition, the pharmacologic agent(s) used to treat the condition, and how the

agent(s) alter the pathophysiology. Discuss the role of the nurse educator related to patient education of the reported condition and treatment. Respond to another student's posting on an inflammatory condition that is different from the condition you posted, comparing and contrasting the differences between the conditions.

Question 2= Infertility is considered a disease process of the reproductive tract. Find an article on an alteration of the genital tract that can lead to infertility. Summarize the article in two or three paragraphs. Discuss any potential treatments. What is the potential psychosocial impact for the patient with the condition?

Week 7: Question 1= Review the following case study: Chief Complaint: A 23-year-old woman presents with complaints of muscle weakness in the face. History: The patient is a 23-year-old administrative assistant who complains of intermittent muscle weakness in her face that has been getting worse over the past 3 months. She also states that as she chews, her jaws feel tired. Swallowing has also become difficult. She reports episodes of double vision (diplopia), which seems to occur after reading for a few minutes in the late evening. With certain strenuous activities or after typing for long periods of time at work, she reports problems with bilateral arm weakness. Physical Examination: Notable ptosis (drooping) of the eyelids after repeated blinking exercises. When asked to smile, she appears to be snarling. Reflexes and sensation are normal in both upper and lower extremities. There is considerable weakness of the arms noted bilaterally after exercise.

Case Questions: 1. Is the patient's condition neurological, musculoskeletal, or both? Explain why and support your thoughts with evidence-based literature. What would be a possible neurologic or musculoskeletal condition causing the symptoms? 2.Explain the pathophysiology behind the condition. 3.What pharmacological agent(s) are commonly used to treat the disorder and how do the agent(s) alter the pathophysiology of the condition? 4.What would be your educational plan for the patient?

Question 2= Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. The current treatment options for the disorder have focused on symptom control. Research is now focusing on developing ways to modify the disease progression and possibly provide a cure. Investigate the current research on Parkinson's disease treatments, including stem-cell research and the use of fetal tissue implants. Share your thoughts on the evolving therapies. What are the current controversies?

Week 8: Question 1= Share a case study from your clinical practice or from the literature on an endocrine disorder. Discuss the pathophysiology of the disorder, including the effects on the endocrine feedback system, and the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Identify the pharmacologic agent(s) used to treat the disorder and how the pharmacologic agent(s) alters the pathophysiology.

Question 2= Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) is currently being used as an aid to weight loss in conjunction with an extremely restricted caloric intake of 500 calories per day. Many people are buying the HCG through the Internet with no medical surveillance. Research the HCG diet and share your thoughts on the efficacy, safety, and validity of the diet. What strategies would you use to educate patients on the diet?

Weekly Assignments

Week 2: (Patient Educational Flyer) Design a 1-2 page patient education flyer/pamphlet for an alternative medicine/herbal product.

Describe the product, its intended use, side effects, adverse reactions, and safety issues (risks and benefits of using an alternative medication/herbal product versus a prescription medication). The flyer should include at least two community and/or online resources for the patient to obtain more information. APA format is not required, but solid academic writing is expected.

Week 3: (Acid-Base Case Study Paper) Read the "Resource 1: Case Study." Read below Answer the questions at the end of the case study in a paper of 750-1,000 words. Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required. This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

Case Study = A 22-year-old woman reports being “sick with the flu” for the past 8 days. She is vomiting several times every day, having difficulty keeping liquids or food down, and has been using more than the recommended dose of antacids in an attempt to calm the nausea. She has become severely dehydrated. After fainting at home, she was taken to a local hospital. An arterial blood gas sample was drawn and then an IV was placed to help rehydrate her. The arterial blood gas revealed the following: Test



Normal levels


7.35 – 7.45


40 mm Hg

35-45 mm Hg


95 mm Hg

80-100 mm Hg

SaO2 HCO3-


95-100% 32 meq/liter

22-26 meq/liter

How would you classify the patient’s acid-base disturbance and explain why? Given the case study, what are the possible factors causing this acid-base disturbance? Explain the pathophysiology created by these factors. How would the renal and respiratory systems try to compensate for this acid-base disturbance? What pharmacologic intervention is commonly used to correct this acid-base disturbance? Describe the pharmacological actions. Describe the educational needs for this patient and what your approach will be.

Week 4: (Patient Interview Paper) Interview a patient with a chronic pulmonary health condition who is on at least two medications. In a 1,350-1,600-word paper, discuss the following:

1. Obtain a complete health history. 2. Obtain a complete medication history, including prescription and over-the-counter drugs or supplements. 3. Analyze the client's current knowledge level of medications and compliance with the prescribed dosing and administration. 4. For each medication, identify the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, dose, route of administration, side effects, adverse reactions, any drug interactions, potential safety issues, and the impact on the client's health status. 5. Formulate possible interventions related to lack of drug efficacy, lack of client knowledge, or client compliance issues as identified during the interview. Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

Week 5: (CLC - Staff In-Service Presentation - Part 1) This is a group assignment. I will instruct the writer as to which part I am assigned to do. Develop a PowerPoint presentation with complete speaker notes for a staff in-service on the pathophysiology and pharmacologic agents for a select disease process. The total maximum number of slides is 30 (Parts 1 and 2 combined). Your group may determine how to divide the number of slides between Parts 1 and 2. Each CLC will choose one disease process to present from the following list with the instructor's approval: 1.Alzheimer's disease 2.Asthma 3.Diabetes Type 2 4.Epilepsy 5.Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) 6.Hypertension 7.Hypothyroidism

8.Multiple sclerosis 9.Peptic ulcer disease 10.Tuberculosis.

Part 1 of the presentation will focus on the physiology and pathophysiology of the disease, clinical manifestations, and evaluation (e.g., labs, imaging). Refer to the resource, "Creating Effective PowerPoint Presentations," located in the Student Success Center, for additional guidance on completing this assignment in the appropriate style.

Week 6: (Commercial Critique Paper)

In a 1,200-1,500-word paper: 1.Critique a TV or radio commercial, an Internet advertisement, or a print advertisement from a nonprofessional journal/magazine related to an FDA-regulated prescription drug for a gastrointestinal disorder. 2.Critique a TV or radio commercial, an Internet advertisement, or a print advertisement from a nonprofessional journal/magazine related to a non-FDAregulated over-the-counter medication/herbal for a gastrointestinal (GI) disorder. Include a description of the pathophysiology of the GI disorder and how the medication/herbal alters that pathophysiology. Compare and contrast the two commercials, including their stated use of medication/herbal, patient safety issues, analysis of company claims for any drug benefits. Substantiate your thoughts and ideas with evidence-based research/articles.

Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

Week 8: (CLC - Staff In-Service Presentation - Part 2) This is a Collaborative Learning Community (CLC) assignment. This is a group assignment. I will instruct the writer as to which part of the assignment I am assigned. Part 2 of the presentation will focus on the pharmacologic treatment of the disease, including pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, drug interactions, side effects, adverse reactions, and application of the nursing process in monitoring the drug therapy. Part 2 will also include the development of a creative patient education tool for the staff to use to assist in increasing patient knowledge of medications and medication compliance. The total maximum number of slides is 30 (Parts 1 and 2 combined). An abstract is not required.

Part 2 Class Advanced Pathophysiology and Pharmacology for Nurse Educators: Power Point for Staff In-Service. (Part 2 focuses on the pharmacologic treatment of the Alzheimer’s disease) Please include speaker notes with all slides and references (journals preferably)!!!!

• Focus on the pharmacologic treatment of Alzheimer’s disease/ Drug Interactions, Side Effects, Adverse Reactions (5-6 slides). Since it is 6 slides you can do two slides for each underlined section.

Nur 641e complete class