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Introduction to Space Tourism Space tourism refers mainly to the visitation of locations outside earth. Unlike other kinds of tourism, this kind of tourism is relatively still a dream for many. Space travel itself has been around for more than 40 years since man first attempted space flights and then landed on the moon. Its technology is radically different from any other type of tourism-related technology - maybe because it's a relatively new frontier just as when the airplane emerged - hence, it remains within the purview of government and a few agencies. Space exploration is motivated by man's quest to understand and harness the limitless resources of space. Governments have generally dominated space activities mainly for military, scientific and communication purposes. Experts with many years of studying and practicing are the only recognized voice when it comes to space issues. For the past thirty years, ordinary people have watched to see when space will be opened up to the public to investigate just as any tourist investigates its destination unimpeded. This is the birth of space tourism. Space tourism itself is not an easy venture to manage since the broad requirements for such a tourism venture involve technology and conditions vastly different from earth conditions. Fundamentals of Space Tourism Space tourism is an exciting venture gaining fast publicity and huge unsatisfied demand. Before this excitement can be realized, the fundamentals of space travel must be sorted. These fundamentals include: Finance - payment for services Training - familiarity with space conditions, transportation systems and possible activities applicable to tourist Transportation - launch sites, space vehicles Accommodation - Docking stations e.g. international space station

Finance is currently a big factor in space tourism quite outside the reach of ordinary citizens who would be willing to travel to space. The first private citizen to travel to space for a week stay in the international space station (ISS) - Dennis Tito - paid a whooping US$20 million to get aboard the

Russian Soyuz. Since then, a few individuals have joined him. However, according to Virgin Galactic - one of the enterprising companies offering commercial space travel - the cost of traveling to space currently (as at 2011) stands at US$200,000 with a US$20,000 deposit. If you intend to stay for a week, the budget might as well skyrocket into the millions of dollars. The US$200,000 might not be a huge amount compared to the millions of dollars fare paid by the pioneer space tourists but is still out of reach for most people. Moreover, training is an important part of space tourism. The Russian Federal Space Agency provides up to six months training before a space tourist is finally approved for a space tour. This is part of the huge financial cost including physical test and fitness inspections, familiarization with the powerful G-forces during take-off and landing, zero gravity simulations and lots more. Furthermore, transportation to space follows after successful completion of the training. Launch sites and reliable spacecrafts must be in place to provide space tours when required. So far, the Russian Soyuz has been the only space vehicle to convey space tourists to the international space station (ISS) and back but this vehicle was not specifically designed as a space tourism vehicle. Many space tour agencies are lobbying the Russians to build a custom space tourism spacecraft to enable more space tourist visit the International space station (which is approximately 200 mile above earth) and beyond or perhaps help drive the tour cost down. This is a work in progress for everyone and every space loving organization and government. Cheap, reliable and safe transportation to space is the single most problematic part of the space tourism equation. Additionally, accommodation issues must be sorted and it presents exciting possibilities in space. Currently, accommodation remains the International space station. However, the ISS was not designed for this purpose. Therefore, the request for space hotels for tourist is the clamor and sure enough, there are answers. Bigelow Aerospace is gearing up for an independent mini space station of space tourists complete with its complex for the whole space tour. Hilton hotels is also voicing out its interest. With accommodation in space, is there any limitation for other businesses? The imagination of man holds the answer. Furthermore, space tourism destinations can be either sub-orbital or orbital travels. Sub-orbital space travel includes traveling some kilometers outside earth but not into the orbit of another body such as another planet or moon. On the other hand, orbital travels involve more than sub-orbital travels. This travel includes entering the orbits of other bodies in space or even other galaxies. Man has a lot of experience with sub-orbital travels for decades and this is what will be exploited in preparation for the private citizens' space tourism industry. Many governments including Malaysia are either increasing awareness or beginning to develop these fundamentals to prepare for the exciting future of space tourism.

Overview of Malaysian Tourism The Malaysian tourism industry is a progressive and successful one. It aspires to be an international tourism destination. According to the 2010 United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) Report, Malaysia ranked 9th in international tourist arrivals, welcoming 24.6 million visitors through its doors. The impact of these efforts resulted in international tourism receipt of RM 56.5 billion in 2010. Foundation of Space Tourism in Malaysia Development and oversight of space activities is championed by the Malaysian National Space Agency (ANGKASA). This government agency seeks to develop the country's potential in the space sector. The foundation for space activities in Malaysia resides in the operation of the Malaysian space center that trains, monitors and operates space equipments, experiments and develops young talents for future space activities. The Malaysian National Space Agency is mostly concerned practically with science and sciencerelated activities at the moment. However, space tourism activities are gearing up to raise sufficient awareness for the public to develop interest in the sector. The government is also sponsoring various competitions to encourage interest and participation in the sector. Considering space activity involvement from the governments' perspective, the Malaysian government has shown a lot of interest in space activities such as developing space research infrastructure, partnerships with international space agencies, promotional activities and jointly sponsoring commercially rewarding experiments. This includes research on micro gravity sciences, space weather and scientific payload effects as indicated on the Malaysian National Space Agency website. The foundation for space activity is set which allows the natural occurrence of space tourism activities. Prospects of Space Tourism in Malaysia and Implications for students Space activity is gaining momentum in Malaysia. As Malaysia approaches its vision of becoming a developed country by 2020, the space sector is bound to expand. As with other progressive sectors, private sector involvement is critical if space tourism is to find its place in Malaysia. The space tourism sector in Malaysia is at the awareness stage leaving a whole new sector open to be harnessed by anyone. The space tourism sector will require a lot of boost to grow as with other tourism sectors. This growth begins from the national policy on space activities. Where such policies is inclusive to Malaysians, attractive to regional and international investors and practical to the global demand for sustainable space tourism, Malaysia will be on the path to exploiting the limitless reaches of space. The prospects are huge but a lot of work needs to be done. Shall work-in-progress describe it? Consider the implications for students. An untapped sector such as space tourism raises all kinds of opportunities for students of various disciplines but requires careful consideration. This is

because the governments' direction in the sector will affect the attractiveness of the industry at home and by extension the success of the industry. Nevertheless, the positive potential of the worldwide space tourism industry in the future is uncontested. Students who wish to be involved in the sector as employees will need to proceed with caution but students that want to engage in the sector as pioneers, trail blazers and/or researchers are encouraged to take the leap. As increasing private sector involvement is encouraged by governments, private companies and individuals prepared to confront the hassles of startup will be better positioned to reap the benefits of hard work in the future. Recommendations The following recommendations if implemented by the Malaysian authorities will accelerate the interest and development of space tourism in Malaysia; Development of a clearer, more visible and practical space policy that communicates the benefits of space tourism to all Malaysians Development of more learning facilities to train Malaysians on space related activities with a focus on future space tourism industry Providing adequate incentives for student interested in space tourism and related space activities Sustaining space related interest in secondary school students to prepare for the future space tourism industry Developing appropriate feedback mechanisms to gain insight into peoples interest in space related issues Develop plans to attract or retain young international talents to beef up development of the sector Encourage more private businesses and tertiary institutions to diversify into space related product and services Provide more visible and accessible data on space related activities to provide incentive for further research in the sector Promote space activities with the same vigor as other tourism sectors are promoted in Malaysia Improve national budget on space related activities to communicate more commitment to the sector.

Conclusion This article investigated space tourism, its foundation in Malaysia, its future and implications for students. It was found that the space activities in Malaysia is supported and promoted by the government through the National Space Agency. Science and science-related activities were predominantly the activities of the agency. Space tourism is still at the awareness stage in the country and more work will need to be done to ensure it gains the needed momentum required to add positively to the economy. This has huge implications for students. For example, students interested in becoming researchers and pioneers of the sector were encouraged to take a chance to contribute to the

development of the sector. Pertinent recommendations were suggested if implemented will provide the required boost to ensure Malaysia distinguishes itself in space tourism from other third world countries as quickly as it is doing in other sectors of the economy. What do you think?

Samuel Ekwo is passionate about writing on issues relating to tertiary students. Samuel is a regular contributor to Student Focus Malaysia Reseach Team, an organization that delivers best value academic and non-academic student support services to tertiary students. If you desire to read more of our articles, click here... or get an overview of our services from the homepage...

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