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ARCHITECTURE

2008 - 2013

DESIGN PORTFOLIO CHI

YEE

CORLISS , NG

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CONT E NT

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Citta Slow

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From Part to Whole

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Gothic Vault

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Fabric Molding


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Heav y Light Pavilion

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City Activator

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Automatic Shopping Mall

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House Design

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Cube Design

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Citta Slow

A Contemporar y Art Museum, An Art Studio, A Bridge

H o ng Kon g i s wel l k n ow n as effi ci e nt ci ty. T h a n ks to th e thri vi ng bus i n ess d evel op m ent, H o ng Ko ng peop l e a re too u sed to the fast pa ce a n d ever c h a n g i ng e nvi ro nment. No d ou bt th at the fast fo o d cu l tu re h a s b ecom e so preval e nt h ere. Conven i ent sho ps, ve nd i n g m a ch i n es, fa st fo o d sho ps a re ever y w h ere i n th e town. H o ng Kon g p eop l e a re r u s h i ng thro ughou t th ei r l i ves - th ey are l o si ng t h ei r q u a l i ty of l i fe.


I ndividual Pro ject_ Yr 3 Final The s is A cade mic De s ign Pro je ct_ M us eum A dv is o r _ C hr istian J. L ange 03- 0 4/ 2011

Inspired by the Citta Slow motto in recent Europe, the manifesto of the project stands as slowing people down mentally and physically. The museum introduces a slow lifestyle to Hong Kong through museum experiences. The museum provides Hong Kong people a chance to rethink ab out their lifestyle, as well as introducing them a new attitude to life, Citta Slow. The museum is located at Harcourt Garden. The site is surrounded by networks of high speed traffic. It also marks the end of the footbridge system in Central. The design acts as a connection system of the existing pedestrian fly overs, at the same time creating a labyrinth to slow down the circulation in contrast to the high speed surrounding. In cooperating with art studio, the museum provides the public a new perspective of art which is how art is processed and the artists’ attitude of life. Also addressing the isolation of art in Hong Kong , the museum is not only a physical connection, but also a spiritual connection between the public to art.

D I SORI ENTAT I ON Mazes created a complex and confusing disorientatio n while only prov ide ONE ROUTE in fact . T he sect ional mazes he lp achiev ing different light co ndit ion, v isual connec tio n.

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DEV E LOP M E NT Interior Spatial Model

Maze studies_Lighting and Shadow The Art museum was designed to slow the huzzle and bustle city down, meanwhile provide the city a new attitude of life through introduce the artist life style. Maze was designed to get people lost and hence physically slowing them down, yet in plan. In this project, maze was taken as both in plan and section, to create different spatial experience and lighting condition and explore a new concept of space as demonstrated from the sketches.

Spatial Arrangement Five spatial typologies were de signed, which could be combined in various way and create a 3D maze. Different typology arise specific spatial quality for the following programs; Arts Studios, Exhibition Halls, Research Rooms, Bookstore, Ex terior Exhibition space, Cafe, Auditorium, and Shop.

Typology_ 1

Typology_ 2

Typology_ 3

Typology_ 4

Typology_ 5

Site Plan

50m

10m 20m


DEV E LOP M E NT

I ndividual Pro ject_ Yr 3 Final The s is A cade mic De s ign Pro je ct_ M us eum A dv is o r _ C hr istian J. L ange

The Form of the Museum act as a connection of the two bridges. As a strip to be a direct connector between two circulation while an auditorium is placed at the middle as the HEART of the museum. Meanwhile, underneath the auditorium, a corridor is created which condense public activity within acting a s an ART VILLAGE CORRIDOR . The museum also provided a fast route despite the slow route within to the publ ic. There is a contradiction of speed within the museum. The two program, studio and exhibition inter weaving to each other while sharing some common programs i ncluding the auditorium and cafe.

Visitor Shared Artist

Social Space

Maze Patch Topography

Slowing and Circulating Staircase

Site Strategy

Fast Ro ute

Float ing to create P ublic fie ld

A rt ist Ro ute

Visito r Ro ute

Main Ground level A ccess

Site surrounded by Speed Lands cape P| 8


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I ndividual Pro ject_ Yr 3 Final The s is A cade mic De s ign Pro je ct_ M us eum A dv is o r _ C hr istian J. L ange

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North- West Elevation P| 10


A

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Section B-B’

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1-20 0 MODEL

1-100 MODEL

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I ndividual Pro ject_ Yr 3 Final The s is A cade mic De s ign Pro je ct_ M us eum A dv is o r _ C hr istian J. L ange

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From Part to Whole

- Temporary Art Museum

FROM SURFACE TO SPACE

Dedicated to an art exhibition which only lasts a month ever y year, the museum was designed as transformable, allowing easy composition and de-composition. A self-supporting panel structural system is chosen, which the structural element (shear wall) is also ser ving as wall, roof and floor. Stru cture is functional. As a ‘part to whole’ system , standardized panels are prefabricated and readily to be assembled on site. Panels are made of Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) and corrugated glass in standard size 15ft x 15ft. With honestly to the natural structural behavior of material , the form and system is developed maximizing the structural span of CLT, 30ft, panel are aligned in perpendicular manner to form a structural corner in ever y 15ft/ 30ft distance. The system is self-organized as well as self-growing. While it looks chaos, it cannot be more organized. For the main galler y, where long span, column free space is required, the structural system is further evolved wi th folding edge of panel into 3ft deep beams, which also ser ve as parapet for the second-level. Again, there are no pure structure, ever y structure also ser ved with a programmatic function. Plan organization of the exhibition is organized according to the circulation, which a space-filling cur ve is applied aiming at maximizing the use of space. Short-cut is created by shifting of panels, there is a confusion of space and visibility between different exhibition halls, encouraging connection between different exhibitions. Second level walk way allows multiple levels and angles of interaction with the exhibits. The half-exposed second level walkway also opens to the public, bringing the exhibition space with sight connection to the outer public, welcoming and attracting visitors. Unit galleries are designed in such a way more panels could be added after the o ne-month exhibition and transform the space into unit studio space for subletting to individual artist, cultivating an art village. The roof will be opened to the public, ser ving as a public park, which also encouraging interaction and communication between the citizens to the artists group.

MIRCO-SCALE PANELING SYSTEM


Individual Pro ject_ M . Arch I Acade mic De s ign Pro je ct Pro je ct_ Ar t M us eum De s ign Advis o r _ Kevin Daly 01-03 / 2013

SELF-SUPPORTIVE MODULAR SYSTEM MATERIAL_ CROSS LAMINATED TIMBER A ND CORRUGATED GLASS PANEL MODULE SIZE_ 15FT X 15FT PANELS ARE ORGANIZED ACCORDING THEIR MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE SPAN ( 30FT) , THEN TURN 90 DEGREE TO FORM A STRUC TURAL CORNER . FOR A LONGER SPAN OR CANTILEVERED SITUATION, A GLASS BEAM IS USED, SO AS TO AVOID ANY COLUMNS. PANELS ARE THEMSELVES STRUC TURAL + FUNC TIONAL.

15ft

30ft

15ft 3’ DEEP GLASS BEAM

FRAMING ANGLE

5in 8’’ SELF TAPPING SCREWS

JOINT SEALANT TYP

5”CROSS LAMINATED TIMBER

CORRUGATED GLASS

20in

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GROUND FLOOR CIRCULATION A CONTINUE ONE-WAY CIRCULATION IN GALLERY SPACE, ALLOWING VISITORS TO GO THROUGH ALL PANELS, MEANWHILE ALSO HAVE SHORT-CUT INTERSEC TING SPACES.

STO RAG E

C A FE

AU D I TO R I U M

M AI N G AL L E RY

U NI T G AL L E RY

BAC K O F H O U SE

U NI T G AL L E RY

P U BL I C E X H I BI TI O N GARDER

OFFICE

B O O KSTO RE

M A I N E NTR ANC E

G/F PLAN 1” = 16’

GROUND FLOOR PLAN

P U B L I C E X HI B I T I O N G ARDE R

VI P RO O M


S ECO N DA RY- L E V E L WAL KWAY

M A I N AU D I TO R I U M

1/F PLAN 1” = 16’

FIRST FLOOR PLAN

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SELF-SUPPORTED RUGATED GLASS

COR-

EDGES OF PANELS ARE FOLDED, AC T AS BEAM AS WELL AS PAPRAPET

SECONDARY PANEL SYSTEM (SEC TION)

PRIMARY PANEL SYSTEM (PLAN)


WEST ELEVATION

SOUTH ELEVATION

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Light well introducing natural sunlight to gallerg space

MAIN GALLERY secondar y-level walkway allows different angle to the exhibition, long span column free space allows flexibility in exhibition.


UNIT GALLERY Pote ntially rearrange into unit studio space for an art village. Each unit studio will equipped with a light well. Secondar y walkway could be transformed into a public leisure park.

MAIN GALLERY Galler y space is open with an open-air secondar y walkway, welcoming the public, meanwhile also maintaining the pravicy of internal exhibition.

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Case Study Gothic Vault_ Reims Cathedral

I ndividual Pro ject_ M . Arch I A cade mic Fo r mal Analys is Pro je ct_ Got hic Vaults Transfo r matio n A dv i s o r _ Geo rgina H uljich 09- 1 1 / 2012

Precedent Case_ Reims Cathedral | Jean D ’Orbais (Reims, France, 1211-1285) GEOMETRY TO FORM Reims Cathedral is a church driven by a set of geometr y, base on a propo rtion and rotation sets of squares. The cathedral was designed this way for easy communication between architects and construction worke rs, The proportion system allowed the same design of cathedral to be built all around the world despite the differentiation in units. A same proportio n system was find in both plan and elevation, which is a set of 45 degree rotation squares with a proportion of root 2 forms a rigid closed framework on the whole cathe dral. The proportional system base unit is formed by two bays in plan, the square space in-between then rotates 90 degree and form a cube which is the center of system. There are precise relationships defined by the system to the form, from columns location on plan, to cur vature of vault and thickness of column s on elevation. Those relationships are carefully studied, and a set of overlapping points and spaces between geometr y was specified to be responsible to those formal generations.

Thickness Thickness + vaults Vault

THE SQUARE (l = b) WHICH FORM BY 2-BAY, DEFINE THE SPACE BETWEEN COLUMNS OF NAVE.

ROTATE THE BASIN SQUARE 45 DEGREE, THE SPACE IN-BETWEEN THE TWO SQUARE DEFINE THE THICKNESS OF MATERIAL FOR COLUMNS.

WITH ANOTHER SQUARE (l = 2 b) , HEIGHT OF COLUMN IS DEFINED AND SURFACE IS FORMED.

MIRROR THE WHOLE GEOMETRY, THE HEIGHT OF THE NAVE IS DEFINED. THE OVERLAPPING POINTS OF SQUARES ALSO DEFINE THE CURVATURE OF PRIMARY ARCH.

FURTHER SCALE (l =2 2b) THE SQUARE, THE AISLE IS ALSO DEFINED.

Geometrical framework > Intersection points > lines Through the geometrical system, the overla pping points generated form a co-ordinate system which determine the start and end of a ribs as well as where the ribs meet and join together. Through manipulate the geometr y, new co-ordination system is generated and hence now forms are resulted. Dialogue between forms and geometr y Throughout all the scenarios, the dialogue between forms and geometr y is demonstrated. There is a driving force act on the form by the geometr y, meanwhile the form also exert a pull on the geometr y framework. Yet, the push and pull relationships are all happen within a close, rigid system. With the object once inscribed into the frame work, the resulted form could be almost expected.

QUARE (l = b) WHICH FORM BY 2-BAY, E THE SPACE BETWEEN COLUMNS OF

ROTATE THE BASIN SQUARE 45 DEGREE, THE SPACE IN-BETWEEN THE TWO SQUARE DEFINE THE THICKNESS OF MATERIAL FOR COLUMNS.

WITH ANOTHER SQUARE (l = 2 b) , HEIGHT OF COLUMN IS DEFINED AND SURFACE IS FORMED.

MIRROR THE WHOLE GEOMETRY, THE HEIGHT OF THE NAVE IS DEFINED. THE OVERLAPPING POINTS OF SQUARES ALSO DEFINE THE CURVATURE OF PRIMARY ARCH.

FURTHER SCALE (l =2 2b) THE SQUARE, THE AISLE IS ALSO DEFINED.

ROTATE THE SQUARE ( l = 2 2b) TO DEFINE THE OUTER BOUNDARY OF NAVE.

MID POINT OF FLYING BUTTRESS IS DEFINED BY OVERLAPPING POINT OF SQUARES.

WITH ANOTHER SQUARE (l =2 2 b) , HEIGHT OF COLUMN IS DEFINED AND SURFACE IS FORMED

WIDTH OF THE CATHEDRAL IS DEFINED.

ROTATE THE SQUA THE OUTER BOUND


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SHIFT OF GEOMETRY CENTER POINT (HORIZONTAL)

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ON ELEVATION: ASYMMETRY OF RIBS (GENERATING CONVEX /CONCAVE RIBS)

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ON PLAN : ADDITION OF RIBS, APERTURE /SEPARATION OF CENTRAL AXIS

ON ELEVATION AND PLAN: ADDITIONAL SURFACE

SHIFT OF GEOMETRY CENTER POINT (VERTICAL)

ON ELEVATION: HEIGHT OF THE VAULT VARIED

ON PLAN : PROPORTION OF THE UNIT VARIED

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ON ELEVATION AND PLAN: ASYMMETRY OF THE SECTIONS

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VAU LT T RA NS FO R M ATI O N 2D to 3D - Point and lines to surface thickness and mass

OBJECT TRANSFORMATION

While the co-ordination system always generates points which determine the start and end of lines, the system was working in 2-dimension, in terms of plan and elevation. Surface could be generated through combining information of both, yet there is no thickness, hence no mass is defined by the system.

1

Shifting the whole section upwards, increasing the height of the object

In this project, the system was further manipulated though overlapping and combining different variations aiming at defining both form and mass at the same time. 2

The process went from a set of points which determine lines, according to the hierarchy and co-ordinate. From this, concave, convex or dis-oriented ribs were defined. Using the same co-ordination system, another set of ribs is generated though a rule that ever y points chosen should be offset from the previous ribs, hence, generate 2 sets of ribs with in-between space. The in-between space is thus the surface thickness. Variations on the thickness is defined by the system. And by means of the connecting the 2D surface, though secondar y/ transverse ribs, a new mass of object is formed.

Fusion of elevation 1 and 3, serving as an inter-connected section Transfer sections from shifting vertically to horizontally

3

Shifting the whole section horizontally, promoting concave and convex curve, hence, bulky mass and horizontal expansion

The system tends to duplicate itself after shifted the center of one overlapped square, and more redefined geometr y is generated, in the logic of a fractal system. A self-similar geometr y is duplicated in varies scales. And hence, more intersection point is generated and the ribs is further re-defi ned. A more cur v y or introverted space is resulted in the object.

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Rotation of geometry in plan, promoting asymmetry on the secondary ribs and the dynamic of the whole object

Each section contributed to the basic form of the object and exert different formal language. The first section was re-adjusti ng the height of the object, while the third section give the object more thickness at certain area and expand horizontally. The second section was a fusion of the first and third section, ser ving as an inter-connected section and form transition mass for the vertical and horizontal expansion.

3 2 1

4 Combining information of plan and section

Connecting primary ribs with secondary ribs

Project the diagonal ribs on the resulted surface

Addition ribs resulted, and hence aperture


I ndiv idual P roject _ M . Arch I First Quar te r Pro ject A cademic Formal Analys is Pro je ct_ Go thic Vaults A dv isor_ Georgina H uljich

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Fabric Moulding “Fabric is both a traditional and a high-tech material whose form is directly related to the forces applied to it – creating beautiful geometries that are never arbitrar y. I find this ver y exciting.� Zaha Hadid

The project was intended to explore new technology and material which could be responsive to the environment. In the current centur y, the city is facing natural crisis such as global warming , seasonal changes or light pollution. It is important that the facade of architecture could be sensitive, hence responsive to the ever-changing environment.

Fabric Molding Case Studies

Fabric molding was invested as a new technology in the project using fabric and plaster as experiment. The project was aiming to develop a controllable system for such technique which could lead to a facade prototype system. While taking good advantage of the flexi ble and adaptive quality of fabric, plaster is used to freeze the moment and provides free-standing structural quality to the system.

By Stitching


3-Point Controlled Fabric Mold ing System

GRP Model 1-1

I n dividual Pro ject_ Yr 3 Se m1 P1 Acade mic Re s e arch Pro ject_ Co mpo nents and Systems Advis o r _ Vince nt De Graaf 1 0/ 2010

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FINA L M O D UL E Modular System_ Degree of Openness By stitching

3 control points were developed for each module, which could be manipulated into a variation of openings for ventilation and lighting condition. Meanwhile the 3 control points could also be pulled and pushed for ward and backward, in order to develop a spatial quality into the facade system. Space is in-cooperated into the system and through manipulation on the scale of the system, brise soleil system or furniture could be generated.

Material_ Fabric and Plaster Properties: - Flexible (Tension/Hydrostatic Pressure) - Cur vature/Folding - Continuity Molding Qualities: - Joint by stitching - Re-usable - Easy Transportation - Could be easily adjust on site and hence adaptive to different environment and needs - Modular system requires little labor power

40%

35%

31.5%

24.5%

17%

Type of Assemble (Openness)

Type I ( 55 %)

Type II (40 %)

Type III (35%)

Type IV (30%)

Type V (10%)


Per fo r ma n c e

I n dividual Pro ject_ Yr 3 Se m1 P1 Acade mic Re s e arch Pro ject_ Co mpo nents and Systems Advis o r _ Vince nt De Graaf

Modular System_ Assemble By shifting

Height of module

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100%

150%

200%

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25%

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200% 150% 100% 50% Height

Openness

12.5%

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Heavy Light Pavilion

Spatial Experience

The HEAVY LIGHT Pavilion was meant to let visitors experience the technology- FABRIC MOLDING. Within the pavilion they are going to experience both the mold-formed space and casted module-formed space. While by var ying the 3 controlling points of the mold, arch spaces is created and different openness spaces are achieved to suit varies programs. Mold Casting Material Fabric Tunnel Material

100% Recycle Polyester Geotex tile Perlite Cement Plasters * Density= 46 LB/sq. FT, Compressi ve= 1000+ LB/ sq. inch PTFE Fibers Fabric * Tensile Strength 2000psi, 300% Elongation at break

Facade System Arrangement

Openness

Program

Bookstore

Fabric Tunnel

Exhibition

Kitchen

C afe Exhibition

Toilet

EXHIBITION AREA F

KITCHEN

TOILET

EXHIBITION AREA AND CAFE


I ndiv idual Pro ject_ Yr 3 Se m1 P2 A cademic De s ign Pro je ct_ Pavilio n A dv isor_ Vince nt De Graaf 11/ 2010

1m

5m 2m

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EXHIBITION AREA / LECTURE HALL

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EXHIBITION ARE AND CAFE

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BOOKSTORE F

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PLAN

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ST RU C T U RE DE TA I L S

I ndividual Pro ject_ Yr 3 Se m1 P2 A cade mic De s ign Pro je ct_ Pavilio n A dvis o r _ Vince nt De Graaf 200

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STEEL 500

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WOODEN FLOORSLAB 500

CONCRETE IMPERVIOUS MEMBRANE

GROUND

1-10

1-5

1-50 M O D E L

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City Activator- The Rhythm of City A pa rk-and-ride carpark with a cinema at day A Ba r, A badminton court, A hostel at night

T he project was a combined function architecture which is a cinema inscribed into a car park. Taking advantage from the site, Tsuen Wan, where is geographically situated at the center of Hong Kong and enjoys access to the convenient transportation network, it is expected to be a heav y traffic center in the future, the architecture was meant to give a stop and ride station to the travelers and bring them into Tsuen Wan. Car park could draw people from other districts and cinema could provide entertainment for people in a short pe riod of time. The architecture ser ve as a community center for Tsuen Wan and the rest of Hong Kong , associating new and old fabric residents in Tsuen Wan as well as people from other districts. A vertical cinema was designed and inscribed into a highly efficient car park as a central functional core. There is a shif t of volume in the vertical cinema and programs occupy and expand to the car park at different time and so to utilize the space. For example, car park space in between the foyers was transits for bars and restaurant at night which the car usage was expected to be low and the roof of car park was also transits into badminton court at night. All these transitions of space were facilitate by essential activator like changing room and W.C. for the badminton court; foyer and kitchen for bars and restaurant. Hence there is a rhy thm of space where different program occupy the same space at different time.

Site Plan - Geographically situated at Hong Kong center - Ex tensive Transportation network - Heav y Traffic Center

Volume suspend in Carpark - In-cooperation Cinema Program as core volume of carpark - Shift of Volume - Programs of each cinema space will occupy and expand to carpark at night - Different Performance of Space according to time

Massing model with site contex t - Car park+Cinema = Park and Ride Center - Vertical Cinema inscribed in a Spiral Cap Park as Functional Core

P roject ion Room

PLAN

Cinema

B adminton Court

A

B o o ksto re B o o ksto re

B ox O ff i c e

W.C/ Changing Room

Foyer

Foyer C a r E nt ra n c e/E x i t

Ground Floor

First Floor

Second Floor

Roof Floor


I ndiv idual Pro ject_ Yr 2 Final Pro je ct A cade mic De s ign Pro je ct_ C inema A dv iso r _ J o s hua Bo lchove 3- 5 / 2010

Section A-A’

Section B-B’

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ST RU C T U RE DE TA I L S

Steel bear ing angle caset into beam recess Synthetic r ubber bear ing pad Steel w ide-flange haunch cast into concrete column 300 x 300 Concrete Column

S tructure

Steel a ng l e welded to steel pl ates ca st i nto be a m a nd col um n

Wooden floor plate 150 x 150 I B eam Concrete Str ucture

Car Park

Cinem a

Circulati o n

Axonometric Exploded Drawing

Structure cooperated with Cinema

Structure cooperated with Car Park


SPAT IA L E XP E R I E NC E

I ndiv idual Pro ject_ Yr 2 Final Pro je ct A cade mic De s ign Pro je ct_ C inema A dv iso r _ J o s hua Bo lchove

Entrance/ Bookstore

First Floor Entrance/ Bookstore

Foyer

Box Office

Cinema

Badminton Court, W.C.

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OCCUPAYING PERCENTAGE/ %

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PARKING LOT

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Timeline showing occupation percentage of cars and human activities

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Automatic Shopping Mall- Revitalizing Dead Space Urban Crack

A site in-between a gap of a industrial building and a exiting walkway was chosen. Since the elevated walkway was at the same level to the car park of the industrial building , the folly infrastructure was designed to be the connector and occupied the negative space of the gap and underneath the walkway. Automated Shopping Mall was designed as the program. It is a new typology of shopping experience created by capsule shops and vending machine. Aiming at creating an efficient and self-ser ved base shopping experience, the shopping mall was inspired by the dense industrial building where lack space for people to rest. In order to deal with the compact space, a PROGRAMMATIC WALL was designed for folly. By INFOLDING WALLS, creating spaces for program, people are SHARING SPACES within the 200 sq.m. In this project, frame is redefined as both structural and non-structural, providing support and furniture, forming openings at the same time.

Percentage of Openness

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Frame are usually regarded as structural, and independent to the program inside, which solely supporting and providing ‘free’ space within. In the project, frame is redefeinded as both structural and non-structural, providing support and furniture, forming openings at the same time.


I ndiv idual Pro ject_ Yr 2 Se mII P2 A cade mic De s ign Pro je ct_ Fo lly A dv iso r _ J o s hua Bo lchove 2- 3 / 2010

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House Design The project based on Eames house analysis and modified it to suit the current situation in Hong Kong

A NALYSIS

Plan

Studio Sections

Eames House Charles and Ray Eames Mali bu, California, USA; 1945

House Sections


FINA L M O D E L

I ndiv idual Pro ject_ Yr 1 Final Pro je ct A cade mic De s ign Pro je ct_ H o us e A dv iso r _ So lo mo n, J o nathan D. 3- 6 / 2009

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Cube Design The project based on propeller analysis and visualize it into a 300 x 300 cube. Object_ Traditional toy plane with propeller Material _ PVC Pipe Section through propeller movement

Sections of the toy plane as a whole and from units of it (including the main structures, wings and propeller)


FINA L M O D E L

I ndiv idual Pro ject_ Yr 1 Se mI Pro je ct A cade mic De s ign Pro je ct_ C ube A dv iso r _ L in, J o hn C .H . 9- 11 / 2009

The final model consists of both shifting and twisting. There are six cur ves created by the different angles of pipes. The smooth cur ve at the bottom progressively shifts to the opposite side at the top. This is caused by changing the degree of rotation of ever y pipes each time and shifting the pipes back and fore. All layers have the same composition ,yet they are all different as each pipes’ orientations var y from each other. While ever y layers are rotated, an overall weird twisting form of cube is created. Composing with six cur ves, the cube has no front or back side. Looking at the cube from different angles, you may see through different PVC pipes each time, as all of their orientations var y from each others. All PVC pipes are connected by ropes only, this prevents any obstruction within the pipes. Also , connecting only with ropes gives the cube flexibility in certain ex tent and allows the cube to have instant deformation and reformation.

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Corliss NG Architecture Portfolio