Endorsed by the Ministry of Agriculture and Environmental Protection of the Republic of Serbia
Thinking Green Living Clean
J O I N U P - TA K E A C T I O N !
RAINER FREUND, AGRICULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT
PROGRAMME MANAGER, EU DELEGATION TO SERBIA FOREWORD
H.E. JUICHI TAKAHARA, AMBASSADOR OF JAPAN TO THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA
EDITOR Ana Novčić email@example.com ART DIRECTOR Jasmina Laković firstname.lastname@example.org PHOTOS Zoran Petrović
COPY EDITOR Mark Pullen email@example.com TRANSLATION AND EDITING Halifax Translation Services firstname.lastname@example.org
DEADLY COST OF A POLLUTED ENVIRONMENT
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
GEA GROUP TO FOCUS ON RR AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
THOMAS CZUTTA, COUNTRY MANAGER, GEA EASTERN EUROPE CLUSTER
GROWING INTEREST IN GREEN ECONOMY PROJECTS
EDITORIAL aim team
MIROSLAV PREŠERN, DIRECTOR AT OVEN ELEKTRO MARIBOR
DEVELOPING JAPANESE TECHNOLOGY FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY
FILIP RADOVIĆ, DIRECTOR OF THE AGENCY FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION, MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
SERBIA IS READY FOR INVESTMENTS IN RENEWABLES
HEADING IN THE RIGHT DIRECTION
CARLSBERG BEST PRACTICE EXAMPLE
SERBIA IS INTENSIFYING STEPS TOWARDS THE TARGET
SINIŠA MITROVIĆ, INDEPENDENT ADVISOR AT THE SERBIAN CHAMBER OF COMMERCE & INDUSTRY’S CENTRE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AND CIRCULAR ECONOMY
PROJECT MANAGERS Aleksandra Ebilji email@example.com Vesna Vukajlović firstname.lastname@example.org Biljana Dević email@example.com Nataša Trifunović firstname.lastname@example.org Nevena Đurković email@example.com
ARŪNAS KUNDROTAS, TEAM LEADER OF “ENVAP3” SWEDISH SUPPORT PROJECT FOR THE NEGOTIATING GROUP FOR CHAPTER 27, FORMER LITHUANIAN ENVIRONMENT MINISTER
OFFICE MANAGER Svetlana Petrović firstname.lastname@example.org
EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR Maja Vidaković email@example.com
EDITORIAL MANAGER Neda Lukić firstname.lastname@example.org
GENERAL MANAGER Ivan Novčić email@example.com
FINANCIAL MANAGER Dragana Skrobonja firstname.lastname@example.org
PRINTING Rotografika d.o.o. Segedinski put 72, Subotica, Serbia
THINKING GREEN & LIVING CLEAN Published by: alliance international media Makenzijeva 67, 11111 Belgrade 17, PAK 126909, Serbia Phone: +(381 11) 2450 508 Fascimile: +(381 11) 2450 122
E-mail: email@example.com www.aim.rs ISSN no: 1451-7833 All rights reserved alliance international media 2017
THIS PUBLICATION IS FREE OF CHARGE
WORRYING SITUATION IN WASTE WATER REGULATION
PROF. BOŽO DALMACIJA PHD, PROFESSOR AT THE NATURAL SCIENCES/MATHEMATICS FACULTY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF NOVI SAD
RENEWABLE ENERGY UNAVOIDABLE SEGMENT OF MODERN SOCIETY
WINDVISION TO IMPLEMENT ALIBUNAR WIND FARM COMPLEX IN 2018
NEDA SRETOVIĆ, COUNTRY MANAGER, WINDVISION OPERATIONS DOO
NATAŠA BAJIĆ, PRESIDENT OF THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR BIOMASS, SERBIO
FIRST ENERGY EFFICIENCY PPP WITH THE CITY OF PIROT
JUGO-IMPEX RECYCLED 14,000 TONNES OF ELECTRIC AND ELECTRONIC WASTE
ANKICA BARBULOV, DIRECTOR AT GGE SERBIA
CLIMATE CHANGES IN SERBIA MORE PRONOUNCED THAN GLOBAL AVERAGE
VUJADIN ŠĆEKIĆ, OWNER, JUGO-IMPEX
COMBATTING MOSQUITOES IN BELGRADE VIA GPS DEVICES AND DRONES PRIM. DR. DRAGANA DESPOT, DIRECTOR OF THE INSTITUTE FOR BIOCIDES AND MEDICAL ECOLOGY
WE SUPPORT THE CONCEPT OF CONSTRUCTING SUSTAINABLE BUILDINGS
SAŠA KNEŽEVIĆ, DIRECTOR, ALU KOENIG STAHL
VLADIMIR ĐURĐEVIĆ, PH.D, INSTITUTE OF METEOROLOGY, FACULTY OF PHYSICS, UNIVERSITY OF BELGRADE, SERBIA
RAINER FREUND, AGRICULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME MANAGER, EU DELEGATION TO SERBIA
Dear readers, This year’s special edition of CorD “Thinking Green & Living Clean” is timely in that it comes as Serbia prepares to open negotiations with the European Commission on the environment chapter. EU environmental policy is mainstreamed into all sectoral policies of the Union, so it is therefore not surprising that this chapter is one of the most challenging as regards the breadth and volume of legislation, investment requirements and need for administrative capacity. It is important to remember in this context that EU citizens feel strongly about environmental protection. Three out of four consider European laws as being necessary to protect the environment in their country, while four out of five agree that European institutions should be able to check whether the laws are being applied correctly. This gives both the EU and its member states a powerful mandate to pursue an environmental and climate change policy agenda that ensures the wellbeing of their citizens today and secures future long-term sustainable development prospects for their economies. The successes of EU environmental and climate change policy to date are undisputed. We have managed to clean up our air and waters, slow down the loss of biodiversity, decouple growth from the use of natural resources and, not least, create millions of new jobs in innovative, future-orientated clean technology industries and businesses. Having said this, we also know that we have not accomplished all of our aims and that additional efforts are required to this end. Last month, the Commission adopted the Environmental Implementation Review, which includes 28 country reports that map national strengths, opportunities and weaknesses – and include recommendations on how to respond to the challenges identified. Areas of concern include slower than anticipated progress in waste avoidance on the way to establishing a circular economy, persistent air quality problems in many cities, noise, collection and treatment of wastewater, as well as the protection of species and habitats. Shortcomings have a variety of root causes in a number of countries, including ineffective coordination between administrative levels, insufficient capacity and lack of knowledge and data. Overcoming these problems towards full implementation of EU environmental legislation alone could save the EU economy €50 billion every year in health costs and direct costs to the environment, as well as creating hundreds of thousands of new jobs. Serbia, as a candidate country for EU accession, is slowly adapting to the EU’s environmental standards. It is a country of scenic beauty with important water resources, as well as being a regional centre of biodiversity, with many species and habitats endemic to Serbia only. The government has declared it a policy to preserve these assets for generations to come, and to put the country on a sustainable, low carbon growth path. The challenge Serbia faces in achieving these policy targets on the road to Europe are obviously similar to those described in the aforementioned review, and Serbia is invited to benefit from the does and don’ts which emerge from this document. Civil society and the private sector play an important role in this context, and it is important to create an enabling environment to allow these stakeholders to play their part. Environmental policy is, after all, the single most participatory EU policy providing the public with far-reaching rights regarding access to information, justice and participation in decision-making. Given the magnitude of the task ahead, but also bearing in mind the significant benefits, Serbia will from this stage onwards need to mobilise all available resources in order to make tangible progress in managing its environment and climate change challenges and succeeding in accession negotiations. The EU supports Serbia in this endeavour. Since the year 2000, approximately a billion euros has been granted to the environment and climate change sector, with over 1.5 million direct beneficiaries in the country. We look forward to continuing this cooperation with all stakeholders.
THINKING GREEN & LIVING CLEAN
Growing Interest In Green Economy Projects Ahead of Serbia is the major job of improving energy efficiency and agriculture. All the required outgoings should be viewed as investments and opportunities for further development, and not as an expense
Director of the Agency for Environmental Protection, Ministry of Agriculture and Environmental Protection
When it comes to Serbia, waste management is the first thing we noticed when we talk about the green economy. Specifically, the people who operate in the waste management field consider themselves as being representatives of the green economy, and as such the representatives of this very significant branch are obligatory participants in forums and conferences that deal with the green economy. On the other hand, energy production has the greatest impact on the environment, so it is in this sector that the greatest changes are expected. However, with investments of €200 million that EPS has already invested and announced investments of a billion euros in the next decade, it can be said that things are heading in an excellent direction. We have a major job ahead of us when it comes to energy efficiency and agriculture, but the point is that we see all of those investments as an opportunity. Some of the countries in our neighbourhood, such as Austria and Hungary, prevented the great economic crisis of 2008 precisely through subsidies in energy efficiency. What we’re working on is raising awareness among entrepreneurs in order for them to recognise their own competitiveness thanks to investments in the green economy, which will not only strengthen in the period ahead, but will also be further supported by international financial institutions.
he activities of the Ministry of Agriculture and Environmental Protection’s Agency for Environmental Protection are focused on raising awareness among entrepreneurs regarding how to identify their own competitiveness when it comes to attracting investment in the green economy, which will not only strengthen in the period ahead, but will also be further supported by international financial institutions. » The green economy has been mentioned for years as a development opportunity for Serbia. What are the essential steps that need to be taken in order to transition to this type of economy; which sectors are the most promising, and which sector need to undergo the greatest changes and adaptation? - The UN has diversified the green economy into 11 thematic sections, such as green energy, agriculture, waste management, green accounting, transport, forestry etc., all with the aim of reducing environmental impacts, as well as the use of available resources being responsible, in order for us to leave them behind for future generations.
THINKING GREEN & LIVING CLEAN
» How high are investments in the green economy at the global level, and how much funding is required, according to estimates, to finance the green economy in Serbia? Can the Green Fund ensure stable and predictable funding, or is it necessary to use the financial mechanisms offered by global financial institutions like the EBRD? - There are no exact figures at either the global or the national levels. If we consider as an example that waste management alone amounts to eight per cent of GDP in the EU, and if we also include in that energy, transport and agriculture, we can see that the parameters are so large that sustainable development, as an agenda of modern mankind, is a great opportunity for economic development in the direction of doing business ecologically. Establishing the Green Fund is a major forward step taken by the Government of the Republic of Serbia and the relevant ministry, and one that was taken with the aim of being the engine for the development of the green economy, supporting businesses and the non-governmental sector, investing in environmental monitoring and developing new technologies. The Fund is still in development and is expected to grow year-on-year, but the first results are already evident when it comes to subsidies in the recycling industry. It is certainly very important that international lenders like the EBRD, which is already doing so, recognise the potential available to Serbia when it comes to renewable energy sources and organic food.
that investments in the green economy will increase in our country in the period ahead, as evidenced by the interest among many international companies for projects in Serbia. When it comes to the region in a narrow context, the example of the Croatian green fund is excellent. » In its 2015 and 2016 reports, the European Commission drew attention to Serbia’s administrative capacities in the field of environmental protection. Is it necessary to further harmonise domestic legislation with EU regulations or do we already have the required legislative framework? - It is important to note that which particularly pleases us, and that is Serbia’s progress in the field of the environment recorded by
» Which of the world’s countries is at the forefront of the green economy and what conclusions could we draw, and lessons learn, from that country’s experience? What is the situation like in the region? the EC. It is certainly necessary to increase administrative capacities. However, we are at a stage where there is strong pressure coming from international financial institutions to rationalise the number of people in the state administration, while at the same time the domestic public wants the same thing. It is significant that Serbia can count on increased administrative capacities with the progress of the economy. It is also good news that we have managed to transpose a number of directives in our legislation. Now implementation represents a real challenge, but it should be viewed as an opportunity. Investments exceeding 10 billion euros, which is the amount needed in order for us to fulfil the requirements of Chapter 27, actually have the aim of not only launching the green economy and creating a cleaner environment, but also creating new jobs.
With investments of €200 million that EPS has already invested and announced investments of a billion euros in the next decade, it can be said that things are heading in an excellent direction - The leading countries are the Nordic states, and there are numerous reasons for that. The Nordic countries are among the most vulnerable to the effects of climate change, due to their cold climate, and throughout the history of Norway a daily question has related to the weather conditions, because large amounts of snow have meant that man’s life and movements have been practically dependent on weather conditions. Those countries haven’t had a turbulent recent history, so they had the chance to devote themselves to the development of different priorities, but what is most important is that those are countries with high economic growth, and therein lies the key. With a high price of kilowatt hours and utilities services, but also simultaneously huge subsidies, they succeeded in achieving results. The economy of Serbia is strengthening, so it can be expected
» What kind of role do local governments have in this process and how can they get involved?
THINKING GREEN & LIVING CLEAN
- It is often not understood how big the role of local governments is, because a large part of implementation actually falls within their jurisdiction. It is also important for local governments to understand this, in order for them to increase their capacities and further educate their employees, but also for them to provide support for companies wishing to invest in green economy activities in their communities. The ministry has launched a series of projects with international institutions that actually have this objective. The Agency for Environmental Protection cooperates with local communities on projects with the most important international in-
- The number you cited relates to the number of people working in the field of waste management, but there are estimates that this figure is even higher. The recycling industry in Serbia is at a crossroads. The existing system was effective and yielded certain results. However, now the state, as the authority that sets the rules, in cooperation with companies, will create new mechanisms aimed at increasing the level or percentage of recycling. Recycling industry subsidies in Serbia are far higher than elsewhere in the region, but what we are lacking is the building of a collecting network. In the period ahead it is essential to place the focus precisely on that part, and to work on increasing the transparency of national operators in order to ensure funds are channelled in the desired way. » Gains from the collection of eco-taxes are growing year-on-year, totalling around 6,826 billion dinars last year. Does this mean that manufacturers have greater respect for legal obligations or is it a case of forced collection? What is the annual financial potential of this and can increased charges contribute to its better functioning and higher investments in the environment? - Higher collections come as a result of the creation of the new and more efficient data collection system introduced by the Agency for Environmental Protection. We created a new software solution that is optimised
stitutions, such as UNEP (the United Nations Environment Programme), and as of this year we will have projects with America’s Environmental Protection Agency, EPA.
Establishing the Green Fund is a major forward step taken by the Government of the Republic of Serbia and the relevant ministry, and one that was taken with the aim of being the engine for the development of the green economy
» Can you give us a concrete example of profits that can be brought by the green economy in a particular sector – when it comes to economic and social segments and the field of the environment? - Specifically, Serbia allocates 11% of GDP for the health fund, of which – according to the EU – we spend 1.8 billion euros annually to treat diseases that could emerge as a consequence of environmental pollution. Considering the high cost of healthcare caused by environmental pollution, it is clear that every investment in the green economy will not only create new jobs, but also lead to improving the health status and quality of life of the entire society.
for users, while we also worked to improve legislation and raise awareness about the importance of a fair and transparent market competition. More money from eco-taxes simultaneously means more investments in the environment. The new green fund is the best indicator of this. With such a rate of progress we can expect to achieve European standards and also become the regional leader. » In order for Serbia to make progress and achieve results in this area it must primarily possess adequate and timely information – related to the number and structure of landfill sites, waste and its types, but also the quality of air, water, soil and the like. Do we have that data? - The Agency for Environmental Protection is actually in charge of collecting that information and is improving the system from day to day. We were proud last year when we received recognition from the Government of Serbia, but also the European Agency, as one of the most successful agencies in Europe in specific areas. «
» According to some estimates, about 6,000 people are employed in this field in Serbia, while 30,000 people are dependent on it indirectly. How the green economy concept can contribute to the development of the recycling industry and the creation of new jobs?
THINKING GREEN & LIVING CLEAN
Developing Japanese Technology For Energy Efficiency Technological development has always been achieved to cope with challenges that arose at a given moment. That is how Japan developed its technologies in the fields of the environment and energy, thereby overcoming two major challenges which arose: pollution and the oil crisis H.E. JUICHI TAKAHARA, AMBASSADOR OF JAPAN TO THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA
hanks to its strong economic expansion (from December 1954 until November 1973), Japan had raised itself to the rank of the world’s second largest economic power by 1968, but this economic growth simultaneously provoked negative impacts on the eco system, such as pollution of air, land and water. Similarly, the decision made in October 1973 to unilaterally increase the price of oil, which was Japan’s principle source of energy from the 1960s onwards, gave rise to dizzying increases in consumer prices in Japan, which was already suffering from the Nixon Shock of 1971. The suspension of oil production that followed the Iranian Revolution of February 1979, as well as the crude oil price hike by the OPEC in 1979, also affected the Japanese economy to a certain degree. In view of these challenges, Japan developed the technology for energy efficiency and strengthened its use of renewable energies (solar, geothermal etc.). In parallel, energy saving measures and the adoption of energy anti-wasting conduct were encouraged in the transport, construction and industrial sectors, as well as green technologies that imply reduced energy consumption, waste management (recycling, incineration of household refuse, water treatment etc.), the rehabilitation or purification of contaminated sites etc.
Since the 1990s, environmental technology designed to reduce the traces we leave in the eco system has made more progress, in response to many concerns: for instance, the fear of exhausting natural resources, in particular fossil fuels, global warming caused, among other things, by the emission of greenhouse gases linked to the high consumption of hydrocarbon fuels. As a result, Japanese vehicles were developed in such a way that they consume little petrol, the rate of leakage in Tokyo’s water supply system reaches only 3%, while plants for incinerating household waste do not emit any smoke, noise or smell. In Japan, the private sector plays a predominant role in the promotion of science and technology. In 2014 Japan had a high ratio of expenditures related to research and development (R&D), totalling more than 3% of GDP, and 70% of this total amount were private sector expenditures, with 20% allocated to universities and public expenditures of governments representing less than 10%. When it comes to Japan’s private sector, the popular opinion is that there is a high number of big companies, like Toyota or Sony, but in reality that is not the case. Actually, 99% of Japanese companies are small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) which cover 70% of employment. SMEs stand out in Japan by focusing on new
technologies. That is how a small factory in Tokyo that was manufacturing saucepans was approached by an aerospace company, thanks to its sophisticated technology, and asked to produce parts for spaceship engines. In order for a country to continue its technological development in the future, and to remain competitive against other countries, training, education and R&D are important. From this perspective, Japan has promoted the policy of industrial clusters, encouraging the grouping of companies and cooperation between research institutes and training and academic organisations. Industrial clusters combine research on technology and its implementation for commercial goals. Works at universities that are sponsored by and carried out in direct cooperation with a company are implemented in industrial clusters, while the results of university research efficiently benefit the private sector. Industrial clusters also promote the hiring of students who possess the required knowledge. Moreover, intellectual property patents held by a university can also be used by companies. Thus, thanks to industrial clusters, R&D and economic activities are linked to each other directly, intellectual creation is more efficient and we are witnessing the emergence of eminent scientists and technicians. «
THINKING GREEN & LIVING CLEAN
Heading In The Right Direction Making the economy of Serbia green is a tool for reducing unemployment, generating possible gains exceeding €25 billion for our society
actually helped with the drafting of the National Strategy for the Circular Economy in the country, the adoption of which is planned for this year. » How can local governments get involved in the process of collecting and recycling waste? Does your principle apply whereby 1 dinar invested in prevention equates to 7 dinars of gains in terms of the quality of life, health and safety of citizens? - There are numerous creative options when it comes to primary waste selection – local governments are inventive in advancing processes for the primary selection of waste, engaging unemployed citizens and vulnerable groups, reducing waste management costs for citizens, receiving high quality and valuable recyclable material that can be sold on the secondary raw materials market and, most importantly, reduce the pressure on the environment and the consequences of climate change. According to CCIS estimates, we annually “bury” over €50 million worth of recyclable materials in dumps and landfills that could be recuperated in production, and that is the key to a circular economy. As a country, we have sustained direct damage of €5billion since the year 2000 as a result of climatic events, while the catalyst for water disasters and floods is actually bulky waste, construction waste, pesticide packaging and the like.
SINIŠA MITROVIĆ, Independent advisor at the Serbian Chamber of Commerce & Industry’s Centre for Environmental Protection and Circular Economy
ur companies know how to manage waste. We already have several companies that have zero waste in production, and that’s part of the market competition ... We are getting closer to leaving behind the model of the linear economy and introducing a circular a model in which waste is a resource, and not an expense. » The green economy implies a “product – waste – product” process. Sweden has started importing waste that is processed into a new product, creating new value. Have people in Serbia started considering the importance of this process? - Serbia is the first country in the region of the Western Balkans that started, after the adoption of the Package of measures for the circular economy by the European Commission in December 2015, applying tools of the circular economy in the operations of companies, with strong support. A circular economy is an economy in which economic growth and environmental responsibility go together with strengthening the sustainability of a society, with smart and inclusive growth. The Chamber of Commerce & Industry of Serbia (CCIS) received great assistance from international organisations including the OSCE and GIZ. Support in the form of the GIZ IMPACT project
THINKING GREEN & LIVING CLEAN
» How could the problem of financing the green economy be solved? In your opinion, would the solution be to establish a fund for this purpose or to secure funds through financial mechanisms offered by banks and global financial institutions? - Serbia needs a potent, financially independent, revolving fund to support investments in green infrastructure. If we procrastinate
with this decision, simulating some other forms of green funds via budget lines, there will be no sustainability and future development. Serbia requires investments exceeding €14 billion in waste water treatment, waste management and air quality protection. This money does not come from a European ATM if you haven’t arranged your own transparent system of extended producer responsibility, with the principle that the polluter pays and, of course, most importantly, that money is spent on green investments and the growth of green jobs. The gains for our society, for citizens, exceed €25 billion, which is expressed in terms of environmental quality, environmental safety, organic food production, sustainable transport, tourism and, of course, a healthy nation that lives happily and without malignant diseases, or with them maximally reduced. Today we are the top country in Europe when it comes to malignant diseases, and it is certain that the environment is a crucial factor in this, because every winter we have cities choked by smog and smoke, while every summer there are water shortages and poor quality drinking water.
an opportunity. The European Commission presented the Green Employment Initiative on 2nd July 2014, which represents a structural shift towards “green growth”. That’s why it is essential to reform the labour market to function as a workforce for “green growth”. We need a new structure for the labour market. » What role is played by large public and private companies when it comes to building infrastructure systems for sorting different types of waste, and is that solely part of corporate social responsibility or is it also about improving operational efficiency? - Our companies know how to manage waste. We already have several companies that have zero waste in production, and that’s part of the market competition. We are getting closer to leaving behind the linear economic model of produce-use-discard and introducing a circular a model of produce-use-produce, in which waste is a resource, and not an expense. When it comes to the infrastructure for waste management, it is insufficient and we recycle only five per cent of municipal waste, with everything else dumped in landfills... and that is a cost for citizens, for industry… and a great chance to employ people, especially vulnerable groups of the population that have an interest in recycling and developing the recyclables collecting economy.
» Is it possible for the current level of investment in the green economy, which stands at about 0.25% of GDP, to finance the meeting of the essential obligations taken on in negotiations with the EU? - No, that’s impossible! We now have about 1.1% of total budget allocations for the environment, if we take into account allocations from the central budget, local government revenues, grants and loans, but that is not enough. Allocations of 2.5-3% of GDP
» Forecasts predict that 8.5 million workers can be employed in the context of the green economy, including 3.5 million in supporting areas, such as IT. Is this a chance for us to reduce unemployment? - Of course, green jobs are a chance We are getting closer to leaving behind the linear economic for Serbia, especially in recycling, model of produce-use-discard and introducing a circular a renewable energy sources, sustaimodel of produce-use-produce, in which waste is a resource, nable transport, e-mobility, organic and not an expense food production, eco-tourism and green services. Economies like that are required if we want to consistently implement EU Directives of Denmark, which has transitioned to the principles of the green and modernise our economy, infrastructure and the sector of economy, have recorded unbelievable GDP growth and social municipal services in local communities. sustainability, security and energy security. Otherwise, EUROPE IS A MOVING TARGET, raising standards We at the CCIS, along with the FUTURA Faculty of Applied Ecology, and goals, so we will face closures in those industries that are are working on the cataloguing and nomenclature of the ecological harmful to the environment and the health of citizens. vocation that will be prestigious for the future. Since March 2017, the CCIS has had a centre for the circular economy, which provides » Does the green economy represent an opportunity for SMEs support to the SME sector in the implementation of the principles and their development? of the circular economy, and we already have small companies in - Making the economy of Serbia green is a tool for reducing unemthe provinces that are making a new product from waste. ployment and effectively fighting climate change, environmental A successful example is the recycling of carton packaging and degradation, inefficient use of resources, social exclusion and the production of building tiles that are a completely organic product, and we have other good examples. That reassures me that poverty. The best tool for this growth is represented by small we’re heading in the right direction and, with the reform policy and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), supporting the growth of of the Serbian Government in the years of entrepreneurship, we SMEs and the “main stream” policy “Think Small First”. can do a lot on the regional and international markets.« We at the CCIS need to convert environmental challenges into
THINKING GREEN & LIVING CLEAN
Serbia Is Ready For Investments In Renewables The main activity of the company Oven Elektor Maribor is producing electricity from renewable energy sources. The company also strives to continue to actively raise awareness among the public regarding the manner and utilisation of efficient energy use and RES MIROSLAV PREŠERN, DIRECTOR AT OVEN ELEKTRO MARIBOR
he percentage of RES is higher in Slovenia than in Serbia, but Serbia has the great advantage of simplified bureaucratic procedures
» Are there advantages to investing in Serbia compared to the region and, if so, what are they? - Serbia has a great advantage in its agreeable conditions resulting from simplified bureaucratic procedures for attaining operating licences, which are much more complicated in our country. Your country is rich in water sources, there is ample biomass, while geothermal energy is also available to you. Because of that you have both formal and all natural possibilities of investing in RES.
» Oven has started working, in cooperation with Slovenian schools, on reducing energy consumption and increasing energy efficiency. How is this project developing, and could similar projects bear fruit in Serbia and the region? - The company Oven Elektro Maribor Ltd. implemented an initial project in one of Maribor’s secondary schools, which we have completed successfully. » What is currently in the focus of your operations in Slovenia? Is it Since schools do not have the necessary financial means available, such still electricity production, or is OVEN Elektro planning to expand its projects could be realised through energy contracting. range of products and services? However, at this moment our company is still unprepared to enter into - Certainly Oven’s main activity is producing electricity from renewable such business practises – though we do plan for such business challenges energy sources. We will also continue to actively raise awareness among in our company strategy up to 2025. the public about the manner and utilisation of efficient energy use and Such projects could also be implementable in Serbia and the broader region. With Oven’s new business model, in the future we will also be interested in a business This year sees the Club OVEN project being upgraded with an online cooperation in this field.
shop and the selling of interconnected, so-called “green” products.
» Renewable energy sources are not sufficiently For large-scale buyers who are interested in reducing the carbon utilised in Serbia, while the plan is for Serbia to footprint of transportation, we can offer a high quality selection of receive 27 per cent of its energy from RES by 2020. products from the field of electrical mobility (electric bicycles and What still needs to be done to achieve that, given electric hover boards), where we also plan to step in as investors that this percentage is much higher in Slovenia? - The use of renewable energy sources is very important, both at the European level and at the national level. Most renewable sources. For the last two years we have been organising events countries are aware of the finite nature of the reserves of non-renewable and promoting the sharing of information through social networks and other sources and their effect on climate change. Individual countries have channels with Club OVEN. With the right experts and by offering practical set different goals to attain a higher percentage of RES in the gross final advice, we discuss topics related to reducing the carbon footprint of the energy consumption. However, the success of European countries in individual and other topics for a cleaner environment and for our health. attaining these goals varies greatly. This year sees the Club OVEN project being upgraded with an online In Slovenia, the percentage of RES is indeed higher than in Serbia. shop and the selling of interconnected, so-called “green” products. For However, should higher conjunctural growth occur, this percentage will large-scale buyers who are interested in reducing the carbon footprint surely fall in our case. We see insufficient investments in renewable of transportation, we can offer a high quality selection of products sources as being the reason for that. from the field of electrical mobility (electric bicycles and electric hover That is why we would recommend that Serbia mainly increase its boards), where we also plan to step in as investors. Or aim, especially investments in the production of electricity from water sources, biomass in electrical mobility, is to target larger cities and tourist complexes in and geothermal energy. Slovenia, Serbia and the broader region. «
THINKING GREEN & LIVING CLEAN
THINKING GREEN & LIVING CLEAN
Circular-Economy Opportunities The circular economy package, adopted by the European Commission on 2nd December 2015, has created important momentum in supporting the transition towards a more circular economy in the EU. This package included legislative proposals on waste, with long-term targets to reduce landfilling and increase recycling and reuse. In order to close the loop of product lifecycles, it also included an Action Plan to support the circular economy in each step of the value chain – from production to consumption, repair and manufacturing, waste management and secondary raw materials that are fed back into the economy
European offices are used only 35 to 50 % of the time
dopting circular-economy principles could not only benefit Europe environmentally and socially, but could also generate net economic gains of €1.8 trillion by 2030. Europe’s economy has generated unprecedented
THINKING GREEN & LIVING CLEAN
wealth over the past century. Part of that success is attributable to continuous improvements in resource productivity—a trend that has started to reduce Europe’s resource exposure. At the same time, resource productivity remains hugely underexploited as a source
study concludes that the rapid adoption of technology is necessary but insufficient to capture the circular opportunity. Instead, circular principles must guide the transition differently from those that govern today’s economy. Pursued consistently, the economic promise is significant and the circular economy could qualify as the next major European political-economic project. Europe’s economy remains very resource dependent. Views differ on how to address this against an economic backdrop of low and jobless growth, as well as the struggle to reinvigorate competitiveness and absorb massive This would generate a primary-resource benefit of as much as €0.6 technological change. of a circutrillion per year by 2030 to Europe’s economies. In addition, it would larProponents economy argue that generate €1.2 trillion in non-resource and externality benefits, bringing it offers Europe a major the annual total benefits to around €1.8 trillion compared with today opportunity to increase resource productivity, This would translate into a GDP increase of as much decrease resource dependence and waste, and increase as seven percentage points relative to the current develemployment and growth. They maintain that a circular system would improve competitiveness and unleash opment scenario, with an additional positive impact on innovation, and they see abundant circular opportunities employment. Looking at the systems for three human that are inherently profitable but remain unexploited. needs (mobility, food and the built environment), the of wealth, competitiveness and renewal. New studies on the vision of a circular economy for a competitive Europe, by McKinsey& Company, provides evidence that a circular economy, enabled by the technology revolution, would allow Europe to grow resource productivity by up to three per cent annually. This would generate a primary-resource benefit to Europe’s economies of as much as €0.6 trillion per year by 2030. In addition, it would generate €1.2 trillion in non-resource and externality benefits, bringing annual total benefits to around €1.8 trillion compared with today.
THINKING GREEN & LIVING CLEAN
Others argue that European companies are already capturing most of the economically attractive opportunities to recycle, remanufacture and reuse. They maintain that reaching higher levels of circularity would involve an economic cost that Europe cannot afford - with
ingly wasteful in its model of value creation and—for all practical purposes—continues to operate a takemake-dispose system. In 2012, the average European used 16 metric tonnes of materials. Sixty per cent of discarded materials were either discarded in a landfill or incinerated, with only 40% recycled or reused. In value terms, Europe lost 95% of the material and energy value, while material recycling and waste-based energy recovery captured only five per cent of the original raw-material value. Another major conclusion finds that even recycling success stories like steel, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and paper lose 30 to 75% of the material value in the first-use cycle. On average, Europe uses materials only once. The sector analysis also found significant waste in sectors that many would consider mature and optimised. For example, the average European car remains parked 92% of the time, 31% of food is wasted along the value chain and the average European office is used only 35 to 50% of the time, even during working hours. And usage cycles are short. The average manufactured asset lasts
companies are already The average European car remains parked 92 per cent of the time, struggling to cope with 31 per cent of food is wasted along the value chain, and the average high resource prices. European office is used only 35 to 50 per cent of the time, even They further note the during working hours high economic and political cost of the transition. only nine years (excluding buildings). This report’s insights were gleaned from extensive desk In total, this way of producing and using products research, more than 150 interviews, economic modelling, and resources costs Europe €7.2 trillion every year for the largest comparative study to date of the employment the three sectors analysed at depth in this report. Of effects of transitioning to a circular economy, and deep this total, actual resource costs are €1.8 trillion; other analysis of three human needs that together account for related cash costs, which include all other household 60 per cent of European household spend and 80 per and government expenditures on the three sectors, are cent of resource use—mobility, food and housing. The €3.4 trillion; while externalities, such as traffic congesresearch and analysis yielded nine major conclusions. According to one, the European economy is surpristion, carbon, pollution and noise, total €2.0 trillion. «
THINKING GREEN & LIVING CLEAN
GEA Group To Focus On RR And Environmental Protection GEA Group offers its regional partners not only quality equipment for increasingly demanding processes but also reliable and efficient maintenance THOMAS CZUTTA, COUNTRY MANAGER, GEA EASTERN EUROPE CLUSTER
Group with its local offices provides a timely and high quality response to its partners’ demands concerning preventive and regular equipment maintenance, and a choice of production processes, equipment and plant design, construction and installation.
soon become important part of economic activities. GEA Group is actively involved in projects concerning municipal and industrial waste water treatment (WWT) plants in the region. Our equipment has found its place in WWT plants in many municipalities and indystries, like Subotica Dairy, Apatin and Heineken breweries, etc.
with relevant EU laws and we believe that it’s just a matter of time for their full realisation to start. The involvement of local governments, government institutions and local comanies, and favourable loans and subsidies from the EU and the World Bank have pushed several important regional projects forward and injected a necessary dose of optimism.
» You have announced that your company’s focus will be on the production of RR and foodstuffs, and on environmental protection. Have these projects started? - In the Balkans, the focus will shift from the food industry to other light industries. RR and environmental protection projects started a few years ago but it takes a few years for
» GEA has subsidiaries worldwide. Does Serbia have any comparative advantages? Is our legislation sufficiently harmonised with that of the EU? - The global regions and countries organisation consisting of 45 regional organisations which is tasked with covering the market and providing the high quality services to which
» Your business requires constant innovation in production and design. Do you aspire to be a leader in this area as well? What innovations have already found their use in regional plants? - Over 70% of the equipment we deliver contains innovations and patents not older than five years, recognised and awarded globally as innovative and progressive. The plants in the region are the result of continuous work on innovative solutions to enhance the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of our partners’ production processes. As regards the innovations that have found their place in the region, worth mentioning are the global premiere of the separator with an integrated drive for the oil industry, which was installed at the oil refinery in Šid, and the latest series of decanter centrifuges for sludge treatment, which have found their place in several WWT plants in the region. GEA Group will continue to focus on innovations that will enable our partners to be a step ahead of their competition. «
A network of 45 regional organisations is tasked with covering the market and providing the high quality services to which the partners of GEA Group across the globe are accustomed their concrete results to become visible. GEA Group is involved in several projects of this kind in the region, one of them concerning a biodiesel plant for Victoria Group in Šid. Without substantial government subsidies for this type of product these plants are not economically viable due to the current ratio of global prices of raw materials to that of fossil fuels. Environmental projects will
the partners of GEA Group across the globe are accustomed. Both globally and in Serbia, we follow and are involved in the projects concerning RR and the environment. The initiative and ideas are there but the road to their realisation is often long. One of the problems is the lack of professionals to support the realisation of projects. The laws of the countries in the region are largely harmonised
THINKING GREEN & LIVING CLEAN
Carlsberg Best Practice Example
Apart from high standards in terms of the quality of products and services, one of the priorities of company Carlsberg is to improve the sustainability of operations and control the company's environmental impact
arlsberg is the world’s third largest beer producer, with products available in over 150 countries around the world and over 40,000 employees. Carlsberg has been present in Serbia since 2004, when it became majority owner of the former Čelarevo Brewery. For more than 13 years it has been developing stable operations on the local market, with a dozen brands and regional production of some of the world’s top beer brands, such as Carlsberg and Tuborg. Apart from high standards in terms of the quality of products and services, one of the priorities of the parent company, and thus the brewery in Serbia, is to improve the
sustainability of operations and control the company’s environmental impact. Work in this area is primarily recognised through the conservation of natural resources, such as water, electricity, various raw materials, natural gas etc. SUSTAINABILITY AS A PRIMARY GOAL One way of contributing to the optimal usage and conservation of natural resources is also carried out by Carlsberg Srbija through its installed wastewater treatment facility, which officially became operational in 2010. This facility represents an ultra-modern automated division for the tertiary treatment
One way of contributing to the optimal usage and conservation of natural resources is also carried out by Carlsberg Srbija through its installed wastewater treatment facility, which officially became operational in 2010 THINKING GREEN & LIVING CLEAN
of waste water, which means that incoming waste water is purified: mechanically – through the removal of physical contaminants; microbially – in methane and aerobic tanks; and through sedimentation – with the action of chemical agents that bind to chemical impurities, such as phosphorus. This kind of treatment method is extremely effective and results in cleansing the water of 99% of the pollutants present upon arrival. This has also been confirmed by analysis of the company’s water by the Institute for Public Health in Novi Sad. The wastewater treatment facility in Čelarevo is specific precisely due to the fact that it covers all aspects of pollution and frees the water of them. The plant is technologically conceived in such a way that the process of treating wastewater, with bio-treatment under anaerobic conditions, generates biogas, in
berg Srbija can certainly be a good example for other socially responsible companies in their efforts to contribute to the protecting the environment, both in global frameworks and in the community in which they operate. EFFICIENT ENERGY USE With the aim of increasing the recuperating of complete quantities of raw CO2, as well as promoting environmental protection and responsible operations, Carlsberg Srbija brewery made its new CO2 station operational in 2014, with a capacity of 1000 kg/h, manufactured by Danish company Union Engineering. The station serves to collect raw CO2, which emerged during the fermentation process, after which it is processed and re-used in addition to other products that result from breaking down biodegradable materials. Biogas is a blend of different hydrocarbons and in terms of composition is very similar to natural gas, which is currently – alongside petroleum products – the most commonly used resource for generating heating energy. Following the purification stage, the biogas is transported to a collection reservoir, and from there it is distributed as needed to the boiler for combustion. In this way, the natural gas used for heat generation is partly replaced. Carlsberg Srbija uses this gas as a replacement for natural gas, and can thus cover up to 18% of its needs. The wastewater treatment facility at the brewery in Čelarevo, in addition to improving the production process and achieving a high level of environmental protection, also brou-
Carlsberg Srbija brewery made its new CO2 station operational in 2014, with a capacity of 1000 kg/h, manufactured by Danish company Union Engineering ght the company a new product – an organic soil enhancer, SUPER COMPOST. In this way, the plant not only creates savings in terms of natural resources, i.e. natural gas, but also uses a renewable energy source. View from the perspective of the ecological aspect, this makes this process extremely valuable. Supporting this claim is the fact that the quantity and quality of the products of combustion that are emitted slightly ahead of the same characteristics in classic boilers. Considering all the noted positive effects of the use of biogas on the environment, as well as the obvious longer term positive financial impact of such investments, company Carls-
the beer filling process. This method yields CO2 with very high purity (99.995%), which is essential in the beer brewing process. The advantage of such stations compared to the conventional kind is the fact that this is actually a water free system, which means that no water is consumed, or heating energy, while electricity consumption is optimised maximally, which contributes to the preservation of natural resources. This is the first CO2 station of its kind in Southeast Europe and only the third in the entire Carlsberg – with the first having been built in Fredericia, Denmark, and the second in Sinebrychoff, Finland. «
THINKING GREEN & LIVING CLEAN
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
Deadly Cost Of A Polluted Environment More than 1 in 4 deaths of children under 5 years of age are attributable to unhealthy environments. Every year, environmental risks – such as indoor and outdoor air pollution, second-hand smoke, unsafe water, lack of sanitation, and inadequate hygiene – take the lives of 1.7 million children under 5 years, say two new WHO reports
he first report, Inheriting a Sustainable World: Atlas on Children’s Health and the Environment reveals that a large portion of the most common causes of death among children aged 1 month to 5 years – diarrhoea, malaria and pneumonia – are preventable by interventions known to reduce environmental risks, such as access to safe water and clean cooking fuels. “A polluted environment is a deadly one – particularly for young children,” says Dr Margaret Chan, WHO Director-General. “Their developing organs and immune systems, and smaller bodies and airways, make them especially vulnerable to dirty air and water.” Harmful exposures can start in the mother’s womb and increase the risk of premature birth. Additionally, when infants and pre-schoolers are exposed to indoor and outdoor air pollution and second-hand smoke they have an
THINKING GREEN & LIVING CLEAN
increased risk of pneumonia in childhood, and a lifelong increased risk of chronic respiratory diseases, such as asthma. Exposure to air pollution may also increase their lifelong risk of heart disease, stroke and cancer. TOP 5 CAUSES OF DEATH A companion report, Don’t pollute my future! The impact of the environment on children’s health, provides a comprehensive overview of the environment’s impact on children’s health, illustrating the scale of the challenge. Every year: • 570 000 children under 5 years die from respiratory infections, such as pneumonia, attributable to indoor and outdoor air pollution, and second-hand smoke. • 361 000 children under 5 years die due to diarrhoea, as a result of poor access to clean water, sanitation, and hygiene. • 270 000 children die during their first month of life from conditions,
including prematurity, which could be prevented through access to clean water, sanitation, and hygiene in health facilities as well as reducing air pollution. • 200 000 deaths of children under 5 years from malaria could be prevented through environmental actions, such as reducing breeding sites of mosquitoes or covering drinking-water storage. • 200 000 children under 5 years die from unintentional injuries attributable to the environment, such as poisoning, falls, and drowning. “A polluted environment results in a heavy toll on the health of our children,” says Dr Maria Neira, WHO Director, Department of Public Health, Environmental and Social Determinants of Health. “Investing in the removal of environmental risks to health, such as improving water quality or using cleaner fuels, will result in massive health benefits.”
For example, emerging environmental hazards, such as electronic and electrical waste (such as old mobile phones) that is improperly recycled, expose children to toxins which can lead to reduced intelligence, attention deficits, lung damage, and cancer. The generation
of electronic and electrical waste is forecasted to increase by 19% between 2014 and 2018, to 50 million metric tonnes by 2018. With climate change, temperatures and levels of carbon dioxide are rising, favouring pollen growth which is associated with increased rates of asthma in children. Worldwide, 11–14% of children aged 5 years and older currently report asthma symptoms and an estimated 44% of these are related to environmental exposures. Air pollution, second-hand tobacco smoke, and indoor mould and dampness make asthma more severe in children. In households without access to basic services, such as safe water and sanitation, or that are smoky due to the use of unclean fuels, such as coal or dung for cooking and heating, children are at an increased risk of diarrhoea and pneumonia. Children are also exposed to harmful
chemicals through food, water, air and products around them. Chemicals, such as fluoride, lead and mercury pesticides, persistent organic pollutants, and others in manufactured goods, eventually find their way into the food chain. And, while leaded petrol has
sectors can work together to improve the following: • Housing: Ensure clean fuel for heating and cooking, no mould or pests, and remove unsafe building materials and lead paint. • Schools: Provide safe sanitation and hygiene, free of noise, pollution, and promote good nutrition. • Health facilities: Ensure safe water, sanitation and hygiene, and reliable electricity. • Urban planning: Create more green spaces, safe walking and cycling paths. • Transport: Reduce emissions and increase public transport. • Agriculture: Reduce the use of hazardous pesticides and no child labour. • Industry: Manage hazardous waste and reduce the use of harmful chemicals. • Health sector: Monitor health outco-
Worldwide, 11–14% of children aged 5 years and older currently report asthma symptoms and an estimated 44% of these are related to environmental exposures. Air pollution, second-hand tobacco smoke, and indoor mould and dampness make asthma more severe in children been phased out almost entirely in all countries, lead is still widespread in paints, affecting brain development. MAKING ALL PLACES SAFE FOR CHILDREN Reducing air pollution inside and outside households, improving safe water and sanitation and improving hygiene (including in health facilities where women give birth), protecting pregnant women from second-hand tobacco smoke, and building safer environments, can prevent children’s deaths and diseases. For example, multiple government
mes and educate about environmental health effects and prevention. Under the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) countries are working on a set of targets to guide interventions for children’s environmental health, as well as to end preventable deaths of newborns and children under five by 2030. In addition to SDG 3, which aims to ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all, other SDGs work to improve water, sanitation and hygiene, transition to clean energy to reduce air pollution, and reverse climate change – all of which will have an impact on children’s health. «
THINKING GREEN & LIVING CLEAN
he main goal in Serbia is to expand the scope of waste collection to its maximum, as well as to stop illegal dumping of waste. With the construction of three modern regional centres, Belgrade (700,000 t/year), NiĹĄ (120,000 t/year) and Novi Sad (200,000 t/year), which include over 40% of waste in Serbia, the percentage of waste treatment and recycling in Serbia will be improved significantly. The European Recycling Platform (ERP) system has been present in Serbia for five years, while packaging waste recycling is currently at the level of 30%. According to the law, this percentage will increase to 60% by 2019, which exceeds the 55% required by the EU Packaging and Packaging Waste Directive. The EPR system has been introduced in Serbia in the field of WEEE, waste tyres, waste oils and car batteries, and has been producing good results. ÂŤ
Serbia Is Intensifying Steps Towards The Target Serbia took on the internal obligation to complete transposition by 2018. This means that less than two years remain until the end of the period, making this a very ambitious task
When stating the figure of €10 billion for Serbia, we usually forget that part of this amount is related to investment and part is related to operational costs. Serbia now has more precise calculations and is continuing to fine-tune them. Eight directive specific implementation plans are being prepared and will provide more precise information regarding costs. But, yes, costs are high. And negotiations regarding implementation periods will be difficult. As you probably know, Serbia indicated that a period until 2041 would be needed to implement the most expensive directive on urban waste water treatment. Let’s see how things develop. High costs are an important issue, but there are more problems to take into account. Some of them are related to required transformations in the private sector, some relate to the required reorganisation of the public sector, some concern specific groups of people, for example, limitations on hunting species, some require a change of our behaviour, particularly in the waste management sector. However, now is not a very good time to discuss problems. Negotiating Group 27 has started development of the negotiating position, which is planned to be approved and submitted by year’s end. Solutions must be found for all problems, though it’s better to think about the clean and healthy environment that will be achieved after the problems are solved.
ARŪNAS KUNDROTAS, TEAM LEADER OF “ENVAP3” -
SWEDISH SUPPORT PROJECT FOR THE NEGOTIATING GROUP FOR CHAPTER 27, FORMER LITHUANIAN ENVIRONMENT MINISTER
uring just one year of Arūnas Kundrotas’s mandate as environment minister, Lithuania succeeded in opening and closing Chapter 27. Estimates suggest that harmonising environmental standards in Serbia requires investments of €10 billion.
» Apart from financial resources, what represents the main “stumbling block” in this process? - I actually became minister during the same month as the chapter for environment was closed, but I was very much involved in negotiations, advising the Ministry of Environment on preparations for negotiations and developing the negotiating position, and also acting as Chief Negotiator when he needed support on environmental issues. At that time, the then prime minister invited me to discuss the minister’s position and said ‘We took on too many obligations for the environment. It will be difficult to implement them’. I didn’t mention that I was very much involved in formulating that negotiating position. Happily, we succeeded to implement what has been promised during negotiations”. And it is true that our environment negotiations were the shortest compared to any other new EU Member State.
THINKING GREEN & LIVING CLEAN
» On the other hand, where do you see positive progress for Serbia on that path? - It is still difficult to express these positive results in environmental terms, but the basis for positive change is being developed. This primarily concerns the increased capability of institutions to implement environmental requirements, to manage more investment projects and to limit pollution through a more effective permitting system. We spent a few years speaking about the large number of problematic investment projects, but now this number has been
be separated into plastics, paper and other recyclables. Municipalities are moving towards recycling. Bajina Bašta already recycles around 15% of its waste, Arilje around 10%. But the pace of approaching the level of 50% will also depend on household income increases. People simply couldn’t afford an immediate rise in waste management tariffs.
reduced to a minimum. That means more successful implementation of projects – less wastewater ending up in rivers or waste in potentially polluting landfills. » How would you assess the current level of harmonisation of Serbian regulations with those of the EU and the transposition of EU directives? - The transposition level is rather high – certainly enough to allow the start of negotiations. But there is a job to be done as well. More than 80 national legal acts still have to be developed and adopted. That includes laws, Governmental decisions and rulebooks. Serbia took on the internal obligation to complete transposition by 2018. This means that less than two years remain until the end of the period, making this a very ambitious task. The EU require transposition be completed by the date of accession, so a longer period is possible. But this is really a national decision and now institutions are following the 2018 deadline.
» In your opinion, what are the most important and most effective measures for raising awareness in this sector, with the aim of developing a country in terms of waste management? - The most important measure is to provide people with the possibility of sorting their own waste, and only then organising an awareness campaign. The willingness of people to sort and separate their waste is generally underestimated, often being used as an excuse for municipalities or waste management companies to do nothing. If you provide the possibility and infrastructure – a convenient way of sorting – and show people what and how to do that without mixing again, as time to time happens, then it will not be necessary to spend too much on awareness.
» Waste management is cited as the biggest problem in Serbia. What percentage of municipal waste is recycled on average in EU countries; which are the leading countries and where does Serbia rank in all of that? - Waste management is big problem almost everywhere. The recycling level of municipal waste is very much in correlation with the price of landfilling. When you look into the recycling rate and costs of landfilling, you can easily see that the highest level of recycling – 50% and more – is achieved in Austria, Germany, Belgium and Sweden, where landfilling of untreated waste is prohibited entirely, or where the landfill
» Serbia has a large number of dumps, illegal waste disposal sites and landfills that do not meet the accepted standards. What is the EU’s policy on landfill dumps? - They have to be safely closed. There are options developed for Serbia, depending on the hazards a dumpsite possesses. Very few people know, but a In some countries, the landfill tax alone totals more than €80 per preliminary strategy has developed and costs tonne. This is several times higher than what you have to pay currently been have been assessed for the when delivering waste to a landfill site in Serbia closure of all dumpsites. Various options are proposed, tax is relatively high. In some countries, the landfill tax alone totals from digging out waste and cleaning the site to appropriately covering more than €80 per tonne. This is several times higher than what the site and installing equipment for landfill gas collection and utiliyou have to pay currently when delivering waste to a landfill site sation. Waste will only be delivered to landfill sites that comply with in Serbia. But that’s how the market works. You need to raise the the requirements of the directive. In the Screening Report, in which landfilling price in order for other options – source separation and Serbia’s readiness to negotiate is assessed, landfilling is criticised as recycling or incineration – to become economically viable. Serbia being one of the main waste management practises. This practise will is now recycling about 5%, but also people pay significantly less change with increased recycling and, in some places, most probably for the service. in Belgrade, incineration. » The aim is for Serbia to recycle 50% by 2030. How realistic is that goal for Serbia, despite the world trend of total waste utilisation? - 2030 is just an indicative date that has to be negotiated. A special plan regarding the time required to achieve this target is being developed. We will know soon if 2030 is a realistic date, but all efforts will definitely go towards increasing recycling. Serbia is intensifying steps towards that goal. I can also mention the requirement (included in the draft National Waste Management Strategy) to initially separate waste into two fractions – dry and wet, with dry being only recyclables. Then waste separation lines are planned in each region, where the dry fraction will
» What are the objectives set out in EU directives on waste and what steps can countries take to increase that percentage? - There are a number of targets set in several directives in the waste sector. First of all, as you said, 50% of municipal waste should be recycled. By the end of some period, only 25% of biodegradable waste can be landfilled, compared with the negotiated base year. There are also targets for source separation into at least four fractions – plastic, paper, glass and metal. And the last target is for waste that is not recyclable and cannot be used in other useful ways to be delivered to a landfill site that is equipped according to the requirements of the directive. «
THINKING GREEN & LIVING CLEAN
Jugo-Impex Recycled 14,000 Tonnes Of Electric And Electronic Waste The establishment of the Green Fund would mean predictable business, new investment and new jobs in the recycling industry
VUJADIN ŠĆEKIĆ, OWNER, JUGO-IMPEX
t Jugo-Impex the most important element is the staff, since without their development there is no technological progress in the company. Jugo-Impex bought the technology from a German manufacturer but its team of experts has considerably improved and optimised it.
» Your company owns one of the latest recycling plants for refrigerators and cooling devices. How much waste have you recycled? Do you have recycling capacity for even larger quantities? - Last year, we recycled 14,000 tonnes of electric and electronic waste, and since the company was established we have removed and recycled nearly
50,000 tonnes of Serbia’s EE waste. Our recycling capacity is greater and we are able to recycle much larger quantities of waste in the country and the region. As the Green Fund has just been established, government funds are limited, there is no platform for predictable business and we are forced to recycle limited quantities of waste.
the Green Fund as a legal entity has been very slow. The establishment of the Green Fund would mean predictable business, new investment opportunities, new jobs and solvency for all Serbian recycling companies for special waste. At present they are in an unfavourable financial position due to the irregular payment of fees.
» For a long time there have been talks about the Green Fund and a stable and predictable financing of the recycling industry. What would it mean to you and the recycling industry in Serbia in general? - Yes, there has been talk of this for a long time, but the establishment of
» Your company is the first one in the region to have produced kerbstones from cathode ray tubes. Can you tell us more about the project and do you think it will take root? - Kerbs from cathode ray tubes are a result of our cooperation with the School of Construction and Architecture of Niš University and the Ministry of Agriculture and Environmental Protection. The aim of the project was to use waste glass as a secondary raw material in the construction industry, which would have multiple
The establishment of the Green Fund would mean predictable business, new investment opportunities, new jobs and solvency for all Serbian recycling companies THINKING GREEN & LIVING CLEAN
moment our development is stagnating. The opportunities for development are endless and we are sorry that we are not in a position to use the potential that exists, because of the adverse financial situation of the entire recycling industry. » How great is the potential for further development of the Serbian recycling industry? - It is huge. Recycling is young, but is the fastest growing economic industry in the world, with annual growth of 3-5%. advantages. First, waste glass would get use value and we would be saving natural resources. Next, there would be cost-cutting in production processes and product quality would improve. The prototypes of these kerbs have been installed in Niš. To fully realise the project and start mass production we need a legal platform for end-of-waste criteria. » You often organise activities that involve children and you give prizes for protecting the environment. How important is it to start education at young age and raise awareness of the importance of recycling? - We believe that starting education at young age is imperative for raising society’s awareness. We do a lot in that respect: we organise various activities, participate in projects and cooperate with the academic community. We can allow ourselves to boast and say that the situation is much better now than eight years ago when the first Waste Management Act was passed. We hope that our future activities in this field help raise public awareness of environmental protection. We also believe that the media play an important part and their involvement is always welcome. » You invest a lot in BAT and in the professional development of your staff. Which is more important?
Recycling is young, but is the fastest growing economic industry in the world, with annual growth of 3-5% - BAT (Best Available Technology) is essential for the proper development of the recycling industry and environmental protection. In order for BAT to be understood in the technological sense, it is essential to have qualified personnel, thus it is essential to invest in their development. As such, we consider our staff are more important because without their development there is no technological progress for the company. We bought our technology from a German manufacturer but our team of engineers have considerably improved it and optimised it. Their technological innovations are globally unique in this field. This is why we do our best to pay as much attention to the professional development of our staff as to the development of the technology through various training programmes.
Serbia has not yet made recycling of all types of waste generated on its territory possible, raw materials obtained from recycling are exported instead of being processed in our country and additional value created and employing the workforce. Masses of strategic raw materials are exported, thus it is essential to have a platform for development, as well as various incentives and amendments to the Law on Corporate Income Tax for companies, in order to create the proper platform for the new processing industry. In that way, the development of the processing industry that has raw materials obtained from waste as its basic raw material is encouraged and a strong domestic industry is created. «
» Do you plan to expand the plant and introduce new production lines? - As I have mentioned earlier, the resource capacity is there, but predictable business is not, so at the
THINKING GREEN & LIVING CLEAN
NEWS RECYCLING EUROPEAN UNION
European Parliament Sets Big Recycling Targets The European Parliament voted on 14th March for legislation for the European Union to aim for a recycling rate target of 70 per cent by 2030, with packaging materials, — including paper, cardboard, plastics, glass, metal and wood — with a proposed 80 per cent target for 2030, with interim 2025 targets for each material. Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) also supported “waste package” plans for the EU to limit the share of landfilling to 5 per cent and to deliver a 50 per cent reduction in food waste by 2030. In December 2015, the European Commission withdrew its originally planned target of 70 per cent and issued a revised circular economy proposal with targets for recycling 65 per cent of municipal waste and 75 per cent of packaging waste by 2030. Speaking after the vote, Italian MEP Simona Bonafè said: “Today Parliament showed, by a very large majority, that it believes in the transition towards a circular economy. We decided to restore the ambitious recycling and landfill targets in line with what the Commission originally proposed in 2014.”
Four reports adopted in the plenary session will be used to form Parliament’s position in the next stage when it holds negotiations with the European Council of Ministers. The Council has not yet adopted its own position on the Commission’s waste package. The draft legislation, if enacted, would set a limit of 10 per cent for the share of municipal waste to be landfilled by 2030. MEPs proposed reducing this to 5 per cent — with a possible five-year extension, under certain conditions — for EU member states that landfilled more than 65 per cent of their municipal waste in 2013. MEPs also advocated an EU food waste reduction target of 30 per cent by 2025 and 50 per cent by 2030, compared to 2014. They also proposed a similar target for marine litter. Karl-H. Foerster, executive director of industry organisation PlasticsEurope, said: “Taking into account today’s recycling technology, we already consider the target proposed by the Commission as challenging. We would therefore like to call on the Presidency of the Council to carefully assess the impact prior to adopting any substantive amendment.” “This vote is an important milestone in strengthening the link between the circular economy and the bioeconomy in Europe. Biobased and recycled materials are starting to be equally recognised as a viable solution to make packaging more sustainable and reduce our dependency on finite fossil resources,” said François de Bie, chairman of The European Bioplastics (EUBP). “The Clean Europe Network’s goal of achieving a litter free Europe by 2030 is a step closer today. These recommendations by MEPs and the Commission will help get it done - with the people of Europe, producers, local authorities and central governments all working together,” said Derek Robertson, president of Clean Europe Network.
THINKING GREEN & LIVING CLEAN
'Smart' Steel Mill Big River Steel (BRS) from Arkansas, U.S., and Noodle.ai, a San Francisco-based enterprise artificial intelligence company, have announced a contract intended to make BRS “the world’s first smart steel production facility.” The facility is designed to be environmentally resourceful and technologically advanced, according to the company. “This mill possesses a rich trove of sensor data for our platform to leverage, allowing us to help unlock breakthrough improvements in areas such as maintenance planning, production line scheduling, logistics operations and environmental protection,” says Stephen Pratt, CEO of Noodle.ai. Stickler adds, “Our mill is analogous to a driverless car: The first day, the car doesn’t know how to drive itself but the more it drives the more it learns. The AI algorithms will allow the mill to react to production challenges automatically.”
Shortage Of Essential Minerals An international team of researchers, led by the University of Delaware’s Saleem Ali, says global resource governance and sharing of geoscience data is needed to address challenges facing future mineral supply. Specifically of concern are a range of technology minerals, which are an essential ingredient in everything from laptops and cell phones to hybrid or electric cars to solar panels and copper wiring for homes. However, base metals like copper are also a matter of immense concern. The research team included experts from academic, government and industrial institutions across five continents, the U.S., Europe, South Africa, Australia and South America.
Recycling Solutions The waste management system in Serbia is based on its 2009 environmental legislation, which includes the polluter pays principle. While most household and commercial waste is collected by public municipal companies there are three private companies collecting municipal waste, all Austrian. The 10 sanitary landfills are owned by the public utility companies with the cost of landfill being around €10-20 per tonne, but there are in addition hundreds of local waste dumps. The City of Belgrade in 2015 announced a public-private partnership tender for the huge Vinca landfill to also include an energy from waste facility. There is no landfill tax and unlikely to be until all the dump sites are closed. There are different aspects to the concept of sustainability so that in Serbia the collection and recycling of PET plastic bottles has a different aspect in that there are around 30,000 waste pickers collecting recyclable wastes in order to survive economically, from men with tricycles collecting cardboard from public waste bins in the centre of Novi Sad through to picking PET bottles from landfill sites, “sub-contracting” to landfill operators. Greentech, a Serbian company that buys PET bottles acquires 45% of its PET bottles from waste pickers, with a further 19% coming from landfill collection, 10% from industry and the remainder from the public utility companies. For the last few years around 33,000 tonnes of PET bottles have been collected with the majority repressed in Serbia, 10,000 tpa by Greentech at its plant at Backa Palanka, 45km west of Novi Sad, and by two other companies. Greentech also processes 3,000 tpa of polyethylene film at its site using a separate facility and different technology.
Waste And Recycling Trends In 2017 While many of waste and recycling’s core functions haven’t changed too drastically coming into 2017, the year has just begun — and following 2016, it’s safe to say that anything can happen. Luckily, there is time to prepare. In the same way that organic waste and glass became the talk of 2016, there are new topics to buzz about this year that will likely transform the way the industry operates. Based on conversations with industry figures, here are the trends that Waste Dive will be watching in 2017. 1.Commodity prices likely to make a comeback 2. Recyclers to move away from weight-based goals 3. Flexible packaging to continue growing (and presenting challenges) 4. Shifts in politics to create more division 5. Increased infrastructure spending to present competitive opportunities 6. Technology to transform operations
Biomass Recycling To Benefit From CHP A wood recycling site in the UK is expected to generate over $1.25 million in additional revenue after installing new combined heat and power (CHP) technology. The Pedigree Power recycling site in Northamptonshire converts around 25,000 tonnes per year of waste wood to biomass and includes a 30,000-tonne wastewater processing plant. The addition of a steam-raising boiler and a 580 kWe genset from Heliex Power will allow the facility to become energy self-sufficient, providing its own power and heat. Heliex Power said the 580 kWe system will be twinned with one of its 103 kWe units at the facility. The new system will allow Pedigree Power to benefit from enhanced Renewable Heat Incentives (RHI) and Contract for Difference (CfD) payments.
THINKING GREEN & LIVING CLEAN
AROUND THE WORLD ENVIRONMENT
Environmental Project Wins “Smart City Challenge” Contest A recycling bin and the application that helps users find and use it won the first place at the “Smart City Challenge” competition in Belgrade. “Users will be able to find the nearest recycling island, where the press is, and easily recycle. In 30 seconds the press will guide them how to do it, it’s a very simple process,” Nemanja Janjić from the winning team “Solagro” said. After recycling, users will get a code to enter in the application and thus collect points, and when they collect enough points, they will win an award. At the opening of the event in Belgrade’s Old court, city council member Dragomir Petronijević emphasized the importance of innovation and science and technology parks. “More and more people will live in Belgrade and we must be ready to modernize it and make living in the city easier, through urban development and use of new technologies,” said Petronijević. Second and third places were won by applications that help the booking of small football courts and make shopping easier. The first three teams won EUR 5.000, 3.000 and 2.000 respectively, three months of workspace at the Centre for the development of technological entrepreneurship ICT Hub, and the best team is going for a two-week study trip to Tel Aviv in Israel. Source: Balkan Green Energy; Photo: Solargo
Bottle Deposit Return Service
More firms are expected to announce bottle deposit return services after Coca-Cola came out in favour of the idea. Pepsi, Nestlé, Unilever and M&S have already committed to producing more eco-friendly bottles by using plant-based materials or less plastic, and an uptick in that trend could now be on the cards. “We expect that any beverage company announcing or taking steps would serve to encourage other companies to follow suit,” said a spokesperson for the UN Environment Programme. European countries like Estonia – which started a bottle deposit scheme in 2005 – have reported dramatic results. Estonia has a population of only 1.3 million people but collected and recycled 3.2 billion “deposit packages” in the last 12 years. Last year, the return rate was 75% for cans, and 87% for both PET bottles and one-way glass. After Germany introduced a deposit return scheme in 2003, the rate of single-use bottle returns rose to 98.5%, the highest in the world. In Sweden too, around 90% of the 1bn cans sold annually are handed in for recycling. In the UK, the figure reached 57% in 2015, but according to leaked government documents obtained by Greenpeace the target fell to 49% in 2016, and is due to increase by 2% a year. Norway, Finland, Denmark and the Netherlands have all rolled out highly effective deposit return schemes, while states in the US and Australia report positive results, with expansions planned. Plastic makes up about 80% of all litter in the world’s oceans, with more than 8m tonnes of the substance dumped in waterways each year. Without drastic action, there will be more plastic than fish in the world’s oceans by 2050 by some estimates, and an estimated 99% of seabirds will have ingested plastics.
Solar Power To Produce Hydrogen From Biomass
A team of researchers at the University of Cambridge has developed a method of using solar power to generate a fuel that is both sustainable and relatively cheap to produce. Lignocellulose is the main component of plant biomass. It is made of strong, highly crystalline cellulose fibers, that are interwoven with lignin, and hemicellulose which act as a glue. This rigid structure gives plants and trees mechanical stability. Up to now, its conversion into hydrogen has only been achieved through a gasification process, which uses high temperatures to decompose it. The new technology relies on a simple photocatalytic conversion process. Catalytic nanoparticles, which are capable of absorbing energy from solar light and using it to do complex chemical reactions, are added to alkaline water where the biomass is suspended. This is then placed in front of a light which mimics solar light. The solution then absorbs this light and converts the biomass into gaseous hydrogen which can then be collected. The team used the method on different types of biomass in their experiments such as pieces of wood, paper and leaves.
THINKING GREEN & LIVING CLEAN
Demand For Recovered Paper Remains High In The UK Prices for bulk recovered paper grades on the British market were buoyed by demand both from domestic consumers and buyers from Continental Europe and Asia in January. The export business benefited from the lower pound Sterling exchange rate and a price increase in China for recovered paper from Japan and USA, which gained $5-10 per tonne. British paper manufacturers were reportedly very busy and looking to secure enough recovered paper to take them through to Easter. Prices for mixed paper and for old corrugated containers (OCC) were firm or moved up somewhat compared to December.
NASA Satellite Identifies Global Ammonia ‘Hotspots’ The first global, long-term satellite study of airborne ammonia gas has revealed “hotspots” of the pollutant over four of the world’s most productive agricultural regions. The results of the study, conducted using data from NASA’s Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument on NASA’s Aqua satellite, could inform the development of strategies to control pollution from ammonia and ammonia byproducts in Earth’s agricultural areas. A University of Maryland-led team discovered steadily increasing ammonia concentrations from 2002 to 2016 over agricultural centers in the United States, Europe, China and India. Increased concentrations of atmospheric ammonia are linked to poor air and water quality. The NASA-funded study, published last month, describes probable causes for the observed increased airborne ammonia concentrations in each region. Although specifics vary between areas, the increases are broadly tied to crop fertilizers, livestock animal wastes, changes to atmospheric chemistry, and warming soils that retain less ammonia.
Barcelona To Ban Old Cars From Roads Barcelona will ban cars that are older than 20 years from the roads during the week to cut traffic emissions by 30% over 15 years. The measure – a joint initiative between the city council, the Catalan government and other metropolitan bodies – will come into force on 1 January 2019 and will cover Barcelona and the 39 surrounding municipalities. According to the city council, the move is likely to affect about 106,000 cars – 7% of the total in the area – and 22,000 vans (16% of the total). “The aim is to reduce emissions by 10% over the next five years to gradually reach the levels recommended by the World Health Organisation,” the city council said.
THINKING GREEN & LIVING CLEAN
AROUND THE WORLD ENVIRONMENT
Polluted Environments Kill 1.7 Million Children A Year A quarter of all global deaths of children under five are due to unhealthy or polluted environments including dirty water and air, second-hand smoke and a lack of adequate hygiene, the World Health Organization (WHO) reports. Such unsanitary and polluted environments can lead to fatal cases of diarrhoea, malaria and pneumonia, and kill 1.7 million children a year. In the report the WHO said harmful exposure can start in the womb, and then continue if infants and toddlers are exposed to indoor and outdoor air pollution and second-hand smoke. The report also noted that in households without access to safe water and sanitation, or that are polluted with smoke from unclean fuels such as coal or dung for cooking and heating, children are at higher risk of diarrhoea and pneumonia. Children are also exposed to harmful chemicals through food, water, air and products around them, it said.
Bottlenose Dolphins Threatened By Man-Made Contaminants Bottlenose dolphins across southern Australia are facing a growing contamination danger from man-made compounds which do not degrade in the natural environment, a new study has found. Perfluorinated chemicals have been in used in manufacturing for several decades because of their resistance to heat, water and oil — in firefighting foams, non-stick cookware and in carpets and couches to make them stain-proof. The study by the Environment Protection Authority (EPA) in South Australia concluded dolphins living in waterways such as Adelaide’s Port River and Perth’s Swan River were facing some of the highest known contamination risks in the world.
Heavy Fines For Members Of Battery Recycling Cartel The European Commission has fined Campine, Eco-Bat Technologies and Recylex a total of almost €68 million for breaching EU antitrust rules by fixing the purchasing prices of scrap lead-acid automotive batteries. A fourth company, Johnson Controls, was not fined because it revealed the existence of the cartel to the Commission. Eco-Bat and Recylex benefited from a reduction in their fines to, respectively, €32.712 million and €26.739 million for their co-operation with the Commission’s investigation whereas Campine’s leniency application was rejected because the company ‘had not disclosed its participation in the infringement’. The companies took part in the cartel to fix purchasing prices between 2009 to 2012, according to the Commission. This behaviour was intended to ‘lower the value of used batteries sold for scrap, to the detriment of used battery sellers’. The companies affected by the cartel were mainly small and medium-sized battery collectors and scrap dealers, adds the Commission.
THINKING GREEN & LIVING CLEAN
Protection Of Arctic Bird Populations
The Arctic Council Project Support Instrument (PSI) has approved a project aimed at improving the conservation status of declining Arctic migratory bird populations. The project will address on-the-ground actions that will be undertaken in the near term to improve the conservation status and secure the long-term sustainability of declining Arctic migratory bird populations. The project strives to reduce stressors on migratory bird species in two flyways – the East Asian-Australasian Flyway and the African-Eurasian Flyway – related to the Arctic Migratory Birds Initiative (AMBI). This will be done through mitigation of habitat disturbance and degradation from industrial and urban development, as well as of unsustainable hunting. In practice the project will promote the establishment of a network of protected areas at important breeding, wintering and staging sites. Moreover, the project intends to map out the impact of climate change and human disturbance on bird populations in a wide range of different locations.
Agricultural Project To Benefit The Baltic Sea NEFCO and the Danish company Rus Agro Team A/S have signed a loan agreement aimed at introducing a range of investments that will result in environmental benefits at the company’s farm in the Kaliningrad Region in Russia. Among other things, Rus Agro will upgrade its fleet of agricultural machinery, modernise the farm’s manure treatment and reduce the use of chemicals and fertilisers by adopting new distribution technology. With the help of these measures, the project at hand is expected to reduce the annual consumption of fossil diesel fuel by some 260, 000 litres, which translates into a reduction of some 704 tonnes of carbon dioxide. Moreover, the investment will cut the annual discharges of phosphorus and nitrogen into the surrounding watercourses by 47 and 183 tonnes respectively. This will also benefit the adjacent marine environment since the farm is located close to the city of Nesterov in the Baltic Sea catchment basin.
EBRD AND THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION
Supporting Energy Efficiency Investments In Western Balkans The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) and the European Commission (EC) are stepping up their joint efforts to promote energy efficiency across the Western Balkans In the latest push, the EC is providing a €30 million grant to implement the next phase of the Regional Energy Efficiency Programme (REEP) which aims to unleash the energy efficiency and renewable energy potential of Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, FYR Macedonia, Kosovo, Montenegro and Serbia, also known as the Western Balkans Six. Energy efficiency is an important component of the EBRD’s work to make the countries where it invests greener. This is an integral part of the six transition qualities which the Bank has defined in its updated transition concept as key to a well-functioning market economy - resilience, competitiveness, sustainability, inclusion, integration and governance. Under the next phase of REEP, the EBRD joins efforts with the German development bank KfW to continue providing direct and intermediated financing in commercial and public sectors while also launching the first dedicated regional residential sector credit line facility to help unlock the tremendous untapped energy efficiency potential of buildings in the Western Balkans. The programme will also benefit from €1.8 million contributed by donors to the European Western Balkans Joint Fund, a multi-donor fund and the main source of financing under the WBIF, as well as €2.7 million from the government of Austria. The REEP programme encourages the private and public sectors to take a leading role in promoting energy efficiency as envisaged in countries’ national energy efficiency action plans, developed as part of the Energy Community process. The programme builds on the success of the EBRD’s integrated approach to developing green economy markets and financing. Over the past 10 years the EBRD has provided over €2 billion for the implementation of green investments in the six Western Balkans countries, which have enormous potential to benefit from the greater use of renewable energy and energy efficiency measures.
THINKING GREEN & LIVING CLEAN
ccording to a survey, approximately 3.5 billion people in 2025 will face water shortage issues. This will be mainly due to water pollution. This is likely to happen because global pollution levels are increasing at a tremendous rate, with more water sources becoming contaminated as a result of water pollution. According to UNICEF, more than 3,000 children die every day globally due to consumption of contaminated drinking water. Plastic waste, as a major water pollutant, is causing huge destruction of marine life and is believed to be responsible for the deaths of more than 100,000 sea mammals, sea birds and various types of fish. ÂŤ
Worrying Situation In Waste Water Regulation PROF. BOŽO DALMACIJA PHD,
The real situation with emitted quantities and quality of waste water on the territory of Serbia is unfortunately not fully known. The data that the industry and utility companies provide to the Environmental Protection Agency – the agency maintaining the national waste water cadastre – are incomplete
PROFESSOR AT THE NATURAL SCIENCES/ MATHEMATICS FACULTY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF NOVI SAD
» In the beginning of April, a large conference on this topic will be organised in Pirot. Can we expect any progress in, or at least conceptual frameworks for, tackling the waste water issue? - Conferences are, or at least should be, platforms for the exchange of expert and scientific opinion and, for this reason, they are really important. Considering the interest and devotion expressed for such events in our country, it seems that the waste water issue is not given the attention that it deserves and that is required. The reasons for this are many, starting with experts not being able to attend conferences like these due to the lack of support from the management of their institutions, through disregard of the obligations that are imposed by law and require a certain measure of expertise, to a general perception of the meaning and point of conferences like these. We cannot yet expect any significant extent of information exchange when the number of erected facilities that are in operation is still low. However, according to what the organisers have said, the presentations of waste water and atmospheric water management and sludge management in cities like Pirot, Subotica, and Kruševac are expected, and the experience of specific industries as well.
he industrialisation that took place in the 1970s and 1980s, the destitution of the 1990s, the bureaucratic approach to waste water management in the first decade of this century and the transition process we are undergoing today bring many challenges and commitments, and the expectations are considerable. » You are a member of the International Water Association (IWA), the Association for Water Technology and Sanitary Engineering, the Serbian Chemical Society, and many other international and local associations that are involved in waste and waste water issues, and that of water protection. What is the situation in Serbia with regard to waste waters? - What we know is that the quantities of released urban waste water are most often not measured. More than 50 urban waste water treatment plants have been built and 32 of them are in operation, a small number functioning in accordance with project criteria and others operating with efficiency that is far below that projected. Moreover, the number of installed industrial waste water pre-treatment facilities is insufficient and a large quantity of these waters are released in cesspits in the territory of Serbia without any chemical analysis whatsoever, so that the data about actual status of these waters are lacking.
THINKING GREEN & LIVING CLEAN
» When Chapter 27 is mentioned, it can be heard that money will be predominantly spent on addressing the waste water issue and that this amount will go beyond €5.5 billion. What will cost Serbia that much? Are these estimates correct? - The amount you mentioned relates to the costs of alignment with
the EU acquis, or specifically the alignment with requirements of the directives concerning waste water and drinking water, and the nitrate directive, without the requirements of the directives that concern the industrial sector. Nevertheless, I imagine that, although the estimates are approximate, they are not far from realistic ones, at least when infrastructure facilities for waste water channelling and treatment are concerned. Moreover, there is no doubt that investment will be necessary for building new facilities, and for rehabilitating existing ones since many of them were built in accordance with now obsolete technical standards. Investing in overcoming these challenges through the allocation of their own funds is expected from the Member States of the European Union too. EU countries are expected to improve waste water treatment though long-term investment planning (EU funds and EIB loans), but most of the funds required for the implementation of EU policy in the water sector should be generated in individual Member States.
70%, while the percent of treated waste water is only about 12%, then I have answered your question about what we need to do to reach the European average. » What is your assessment of the quality of water in Serbia and the treatment systems, and how do you interpret the fact that the waterways were cleaner in the 1990s when local industry was shattered? - Nowadays industrial production in our country is largely based on the operation of secondary facilities. Industries that also feature primary production must invest in waste water treatment, but primarily in preventive action for water protection. Only after they have cleaner production principles and preventive measures implemented in their facilities, wherever it is doable and to the largest extent possible, can we make estimates about the treatment level that is required. Overall environmental protection should not ‘stifle’ economic growth and development. The application of legal and economic instruments and state incentives should ensure that these two processes should be balanced. The poorest quality of waste water recipients is seen in the HS DTD channels and surface waterways on the territory of Vojvodina,
» What is the situation regarding waste water treatment facilities in the countries of the region? Do they invest more? - If we look at the general situation in the EU, large cities – those with more than 150,000 PE, emit half of the total emitted pollution, and waste water treatment EU countries are expected to improve waste water treatment is carried out in 11 out of 27 EU capitals. Member States, however, though long-term investment planning, but most of the funds have the obligation to improve the required for the implementation of EU policy in the water sector alignment of waste water treatment should be generated in individual Member States with the requirements of Directive 91/271/EEC before 2018 and to fulfil the requirements of the EU Among other things this is the result of a developed food industry cohesion policy (2014-2020) for project financing in the water and agricultural production, and a poor level of self-purification sector. The fact is that tertiary waste water treatment has already in slow-moving waterways on this territory. The problem on the been present for decades in the countries in the north and west, wider territory of Serbia relates to the quality of accumulations and technologically advanced countries, such as Germany, the and lakes intended for water supply, where inadequate sanitary Netherlands, Austria along with Greece, Finland, Denmark, have protection zones are one of the reasons for the quality level. Also, already met the requirements under all three Articles of the Direpriority and priority hazardous substances have been detected in ctive that concern the obligation to apply primary, secondary, and some of the accumulations. tertiary treatment of waste water. Surely, the level of investment in the extension and reconstruction of existing systems in the EU is » How many Serbian municipalities have waste water treatment high; for a three-year period, 2015-2018, the planned investment facilities? What are positive examples of investment in this sector amounts to approximately 100 billion euros. Among the countries at the local level? in the region, Croatia’s investment in waste water collection and - Regrettably, we do not have many examples so far of projects treatment is almost twice as much as expected. implemented and facilities being functional. For example, the projects implemented under the Municipal Infrastructure Support » Serbia currently treats 5% - 10 % of its waste water, its number Programme (MISP) are in agglomerations of up to 100,000 PE, of waste water treatment facilities is six times lower than the including among others: the Waste Water Collection and Treatment number required. What must we do to reach the European average? Project in Vrbas/Kula where the quantity of channelled waste - You have provided the data relating to our country. However, water is insufficient and a sludge line was not built, the Waste if we look at the data from national documents comparing us Water Collection and Treatment Project in Leskovac where there with the EU average and see that the percent of the Serbian pois a problem with the collector, and the Waste Water Treatment pulation covered by the waste water collection service is about Facility in Šabac which should be running a test trial. «
THINKING GREEN & LIVING CLEAN
Combatting Mosquitoes In Belgrade Via GPS Devices And Drones The Serbian capital’s improved system to combat mosquitoes complies with European standards and follows climate change trends PRIM. DR. DRAGANA DESPOT, DIRECTOR OF THE INSTITUTE FOR BIOCIDES AND MEDICAL ECOLOGY
he Institute for Biocides and Medical Ecology has been performing tasks of monitoring and combatting mosquitoes in Belgrade since 2015. The previous method of combatting mosquitoes has been improved to enable the permanent control of numbers with the mapping of habitats for mosquito larvae and adult forms via GPS devices and implementation in the GIS programme. Monitoring also encompasses invasive species of mosquitoes and the risk of imported zoonosis.
» The Institute for Biocides and Medical Ecology took over the job of combatting mosquitoes that was previously carried out by a private company, thereby realising huge savings. - This type of method of working is harmonised with the requirements of European standard EN 16636 (Pest management services / Requirements and competences), and follows the trends of climate change. The new working system was presented by eminent world experts at the 20th European
THINKING GREEN & LIVING CLEAN
Society for Vector Ecology (E-SOVE) Conference in Lisbon from 3rd to 7th October 2016 and at the 8th EMCA (European Mosquito Control Association) Conference in Montenegro from 12th to 16th March 2017, as well as at scientific meetings in Athens and Budapest. By localising the problem and reducing the degree of infestation, invasiveness, and risks from imported vector-borne diseases, we can control the efficiency and development of resistance to applied biocides. The rationalisation for usage of materials is aligned with environmental principles and the safety of human health. This also leads to financial savings. In short, the system appears as follows: In the afternoon hours specialised traps are set for mosquitoes in some 40 locations
around the territory of the city of Belgrade. The traps possess as a lure frozen SO2 – dry ice that mimics the breathing of humans (animals) and thus entices mosquitoes, while have also their own power supply, which enables them to function autonomously for a minimum of 18 hours. The traps are collected the next morning and brought to the Institute’s entomological laboratory. At the laboratory we determine the number of mosquitoes and which species are present, then samples are separated for PCR analysis to check for the presence of pathogens that are carried by mosquitoes (West Nile virus, malaria, Chikungunya virus etc.). This means that we have the results on the number of mosquitoes by around 11am, while we receive the results of PCR analysis in the afternoon hours. In this
In addition to operations aimed at monitoring and combatting mosquitoes, the drone will also have a role in emergency situations, because the Institute has authorised and trained legal entities to deal with emergency situations
laboratories, such as the Istituto Sperimentale Zooprofilattico dell’Abruzzo e del Molise “Giuseppe Caporale” in Teramo, Italy. We are also in the process of establishing cooperation with the National Institute of Public Health in Prague, in the field of entomological analysis. » There is a lot of talk about the need to prevent infectious diseases. How much of a role does your institution play in that? - Our institute was founded in October 1891 with the aim of preventing infectious diseases and it forms part of the network of health institutions that operate as state-owned facilities founded by the City of Belgrade. It performs health activities at several levels of health protection in the field of preventative healthcare from infectious diseases for the population, implementing DDD measures for the prevention and control of infectious
way it is possible for us to organise activities for that same evening to combat mosquitoes at locations that showed an increased number of mosquitoes or which tested positive for the presence of the fever-causing West Nile virus. The aforementioned activities are carried out during a period of 24 hours, while several days were previously required. In 2017 we will use a drone to monitor mosquitoes and act directly in prevention works by applying preparations in the inaccessible areas that represent mosquito hotbeds. This is a brand new technological approach to monitoring and combatting mosquitoes that is still in its infancy in many developed countries. In addition to operations aimed at monitoring and combatting mosquitoes, the drone will also have a role in emergency situations, because the Institute has authorised and trained legal entities to deal with emergency situations (epidemics, floods etc.). The Institute also carries out projects for the Ministry of Health on the monitoring of vector-transmitted diseases, such as West Nile virus and tick-borne encephalitis, on the entire territory of Serbia. Super analysis of samples is carried out at respected European
(Medilab secure project). In addition this, we also participate in numerous international projects that relate to vectors and pathogens of vector-transmitted disease. » Does Serbia invest enough in the professional development of staff and the procurement of equipment for these purposes? - The advancement of science and technology, in light of the risks of climate change, demands professional training, innovation biocides (the Institute developed a new mosquito larvacide in 2016) and the procurement of equipment for applying biocides. Scientific and expert meetings, both at home and abroad, are attended regularly. In the last two years, the technical capacity has been increased with 35 devices for cold and warm ULV fogging, as well as 35 vehicles suitable for this purpose.
The advancement of science and technology, in light of the risks of climate change, demands professional training, innovation biocides and the procurement of equipment for applying biocides diseases. The preventative services provided by the Institute are based on the best evidence of practice and research, as well as the highest professional and ethical standards. The Institute determines and monitors the implementation of a unified doctrine in the application of biocides in the prevention and combatting of infectious diseases, as well as implementing medical ecology programmes through risk assessments in the application of biocides. The Institute plays a major role in preventing infectious diseases and combatting epidemics: smallpox in 1972, detecting WNV in 2012, the floods of 2014. Our experts are members of several working groups related to the prevention of infectious and vector-borne diseases in Serbia and at the regional level
» When it comes to legislation in the field of biocides, to what extent is this area in Serbia harmonised with the EU Acquis? - Our legislation is harmonised with the laws and directives of the European Union. All products and preparations used by the Institute in its work are registered by the Ministry of Agriculture and Environmental Protection, and are used in European Union countries. «
THINKING GREEN & LIVING CLEAN
NEWS WAT E R SERBIA
Fresh Water Resources The quality of surface water in Serbia is not satisfactory. Groundwater is predominantly used for water supply. Of the total available groundwater potential alluvial aquifers have the greatest capacity, followed by karst aquifers and aquifers that are classified as so–called „slowly renewable” aquifers (tertiary layers). The used capacity of the existing groundwater aquifers is around 1/3 of the available potential. Domestic uses account for around 45%, around 25% is used by industry and in municipal consumption, whilst the remaining 30% is used up in water treatment and losses in the network. The irreversible losses in the water supply are estimated at about 20% of the abstracted water. 90% of the constructed irrigation systems that are currently used are located in Vojvodina, the main agriculture area of the country. Models results indicate that the average annual river discharge in Serbia will drop by 12.5% until 2020 (in the vegetative period by 11.1% and in the rest period by 13.9%) and by 19% until 2100 (in the vegetative period around 5.4% and in the rest period around 32%)
Energy Production Accounts For 44% Of Total Water Abstraction In the EU as a whole, energy production accounts for 44% of total water abstraction, primarily serving as cooling water. 24% of abstracted water is used in agriculture, 21% for public water supply and 11% for industrial purposes. In general, water is relatively abundant with a total freshwater resource across Europe of around 2270 km3/year. Moreover, only 13% of this resource is abstracted, suggesting that there is sufficient water available to meet demand. In many locations, however, overexploitation by a range of economic sectors poses a threat to Europe’s water resources and demand often exceeds availability. Virtually all abstraction for energy production and more than 75% of that abstracted for industry and agriculture comes from surface sources. For agriculture, however, groundwater’s role as a source is probably underestimated due to illegal abstraction from wells. Groundwater is the predominant source (about 55%) for public water supply due to its generally higher quality than surface water. Currently about 7000 large dams are to be found across Europe, with a total capacity representing about 20% of the total freshwater resource. The number of large reservoirs is highest in Spain (ca 1200), Turkey (ca 610), Norway (ca 360) Italy (ca 570), France (ca 550), the United Kingdom (ca 500) and Sweden (ca 190). Europe’s reservoirs have a total capacity of about 1400 km3or 20% of the overall available freshwater resource. Three countries with relatively limited water resources, Romania, Spain and Turkey, are able to store more than 40% of their renewable resource. Another five countries, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Sweden and Ukraine, have smaller but significant storage capacities (20–40%). The number and volume of reservoirs across Europe grew rapidly over the twentieth century. This rate has slowed considerably in recent years, primarily because most of the suitable river sites for damming have been used but also due to growing concerns over the environmental impacts of reservoirs.
Glacier Retreat Triggers Landslide Response Globally, a large number of glaciers are retreating due to global warming. As a consequence, glacier ice volume reduction leads to debuttressing of oversteepened valley flanks, causing landslides and catastrophic rock falls. Failure of such landslides poses significant risks to surrounding settlements and critical infrastructure, because of the formation and possible breakout of landslide dams, as well as enhanced sediment production, which can lead to debris and mud flows. The Great Aletsch Glacier in southwest Switzerland is one of these glaciers where large landslides directly respond to glacier ice loss. Since 1870, the glacier retreated 3 km to its present-day position with a length of about 22 km. For one of these landslides it was found that changes in glacier ice height spatially correlate to rock failures and deformation features at the toe of the landslide. Over a large area the mountain slope reacts to glacier retreat once debuttressing through glacier ice height reduction reaches a critical threshold. Outburst floods from landslide-dammed lakes are reported worldwide in areas that undergo deglaciation. Knowledge on landslides near the Great Aletsch Glacier suggests that these floods may occur more frequent as a result of on-going rapid deglaciation and destabilization of critical rock slopes.
THINKING GREEN & LIVING CLEAN
PAPUA NEW GUINEA
World's Worst Access to Clean Water Papua New Guinea, where 60% of the population live without a safe water supply, has the poorest access to clean water in the world, according to a study released by organisation WaterAid. A report on the state of the world’s water showed Equatorial Guinea, Angola, Chad and Mozambique joining Papua New Guinea in the bottom five of a table ranking countries according to the percentage of households with access to clean water. Globally, 650 million people live without an “improved” source of drinking water, which includes public taps, protected wells, rainwater or water piped into households. The study also explored the high costs of water access, examining why the poorest communities often foot the largest bill. When there is no public access to clean water, people are forced to buy their water from street vendors, tanker trucks or other informal delivery services, all of which charge a premium. In Papua New Guinea’s capital, Port Moresby, the average cost for 50 litres of water from a delivery service is € 1.85, which accounts for half of a typical daily salary. This compares with €0.09 for 50 litres of piped water in the UK.
Global Threat Of Freshwater Scarcity Approximately four billion people (two-thirds of the world’s population) have to struggle with severe water shortages for at least one month every year. The most effected countries are China, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nigeria, Mexico and parts of the U.S. In other words, “levels of groundwater are falling, lakes are drying up, less water is flowing in rivers, and water supplies for industry and farmers are threatened”. This presents a huge threat of freshwater scarcity at the global level. Moreover, access to clean water is an additional problem in some countries around the world. Clean water is one of the basic requirements for health and development, although according to the World Health Organisation only just over half (54%) of the world’s population can access water through a household connection to a piped system. Drinking water scarcity and difficult access to it are just two of the various reasons why people are even leaving their homes (i.e. migrations due to environmental issues); though the most terrible reason for relocations of populations is prohibited access to water resources that are always available but have been bought by corporations.
Over 3.5bln People In 2025 Will Face Water Shortage According to the survey done by Food & Water Watch cites that approximately 3.5 billion people in 2025 will face water shortage issues. This will be mainly due to water pollution. This is likely to happen because the world pollution is increasing tremendously with more water sources getting contaminated as a result of water pollution. According to UNICEF, more than 3000 children die everyday globally due to consumption of contaminated drinking water. Plastic waste being a major water pollutant, is causing huge destruction of marine life and is believed to be responsible for deaths of more than 100,000 sea mammals, sea birds and various types of fishes.
THINKING GREEN & LIVING CLEAN
enewable energy can be produced from a wide variety of sources, including wind, solar, hydro, tidal, geothermal and biomass. By using more renewables to meet its energy needs, the EU lowers its dependence on imported fossil fuels, while making its energy production more sustainable. The renewable energy industry also drives technological innovation and employment across Europe. The EU’s Renewable energy directive sets a binding target of 20% final energy consumption from renewable sources by 2020. All EU countries have adopted national renewable energy action plans showing what actions they intend to take to meet their renewables targets. These plans include sectorial targets for electricity, heating and cooling, and transport; planned policy measures; the different mix of renewables technologies they expect to employ; and the planned use of cooperation mechanisms. Renewables will continue to play a key role in helping the EU meet its energy needs beyond 2020. EU countries have already agreed on a new renewable energy target of at least 27% of final energy consumption in the EU as a whole by 2030 as part of the EU’s energy and climate goals for 2030. «
Renewable Energy Unavoidable Segment Of Modern Society Serbia, as part of the Energy Community, has committed itself to ensuring that 27% of total final energy consumption by 2020 be from renewable sources, while today that percentage is 22%, which provides realistic room for improvement in this sector
NATAŠA BAJIĆ, PRESIDENT OF THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR BIOMASS, SERBIO
t the National Association for Biomass (SERBIO) they believe that the goal set in such a way is ambitious, but also realistic, as well as pointing out that the use of biomass for energy production offers many advantages and great opportunities for a region or country.
by 2.7% per unit of consumption would create conditions that ensure profitable investments, but would also lead to a goal that would place our country in the position of being a regional leader. Altogether, that would represent a major driving force in increasing the overall competitiveness of our economy. Through the modernisation of local heating systems and increasing energy efficiency in public housing units, contributions would also be made to improving the living standards of each individual. The noted assumed commitments of our country, untapped natural resources, and replacing fossil fuels, represent huge investment potential and the possibility of developing viable investment projects. As basic objectives towards forming an energy system with a greater share of energy produced from RES, the SERBIO National Association for Biomass defines: “Market development and a favourable business environment for a sustainable bioenergy sector in Serbia, increasing public awareness about the possibilities of biomass use, the promotion of public-private partnerships in the field of biomass and the advancement of knowhow, research and development of renewable energy sources in Serbia.”
» The ambitious and binding target for the Republic of Serbia amounts to 27% of energy consumption from renewable energy sources (RES) in its gross final energy consumption by 2020. It was concluded after a recently held conference that Serbia has increased the use of RES in recent years, but the huge potential of biomass for heating and electricity has yet to be exploited. What is the cause of that and how can we change it? - Serbia, as part of the Energy Community, has committed itself to ensuring that 27% of total final energy consumption by 2020 be from renewable sources, while today that percentage is 22%. We believe that the goal set is realistic, provided the Government of the Republic of Serbia – in cooperation with businesses, associations and the non-governmental sector – take certain steps in promoting the development of a system of energy produced from renewable sources. With the adoption of practical and sustainable investment model for the bulk purchase of electricity, on the one hand, and increased energy efficiency, on the other, reducing energy consumption
THINKING GREEN & LIVING CLEAN
» How important is it to use scientific achievements in this process and to what extent is there a need to link domestic and foreign companies in the field of renewable energy sources?
» One of the positive examples is definitely Lithuania, which generates most of its renewable energy from biomass. What needs to be done in our country to achieve results even close to that? - Lithuania decided to give up the comfort provided by natural gas in order to reduce its dependency and risks in procuring gas. Denmark and the UK are gradually reducing coal consumption in the energy sector. Biomass represents significant energy potential. Serbia’s biomass potential is estimated at 3.448 million tonnes, while the total potential of renewable energy accounts for 61%. The biggest part of that consists of wood biomass potential - 1.53 million tonnes – and agricultural biomass - 1.67 million tonnes (leftovers in crop production, livestock farming, orchards, vineyards and the primary processing of fruit), while the potential of biodegradable communal waste is estimated at 205,000 tonnes. The greatest amounts of wood biomass are in Central Serbia, and their degree of utilisation is 66.7%, while agricultural biomass is mainly situated on the territory of Vojvodina and is used very little compared to wood – about 2%. According to data from 2012, the total available technical potential of forest biomass in Serbia is 1.53 million tonnes per year, of which 1.021 million tonnes per year is used. It should be emphasised that wood biomass is not used sufficiently efficiently in Serbia, so there should be an insistence on increasing the use of biomass.
- The importance of scientific achievements is extremely high. RES is a relatively new area, so it is constantly necessary to resolve numerous issues in order to improve efficiency, cost-effectiveness etc. In addition to scientific achievements, it is very important to work on developing practises and building up the capacities of decision-makers and policymakers. It is crucial to work on raising public awareness about the importance and ecological, social and economic benefits provides by RES. This is actually one of the main areas in the focus of our association. » Can you cite a positive example of the importance of RES being understood in some local self-governments; or rather, what kinds of numbers of local heating facilities, with a focus on public institutions, are converting to this fuel? - More than 40 municipalities have expressed interest in replacing fossil fuels with biomass in their district heating systems, while municipalities like Sremska Mitrovica, Rakovac and Smederevo have operating parts of their systems that use biomass as fuel. A number of other municipalities, such as Nova Varoš, Bajina Bašta, Mali Zvornik and Novi Pazar, have completed projects and started the process of replacing fossil fuels with biomass. We already have a significant number of public facilities (schools, nursing homes, hospitals, municipal administrate centres) that have installed biomass boilers. In Prijepolje almost all public buildings use pellets, as does the Subotica Gerontology Centre, while the
municipal hospital has installed solar panels. We really have a large number of such examples now in many other municipalities too. Local governments have recognised the advantages of biomass, but further training is essential, especially when it comes to the development of public-private partnerships and sustainable supplies of biomass.
» When biomass is mentioned, we often talk about the use of agricultural waste. What crops are most commonly used and what are the specific gains like? - With a percentage of 83%, Vojvodina has a particularly high share of arable land in relation to the total surface area it occupies, with a low level of forested area, of 7%. Forest biomass plays a key role in many other European regions, while in Vojvodina biomass obtained from agriculture will need to provide the most significant share.
» In order to implement projects in the field of biomass it is necessary to secure funding. For which sectors is biomass use the most cost-effective? - Serbia is one of the countries that subsidises energy production from renewable sources. Through legislative regulations, the creation of the Serbian Energy Strategy, the introduction of feed-in tariffs and setting goals for the sector’s future development, the basis was introduced for improving energy efficiency and advancing the use of renewable energy sources. However, the viability of using biomass for power and heat generation is conditioned primarily by price and the quantity of heat energy placements. There are still no systemic incentives for the production of heating energy from renewable sources.
» When we talk about RES, we also talk about the circular economy. What are the prospects of creating new jobs and achieving export capacities? - Using biomass for energy production offers great benefits and opportunities for a region or country. This implies creating jobs, launching the economy at the local and regional level, and reducing CO2 emissions. Financially available energy, security of supply and, most importantly, the fact that biomass is renewable - make this area unavoidable. Biomass production must be sustainable. As such, close cooperation with the research community and the creation of effective laws and regulations is essential in order to avoid adverse effects on land fertility, forests and the overall environment as a result of increased usage of biomass. «
The modernisation of local heating systems and increasing energy efficiency in public housing units would contribute to improving the living standards of every individual
THINKING GREEN & LIVING CLEAN
We Support The Concept Of
Constructing Sustainable Buildings
ALU KOENIG STAHL is successful 150-year-old company that has been operating all over Europe. In Serbia ALU KOENIG STAHL is working for 19 years and they are recognisable for its aluminium glazed façades that meet all requirements in the areas of energy efficiency, automation and security
SAŠA KNEŽEVIĆ, DIRECTOR, ALU KOENIG STAHL
LU KOENIG STAHL is recognisable on the Serbian market and some of the most interesting are structures like the Ušće tower and shopping centre, but they worked on a lot of other facilities, such as Red Stripe, Bluehouse, Grawe, Vig Plaza.
Renowned brands enable us to have a high quality assortment that is constantly being improved and adjusted to trends in architecture and construction regulations. For more than 50 years ALU KOENIG STAHL has nurtured an alliance with two leading system solutions manufacturers – company Schüco, which is a world leader in aluminium production and an expert in PVC systems, and Jansen, which specialises in manufacturing steel systems. This cooperation and the development of innovative products have enabled ALU KOENIG STAHL to become the market’s technological leader.
» Could you tell us something about the new technologies and products that ALU KOENIG STAHL uses today when building environmentally-friendly and sustainable buildings? - ALU KOENIG STAHL is a family business that has been operating for four generations. For many years, not only our employees have remained faithful to us, but also many customers. Our comprehensive package of services, which we provide in all phases of construction project implementation, is unique, well-known and recognised in the construction sector. ALU KOENIG STAHL offers the highest quality aluminium, steel and PVC systems, as well as components for modern, energy-efficient architecture. In this way we support the concept of constructing sustainable buildings.
THINKING GREEN & LIVING CLEAN
» Can you tell us something about the materials that are commonly used in your products, and how they can be recycled? - We most commonly use aluminium, which is produced from its ore - bauxite. Production is very demanding, but also suitable for recycling. Recycling aluminium allows energy savings of up to 95 per cent. In contrast to wood and plastic, aluminium can be recycled without losing its properties, so recycled and newly-produced aluminium don’t differ.
» Why is it important to have structures that are self-sustaining and what kind of savings does this relate to when it comes to the end user? - The most direct way to save is to use highly insulated systems for making glazed façade elements. Our product range includes systems intended for the construction of so-called passive houses. Our systems possess the Dr Feist certificates issued by the Passivhaus Institut in Darmstadt. In addition to these, we offer a range of systems for the construction of low-energy buildings (the relevant product labels are SI - super insulation and HI - high insulation). The most indirect but no less important way of saving is through the use of a decentralised ventilation system, utilising automated narrow openings, as well as a system for night-time ventilation. These systems significantly reduce losses caused by heating and cooling buildings, whilst also significantly improving the climatic characteristics of the interior. Additional significant savings can be achieved through the installing of intelligent systems for external sun protection, with decentralised and planned ventilation and cooling of units.
» Does modern construction utilising new technology imply high-quality and safe construction? - Modern façades increasingly complete functions in the area of energy efficiency, automation and security, while requirements in terms of design are also growing. Combinations of thermal insulation, solar technology, automation, security and design show that façades have increasingly diverse applications and provide increasing benefits to users and society as a whole. All these new technologies require a new approach to solving problems. When I started in Serbia, now 19 years ago, the tasks were very different ... A façade had to meet only one requirement – that it not leak... and for it to have the odd window here and there that can be opened to allow a little fresh air to enter and that’s it. Requirements at the global scale were also far more modest than they are now. Now we have to talk about complex elements that must meet the most varied requirements (automatic ventilation and heating of premises, connection to technical appliances in the home etc.), and this is all heading in the direction of intelligent buildings.
» When it comes to the Serbian market, you are involved in a large » How important is green technology, in your opinion, and what number of projects. Is there a difference in cooperation with domestic kind of results has it achieved? and foreign investors, and what makes ALU KOENIG STAHL stand out - Given that construction accounts for 40% of primary energy needs from its competitors in the same industrial sector? in Europe, the EU rules impose increasingly higher demands in terms - There really are a lot of projects. ALU KOENIG STAHL is recognisable of the energy efficiency of buildings. As of 2018, public buildings in on the Serbian market for the aluminium façades that adorn the biggest parts of buildings constructed in the last 19 years, since we Protecting climatic conditions and limiting global began doing business in Serbia. For Belgraders the most interesting are structures like the Ušće tower and shopping warming are the main tasks in the future centre, but we worked on a lot of other facilities, such as the EU will have to secure their own required energy, and after 2020 Red Stripe, Bluehouse, Grawe, Vig Plaza etc. that will also apply to private buildings. That is a great challenge and Unlike our competition, we offer comprehensive support at a great opportunity for the civil engineering profession. Protecting three levels – technical, sales (key account) and commercial. Such climatic conditions and limiting global warming are the main tasks in unique organisation in our country places us in the segment of the future. Drastically reducing the energy needs of new or modernised construction segment a partner. We are working on a project to facilities will enable the building of energy-independent facilities with help our companies penetrate foreign markets with concrete the possibility of obtaining energy from them. measures and even subsidies. The difference between domestic and foreign investors has » What are the company’s planned goals for the period ahead? been reducing in the last two to three years, and in some cases it - Given the expected decline in the number of new buildings in 2017 is already non-existent. Domestic investors have realised that it is and the available capacity of our aluminium processors, we’ll definitely ultimately most cost-effective to engage professionals and experts be focused on export. To this end, we are also planning to intensify all of various professions in the design, manufacturing and assembly activities to assist our partners, starting from training, education, subsiprocesses, and then also in the management of facilities. There dies, appearances etc. All of this is necessary because our country is is virtually no situation in which an individual – an investor, who awaited in the relatively near future (from 2018) by the expansion of the may have knowledge in a particular field of construction – makes construction industry and a great shortage of highly qualified personnel. decisions independently. In other words, we’ll work on jobs abroad because there aren’t This, however, created an additional problem – a lack of personnel enough on the domestic market. We will school personnel on specific and a great need for them to be educated. Unfortunately, our school projects, and those personnel will then be in a position to satisfy the system has no courses of vocational education for aluminium façade increased demand in our country, which we expect from 2018! That planners. That is why, together with our partners, we launched a is now our primary goal in Serbia and the region. « campaign aimed at improving this situation.
THINKING GREEN & LIVING CLEAN
RENEWABLE ENERGY THE GREEN FOR GROWTH FUND (GGF)
Financing Green Energy Portfolio In The Balkans The development of renewable energy programs in the region has been slower than it was anticipated and governments need to take certain steps, primarily related to the regulatory framework, in order to encourage further progress of the sector. The Green for Growth Fund (GGF) can offer support for worthy projects to overcome obstacles in project financing and implementation, says Carrie Walczak, head of Project Finance. According to Walczak, first and foremost, governments need to decide what they like to do for the renewable energy programme, what is required by the Energy Community Secretariat, what is affordable for them and how it would be paid for. In addition, governments need to establish the proper fundamentals in the legislative framework for project finance and for large-scale renewable energy projects by establishing the legislation and by-laws needed to make this happen. Since GGF has very strict environmental and social criteria, it is important that projects comply with them, but also that the sponsors care about these matters and work on them. All projects require strong upfront studies, environmental and social impact analyses and for certain technologies, other types of studies may be required too, says Walczak. Being present in 19 countries in total, the GGF has lent more than EUR 450 million for renewable energy and energy efficiency projects since 2009. The implementation of the projects resulted in carbon emission savings over 400,000 tonnes per annum.
How Energy Efficient Are Buildings In Dubai? A new project to assess the energy performance of buildings in Dubai has been launched. Emirates Green Building Council (GBC) and the Dubai Supreme Council of Energy (DSCE) have joined forced for the ‘Benchmarking Project’ of 100 buildings in the city. It will be done under the Building Efficiency Accelerator (BEA) programme, part of the UN’s Sustainable Energy for All initiative and is funded by the Global Environment Facility (GEF). Hotels, shopping centres and schools are being invited to take part in the project, which will be the first BEA pilot in the UAE. It aims to serve as a referral point in driving forward the energy efficiency of buildings in Dubai. WorldGBC aims to ensure all buildings are “net zero” by 2050. “The Benchmarking Project is a major step towards mapping the energy efficiency of existing buildings in Dubai. The findings will not only help in undertaking relevant retrofitting measures but will also support policy making in relation to sustainable buildings,” said Saeed Al Abbar, Chairman of EmiratesGBC.
GERMAN-SERBIAN PROJECT FOR PROMOTION OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN BUILDINGS OFFICIALLY CONCLUDED
Advisory On Energy Efficiency In Buildings The German-Serbian development cooperation project „Advisory on Energy Efficiency in Buildings“ was officially concluded with a conference in Belgrade. On this occasion, results of the cooperation and examples of good practice were presented. The project was conducted by Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) in cooperation with the Ministry of Mining and Energy and the Ministry of Construction, Transport and Infrastructure. It lasted nine years, starting in 2008. “After nine years of dedicated work the project comes to a close, and one of the most important results is the fact that Serbia managed to position itself as a regional leader in the field of energy efficiency RENATE SCHINDLBECK, TEAM LEADER FOR THE PROJECT in buildings”, said Renate Schindlbeck, team leader for the project “ADVISORY ON ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN BUILDINGS” (CREDIT: GIZ) “Advisory on Energy Efficiency in buildings”. She said that today in Serbia there are almost 1.600 licensed energy efficiency engineers. Almost 1.500 energy performance certificates (EPC) have been issued since the introduction of the certification system. The efforts resulted in 150.000 MWh of primary energy savings in buildings and a decrease in CO2 emissions of about 30.000 tons annually. Assistant minister of mining and energy Miloš Banjac said that Serbia is dedicated to implementation of EU directives in the field of energy and achieving its national energy targets. Acting assistant minister of construction, transport and infrastructure Jovanka Atanacković said that the project resulted in the creation of a legislative framework for energy rehabilitation of buildings, as well as a national typology of residential buildings. „Following the EU Directive 2012/27, Serbia will establish a long-term strategy for energy rehabilitation of buildings starting from 2020“, she said. Closing conference of the project was attended by many representatives of Serbian institutions, educational facilities and international organizations. A project is at the moment being implemented in Serbia, and is scheduled to last until 2018. Source GIZGerman
THINKING GREEN & LIVING CLEAN
Development Of Biomass Markets In Serbia
“Now when we have legislation in place, we can start doing biomass business in Serbia”, said Irena Vojáčková-Sollorano, the UN Resident Coordinator, and UNDP Serbia Resident Representative The objective of the Biomass Project is to increase the share of energy from renewable sources in the energy mix of Serbia, namely the share of biomass in power generation. One of project activities is focused on enhancing the capacity of all relevant stakeholders to develop, finance, construct and operate bankable biomass renewable energy projects. To that end an update and revision of six existing, yet outdated guides for investors in renewable energy facilities has been performed: 1. CONSTRUCTION OF PLANTS AND ELECTRICITY/HEAT GENERATION FROM BIOMASS IN THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA 2. CONSTRUCTION OF FACILITIES AND ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION IN SMALL HYDROPOWER PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), acting as an implementing agency of the Global Environment Facility (GEF) implemented the GEF funded project “Reducing Barriers to Accelerate the Development of Biomass Markets in Serbia” in close partnership with the Ministry of Mining and Energy and the Ministry of Agriculture and Environmental Protection of the Republic of Serbia. The results of the project is worth $30 million. It was funded by the Global Environmental Fund (GEF) with USD 2,8 million, UNDP with USD 0,3 million, Serbian government with USD 1,8 million in services and non-financial contribution, and private investors.
Viktor Radić, dipl.inž.maš. Regionalni menadžer Mobilni: +381(0) 65 202 6424 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.polytechnik.com Polytechnik Luft und Feuerungstechnik GmbH 2564 Weissenbach Hainfelder 69, Austria
3. CONSTRUCTION OF PLANTS AND ELECTRICITY GENERATION IN WIND POWER PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA 4. CONSTRUCTION OF PLANTS AND ELECTRICITY/HEAT GENERATION FROM HYDRO-GEOTHERMAL SOURCES IN THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA 5. CONSTRUCTION OF PLANTS AND ELECTRICITY GENERATION IN WIND POWER PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA 6. CONSTRUCTION OF SOLAR HEATING SYSTEMS IN THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA
THINKING GREEN & LIVING CLEAN
First Energy Efficiency PPP With The City Of Pirot The contract signed with Pirot, as a PPP, will allow GGE to provide four Pirot schools with eco-friendly heating energy ANKICA BARBULOV, DIRECTOR AT GGE SERBIA
he entire SEE region has been lagging behind energy efficiency (EE) trends that have thrived in Western Europe for several decades. This trend arrived in Slovenia ten years ago, quickly becoming the norm. » You’ve expanded your activities from Slovenia to the entire region. What is the current state of affairs and what is the potential? - Once GGE developed its expertise in the ESCO model there, it was only natural to expand our operations and seize the opportunities present in neighbouring countries (Serbia, Croatia, Bulgaria, Montenegro, B-H, Italy, Czechia).
» What is the state of legislation concerning EE? Is there room for the development of EE or is it necessary to improve legal regulations? - Serbia has done a lot to facilitate the realisation of EE projects. The Law on the Efficient Use of Energy, adopted in 2013, was an important turning point: it recognised the ESCO model as a good solution for overcoming the lack of capital. Furthermore, the 2015 ordinance on the implementation of EE measures for the public sector provided a clear template for engaging in public-private partnerships (PPP). There does exist, however, a wide gap between state policies and laws, and their implementation at local levels. Only three
It is estimated that for each dollar of its GDP, a country like Serbia spends 2.5 times more on energy than the European average It is estimated that for each dollar of its GDP, a country like Serbia spends 2.5 times more on energy than the European average. The main challenge to improving this situation is a lack of funding, which is exactly what the ESCO model is there to compensate for. This is a turnkey solution that covers everything from financing, energy auditing and solution implementation to installation and maintenance. There is enormous potential in the industrial and commercial sectors, as well as in the public sector.
THINKING GREEN & LIVING CLEAN
PPPs in the energy sector have been signed to date: public lighting projects in the municipalities of Ada and Žabalj, and the Pirot schools heating project. » GGE signed the first contract for replacing existing heavy oil boilers with biomass boilers with the City of Pirot, within the framework of a PPP. Can you tell us more about this project; what exactly does it entail? - This PPP will allow GGE to provide four Pirot
schools with eco-friendly heating energy. We will install two biomass boilers in each school and take care of the financing, equipment maintenance and fuel supply. The City will reimburse us over a fifteen-year period. On top of the financial savings that Pirot will achieve, the City will also cut CO2 emissions by 420,000 tonnes annually. What is particularly important is that this is the first contract of its kind to be signed as a PPP, and we hope that other public actors will see the potential in it, and understand the benefits of using private capital for public projects. » What needs to be done in order for Serbia to improve and achieve results in the EE field? - The potential for financial savings through energy savings, without even mentioning the wider benefits for society and the environment, is huge given how much room exists for improvement. Unfortunately, cities and municipalities are often unaware of the PPP model, while industrial and commercial clients may know that their energy systems are inefficient, but are unwilling or unable to finance an overhaul. The ESCO model can solve all these issues and, with the regulatory framework in place, it is only a question of raising awareness. Decision-makers need to know what options are available to them, and we hope that, at least for the public sector, the pioneering projects in Pirot, Ada and Žabalj will serve as examples for others to follow. «
WindVision To Implement Alibunar Wind Farm Complex In 2018 Serbia can be a secure partner for the development of RES projects
indVision is an independent renewable energy supplier that operates in eight countries across two continents. As a flexible player with knowledge of every step in the chain of renewable energy projects, WindVison is perfectly suited to embrace highly innovative challenges. At the same time, WindVision is also committed to delivering clean and safe energy.
» In the world there is ever increasing mention of RES and generating, as well as transitioning to, “green” energy. What is the situation like in Serbia in this regard? - Bearing in mind Serbia’s obligation to achieve 27 per cent of electricity production from renewable energy sources (RES) by 2020, I would dare to say that we are taking a new step forward each year in the field of “green” energy. I would also note that a new package of regulations was passed in the last year that inspired the legal security of investments in the RES sector, such as the project to construct the Wind farm Alibunar with a total capacity of 174 MW. With this, as well as the construction of similar energy facilities that will use renewable energy for electricity and heat production, there is no doubt that Serbia will achieve its mandatory international targets and contribute to the development of green energy. » Are local governments aware of the benefits of RES? In addition to the wind farm
NEDA SRETOVIĆ, COUNTRY MANAGER, WINDVISION OPERATIONS DOO project in Alibunar, is WindVision Serbia planning to develop some other projects? - WindVision, as international investor experienced in the development, management and operations of RES projects, launched its project in 2010 to develop the “Alibunar” wind farm complex, with total installed capacity 174MWe, in Serbia - as an attractive destination due to its “good” wind, at an average speed at 7.5m/s, and an attractive tariff system.
banks. The PPA is an extremely sophisticated agreement that forms the basis for banks to lend money to investors for the construction of these projects. Thus, it is instrumental that banks are consulted in the process of drafting the PPA amendments and that, at the end of that process, they find it sufficient for them to support wind farm development in the long run. Thanks to the hard work of the Ministry of Mining and Energy, and other competent institutions, as well as close collaboration
Biomass is certainly one of the big potentials that Serbia has in the field of green energy As we found the Government of Serbia to be a reliable partner for all challenges in the implementation of this investment, we remain open for other projects in both the wind and biomass sectors. » Does Serbia provide support for investors like WindVision to invest and, if so, in which ways? - WindVision strongly believes that Serbia can be a secure environment and a reliable partner for the development of RES projects. At this moment, it is of crucial importance to harmonise the legal framework with the requirements of potential lenders. An essential piece of legislation that is lacking is the Power Purchase Agreement (PPA), since the existing draft has not been accepted by the
with representatives of International Finance Institutions (IFI), we can expect the aforementioned process to be successfully finalised any time soon. » As one of the areas of WindVision Serbia’s activity, you also highlighted an interest in biomass. Have you launched any projects of this kind? - Biomass is certainly one of the big potentials that Serbia has in the field of green energy. Windvision is very interested in exploring opportunities related to the construction of a facility that would produce both heat and power using biomass as the energy source, but at this moment we will concentrate on implementing the Alibunar wind farm complex in 2018. «
THINKING GREEN & LIVING CLEAN
any things can cause climate to change all on its own. Earthâ€™s distance from the sun can change. The sun can send out more or less energy. Oceans can change. When a volcano erupts, it can change our climate. Most scientists say that humans can change climate too. People drive cars. People heat and cool their houses. People cook food. All those things use energy. One way we get energy is by burning coal, oil and gas. Burning these things releases gases into the air. Those gases cause the air to heat up. This can change the climate of a place, and can also change the climate of Earth as a whole. Scientists think that Earthâ€™s temperature will continue to rise for the next 100 years. This will cause more snow and ice to melt. Oceans will rise higher. Some places will get hotter. Other places might have colder winters with more snow. Some places might get more rain, other places might get less rain, while some places might have stronger hurricanes. ÂŤ
Climate Changes In Serbia More Pronounced Than Global Average Further temperature rises, reduced agriculture yields and increased vulnerability of forests are part of the scenario awaiting Serbia if numerous measures are not taken on the other. Although average annual precipitation levels have not changed significantly, they have experienced a redistribution, which may be the reason why in recent years we have had several significant droughts and floods, which have collectively resulted in major financial losses.
VLADIMIR ĐURĐEVIĆ, PH.D, INSTITUTE OF METEOROLOGY, FACULTY OF PHYSICS, UNIVERSITY OF BELGRADE, SERBIA
he fact that the Paris Agreement has been adopted by 195 countries and already ratified by over 130 countries indicates a change of awareness at the global level regarding the importance of the fight against climate change. It was impossible to achieve this type of agreement even in 2009, due to major differences in the attitudes of countries. The same facts instill hope in the success of this Agreement. » What do the latest studies and research on climate change in Serbia show? - Currently the observed changes in Serbia’s climate are somewhat more pronounced than the global average. The average annual temperature in Serbia in recent years has been about 1.2 degrees higher than in the middle of the last century. Changes in the summer temperature are even more pronounced - last year the average was about 1.4 degrees warmer than it was fifty years ago, while the number of summer heatwaves nearly doubled. When it comes to precipitation, there are currently no clear trends when it comes to average annual values, but in many meteorological stations in Serbia and the region there have been positive trends observed in extreme rainfall, on the one hand, and the extension of dry periods without rain,
THINKING GREEN & LIVING CLEAN
» To what extent does climate change impact on the environment and human health? - All these changes have been reflected in the functioning of individual socio-economic sectors. Agriculture is one sector that has sustained significant losses. Although there is currently no systematic monitoring and research focused on the impact of climate change on human health, some of the existing analysis is more than alarming. During the heat wave of July 2007, mortality among the elderly in Belgrade was 75% higher than the typical value for this time of year. If no global reduction in CO2 emissions is achieved, which is the cause of the climate change observed over recent years, we can expect further temperature increases here in Serbia by the end of the century, with the average annual temperature in Serbia being about 4C higher by the end of the century. When it comes to precipitation, the climate would become arid compared to current conditions, especially during the summer months, while some projections predict that possible summer rainfall reductions could total up to 50 per cent. In the event of such a pessimistic scenario, with a temperature increase of several degrees and significant reductions in rainfall during the summer months, agricultural production would suffer considerably, especially when it comes to the cultivation of corn. » It is well known that climate change has a negative impact on agriculture, which is why droughts and floods have resulted in this sector sustaining a lot of damage in recent years.
- Research shows that the failure to develop a serious irrigation system could see average annual losses in corn production reach p to 50 per cent in the second half of the 21st century. Moreover, agricultural production is particularly vulnerable to extremes in climate, so the increased intensity and frequency of such events can cause greater damage than would be cased only by changes in long-term average temperature and precipitation levels. Agriculture is one of the sectors to have sustained major damage in recent years. Estimates show that the 2012 drought alone caused damage worth about $2 billion. In the context of the second National Report of Serbia, which will be published soon, there are recommendations for a series of measures that can help the sector adapt to climate change, both in terms of drought and other adverse effects, such as the spread of diseases and pests due to climate change, land degradation, adverse impacts of extreme weather events etc. Serbia’s forests will also be seriously hit in the event of such a scenario, while possible future climatic conditions will differ significantly from those needed to preserve the structure of forests that we have today. Research studies deal with the impact of climate change on water resources show that some water basins could be expected to experience negative flow changes totalling tens of percent.
» What goals has Serbia set and what kind of obligations has it taken on with the aim of reducing the factors that lead to climate change? - In accordance with its obligations under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, Serbia has set a national target for reducing CO2 emissions by 2030, which is set according to total emissions of these gases in 1990, in accordance with the requirements of the Convention, but also EU practises. The possible reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases in Serbia by 2030 has been identified as 9.8% compared to the level of emissions in 1990. This aim was determined by taking into account the existing development strategy of relevant sectors, primarily the energy sector. The funding required to achieve this objective does not represent any
» What measures could we take in the agriculture sector; how much is needed for adaptation in terms of funding? addition compared to the funding required to achieve the sector-specific objectives, which the Government has already adopted through sectoral strategic and planning documents. The competent government ministry has started drafting the Strategy to Combat Climate Change with an action plan, in order to review its ambitions and determine whether it is possible to increase this emissions reduction target without compromising economic growth. The strategy will identify new targets for reducing emissions, primarily based on financial needs, but also on the benefits that will come for the economy and the population. It should be noted that development accompanied by a decrease in CO2 emissions is increasingly a requirement of the international community, while products created as a result of low-emission production are a requirement of the international market. This strategy should be completed in the next year, while the process of its drafting represents an excellent example of a serious approach to planning, given that the drafting of the strategy includes a large number of stakeholders, scientists, experts, NGOs and others. «
In the context of the second National Report of Serbia, which will be published soon, there are recommendations for a series of measures that can help the sector adapt to climate change - One of the measures that certainly can and must be applied is irrigation, as one of the ways of reducing the potential damage to agriculture in the future, though these measures require detailed planning and significant financial investments. The problem of droughts can be alleviated with appropriate measures that are less complex when it comes to implementation, such as the introduction and use of more tolerant species and varieties, adaptation and improvement of the processing system in order to improve conservation of moisture in the soil, monitoring disease and pest control, increasing the representation of winter crops, conserving tillable land and broader utilisation of monthly and seasonal weather reports. The key to some of these measures is good information, so communication with producers is an important element in the successful and effective implementation of these measures, and not so much financial support.
THINKING GREEN & LIVING CLEAN
C L I M AT E C H A N G E EARTH
Global Warming Global warming is the term used to describe a gradual increase in the average temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere and its oceans, a change that is believed to be permanently changing the Earth’s climate. There is great debate among many people, and sometimes in the news, on whether global warming is real (some call it a hoax). But climate scientists looking at the data and facts agree the planet is warming. While many view the effects of global warming to be more substantial and more rapidly occurring than others do, the scientific consensus on climatic changes related to global warming is that the average temperature of the Earth has risen between 0.4 and 0.8 °C over the past 100 years. The increased volumes of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases released by the burning of fossil fuels, land clearing, agriculture, and other human activities, are believed to be the primary sources of the global warming that has occurred over the past 50 years. Scientists from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate carrying out global warming research have recently predicted that average global temperatures could increase between 1.4 and 5.8 °C by the year 2100. Changes resulting from global warming may include rising sea levels due to the melting of the polar ice caps, as well as an increase in occurrence and severity of storms and other severe weather events.
Fruit Growing Conditions Call For Adaptation Fruit production might be particularly vulnerable to climate change, particularly in southern Europe. Fruit species have their minimum heat requirements for adequate growth, physiological development and phenology, e.g. flowering and fruit ripening. Many woody plants growing in temperate climates also require a certain amount of winter chill to break dormancy and prepare the plant to subsequent springtime warming. Temperate fruit and nut trees commonly require cool enough winters to fulfil their chilling requirements and allow normal development and harvests. A period of low temperatures is needed for regular budburst (chilling accumulation), while a period of warm temperatures (heat accumulation) is needed for adequate blooming and ripening. Climate change may significantly alter these conditions, thus threatening fruit production. Shifts in thermal growing conditions under climate change have been assessed for eight economically relevant fruit species in Portugal (carob tree, almond tree, chestnut tree, citrus fruits, fresh fruits trees, olive trees, pine nut trees and vines). This was done for an intermediate and high-end scenario of climate change for the period 2041-2070 compared to the reference period 1981-2005. Under both climate change scenarios heat accumulation increases and chilling accumulation decreases in most of Portugal. In the innermost areas of southern Portugal, however, heat accumulation decreases due to excessively high temperatures (too much heat stress). Therefore, inner southern Portugal is expected to undergo the most detrimental climatic changes for temperate fruit and nut trees. On the other hand, the north-eastern mountainous areas are projected to experience an increase in heat accumulation, which may indeed be beneficial, while winter chill is expected to decrease only slightly, likely without major impacts on trees. The long-term investment nature of orchards adds urgency to the adaptation challenge. A timely planning of suitable adaptation measures may, however, mitigate future losses and warrant the future sustainability of this sector.
February Was Second-Warmest February On Record February 2017 was the second-warmest February in 137 years of modern record-keeping, according to a monthly analysis of global temperatures by scientists at NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) in New York. It was 1.1 degrees Celsius warmer than the mean February temperature from 1951-1980. The two top February temperature anomalies have occurred during the past two years. February 2016 was the hottest on record, at 1.3 degrees Celsius warmer than the February mean temperature. February 2017’s temperature was 0.20 degrees Celsius cooler than February 2016. The monthly analysis by the GISS team is assembled from publicly available data acquired by about 6,300 meteorological stations around the world, ship- and buoy-based instruments measuring sea surface temperature, and Antarctic research stations.
THINKING GREEN & LIVING CLEAN
Extreme And Unusual Trends Continue In 2017 The year 2016 made history, with a record global temperature, exceptionally low sea ice, and unabated sea level rise and ocean heat, pushing the world into “truly uncharted territory”, according to the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO). Extreme weather and climate conditions have continued into 2017. WMO issued its annual statement on the State of the Global Climate ahead of World Meteorological Day on 23 March. It is based on multiple international datasets maintained independently by global climate analysis centres and information submitted by dozens of WMO Members National Meteorological and Hydrological Services and Research Institutes “This report confirms that the year 2016 was the warmest on record – a remarkable 1.1 °C above the pre-industrial period, which is 0.06 °C above the previous record set in 2015,” said WMO Secretary-General Petteri Taalas. “With levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere consistently breaking new records, the influence of human activities on the climate system has become more and more evident,” said Mr Taalas.
Negative Effects Of Climate Change
Climate Change Effects As life becomes more difficult, the UN estimates, as many as 50 million “environmentally displaced” people around the world could join the exodus of migrants already crossing borders and oceans in search of new livelihoods. Many will move into overcrowded cities that today strain to provide jobs, housing and basic services, and will themselves be under threat from the effects of climate change. Climate change will also affect parasites like the tsetse fly and parasitic diseases such as malaria. Malaria is the single greatest killer of African children and imposes a $12 billion annual drain on African economies through death, medical costs and lost productivity. The mosquitoes that spread it thrive within a relatively narrow range of temperature and moisture, and some infected areas may become malaria free as they become drier. The World Health Organization has warned that globally, as many as 80 million more people could become infected. Nor will Africa’s diverse plant and animal populations be spared. A study of nearly 5,200 plant species throughout the continent found that about 5,000 of them would lose much of their natural habitat to climate change. Of these, some 2,100 could lose all of their native habitat by 2085. Wildlife will fare no better. In South Africa’s famous Kruger game reserve, for example, studies show that two-thirds of animal species could disappear.
As the climate warms, glaciers are melting. Yet millions of people depend on the planet’s 190,000 glaciers to supply water in dry seasons. Arctic sea ice is melting rapidly, a process that further speeds up climate change. On the West Antarctic Peninsula, massive ice shelves have crumbled into the ocean. As glaciers and land-based ice sheets melt, they contribute to sea level rise. This increases flood risk for millions of people on coasts, where populations and cities are growing fast. Sea levels could rise by a meter by the end of this century if we don’t reign in emissions. For people of small islands and low-lying coastal areas, sea level rise is already a harsh reality. More extreme droughts, tropical cyclones, forest fires, and intense rainfall are projected for our warming climate. Many types of extreme weather are already getting worse. Each day we delay action means more damage to lives, economies and ecosystems. From tropical mountain cloud forests to polar pack ice, we must protect the ecosystems that enrich our lives with beauty and adventure. But climate change is already causing widespread harm to polar life, coral reefs and other unique and vulnerable ecosystems. Extinctions will ramp up unless we act. Air pollution — already a silent and serious killer — is set to become worse still under climate change. Yet we can fight both air pollution and climate change with the shift to 100 percent renewable energy, a hugely important double win for the health of people and our planet.
THINKING GREEN & LIVING CLEAN