Industry Placement & Work Experience Employer Handbook
Skills to Business Team – Cornwall College Business Industry Placement & Work Experience Coordinators Cornwall College Bicton Jon Walters 01395 562330 / 07970 406001 firstname.lastname@example.org Abbé Charlesworth 01395 562392 / 07970 405993 email@example.com
Cornwall College Duchy Stoke Climsland Lisa Dubois 01579 372423 firstname.lastname@example.org Wendy Graves 01579 372423 / 07855 277322 email@example.com
Cornwall College Saltash David Thompson 01752 850257 firstname.lastname@example.org
Cornwall College St Austell & Newquay Elly Isaac 01726 226569 / 07767 278482 email@example.com Louise Trevelyan 01726 226435 / 07966 289712 firstname.lastname@example.org
Cornwall College Camborne Ross Verdon 01209 616132 / 07855 277910 email@example.com Sarah Stevens 01209 617756 / 07855 277909 firstname.lastname@example.org
Cornwall College Falmouth Marine School Sarah Stevens 07855 277909 email@example.com
Cornwall College Duchy Rosewarne Rachel Penhaligon 01209 722128 / 07500 816330 firstname.lastname@example.org Sarah Stevens 01209 617756 / 07855 277909 email@example.com
Industry Placement & Work Experience Manager Jenna Gazzard 07767 300738 firstname.lastname@example.org
Role of Industry Placement & Work Experience Coordinator Your Industry Placement & Work Experience Coordinator is your first point of contact for any queries that you might have regarding the work experience scheme or any problems that might arise. A review of progress will be carried out shortly after the placement has started and also in the second and third term for longer placements, with you (or nominated person), the learner and your Industry Placement & Work Experience Coordinator. This review will take place in the workplace or over the phone. It is important for reviews to be conducted so that any issues raised can be resolved and / or actions taken accordingly. If this is a face to face appointment, it will be pre-arranged at your convenience and a documented record of the meeting produced and signed by all. Subjects for discussion normally cover the student’s progress in the work place, health and safety issues, equality and diversity etc. If there are any issues raised then the Industry Placement & Work Experience Coordinator will follow these up and report back as required. Your Industry Placement & Work Experience Coordinator may also visit the student in College during term time. Before signing the learner onto the scheme your Industry Placement & Work Experience Coordinator will carry out a placement suitability check on your workplace. This will need to be renewed on a regular basis. A valid certificate of Employer Liability and Public Liability Insurance will also be required for our records so your Industry Placement & Work Experience Coordinator may contact you to confirm that this has been renewed when the time comes.
Contents Work Placement Guidance for Employers (Pages 3-5) Introduction, Types of Work Experience, What is Work Experience, Placement Suitability Checks, Insurance, Employer’s responsibilities during the placement, Health & Safety Induction, Reporting of Accidents and Incidents, Learners who are under 16, Hours of work, lunch and breaks, Pay, Attendance & Absence reporting, Data Protection & Employer feedback on the College process.
Expectation of Learners (Pages 6-7) Behaviours & Vales for Employment, Placement visits and Employer feedback for learner, Work Experience Process.
Appendix (Pages 8-16) Safeguarding & Prevent Duty, Equality, Diversity & Inclusion (Page 8-9) HSE – Young People & Work Experience (Page 10-13) Prohibited activities & Useful Links (Page 14-16). Please note, pages 10 through 16 contain public sector information published by the Health and Safety Executive and licensed under the Open Government Licence
Introduction Work experience forms an essential part of the 16-18 Further Education (FE) study programme across The Cornwall College Group providing learners with an opportunity to gain first-hand experience in a real life working situation. It helps young people become more employable by developing a range of specialist and ‘soft skills’ that employers say are needed in their workforce and gives them a competitive advantage over jobseekers with qualifications alone. It also offers employers an opportunity work with the College in partnership to help develop a high quality, relevant and meaningful work experience programme for our learners whilst raising the career profile of their industry. The Department of Education states ‘there is clear evidence that well-organised work experience placements enrich student’s general education and help to improve the standard of their vocational work’ This booklet offers general guidance and practical advice to employers offering work placements but does not constitute any formal legal advice; there are useful links to further information and advice from HSE, Government websites and related resources at the end of the handbook. As an employer, your input is invaluable and we are grateful for your support. Thank you
Skills to Business Team Types of Work Placement
Industry Placements Pilot The Cornwall College Group are involved in an Industry Placements pilot this year, a trial of the extended placement that will be an integral part of the T-Level qualifications that the Government are introducing from the year 2020. TLevel reforms are a government initiative to bridge the gap between full time learning and employment, meaning a learner will spend a minimum of 45 days/315 hours in the workplace over the duration of their course as well as studying at college. It is hoped the extended Industry Placement will allow learners to embed themselves within the business and mean they are able to play a valuable role within the organisation, building skills through their targets set in a work-plan. The Industry Placement will be reviewed a minimum of 3 times, with face to face contact with our Skills to Business team for the mid-point and final assessment. We envisage the placements taking place 1 day per week but there may be additional days the learner will need to attend their Industry Placement later in the year, to ensure they meet the minimum criteria of 45 days/315 hours.
Why Should My Business Get Involved? Immediate Benefits ● Extra resources for your projects and day-to-day operations from students developing skills in a course relevant to your business and industry ● Give your employees the opportunity to develop management and mentorship skills ● Bring a fresh perspective into your business ● Corporate Social Responsibility impact: share with stakeholders how your business has supported local young people into industry placements, improving their employability and progression opportunities.
Long Term Benefits ● Inspire the next generation to work in your industry ● Address current and future skills shortages in your industry ● Strengthen your recruiting pipeline and increase diversity ● Shared value: benefits for business and society are correlated – increased social inclusion leads to new business opportunities.
Work Placement Guidance for Employers What is Work Experience? Work experience is defined as ‘a placement on employer’s premises in which a student carries out a particular task or duty, or a range of tasks or duties, more or less as would an employee, but with the emphasis on the learning aspects of the experience’. From a legal standpoint, the student is regarded as an employee of that business for the purpose of work experience and the employer is required by the College to sign a Work Placement Agreement form prior to the commencement of the placement to reflect the understanding of this status. Placements usually take place during College hours, one day per week during term time, or during separate week blocks designed to fit in with specific stages of the learner’s studies. Work experience placements can be flexible to fit in with the requirements of the employer’s industry in line with Work Time Regulations. Learners are expected to research and approach employers to secure work experience under the guidance of Curriculum and Employability staff who will advise on the suitability and relevance of the placement. The Industry Placement & Work Experience Coordinator is the main point of contact at College and will liaise with the employer to undertake a Placement Suitability Check, agree working hours and to confirm at start date once checks have been completed. For ongoing weekly placements, learners are asked to liaise with the employer towards the end of the academic year to agree an end date and inform the Industry Placement & Work Experience Coordinator. A summary of our work experience procedure can be found on page 7 of the handbook.
Placement Suitability Checks An Industry Placement & Work Experience Coordinator arranges with the employer to carry out a Placement Suitability Check on behalf of the College prior to the learner starting their placement. The College has a duty of care to the student to satisfy itself that an employer has effective risk management arrangements in place to provide for adequate health, safety and welfare of learners undertaking work experience. The employer will be asked sensible questions in proportion to the level of risk, to satisfy the College that those arrangements are in place. All employers must have a Healthy & Safety policy. Employers with more than 5 employees have a legal duty under the Health and Safety Information for Employees Regulations (HSIER) to display the approved poster in a prominent position in each workplace or to provide each worker with a copy of the approved leaflet that outlines British health and safety law (available from http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/books/lawposter.htm).
Insurance All placement providers must have Public Liability and Employer’s Liability insurance. For ‘Sole Traders’ who do not have Employer’s Liability Insurance, the employer will need to contact their Public Liability insurer to see if they will indemnify the student for Employer’s Liability for the duration of the placement. The employer’s insurance company must be informed of the employer’s intention to take on the work experience student. Where a student will be travelling in a vehicle for the purposes of work the vehicle insurance must cover them.
Employer’s Responsibilities during the Placement Employers need to inform students of their main duties and tasks, the type of work, any associated specific risks, their control measures and remind the students of their responsibilities whilst on a work placement. In particular, hazards associated with the work area and the work to be done must be explained and the importance of following safe working practices emphasised. A ‘Young Person’s Risk Assessment’ is required if the employer does not already employ young people under the age of 18 i.e. specific to the type of work and/or the needs of the student with specific reference to the learners, age, ability and maturity. Suitable and sufficient safety equipment and protective clothing must be supplied where necessary to protect from risks to safety or health as identified by risk assessment. The employer must ensure adequate supervision throughout the placement. Supervisors should be aware of the purpose of work experience, have a good knowledge of Health & Safety and know about any needs the young person working with them may have. More guidance is available in the Health and Safety Executive Guide to Young People and Work Experience INDG364 (Pages 10 to 13).
Employer’s Health & Safety Induction Experience shows that students settle in better when they have been given a formalised induction to the workplace. For many learners, this will be their first experience of work and will need support adjusting to the world of work. They will need to learn what is expected of them when working for an employer, for example, how important it is for them to arrive on time, how the use of their personal mobile telephone within working hours is usually not permitted and other aspects of everyday working life that they may not have experienced before. A comprehensive induction to the workplace therefore results in far fewer misunderstandings between employer and student; carrying out an induction enables you as the employer to set out your expectations for the learner. The College provide a work placement induction template for companies that do not have their own.
Reporting of Accidents, Incidents & Dangerous Occurrences It is the responsibility of the employer to report any accidents, incidents or dangerous occurrences that occur on site following procedures for such reporting covered by the RIDDOR 1995 Regulations. The employer must also report any such accidents or occurrences to the Industry Placement & Work Experience Coordinator.
Learners who are Under 16 Learners who are under 16 should be supervised at all times. The employer must provide the College representative with a copy of their Young Person’s Risk Assessment to pass on to the learner’s parents.
Hours of Work, Lunch & Breaks The Working Time Regulations apply to students on work experience however, the number and pattern of hours worked is normally agreed by the placement provider, parents and student. The employer has a duty of care as for any employee and students must be provided with adequate rest room facilities, including toilets, hand washing and drinking water. Students should not be encouraged to leave the premises and without the permission of a parent for under 16s. However, if a student leaves the employer’s premises during lunch or break periods, no liability can be accepted by the employer or the College for any incident that may occur.
Attendance & Absence reporting Please sign the Student’s work-book or log sheet each time they attend work experience. This provides the College with proof of attendance. If a student is absent from work experience, employers should inform the Industry Placement & Work Experience Coordinator or other member of College staff as soon as possible, even if the student has given prior notice as absences must be recorded by the College. The employers support in this matter is greatly appreciated.
Pay Students on work experience have the status of an ‘employee’ for legal and insurance purposes but are not required to receive payment for the work they do. Employers can assist with travelling expenses and/or lunch costs at their discretion. Employers can pay learners on Industry Placements only.
Data Protection The information provided may be stored manually and/or electronically and will be used for the purposes of education particularly for the work experience scheme and used by employers, parents/guardians and Education Business Partnerships for Health & Safety reasons. Students are informed that they must respect and adhere to employer confidentiality at all times.
Employer feedback on the College process We send out an employer questionnaire on an annual basis. This enables us to obtain feedback on our service to you and the learner and gives us an indication of any areas of our provision that we need to improve on. We would be grateful for your response should you receive one to complete.
And Finally… We hope that this guide provides information that will help to answer any queries that you may have regarding work experience. Should you require further clarification, please do not hesitate to contact your Industry Placement & Work Experience Coordinator or the Industry Placement & Work Experience Manager.
Expectations of Learners ALL students are expected to adhere to the following whilst undertaking work experience: Arrive at the placement on time and ready for work Attend during the days and hours as agreed by the Supervisor Undertake tasks as agreed and directed by the Supervisor Observe confidentiality and adhere to the employer’s Health & Safety policies maintaining the health, safety and wellbeing of themselves and others at all times Notify both the placement supervisor and College Industry Placement & Work Experience Coordinator as soon as possible in the event of absence. Ensure their log sheet/work book is signed by the workplace supervisor at the end of each session Discuss any difficulties with supervisor and/or Industry Placement & Work Experience Coordinator as soon as they arise. In addition, task and duties undertaken by students should take account of different abilities and this will not always reflect the level of qualification being undertaken. The statements below are designed as a general guide only. Individual support needs or medical conditions relevant to work experience will be discussed with the employer prior to the commencement of the placement. If you are unsure about the ability of your work experience student, please contact the Industry Placement & Work Experience Coordinator or course tutor, contact details are provided on the work placement agreement for the learner.
New to subject area Requires direct supervision and/or additional support - working with clear instructions, being monitored and aided by a competent member of staff Be encouraged to work as part of a team and communicate effectively with other staff.
Some knowledge of subject area, some may be new to the subject Work under supervision - working with clear instructions, being aided by a competent member of staff and being monitored by a member of staff who is within close proximity Take some responsibility for themselves and others and also communicate effectively. Expected to record their progress and analyse their own skills and abilities Complete tasks effectively with guidance and explain why they are completing the task Be able to, with guidance, apply College theory to the practical Be encouraged to work as part of a team Communicate effectively with other staff.
Take responsibility for themselves and others around them and also communicate effectively. Keep track of their progress and keep a log of their work. Reflect upon and analyse their own skills and abilities. May be required to gain information from the employer to aid their coursework. May be able to work without direct supervision or under an appropriate level of supervision Complete some tasks to expected industry standards Communicate with other staff effectively Work well as part of a team Be able to apply College theory to the practical.
Placement Contact and Progress Review Throughout the academic year, learners will be working towards their Behaviours & Values for Employment, as shown in the table on page 7. There are 5 key behaviours that we aim to have our learners achieve, or make significant progress towards achieving by the end of the academic year; Professionalism, Communication, Ownership & Responsibility, Team Working and Personal Values. Some learners may already display some of these skills prior to starting their work experience placements. Learners will be working towards achieving the level of behaviours appropriate to the level of their qualification; Level 2 learners working towards Level 2 behaviours, Level 3 learners working towards Level 3 behaviours etc. Learners will be asked to reflect upon the skills and attitudes gained during their placement in relation to the behaviours in order to assess their progress. During the placement, the Industry Placement & Work Experience Coordinators will contact the employer to review the learner’s progress. Employer feedback is an essential part of this process and an opportunity to discuss any issues that may have arisen and put remedial measures in place if necessary. Learners will also be asked to reflect and evaluate their work experience. We would be grateful if employers are able to offer a reference upon successful completion of the work placement.
Behaviours & Values for Employment Overview BEHAVIOUR
Dress code Timeliness Appropriate language
Strong work ethic Adaptability Positive attitude
Proactive Self-management Commercial Awareness
Appropriate verbal language
Appropriate written language
Basic negotiation skills
Work in a team
Positive contribution in a team
Managing a team or task
Putting customers first
Customer centric in thought
Listen to others
Seek feedback for improvement
Take pride in own work
Manage emotions during feedback
Planning own work
"Can Do" attitude
Positive in working with others
Understands place in a team
Valued member of a team
Puts others first
Open to new ideas
Ownership and Responsibility
Industry Placement & Work Experience Process The learner secures work experience placement of their choice, completes paperwork and returns to Industry Placement & Work Experience Coordinator (IPWEC).
The IPWEC contacts the employer to confirm the placement; start date, end date, days and hours and to arrange a health and safety visit if required.
The learner starts their work experience.
The learner records their completed hours after each session in their work-book and has them signed off by their workplace supervisor.
Throughout the placement the IPWEC visits/contacts employer to obtain feedback and to assess the learnerâ€™s progress. The IPWEC records any learner absence.
The IPWEC obtains an evaluation of placement from the learner. The IPWEC will also request final feedback from the employer on the learnerâ€™s progress over the whole period of the work experience placement.
The employer provides a reference if they feel this is warranted.
Safeguarding and the Prevent Duty for Employers What is Safeguarding? “Safeguarding and Prevent is about a duty of care that keeps our apprentices, learners and trainees safe, secure and within the rule of law.” Safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children is defined as ‘protecting children from maltreatment; preventing impairment of children’s health or development; ensuring that children grow up in circumstances consistent with the provision of safe and effective care; and taking action to enable all children to have the best outcomes’. Children includes everyone under the age of 18. In accordance with The Care Act 2014, the safeguarding duties also apply to an adult who needs care and support and is experiencing or at risk of abuse or neglect and because of those care and support needs is unable to protect himself or herself from either the risk of or the experience of abuse or neglect.
Employer’s Responsibilities Explained You have a responsibility to: ● Alert The Cornwall College Group to any Safeguarding concerns regarding your work experience student to allow us to explore what the causes might be. ● Provide opportunities for employees to discuss their own concerns about their safety, extremism, events in the news and about British values. ● Be alert to any changes in your work placement student’s behaviour, that in your professional opinion gives you cause for concern.
What is the Prevent Duty? Section 26 of the Counter-Terrorism and Security Act 2015 places a duty on certain bodies, to have “due regard to the need to prevent people from being drawn into terrorism”. This includes Education & Training settings.
What is Extremism? Extremism is defined as: ● The holding of extreme political or religious views; ● The vocal or active opposition to our fundamental values, including democracy, the rule of law, individual liberty, and respect and tolerance for different faiths and beliefs (Source: Counter Extremism Strategy, October 2015)
Radicalisation Radicalisation is defined as: ● The act or process of making a person more radical or favouring of extreme views ● The process by which a person comes to support terrorism and forms of extremism leading to terrorism (Source: Prevent Strategy, June 2011)
What are British Values? British values are defined as “democracy, the rule of law, individual liberty and mutual respect and tolerance for those with different faiths and beliefs.” Cornwall College encourages learners and staff to respect other people with particular regard to the protected characteristics set out in the Equality Act 2010.
What are the Signs of Vulnerability? There is no single way of identifying who is likely to be vulnerable to being drawn into terrorism. Factors that may have a bearing on someone becoming vulnerable may include: ● Loneliness or isolation leading to negative influence from other people or via the internet ● Drugs, gangs, violence and crime against them or their involvement in crime, e.g. race/ hate crime, anti-social behaviour etc. ● Family tensions and breakdown, poverty, homelessness and lack of self-esteem ● Personal or political grievances or recent political or religious conversion ● Sexual exploitation, physical or mental abuse.
What is the College’s Role? The Cornwall College Group has a legal responsibility to make sure that: ● All staff have undertaken training in Safeguarding and the Prevent Duty ● We are aware of when it is appropriate to refer concerns about students, learners or colleagues to the College’s Safeguarding Lead ● The college adopts a multi-agency approach to Safeguarding and Prevent ● College staff, working with its partner organisations and employers, exemplify British values into their practice Many of the things we already do at Cornwall College help learners to be positive, happy members of society, and these include: ● Exploring other cultures and religions and promoting diversity ● Challenging prejudices and racist comments and behaviours
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Developing critical thinking skills and a strong, positive self-identity Promoting spiritual, moral, social and cultural development Active promotion of British values.
The College has access to a range of support services, both internally and externally, which include: Drug, Alcohol and Health Awareness, Careers and Employability Support, Education and Training Support, Special Educational Needs and Disabilities Services, Life and Social Skills Development, Mentoring and Counselling. Where staff have concerns, they would report them to the College’s Safeguarding Lead, who would then determine what course of action to take and whether or not to make a referral to Channel. We ask that employers do the same.
What is Channel? Channel is a programme that provides support to people who are identified as being vulnerable to being drawn into terrorism or extremism. It is a supportive approach and operates in the pre-criminal space. The programme uses a multi-agency approach to protect vulnerable people by: ● Identifying individuals at risk ● Assessing the nature and extent of the risk ● Developing the most appropriate support plan for the individuals concerned
Reporting Safeguarding or Prevent Concerns Involving a Student If you have a concern, would like more information or have any questions, please contact our Safeguarding Team via email at email@example.com or by telephoning the central safeguarding number on 01209 617888, asking for the Duty Safeguarding Officer. If your concern is out of normal working hours and is urgent, please contact the police direct or your local authority safeguarding unit. Please inform The Cornwall College Group Safeguarding Team at the earliest opportunity. You can also report your concerns to NSPCC helpline via email at firstname.lastname@example.org, by telephoning 0808 800 5000 or via their website at https://www.nspcc.org.uk/services-and-resources/childline/Confidentiality Confidentiality rules should not prevent anybody from raising a concern although all suspicions, allegations and investigations will be kept confidential and shared only with those who need to know in accordance with the Data Protection Act (1998).
For More Information You will find more details about The Cornwall College Group Safeguarding Policy and Prevent Policy, which outlines our strategy and duty to Safeguarding and Prevent, on our website at www.cornwall.ac.uk The following sources may also be useful for further information: Keeping Children Safe in Education which is the key statutory document for safeguarding in Schools and Colleges. (Department for Education, September 2016) The Care Act (2014) provides the legislation relating to adult safeguarding. Revised Prevent Duty Guidance: for England and Wales which is the statutory guidance issued under Section 26 of the Counter- Terrorism and Security Act 2015. (Home Office, July 2015)
Equality, Diversity and Inclusion We are committed to providing a welcoming and positive environment where everyone is treated with dignity and respect. We encourage employers to promote equality of opportunity in the workplace at all times. We do not tolerate harassment, discrimination or bullying and if an employer or apprentice has concerns about unfair treatment in College or the workplace, they can contact the College by email to: email@example.com Our Equality, Diversity and Inclusion Objectives: ● Empower our staff and students to be themselves; embrace uniqueness, respect difference, and encourage confidence ● Place the Learner Voice at the heart of everything we do, working with core teams and the Cornwall College Student Union to expand on ‘You said, we did’ ● Demonstrate a clear development of ED & I in our teaching and learning, whilst utilising data to address gaps in performance and achievement ● Work within our communities to be a leader in the area of inclusion, and advance equality of opportunity and access for all ● Celebrate: our staff, students, stakeholders and successes ● Equality and Diversity training is available for any employers, or their staff, who are interested in learning more about this subject.
For More Information Risk assessments that take account of sex and gender differences: http://www.hse.gov.uk/vulnerableworkers/gender.htm Awareness of equality issues and employers duties under the 2010 Equality Act: http://www.acas.org.uk/index.aspx?articleid=3017 Vulnerable people: http://www.hse.gov.uk/vulnerable-workers/index.htm
Young People and Work Experience A Brief Guide to Health and Safety for Employers Introducing young people to the world of work can help them understand the work environment, choose future careers or prepare for employment. An appreciation of workplace risk and how to deal with it can be one of the biggest benefits offered by a work placement.
Introduction This leaflet is aimed at employers who provide work experience opportunities to young people. It will help you, and those responsible for work experience in your business, ensure young people have their health and safety protected while they are with you. Under health and safety law, work experience students are your employees. You treat them no differently to other young people you employ. You may have considerable experience of successfully employing young people or taking on work experience students. If not, there are just a few steps that you need to take. Schools and Colleges, or others organising placements, need to check that you have risk management arrangements in place. Conversations you have with the placement organiser could simply be noted for reference. Taking on work experience students should be straightforward. It should not be about generating unnecessary paperwork. This guidance describes how to keep it simple.
Definitions of Young People and Children by Age ● ●
A young person is anyone under 18 A child is anyone who has not yet reached the official minimum school leaving age (MSLA). Pupils will reach the MSLA in the school year in which they turn 16.
What You Need to Do Simply use your existing arrangements for assessing and managing risks to young people. Avoid repeating your assessment of the risks if a new student is of a broadly similar level of maturity and understanding, and has no particular or additional needs (the organiser or parent should tell you if they have). If you don’t currently employ a young person, have not done so in the last few years and are taking on a work experience student for the first time, or one with particular needs, review your risk assessment before they start. Discuss the placement in advance with organisers. Take account of what they and the parents or carers tell you of the student’s physical and psychological capacity and of any particular needs, for example due to any health conditions or learning difficulties. Keep any additional work in proportion to the environment: ● For placements in low-risk environments, such as offices or shops, with everyday risks that will mostly be familiar to the student, your existing arrangements for other employees should be enough ● For environments with risks less familiar to the student (e.g. in light assembly or packing facilities), you will need to make arrangements to manage the risks – this will include induction, supervision, site familiarisation, and any protective equipment needed ● For a placement in a higher-risk environment, such as construction, agriculture and manufacturing, you will need to: - Consider what work the student will be doing or observing, the risks involved in that work and how these are managed; - Satisfy yourself that the instruction, training and supervisory arrangements have been properly thought through and that they work in practice. You may, particularly for higher-risk environments, need to consider specific factors that must be managed for young people, including exposure to radiation, noise and vibration, toxic substances, or extreme temperatures. Where these specific factors exist in your workplace you should already have control measures in place. This will also apply to legally required age limits on the use of some equipment and machinery (e.g. forklift trucks and some woodworking machinery). Consider whether you need to do anything further to control the risks to young people. Explain to parents/carers of children what the significant risks are and what has been done to control them. This can be done in whatever way is simplest and suitable, including verbally, and is very often done through the school or College.
When you induct students, explain the risks and how they are controlled, checking that they understand what they have been told. Check that students know how to raise any health and safety concerns.
Training and Supervision Many young people are likely to be new to the workplace and in some cases will be facing unfamiliar risks, from the job they will be doing and from their surroundings. You will need to provide them with clear and sufficient instruction, training and supervision to enable them to work without putting themselves and other people at risk. Young people are likely to need more supervision than adults. Good supervision will help you get a clear idea of the young person’s capabilities and progress in the job and monitor the effectiveness of their training. You will need to consider how much training is necessary. A proportionate approach is needed, for example a low-risk business would not be expected to have a need for lengthy technical training. Similarly, where a student is on a shortterm work experience placement, induction and training needs should be tailored to the tasks they are going to be doing. It is important that you check young people have understood the instruction and training which will include, for example: ● The hazards and risks in the workplace; ● The health and safety precautions that are in place. In workplaces where there are health and safety representatives, they can play a valuable role early on by: ● Introducing the young person to the workplace; ● Helping with their ongoing training; ● Giving you feedback about particular concerns. As employees, young people have a duty to take care of their own health and safety and that of others who may be affected by their actions. This includes co-operating with you by listening carefully, following instructions, using any safety equipment that you have provided and taking part in relevant training.
What the Law Says Under health and safety law, every employer must ensure, so far as reasonably practicable, the health and safety of all their employees, irrespective of age. As part of this, there are certain considerations that need to be made for young people. This section outlines the requirements in the law. Putting the requirements into practice should be straightforward and in most cases you should already have the necessary risk management arrangements in place.
What does ‘so far as reasonably practicable’ mean? This means balancing the level of risk against the measures needed to control the real risk in terms of money, time or trouble. However, you do not need to take action if it would be grossly disproportionate to the level of risk. Under the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999, you have a responsibility to ensure that young people employed by you are not exposed to risk due to: ● Lack of experience; ● Being unaware of existing or potential risks; ● Lack of maturity. You must consider: ● The layout of the workplace; ● The physical, biological and chemical agents they will be exposed to; ● How they will handle work equipment; ● How the work and processes are organised; ● The extent of health and safety training needed; ● Risks from particular agents, processes and work. These considerations should be straightforward in a low-risk workplace, for example an office. In higher-risk workplaces the risks are likely to be greater and will need more attention to ensure they’re properly controlled. HSE’s frequently asked questions (FAQs) web page on young people at work provides further advice on making the necessary considerations (www.hse.gov.uk/youngpeople/faqs.htm). You need to consider whether the work the young person will do:
Is beyond their physical or psychological capacity: this doesn’t have to be complicated, it could be as simple as checking a young person is capable of safely lifting weights and of remembering and following instructions; Involves harmful exposure to substances that are toxic, can cause cancer, can damage or harm an unborn child, or can chronically affect human health in any other way: - Be aware of substances a young person might come into contact with in their work, consider exposure levels and ensure legal limits are met; Involves harmful exposure to radiation: - Ensure a young person’s exposure to radiation is restricted and does not exceed the allowed dose limit; Involves risk of accidents that cannot reasonably be recognised or avoided by young people due to their Insufficient attention to safety or lack of experience or training: - A young person might be unfamiliar with ‘obvious’ risks. An employer should consider the need for tailored training/closer supervision Has a risk to health from extreme cold, heat, noise or vibration: - In most cases, young people will not be at any greater risk than adults and for workplaces that include these hazards it is likely there will already be control measures in place.
A child must never carry out such work involving these risks, whether they are permanently employed or under training such as work experience. A young person, who is not a child, can carry out work involving these risks if: ● The work is necessary for their training; ● The work is properly supervised by a competent person; ● The risks are reduced to the lowest level, so far as reasonably practicable Providing supervision for young workers and monitoring their progress will help you identify where additional adjustments may be needed. You must let the parents or guardians of any child know the possible risks and the measures put in place to control them. This can be done in whatever way is simplest and suitable, including verbally. You will already be familiar with the risks associated with your workplace and should be in a position to consider what is or is not appropriate.
Other Issues You Need to Consider There are other agents, processes and work that should be taken into account when employing a young person. The following list doesn’t cover all of those, but if any of the issues are relevant to your workplace you can find more information on HSE’s website (see ‘Find out more’ for web links): ● Biological agents; ● Working with chemicals; ● Working with lead and lead processes; ● Asbestos; ● Working with explosives, including fireworks; ● Working with compressed air; ● Construction, including demolition; ● Electrical safety; ● Agriculture; ● Manufacturing.
Working Hours and Young Workers Working hours are not governed by health and safety law. Young people and children have different employment rights from adult workers and are subject to protections in relation to the hours they can work.
Other Regulations Children below the minimum school leaving age (MSLA) must not be employed in industrial workplaces such as factories, construction sites etc., except when on work experience. Children under 13 are generally prohibited from any form of employment. Local authorities have powers to make bylaws on the types of work, and hours of work, children aged between 13 and the MSLA can do.
Find Out More For more information about health and safety and young people, visit our young people web pages: www.hse.gov.uk/youngpeople/ Health and safety made simple: The basics for your business Leaflet INDG449 HSE Books 2011 www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/INDG449.htm Microsite: www.hse.gov.uk/simple-health-safety/manage.htm The health and safety toolbox: How to control risks at work provides helpful areas of advice, which apply to all workplaces: www.hse.gov.uk/toolbox/ Further guidance to help you protect new starters: www.hse.gov.uk/vulnerable-workers/new-to-the-job.htm More information on working hours for young workers: www.gov.uk/child-employment/minimum-ages-children-can-work
Helpful Links for Other Issues You May Need to Consider ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●
Biological agents: www.hse.gov.uk/biosafety/ Working with chemicals: www.hse.gov.uk/chemicals/ Working with lead and lead processes: www.hse.gov.uk/lead/ Asbestos: www.hse.gov.uk/asbestos Working with explosives, including fireworks: www.hse.gov.uk/explosives/ Working with compressed air: www.hse.gov.uk/compressedair/ Construction, including demolition: www.hse.gov.uk/construction/safetytopics/stability.htm Electrical safety: www.hse.gov.uk/electricity/ Agriculture: www.hse.gov.uk/agriculture/ Manufacturing: www.hse.gov.uk/manufacturing/
Further Information For information about health and safety, or to report inconsistencies or inaccuracies in this guidance, visit www.hse.gov.uk/. You can view HSE guidance online and order priced publications from the website. HSE priced publications are also available from bookshops. This guidance is issued by the Health and Safety Executive. Following the guidance is not compulsory, unless specifically stated, and you are free to take other action. But if you do follow the guidance you will normally be doing enough to comply with the law. Health and safety inspectors seek to secure compliance with the law and may refer to this guidance. This leaflet is available at www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg364.htm © Crown copyright If you wish to reuse this information visit www.hse.gov.uk/copyright.htm for details. First published 06/13.
PROHIBITED OCCUPATIONS, ACTIVITIES AND EQUIPMENT Employments which are statutorily PROHIBITED OR RESTRICTED The employment in certain occupations of young people under the age of 18 is statutorily prohibited or restricted by a number of Enactments, the main ones being the Factories Act 1961, the Agriculture (Safety & Welfare Act 1956, the Children and Young Persons Act 1933, the Young Persons Employment Act 1938, the Mines and Quarries Act 1954, the Employment of Women, Young Persons & Children Act 1920, the Offices, Shops and Railway Premises Act 1963, and the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974.
Occupations in Which the Employment of Young Persons is Prohibited or Restricted by Statute Regulations made under the Factories Act 1961 and the Offices, Shop and Railway Premises Act 1963, prohibit or restrict the employment of people under 18 from certain particularly dangerous jobs. Prohibited Occupations Include: Luminising with materials containing radio-active substances Manipulating lead colour in preparation of prints and colours Crane driving in docks. Restricted Occupations Include: Blasting; Asbestos manufacture; Chemical works; Chromium plating; India-rubber manufacture; Locomotive driving; Pottery; Manufacture and decorating; Certain work in connection with self-acting mules in textile factories; Certain occupations involving lead processes and, for young women, any Process in a brass casting shop.
Cleaning and Operating Machinery Sections 20 and 21 of the Factories Act 1961, and sections 18 and 19 of the Offices, Shop and Railway Premises Act 1963 contain special provisions for the safety of young persons. Under section 20, no young person may clean either a prime mover or transmission machinery while in motion, or any part of a machine if there is a risk of injury from any moving part of that machine or of any adjacent machinery. Section 21 lays down requirements for the training and supervision of young people working at dangerous machines. A young person must not work at any machine specified by the Health and Safety Executive to be dangerous unless: They have been fully instructed as to the dangers and precautions They have received sufficient training in the work or is under adequate supervision by an experienced person. The Health and Safety Executive has Specified the Following Machines to be Dangerous: Machines worked with the aid of mechanical power: Brick and tile presses Machines used for opening and teasing in upholstery or bedding works Carding machines in use in the wool textile trades Corner staying machines Dough brakes & Mixers Worm pressure extruding machines Gill boxes in use in the wool textile trades Machines in use in commercial laundries: hydro-extractors, washing machines, garment presses Meat mincing machines Milling machines in use in the metal trades Pie and tart making machines Power presses, including hydraulic and pneumatic presses Loose knife punching machines Wire stitching machines Semi-automatic wood turning lathes Circular saws Chain saws Hedge cutters; Planting machines;
Vertical spindle moulding machines; Powered lifting appliances; Explosives (including firearms and cartridge operated fixing tools).
Machines whether worked with the aid of mechanical power or not: Guillotine machines (other than table top models with guarded sliding cutters); Platen printing machines.
Agriculture Section 2 of the Agriculture (Safety, Health and Welfare Provisions) Act 1956, requires that a young person (i.e. under 18 years) shall not be employed as a worker in agriculture to lift, carry or move a weight which might be likely to cause him/her injury and that sanitary facilities and first aid boxes or cupboards should be provided on agricultural units where workers are employed. Regulations made under the Act require the safeguarding of machines to protect workers from the risk of injury and the provision of safe work places, including safe means of access and safe ladders. Regulations provide that workers aged 16 and 17 years must be adequately supervised if they are required to operate a circular saw. A worker under 18 years must not feed produce into the drum feeding mouth of a thresher.
Mines and Quarries Working conditions in mines and quarries are protected by the Mines and Quarries Act 1954. These lay down certain minimum standards and precautions covering safety, health and welfare. Young people are also prohibited from doing certain kinds of heavy work.
Betting and Gaming Section 21 of the Betting, Gaming and Lotteries Act 1963 makes it an offence to employ a person under 18 years of age in the effecting of a bettering transaction other than by post, or in a licensed betting office. A young person may not be employed in any capacity in a licensed betting office or as a telephonist receiving clients’ instructions in a bookmaker’s credit office but in the latter may be employed in the making up of accounts.
Work on Ships Regulations imposed by the Department of Transport in 1985 (Merchant Shipping Notice No M1194) effectively prohibit young people from sea-going experience. Only those over 16 who have a contractually binding agreement to service on a ship in some defined capacity, such as a training agreement or signed on crew members, are permitted to be employed or engaged on the business of the ship. This effectively rules out work experience on all vessels including fishing and standby boats.
Voluntary Agreements Affecting the Employment of Young Persons Cleaning, etc. of steam boilers, oil fuel tanks and bilges on board ships. Under a voluntary agreement negotiated by HM Factory Inspectorate with employers’ organisations and trade unions concerned it is provided that no person under the age of 18 years shall be employed in any of the following work: Scaling, skurfing or cleaning boilers (including combustion chambers and smoke boxes); Cleaning oil-fuel tanks or bilges in a ship which has been commissioned and has been in service and which is either in any wet dock, harbour or canal or at a shipbuilding yard. For purposes of the Agreement a ‘Shipbuilding yard’ means any premises in which ships, boats or vessels used in navigation are made, finished or repaired. ‘Ship’, ‘vessel’ and ‘harbour’ have the same meaning as in the Merchant Shipping Act 1984. The Local Education Authority has also provided the following guidance concerning the use of tractors, work above ground level and welding equipment. Use of Tractors While large tractors are almost exclusively found on farm placements they may sometimes be used by ground staff for purposes connected with parks and playing fields. Students should only be allowed to operate a tractor if this has been agreed as part of the initial job description. In these circumstances the following provisos must be followed: There must be close supervision at all times using a second seat properly designed for the purpose. The seat for the driver must be adjustable to the height of the student. The tractor itself should have a cab and be further protected by anti-roll bars. Guards must be fitted where power take-offs (for towing trailers and/or machinery) are to be used. Only ‘light’ towing activities are to be undertaken, i.e. not ploughing, sowing or harvesting. No work must be undertaken on steep land or in the proximity of ditches.
Using Mini-Tractor Type (This does not include 3 or 4 wheel motorcycles which are prohibited): Students driving these tractors must be under close supervision (i.e. always within hailing distance) Such tractors should only be operated by a student in situations where members of the general public and domestic animals are not present. Working above Ground Level When working on construction sites or in theatrical spaces special care should be exercised with regard to any work undertaken above ground-level: Students may not work at heights above 2 metres Ladders should be securely tied (at top and/or bottom) i.e. access should not be a temporary arrangement All scaffolding must be erected and checked by a competent person Guard rails and toe-boards must be in place (including on tower scaffolding units) Welding Equipment Students under 16 should not use welding equipment. Note: Always err on the side of caution in the case of any placements in high risk banded occupational areas. In any case of doubt the Health and Safety Manager should be contacted for the College.
Useful Links HSE website: further information on Health & Safety Law, Risk Assessments, H & S and Young People etc. can be found at www.hse.gov.uk Information and contacts for Safeguarding issues www.online-procedures.co.uk/swcpp Advice for Government for both Education providers and Businesses on what good work experience looks like as part of the 16-18 study programme www.education.gov.uk/schools/teachingandlearning/qualifications/b00223495/post-16-work-exp-enterprise-educ Top Tips from CIPD (Chartered Institiute of Personnel Development) on how to set up and run high quality and sucessful work experience www.cipd.co.uk/publicpolicy/policy-reports/work-experience-top-tips.aspx Publication from from UK Commision for Employement and Skills ‘Not Just Making Tea… Reinventing Work Experience’; interesting research and Case Studies https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/299597/Not_just_making_tea.pdf