Arts & Entertainment Along the Copper Corridor
October is National Copper Month
Volume 5, Number 12 â€˘ October 2012
Celebrating copperâ€™s past, present & future
Self WomenDefense in the Martial Arts
Like men, women join Martial Arts Schools for a variety of reasons, but foremost among them is a desire to reduce their feelings of vulnerability. It often takes quite awhile for
many women to make the first phone call of inquiry and still longer to make that first visit. It can certainly seem strangely uncomfortable to enter, what initially is perceived as a
Nugget Covering the Copper Corridor Communities of Globe, Miami, Superior, Kearny, Hayden, Winkelman, Dudleyville, Aravaipa, Mammoth, San Manuel, Oracle, SaddleBrooke and Catalina. James Carnes…...........................................Publisher Jennifer Carnes.................................… Editor-In-Chief Michael Carnes….......................General Manager Zach Richter….....................................Editor Mila Besich-Lira............................Advertising Director John Hernandez.........................................Reporter Vicki Clark..............................................Reporter Chase Kamp............................................Reporter Annette Barajas ....................... Office Manager,Kearny Dimitra Clark ...................... Office Manager, San Manuel Courtney Trumbull…...........Office Manager, Queen Creek Joanne Lapa .................................. Advertising Sales Email:
Submisions & Letters: jenniferc@MinerSunBasin.com Advertising & Questions: michaelc@MinerSunBasin.com
Find us at Facebook.com/CopperArea Follow us at twitter.com/CopperAreaCom Published the fourth week of each month. Business office is located at 139 8th Ave, P.O. Box 60, San Manuel, AZ 85631. Subscription rates paid in advance: $9.00 per year or $5.00 for 6 months U.S. Change of address should be sent to the publishers at P.O. Box 60, San Manuel, AZ 85631. Member: Arizona Newspaper Association, National Newspaper Association.
Telephone San Manuel Office: (520) 385-2266 San Manuel Office Fax (520) 385-4666 Kearny Office: (520) 363-5554 Kearny Office Fax (520) 363-9663 “We sure could use a little good news today.” — Anne Murray
We have very attractive rates available. Please call (520) 385-2266 for more information.
man’s world. Yet they will find that most classes have 10 to 20 percent female attendance. It is not uncommon to have a timid, wary, and apprehensive woman suddenly realize that their fellow students are thoughtful, gentle and patient with them while they learn to adapt to this new martial environment. Gallantry is a knightly virtue and is still taught in many martial art schools. With consistent training, women feel themselves become physically stron-
ger. The discipline needed to focus on the task at hand and to the exclusion of all other distractions, creates a mind that can think more clearly, especially under stress. Perhaps, one of the benefits that appears’ to be most appreciated is the recognition that success at something so different from their “normal life” has helped them to shed the “baggage” that has been such a hindrance to their self-confidence. There are many renowned woman martial artists. If
By Donna Langwig Vista Fine Arts invites you to a wonderful afternoon of music with artists Christine Vivona and Rob Boone on Sun. Oct. 28, 2012, at 3:00 p.m. at Vista Church, 3001 E. Miravista Lane in Catalina. Vivona and Boone
perform a variety of standards on the harp, trombone and piano, featuring jazz classics from the great American songbook. Come and listen to this entertaining couple and see why they are performing concerts all over the southwest.
you have ever had a desire to train, make the effort to find a school, and visit. Life is too short to miss opportunities for rewarding self-fulfillment. Mr. Weber is the chief instructor at the Aikido Academy of Self-Defense located at 16134 North Oracle Road, in Catalina. He has more than 40 years of experience in the Martial Arts and has achieved skills in a variety of disciplines. He also teaches Tai-Chi with classes on Wednesday from 11 a.m. to noon and Saturday from 9
Steve Weber to 10 a.m. Please call (520) 8258500 for information regarding these and other programs. If you wish, check out the website at www.AikidoAcademyOfArizona.com.
From classics to jazz, Vista Fine Arts oﬀers afternoon of music
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Rob Boone and Christine Vivona If you thought that harp was only for classical music you will be amazed at the versatility of this beautiful instrument. Vivona is a Juilliard trained harpist with a Doctorate from the University of Arizona and Rob is an award winning trombonist, pianist, arranger and recording engineer.
Boone plays in the Original Wildcat Jazz Band and plays piano and trombone for Robert Shaw. Both have CDs of their own as well as having played on CDs of Linda Ronstadt, Nils Lofgren, and many local artists. For more information, call 520-825-1985 or visit VistauMC.com.
On the cover: Miners Memorial in Mammoth. Dedicated to miners who lost their lives in the mines at San Manuel, Tiger and St. Anthony. (Jennifer Carnes photo)
Arizona’s Centennial: Labor Movement and Unions 1912 Compiled by John Hernandez Labor Day was Sept. 3, 2012. It was once a big holiday where communities celebrated the accomplishments and progress of the labor movement. In 1912, the unions and the labor movement were struggling against the corporations for better working conditions, pay, the right to organize, and even racial equality. Nationally unions were in a battle with the corporations or capitalists as they were called in the newspapers back then. In Arizona mining and the railroads were becoming a big part of Arizona’s economy as well as the political leadership of
the new state. Bisbee Daily Review – January 21, 1912 Phoenix, January 20 - Forty four delegates representing every labor organization in Arizona with a total of 7,000, met here today and formed the Arizona State Federation of Labor. E.B. Simonson, of Globe, was elected President and Harvey P. Gree, of Phoenix, Secretary. They will serve until officers are elected by a referendum vote of the federation. Committees on constitution, rules, legislation and resolutions were appointed and their reports will be heard tomorrow. Tombstone Epitaph – September 29, 1912
MEXICAN MINERS STRIKE AT COURTLAND Because of a refusal to grant them an increase in wages, sixty Mexican miners at the C & A mines in Courtland have gone on strike. The raise asked for was 50 cents a day. As a result of the walkout the mines are now closed down, while other men are secured to fill the deserted positions. In Gleeson, about three miles from Courtland, there is much bitter feeling on the part of the Mexicans against the mine operators who only employ white labor, and the walkout at Courtland has tended to complicate matters. Application was made to Superintendent Thiers of the Tejon Mining Co. by a
Mexican for employment and was refused, the other day. The same day, while walking along with the lantern, shots were fired at the Superintendent, breaking the lantern, but not injuring him. Historical note: Courtland and Gleeson are ghost towns located about 15 miles from Tombstone. They were boomtowns in the early 1900s but died out after the mines stopped producing. The C & A mine was the Calumet and Arizona mine. It was one of four mines located at Courtland. Tombstone Epitaph – April 7, 1912 A Morenci dispatch says: Seven hundred Mexicans held a meeting here last
night and organized for the purpose of securing naturalization papers and becoming citizens of the United States. Of the 700 men at the meeting 250 are already citizens, and the purpose of the gathering was to protect themselves from the injury that Senate Bill No. 21 would inflict upon their countrymen in Arizona. Morenci, Clifton, Ray and various other mines in the new state, where Mexicans are employed, have joined in a like movement. Bisbee Daily Review – April 2, 1912 A meeting of 2,000 Mexican miners and smelter workers was held at Ray this afternoon to protest against the passage of the
Kinney bill, which provides that only English speaking people shall be employed in positions of authority in mines and other places where work is hazardous. Ray is a mining and smelting town seventy miles east of here. Arizona Republican – April 4, 1910 Hayden April 3 – Mexican citizens of Ray have been holding Kinney bill meetings every night since Monday. More than 2,000 gathered last night with a band and speeches and signed a monster petition begging that a provision giving consideration to people who have been residents of this section for two hundred years. Centennial, Page 7
Copper Town Days returns to San Manuel Oct. 6 In the short two years that the Copper Town Days event has taken place; the annual reunion is becoming a favorite with current and past residents of San Manuel, Oracle and Mammoth. For an entire day, old friends can reminisce about their days underground, in the pit or in the smelter, and how those very strong bonds that came to be known as ‘The Brotherhood’; served to keep them safe on the job filled with risk and danger. Current and former resident will undoubtedly search the crowd for a familiar face and when they find one most likely will follow up with a vigorous handshake or even a big bear hug. The first event was held at the San Manuel High
School football field. A decent crowd of a little over 500 attended. The next year the event moved to the area known as the upper arcade which was the heart of San Manuel in the booming copper mining days and this time attendance was nearly 800. If the trend continues this year’s Copper Town Days reunion event could see 1,000 folks return to San Manuel for a day of fun for all ages, food, free entertainment, a car show, a softball tournament and best of all the reuniting of brothers, friends and families. An association known as Copper Town Association (CTA) was formed to conduct the planning, implementation and administration of the event. An executive board to
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oversee the business of the Association was elected and associate memberships from interested residents and other community groups were solicited. This diverse group is committed to working towards the economic development of the Tri-Community while
maintaining the proud history of copper mining in this region. CTA is now recognized as an official not for profit, tax exempt 501(c)(3) . To that end CTA adopted three community organizations who benefit from the net revenues earned at Copper Town
Days. The organizations are: Mammoth TriCommunity Food Bank, Safe Journey House in San Manuel and Adelante Juntos Coalition/El Centro Youth Center. “Ending hunger, domestic violence and substance abuse in our communities will go a long way to
improving the quality of life for our neighbors and residents so CTA is proud to support these organizations in their efforts and we applaud their commitment and hard work,” stated CTA President Marie Roybal. For more information call 520-385-4048.
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Day of the Cowboy returns to GC this October GOLD CANYON, Ariz. – The sixth annual Gold Canyon Day of the Cowboy celebration will take place this year on Oct. 13 and 14 in Gold Canyon. The “Day of the Cowboy” event celebrates the contribution that the
American Cowboy has made to this region’s rich Western history. On Sat. October 13the event will kick off with a golf tournament to benefit the Peralta Trail Elementary School hosted by the Gold Canyon Golf
Peter H. Kaufer M.D. Ophthalmology
has office hours at Sun Life Family Health Clinic in San Manuel. He also has office hours in Oro Valley and Marana. Call (520) 742-1900 for an appointment.
Tucson Eye Physicians is a well established, thriving ophthalmology medical practice with its office in Tucson and recently added San Manuel location. Founded in 1987, Tucson Eye Physicians has been providing surgical, medical and lens prescription needs to Tucson and surrounding communities. Dr. Peter Kaufer relocated with his wife and four children to join the Tucson Eye Physicians at the end of 2007 after many years of providing excellent care in Pleasanton, California. Dr. Kaufer is available at other locations in the Tucson area. Call Tucson Eye Physicians for the nearest location.
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Resort. Contact Ryan at 480-671-5566 or email Ryan@GCGR.com for tournament details. Later that day, the Mojave Muleskinners (western Gunslingers) will be creating western fun with skits and shootouts at the Gold Canyon Golf Resort starting at 4:00 p.m. and throughout the evening. The Resort will also be hosting a vendor fair and Old West games and rides from 4:00 p.m. to 8:00 p.m. that will include face painting, hot air balloon, petting and reptile zoo, as well as western photos, live music and more. Western attire is encouraged. The outdoor afternoon and
evening events are free to the public. A barbeque buffet dinner will be available at the Resort starting at 5:00 p.m. Call 480-6715517 for indoor seating reservations. Lighter fare barbeque will also be available at the outdoor Snack Shop that evening. Rounding out the evening, families are invited to bring lawn chairs and blankets to enjoy live music from 4:30 p.m. to 11:00 p.m. and a fireworks display starting at 8:00 p.m. Some parking will be available at the Resort with additional event parking available courtesy of Gold Canyon United Methodist Church (6640
S Kings Ranch Rd.). Free Shuttle Service will be provided from the Church parking lot to the Resort from 5:00 p.m. until 10:00 p.m. On Sun. October 14, the Gold Canyon United Methodist Church will host a community picnic. Enjoy free hay rides, games for kids, live music, free treats and hot dogs. This event will run from 3:00 p.m. to 6:00 p.m. For more information including scheduling updates, visit DayoftheCowboy.co (not .com). The Fireworks display is being made possible thanks to donations from the following sponsors:
SRP, Gold Canyon Golf Resort, Curis Resources Arizona Inc/ Florence Copper, Mountain Vista Medical Center, Gold Canyon Business Association(GCBA), Central Arizona College (CAC), Sysco Foods, Lori Blank and Associates, Brown and Brown Insurance, Shamrock Foods, MountainBrook Village HOA, Rossmar and Graham, Wells Fargo Bank, Right Away Disposal, Edward JonesMatt Rupert , Edward Jones – Darnell Grossi, Horne Ford and Golden Eagle Distributors. Assistance is being provided by the Apache Junction Fire District, and Pinal County.
Dia De Colores Art Festival, Oct. 20 The Superior Chamber of Commerce invites you to celebrate the cool and colorful days of Arizona autumn with the 11th annual Dia de Colores on Saturday, October 20. Founded by Lynn Heglie, Event Chairman and owner of Porter’s Cafe, and others members of the Superior Arts League, this event showcases the myriad talents of artists of all sorts, who are living in Superior or are connected with this former mining town whom sports a history that is colorful in its own right. Begin your day of fun with a pancake breakfast fundraiser, from 8-10am, at Porter’s Cafe, 404
Main St. This tasty treat is sponsored by the local Superior Optimists Club, to raise money for youth activities in Superior. Cost is $6 donation. When it’s time for a midday snack, food vendors will be available to satisfy. For a before and after lunch treat, visit the art vendors, or experience a car show featuring lowriders, classic cars and more, from 8 am – 2 pm. To add to the fun, live music by Chuck Wagon & the Wheels will be played at Porter’s Cafe in the afternoon. There will be a studio gallery tour displaying paintings, photographs, ceramics and sculptures,
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Star Dance by Charles Davison and Dia de los Muertos alters. The art tour will be open to visitors from 10 am – 3 pm and will include artist’s studios. If you are a plein air painter, you might be interested in accepting an invitation to help capture Superior scenes, of town architecture and dramatic natural features, Members of the Arizona Plein Air Painters association (APAP) will be there; and local artist Burdell Moody will offer an informal lecture about plein air painting and demonstration of his techniques Visitors can wind up their
day of color with a meetthe-artists reception from 4pm -6 pm at Porter’s Cafe. Cocktails and hors d’oeuvres will be served. Tickets are $10 for the self-guided studio/gallery tour. For more information or advance tickets, contact Heglie at phone number 520-827-9398 or Superior chamber office at 520689-0200. For updates on event planning, go online to http://www. superiorazchamber.net/ ; or, to connect with artists and all who love Superior at http://www.facebook. com/superiorarizona. chamber.
Surprise planned for Oct. 6 and 7 SASO concert You don’t expect to hear kilt-clad bagpipers at a classical music concert. But that’s part of the Southern Arizona Symphony Orchestra program on Oct. 6 and 7. The concerts feature two powerhouse favorites – Tchaikovsky’s Fifth Symphony and Beethoven’s Emperor Piano Concerto. In between, J.V. Bevan Olyphant will take the podium wearing his clan’s kilt to guest conduct the orchestra in a rousing rendition of The Flower of Scotland – accompanied by a band of local bagpipers. The piece is Scotland’s de facto national anthem and celebrates the country’s victory over the English king and his army during the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314. That charge was
led by Robert the Bruce – who happens to be Olyphant’s ancestor. Olyphant himself is quite the storied adventurer. • A University of Arizona graduate. • A Green Beret who served in Vietnam. • An former executive in the international division of Del Monte foods • The longtime vice president of Gallo wines • A black pearl farmer in the South Pacific • An instructor in the UA Honors College • A cattle rancher on the family spread near Sonoita • The father of three sons, including actor Timothy Olyphant Olyphant said that his ancestor William Oliphant “was a respected Scot who in 1304 with a garrison of 40 men held off the English Army led by
Edward I. William later joined his grandfather the King of Scotland, known as Robert The Bruce, when Edward II invaded Scotland in 1314. King Robert commanded The Scottish Regiments and William was his senior
“modern piano playing at its best.” He continues to win awards, including the Chevalier des Arts et Lettres from the French Ministry of Culture and Honorary Associate of London’s Royal Academy of Music. In 1971 he established the Round Top Festival Institute in Texas to nurture and incubate aspiring young musicians. Today this is a 210-acre campus with year round education and performance programs. Composer Vosk is a former New Yorker and graduate of the Eastman School of Music. He has written more than 75 works and called Tucson home since 1980. In 1996 he received a Tucson Pima Arts Council Composer’s Fellowship. He was recently commissioned to write a piece for the
free conducting lesson from Music Director Linus Lerner. The next opportunity to bid will be at the SASO fundraising gala on be Feb. 9. For more information, visit www.sasomusic.org or call (520) 308-6226.
Guest Conductor J.V. Bevan Olyphant
SASO season opens with Jay Vosk premiere, Emperor Concerto with pianist James Dick TUCSON, Ariz. – The season opener of the Southern Arizona Symphony Orchestra features the premiere of Running the Rim by Tucson composer Jay Vosk, plus Beethoven’s Emperor Concerto with pianist James Dick and Tchaikovsky’s Symphony No. 5 in E minor. Music Director Linus Lerner returns to the SASO podium following a summer of travel to conduct in Mexico, Brazil and China. Dick launched his career by winning several international competitions. His performances – recitals, chamber music, concertos and recordings – are said to radiate intellectual insight and emotional authenticity. The New York Times writes that Dick represents
officer. William was also a signer of The Declaration of Arbroath in1320, the most significant statement in all of Scottish History.” Olyphant is the sixth winner of the annual bid to conduct the orchestra. The winner receives a
Linus Lerner National Symphony Orchestra. Running the Rim will be one of several recorded for possible inclusion in the orchestra’s first professional CD release showcasing Tucson’s talented composers. Tchaikovsky’s fifth symphony is considered his greatest. The theme SASO, Page 31
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Centennial Continued from Page 3 Many miners not qualified in English have families living in Arizona that subsist on wages sent from here. But a majority have families with them. Ray Consolidated employs 1500 Mexicans who support a population of 7,000 in Sonora.
The protesters believe that the treaty under which Mexico ceded this section of the country to the United States is broken if the measure becomes a law. An arrangement is materializing to mould the voters in the state into a body to defeat any person or measure which seeks to arouse prejudice. This element holds the balance of power
in this and some other counties. Tombstone Epitaph – May 19. 1912 The Kinney anti-alien labor bill was pigeonholed in the House and probably will not be passed at this session. The governor has signed the child labor law, the eight hour day in mines and smelters, and several other bills of minor
importance. Graham Guardian – August 30, 1912 Miami is to give the greatest Labor Day celebration next Monday that has ever been seen in the southwest. Every detail has been worked out. There will be a continuous round of pleasure from the time the train arrives until it leaves.
Pinal Mountain Foundation Oktoberfest set for Oct. 6 Pinal Mountain Foundation for Higher Education will be hosting their fourth annual Oktoberfest Sat., Oct. 6 at Veteran’s Memorial Park (the park in front of the Globe Municipal Building), 150 North Pine Street between Oak and Cedar Streets in Globe. Festivities begin at 11:00 a.m. and go until 8:00 p.m., admission is free. Refreshments will include German bratwurst, hot dogs, sodas and a beer garden sponsored by Nackard. The Pinal Mountain Elks Lodge will pour the beer.
Assorted entertainment will be on going throughout the event and will be directed by Big John. Featured entertainer will be Greywolf playing classic rock, blues and other requests. Band members include Deanna Meeks, Buz Sneezy, Larry Clark, Wayne Holland and Dave Schreck. Several vendors will also be joining the Oktoberfest. Make Oktoberfest your fall kick-off celebration while supporting education through scholarships. There is ample space for vendor booths. Vendors
are sought for everything but main course food and drinks. Applications and information for vendor booths can be obtained by calling John O’Donnell at 928.812.1010 or Ron Carnahan at 928.812.0653. PMFHE is a 501(c)(3) organization that raises money for scholarships
that are awarded to in-need students attending Gila Community College at the Gila Pueblo or San Carlos Campuses. For more information about PMFHE or the upcoming Oktoberfest, call Ron Carnahan at 928-8120653 or John O’Donnell at 928-812-1010.
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The Safford Brass Band will attend the Miami celebration in full dress uniform. The excursion train will leave Solomon at 6:50 am, Safford, 7:02 Thatcher 7:09, Pima 7:19. The rate is one fare for the round trip. Graham Guardian – August 23, 1912 The people of Miami have completed their arrangements for one of the grandest Labor Day celebrations ever given in the southwest, and are prepared to entertain an immense crowd. There will be a baseball game between a valley team
and Miami for $250, horse races, cricket match, hose race, water fights, relay foot races, ring tournament, pony race, burro race, fat man’s race, egg race, fat women’s race, pipe race, potato race, 3-legged race, sack race and a number of other contests, all for prizes, besides immense barbecue. Tombstone Epitaph – August 25, 1912 A bull dog fight for a wager of $400 the match to be conducted under rules and rounds of three minutes each is scheduled as a Labor Day attraction at Courtland on Sept. 2.
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The History of Tiger, Arizona – 19421953: Magma San Manuel’s beginning By Daryl F. Mallett with Kim K. Howell & Farlow C. Davis Already published portions of this story are used with permission of BHP Billiton and Farlow C. Davis. Tiger again became the source of strategic metals at the start of World War II. Vanadium production statistics were withheld from the public by the U.S. Bureau of Mines as “war secrets.” After the United States entered the war, labor was short in the district, so the U.S. Army discharged 65 men and sent them to work in the mines. The MammothSt. Anthony Mining Company struggled through the war and probably would have failed were it not for the bonuses the government was paying for its metals. In 1942, the Mammoth-Tiger Extension Mining Company cleaned out the underground workings of the Ford Mine. The company erected a new headframe; installed new ladders, platforms, air and water lines in the shaft; built a hoist house, blacksmith shed and supply house; installed tanks, a compressor and hoist. The shaft, which was allowed to flood in 1920, was completely dry by 1942. Pumping in the nearby mines at Tiger had lowered the water table below the bottom of the Ford shaft. The ore, which was blocked out at this time, was reported to assay 3.02% lead, 1.75 ounces of silver per ton, 7.8 ounces of gold per ton and 3.7% copper. In 1943, the U.S. Bureau of Mines began exploratory chum drilling on the San Manuel copper deposit, adjacent to Tiger. The drilling was begun on the recommendation of B. S. Butler of the University of Arizona and N. P. Peterson of the U.S. Geological Survey. By June 1943, the labor shortage at Tiger was critical. The company was exploring the possibility of importing
Mexican nationals and again requested U.S. troops to help mine the strategic metals at the mines. Production was down 50%; peacetime employment had been 415-500 men and there were now only 340 on the payroll. The company needed about 100 more men to achieve full production. At the time, Tiger had one of only two processing plants in the United States which could separate molybdenum and vanadium from other metals. By June 1943, J. L. Fozard was general manager of both
St. Anthony Mining and Development Company and Mammoth-St. Anthony Ltd., which were still operating the Tiger mines jointly. In October 1943, the War Production Board granted a 40 cents per shift pay increase to the employees, retroactive to June. This increase was a result of a dispute between the company and the Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers Union. It brought the base pay of the miners to $6.40 per day, with annual vacations of seven days a year at six days’ pay. By November, William
Above two photos: The area around the No. 1 Shaft, circa 1948. Courtesy of Frank V. Madrid.
Walter’s drilling rig, looking east at No. 2. Shaft, circa 1949. Courtesy of Frank V. Madrid.
Miller, a rancher from Higley, Arizona, and partners had control of the MammothTiger Extension Mining Company. They engaged the services of a prominent Phoenix mining engineer to investigate whether or not Mammoth-St. Anthony had crossed underground onto their claims at the Ford Mine. The engineer, Mr. Colvocoresses, visited both mining properties and determined that the nearest workings on the Collins vein were no closer than 1,000 feet to the Mammoth-Tiger Extension sideline. By this time, the MammothTiger Extension had been
denied further loans from the Reconstruction Finance Corporation, which had placed a lien on the ore and a mortgage on the equipment at the Ford Mine. The company approached Mammoth-St. Anthony about the possible purchase of the Ford property, paying off the Reconstruction Finance Corporation loan as part of the sale. MammothSt. Anthony had found no extensions of the Ford vein on any of its property, and had found no ore on the Dream Vein or the Collins East vein, on the Ford side of its holdings. Mammoth-St. Anthony therefore considered the Ford
property to be of little value and declined to purchase it. In December 1943, Mammoth-St. Anthony was not in the best financial condition anyway. The company was on the verge of shutting down at any time, due to extremely high pumping costs. The only thing keeping it in operation were government bonus payments for the strategically important molybdenum and vanadium, lead and zinc that the mines were producing. During 1944, the Magma Copper Company, under general manager Wesley P. Goss (1899-1984), purchased the Tiger, Page 10
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Old Highway 77 looking into the open pit area, 1950. Courtesy of Frank V. Madrid.
Curley Winigerâ€™s rig at Hole No. 64, 1946. Courtesy of Frank V. Madrid.
Continued from Page 8 21 claims which made up the San Manuel property. Magma continued the exploratory drilling there. About the same time, a group of claims to the north of the original group, and held by the Apex Lead Vanadium Mining Corp., and a group to the east, held by the Quarelli family, were optioned. On September 3, 1944, the Mohawk shaft caught fire. All of the timbering in the shaft was destroyed, along with the headframe, hoist house, warehouse, coarse ore bins, coarse crushing plant, fine crushing plant and all wiring and pipe lines. The shaft was filled with tailings, first to put out the fire, and then used as a work platform. Shortly after the fire broke out, the pumps in the shaft failed, shutting off the water supply for the entire 1,400 person community, as well as the firefighting efforts. The fire was not put out until help arrived from DavisMonthan Air Force Base in Tucson. The company arranged to haul water from the town until the pumps could be put back into operation. Mrs. Jamie Dicus, who was a young child living in Tiger at the time, recalled vividly the huge cloud of
smoke billowing up from the headframe. It went on hour after hour, and the entire town was in a state of turmoil. At that time, John A. Richards was general manager, Henry Carlisle was consulting engineer, R. Eddy Sr. was mine superintendent and C. E. Craven was mill and smelter superintendent. All of the employees were kept on the payroll after the fire, doing clean-up and repair work. The mine pumps were back online in three days. Most of the clean-up work was completed by September 12. By November 15, the shaft
had been repaired by a rather ingenious method. The Mohawk shaft was accessible underground through the Mammoth shaft. The burnedout shaft was filled to within 15 feet of the collar with mill tailings, which were loaded by hand into trucks and dumped into the shaft. New timbers were erected at the collar and set in concrete. The tailings were then drawn out of the shaft from below in stages, far enough to allow the workmen a floor to stand on while they installed new timber. This method eliminated the hazard of working in an open shaft, over a 900 foot deep hole. As work progressed downward, the air was sampled frequently, and care was taken to remove any carbon monoxide left from the fire. A steel headframe was purchased from the Verde Central Mine in Arizona, a hoist from the Atolia Mine in California. Compressors and steel ore bins were scavenged. The truck hauling the hoist overturned on its way to the mines, destroying the hoist; another one had to be purchased and hauled from Tonopah, Nevada. The change of hoists forced the workmen to tear out and remodel the newly installed foundation for the headframe. While the fire damage was being cleaned up and repaired, the mill, which was not damaged by the fire, was overhauled. New steel ore bins and crushers were installed there. Before the fire, all of the ore was hoisted from the Mammoth shaft and carried
Red Hill, 1946. Courtesy of Frank V. Madrid.
by tramway to the crushing plant and mill near the Mohawk shaft. After the wooden tram towers near the Mohawk shaft burned, it was decided to equip the Mohawk shaft for hoisting ore. After the shaft was repaired, it was deepened and sulfide ore was mined from the lower part of the Collins vein, between the 700- and 900-foot levels. The minerals that were of primary significance now were lead and zinc minerals, galena and sphalerite. After the end of World War II, St. Anthony continued to produce lead and zinc ore from the lower levels of the Collins vein. On December 31, 1945, Mammoth-St. Anthony Ltd. was formally dissolved. St. Anthony Mining and Development Company continued to operate the properties at Tiger, now as a single entity. The primary function of Mammoth-St. Anthony, which had been to handle shipments, was taken over by St. Anthony Mining and Development Production of lead and zinc from the mines continued, with 1946 production exceeding that of 1945. In 1948, underground exploration began at nearby San Manuel. The San Manuel Copper Corporation had been formed by Magma in 1945. Exploratory drilling on that property was completed in 1948 and the company began sinking the No. 1 shaft. The year 1949 marked a peak in demand for and production of lead and zinc. A taperingoff in production began in Tiger, Page 31
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Magma: Superior’s history rich with more than copper By John Hernandez The remote and rugged country surrounding present day Superior up to GlobeMiami, and the HaydenWinkelman area was land occupied by the Apaches. It would take the arrival of the United States Army to make the area relatively safe for prospectors and settlers. General George Stoneman and his troops established Pinal Camp in 1870. One year later, Stoneman moved the camp to the foot of Picket Post Mountain and named it Camp Picket Post. The troops then began building a road through the Pinal Mountains toward Globe. The road known as Stoneman’s Grade was never completed but played a part in the discovery of the Silver King mine. While working on the road, a soldier named Sullivan discovered a piece of native silver. After leaving the army, Sullivan searched for the area where he found the silver but never discovered it. Before he died he told a rancher named Mason about his discovery. In 1873 silver was discovered at Globe which led to a surge of prospectors in the surrounding areas which included present day Superior. That same year, the rancher Mason and four other partners found Sullivan’s silver lode three miles north
of present day Superior and at the foot of Stoneman’s Grade. The Silver King mine was a rich strike and the town of Silver King rapidly grew around the mine. The town of Pinal also boomed during this time as it was the site of the mill. Workers and prospectors flocked to the area from all over the country even though travel in the area was dangerous due to Apache marauders. The Silver King mine operated from 1875 to 1889 and reopened again from 1918 to 1928. During that time the mine produced 6.2 million troy ounces of silver. The towns of Silver King and Pinal died out in 1888. With the success of the Silver King, more prospecting was being done in the area. In 1875, Irene Vail located the Irene Claim and William Tuttle discovered the Hub Claim. Both of these claims would later compose the Silver Queen mine and eventually become the nucleus of the Magma Mine in Superior. A group of old mining claims known as the Gem and Hastings group were discovered shortly thereafter. Mills were constructed and were worked from 1876 to 1882. The gold mining claims also played a significant role in the establishment of the town of Superior. The town that sprung up around
the mines was first called Queen then Hastings. After 1889 there was little mining activity in the area. In 1897 an Englishman named George Lobb who had worked as a level boss in the Silver King mine, relocated the Gem & Hastings claims and renamed them the Golden Eagle Group. In 1902, Lobb sold the Golden Eagle Group to a Michigan company, the Lake Superior and Arizona Mining Company (L.S. & A). Lobb had built a general store with living quarters which was located on Main Street at the site of the parking lot of
Superior’s present day post office. Lobb laid out the plans for a town and on December 29, 1902 the Superior Post Office was established in Lobb’s general store. Lobb was the town’s first postmaster. The L.S. & A. had been interested in the copper in the area and not the gold holdings. By October of 1902 the mine started operations. The mine continued to prosper bringing more people to Superior until 1909 when the company considered closing its operations. In 1910 William Boyce
Thompson, a man from Montana who was known to take mining properties that were failing or considered worthless and turn them into moneymakers, was in Arizona looking for such properties. He had recently acquired the Inspiration mine in the Globe area and was already sure that it would be prosperous. Thompson bought the Silver Queen mining properties for $130,000. He and his partner George Gunn then organized the Magma Copper Company. The L.S.A. mine shut down in 1912 and was purchased by the Magma Copper Company
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The old Magms smelter in Superior still remains as part of Resolution Copper’s property. (Mila Besich-Lira photos)
shortly after. Magma contracted with John Hendricks to haul the high grade ore from the concentrator and mine to Florence. The hauling was done by wagons. Each load consisted of a lead wagon with two trailer wagons powered by 32 horses or mules. The loads were 30 tons each. Hendricks was paid $10 per ton or $7.50 a ton each way if the return trip included supplies for Magma. It was then loaded on the Phoenix and Eastern Railroad cars and transported to the American Smelting & Refining Company (ASARCO) at Hayden. The trip would take over a day weather permitting. Management at Magma realized that this was an expensive way to have their ore processed and looked for other methods to save money. An aerial tramway from Superior to Miami was considered as well as building a truck road Ray but construction costs would be high. They finally settled on a railroad from Superior to Webster (now Magma Junction) on the Phoenix & Eastern Railroad line. The Magma Arizona Railroad was then organized. By 1920 the mine had increased in size and value and management made a business decision to build their own smelter. The town of Superior had undergone many changes during these years. Magma built a frame hospital and provided a clubhouse for employees that contained a gymnasium, swimming pool, and tennis court. Hotels were constructed and streets laid out and named for early day residents such as Lobb Avenue. The town grew into two communities one called “American Town” and the other “Mexican Town”. On November 24, 1927 one of the worst mining disasters in Arizona history took place at the Magma mine in Superior. During the “graveyard shift”, a fire swept down the number 2 shaft. This shaft was an intake shaft. There were 49 men Superior, Page 30
Kearny, Hayden, Winkelman have strong By John Hernandez In 1846 General Stephen Watts Kearny and the Army of the West, which included
the Mormon Battalion, passed through the area along the Gila River we now know as the Ray Mine, HaydenJerry Lopez 928.812.1548 Ralph Baker 928.473.4435 700 Sullivan St. Miami, AZ 85539 LopezFinest01 @yahoo.com
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Winkelman and the town that bears his name Kearny. They camped in the area where a creek fed the Gila River. Lieutenant William H. Emory named the small flowing water Mineral Creek because of the geological signs that there were minerals in the area. After Camp Grant was built and United States Army troops began regularly patrolling the area, Mineral Creek and the area around this part of the Gila River would lure prospectors searching for gold and silver. Although some silver and gold was found in the area, it would be copper that would drive the mining investments in the area. The Mineral Creek Mining District was formed by Tom Haley and William Souffrien in 1878. Two companies would be formed to mine the area, the Mineral Creek Mining Company in 1880 and the Ray Copper Company in 1883. Other mining companies in the vicinity included the Pinal Copper Company and Pinal Consolidated Mining Company that mined lead and silver ores in the Mineral Hill District. Butte City about eleven miles below Kelvin would be the site of a smelter for these ores. The smelter was shut down in 1882 due to lack of fuel. Five beehive shaped kilns were then built along the Gila River to make charcoal from the trees along the surrounding hills. The now
ghost town of Cochran was located across the river from the kilns in 1905. The fuel would allow the company to produce two million pounds of lead and silver during the first six months of 1883. Litigation problems would lead to the mine and smelter closing leaving Butte City a ghost town.
he community of Skinnerville would start up about five miles from Ray. It would be renamed Troy in 1904. The smelter there produced copper although it would be a ghost town by 1910. A British corporation, the Globe Exploration Company, Ltd. Arrived in the Ray area in 1898. The company based in London acquired
many of the mining claims around Mineral Creek and the surrounding areas. In 1899 the Ray Copper Mines, Inc. took over the operations. The company founded the town of Kelvin, named after British Lord Kelvin. A mill, narrow gauge railroad, office buildings and shops were constructed at Kelvin. The railway linked the mine and
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Above are photos of the smelting process at the Asarco Hayden Smelter. Molten copper is poured into forms and anodes are the end product. (Photos courtesy of Bill Loehr of Asarco.)
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Trucks like this one are used to haul the ore to the processing area at the Asarco Ray Mine. (John Hernandez photo) mill. Ore had to be transported by wagon to the nearest Southern Pacific Railroad at the town of Red Rock, which was sixty miles away. Kelvin’s population peaked at around 1,000 during this time. Mexican and MexicanAmerican workers went on strike in 1901 and 1902. The workers asked for an eighthour workday and wanted pay increased to $3 per day. The mining operation failed within three years and the British investors pulled out. In 1906 an American investment group took over the British holdings. The group led by Daniel C. Jackling formed two companies, Ray Copper Company and Gila Copper Company to work the district. In 1910 the companies merged to form the Ray Consolidated Copper Company (Ray Con). Louis S. Cates was placed in charge of operations. Cates would develop the block caving method of underground mining at the Ray Mine. The company was part of the Guggenheim conglomerate and acquired more mining properties surrounding the area, which allowed them to dominate the mining industry in the area until 1926. During this period the town of
Hayden was built near the water supply of the Gila River in 1909. The smelter operations were established there in 1911. Underground mining operations were underway at Ray also in 1911. The towns of Ray, Sonora and Barcelona soon followed. “Arizona’s First World Warera labor activism began with a series of incidents at Ray” according to labor historian Mellinger. Between 1,000 and 1,500 workers walked of the job slowing down production in 1915. It was said that an antiMexican social climate perpetuated by Ray Con led to the labor strife. The strike was settled within a month and America’s entry into World War I stifled the national labor
movement for many years to come. After World War I, operations were cut back and eventually shutdown in 1921. Many workers moved away from the area. Operations started up again in 1922. In 1926 the Nevada Consolidated Copper Company absorbed Ray Con. The following year they bought the Arizona Hercules Copper Company. Then the Great Depression hit. The smelter operations were shut down in 1931 followed by the closing of the mine in 1933. That same year Kennecott Copper Company purchased the Nevada Consolidated Copper Company holdings. The Ray, Page 25
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Local artist influenced by history of copper country By John Hernandez Jerry Parra has lived in the Copper Corridor area all his life. He was born in the copper mining town of Tiger in 1951. He grew up in the TriCommunity area. He and his wife Sue own the Ranch Store Center in Oracle where they have lived for over 27 years. The unique store is filled with antiques, resale items and Parra’s larger than life fabricated metal sculptures and yard art. Much of Parra’s work is inspired by the history
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and people of Oracle and the Copper Corridor area. The Indians and their culture as well as the old west and of course mining can be seen in his work. After all, a metal sculptor would not exist without mining. Without the mines, there would be no metal. = Parra’s sculptures are made of recycled metal, wire, motor cycle and car parts, stainless steel and copper. Parra was fortunate to have been able to buy scrap metal from BHP when they closed down the mine and smelter. He also purchased 32ore cars and underground mining equipment. Many of these cars can be seen at the Ranch Store Center. An original metal sign made by workers at the Magma Mine underground blacksmith shop was salvaged. One of Parra’s sculptures, “Mixed Cultures” uses copper Artist, Page 32
Jerry Parra’s Mixed Cultures
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The Ore Cart at Mammoth: Jerry Parra’s Skeleton Crew
“We breathe life into cold steel and call it – ‘RAILROAD.’”
~ L.S. “Jake” Jacobson
The Copper Basin Railway People A NOTE FROM THE PUBLISHER: Jake Jacobson was chosen as North America’s “Railroad Man of the Year” in 1994, the Copper Basin “Citizen of Year” in 1998 and one of the “Century’s Great Railroaders” in 2000.
Tiger and Mammoth-St. Anthony Mines: the beginnings of the Tri-Community By John Hernandez The first mining claim at Tiger was made by Charles Dyke and T.C. Weed and was named the Hackney. The claim was made on a quartz vein that became known as the Collins vein. The first known gold produced in the area was in 1881. The surface mining did not produce enough to make the claim profitable. In 1882, an Austrian Immigrant, Frank Schultz filed two claims along the Collins vein, the Mars and the Mammoth. It was said that around 1880 Schultz had been prospecting in what is now Oracle along with Albert Weldon and Alex McKay. For some reason Schultz got mad, found his way down to the present location of Mammoth, and while prospecting located the Schultz mine. Weldon and McKay are considered to be the founders of Oracle. Schultz along with a partner named Goldtree began developing the claim. Goldtree installed a Dyer Cannon Ball mill on the banks of the San Pedro River. The mill was projected to crush 12 tons of ore a day but had been installed incorrectly
and was a failure. Schultz and Goldtree sold or leased the claim to a company from Nevada in 1884. They sunk the Mammoth shaft to a depth of 118 feet. Later in the year, the mine was sold to George Fletcher a wealthy lumberman from Michigan. Fletcher hired Captain Johnson as his manager. The Mammoth shaft was deepened to 300 feet where another gold vein was found. A 30 stamp mill was built along the San Pedro and workers began coming into the area. By 1887 a U.S. Post Office was established for the town of Mammoth. The control of the Mammoth mine was turned over to a British syndicate, Mammoth Gold Mines, in 1889. Around this time another nearby mine, the Mohawk, claim began development. There were two shafts sunk to 300 feet and a 10-stamp mill was built nearby. They began production in 1896 at the rate of 70 tons a day. A U.S. Post office was established for the town of Schultz which had grown around the two mines. Frank Schultz never got rich off his claims. He established a store in the town
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named after him and continued to prospect in the area. He died in 1918 and is buried in the old Mammoth cemetery. In 1897 the company that owned the mine changed its name to Mammoth Collins Gold Mines, Ltd. The official combined production of the Mammoth and Collins mines was 150,000 ounces of gold from 350,000 tons of ore through 1901. The year 1901 found Mammoth Collins Gold Mines, Ltd. Embroiled in litigation. In April there was a massive cave in which resulted in the closing of the mine and milling operations. The operations would lie dormant for 12 years. During this time the Mammoth mill was destroyed by a fire. The Post office at Schultz was closed in 1902 and the town of Mammoth’s population dwindled to about 300. Mining activity picked up in Schultz in 1906 as the Mohawk Gold Mining Company was refinanced and reorganized. However, the mine would close in 1912 after producing 20,000 ounces of gold. In 1913 the Young brothers, millionaires from Iowa obtained an option on the Mammoth-Collins claim group. They proposed some grandiose plans which included deepening the Mammoth shaft to 1800 feet, running a power line from the Ray Consolidated power plant in Hayden to Schultz and building a railroad down the San Pedro Valley to Winkelman. None of these plans worked out and by 1914, the operation died without producing any ore. World War I was raging in Europe in 1914 and altered
Boarding house and bunk houses, Tiger, AZ 1948. Courtesy of Frank V. Madrid. the worldwide metals market. Molybdenum once thought of as simply a waste material became a valuable commodity used in the steel industry. A corporation was formed called the Arizona Rare metals Company. The company gained control of the old mill tailings at Mammoth. They built a processing plant to concentrate wulfenite. Their operation was so successful that they enlarged and remodeled the plant the following year. The concentrate was worth $300 a ton. The concentrate was bagged into 150-pound sacks and loaded onto freight teams. The freight wagons were owned by J.L. Clark of Mammoth and hauled the concentrate to Tucson where it was loaded onto a train and shipped to a refinery in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. From 1914 to 1917 this operation accounted for all of the molybdenum marketed in the United States. The Mammoth Development Company was formed between late 1917 and early 1918 for the purpose of acquiring and operating the Mammoth and
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Collins mines. Just as the mine was starting up again, the main shaft caught on fire due to gasoline dripping near a compressor exhaust pipe. No one was killed as the miners were able to escape through another shaft. By April 100 men were working at the mine. In 1919 the company was renamed St. Anthony Mining and Development Company. By the end of the year the molybdenum market had vanished and the mining and processing operations were shut down. The production totals during the years 1916 – 1919 were 10,450 ounces of gold and 447,876 pounds of molybdenum. Mining activity in the 1920s was non-existent in the early 1920s and sporadic from 1925 until the early 1930s. Much of the reason was the Great Depression. The Mammoth-St. Anthony Mining Company, Ltd. was formed in 1934. In 1935 important investments were made and development of the mine began in earnest. Continuous electrical power was brought to Mammoth from Hayden which received power from the Coolidge Dam. Mammoth-St. Anthony had paid $60,000 to install the 24 miles of power lines and made a deal with the U.S. Government. The mine properties received reduced electrical rates in exchange for building the power lines. The town of Mammoth now received power and in 1939 the line was extended to Oracle. In 1937 the Mammoth-St.
Anthony Mining Company purchased the Molybdenum Gold Mining Company mill. With newer technology at the mill claimed a 90 percent recovery rate. From the mine ore gold, silver, lead, molybdenum and vanadium were extracted. Copper and zinc production would not be reported until 1943. By 1938 the mine employed 122 men and produced 9,000 tons of ore a month. On March 15, 1939 a Post Office was established in the growing area around the mine. The new town was christened Tiger which the mine had been commonly called since the 1920s. The town’s population peaked at around 1,800 and the company employed 500. During World War II there was a labor shortage due to able-bodied men being called into military service. As the Tiger mine produced strategic metals, some soldiers were released from service early to work in Tiger. The mine looked at the possibility of bringing in Mexican nationals to work. After the war lead and zinc continued to be mined but little else. In 1951 mining of lead and zinc declined due to a flood of imports. In Dec. 1952 the Tiger mine suspended operations. On Feb. 11, 1953, Magma Copper Company purchased nearly all of the property of St. Anthony Mining and Development at Tiger. The Post Office was closed on Nov. 26, 1954 and the town evacuated. Many Tiger families moved their homes to Mammoth and Oracle.
Congratulations on National Copper Month!
y l i Em
STATE REPRESENTATIVE As a Native Arizonan, I believe in: Better Schools: All Arizonans must have the opportunity of a quality education from Pre-K to Higher Ed Stronger Economy: We must provide a solid economic infrastructure that will create jobs for Arizona’s working families Healthier Families: All Arizonans deserve adequate and accessible coverage and care
• Raised in Arizona’s copper mining communities and believes in strong, diverse economic opportunities for Legislative District 8 • During her time on the Coolidge City Council, fought for sustainability and quality of life • A champion for low-income and marginalized families throughout the district by serving on United Way of Pinal County, the Foster Care Review Board and Arizona Community Action Association
“This is the time for leadership and real solutions for Arizona and District 8. I ask for your vote and support to make
Arizona Stronger, Better, Together.”
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Curious about Curis? When did Florence become a Copper town? By Mila Besich-Lira Florence has always played a important role in the history and the economy of Arizona and Pinal County. This quiet small town has been known for ranching, farming and as a prison town. This historic Arizona town has most recently become a mecca for new housing developments and an expanding prisoner population all while the town continues to work on historic preservation and downtown redevelopment. One thing Florence has never been is a mining community. Copper mining was an industry of their sister Pinal County communities of Superior, Kearny, Mammoth, San Manuel and Oracle but it was not something that Florence was recognized for. That was the case until the 1960s when American Smelting and Refining Company (ASARCO) began exploring for new copper deposits in the area and in the 1970s Continental Oil Company (Conoco) recorded the first copper intercepts in the area and constructed two shafts and one mile of cross cuts. Conoco then studied the ore grades via milling, floatation and vat leaching plants but the project never really solidified. During the 1990s Magma Copper Company conducted pre-feasibility studies to determine what mining methods should be used they determined that an in-situ copper recovery type of mining should be used. During the 1990s Broken Hill Propriators (BHP) purchased all of the regional Magma Copper properties (Superior, Pinto Valley, San Manuel). BHP
continued the development of the Florence Copper Project constructing 67 injection, production and monitoring wells and they had major environmental permits in place by the end of 1999. In 2000 BHP determined that it was not economically feasible to move forward with the project due to low metal prices and the Florence Copper project sat dormant with valuable minerals ready to be mined for 10 years. In 2009, almost 40 years after ASARCO began studying the project, Curis, which is a subsidary of Hunter Dickinson Inc., acquired the Florence Copper property, forming Curis Resources Ltd. in 2010 and acquiring a mineral lease from the State of Arizona. With mineral values at the highest prices they have been, the company sees a profitable venture that will create high paying jobs and will diversify the economy for Florence. The project, which is currently being used as a farm, will also reduce current water consumption on the property by 50 percent once the mine is in operation. Curis Resouces Ltd. will reduce current water consumption by using reclaimed water from mining operations to water the crops in the farm land. Mining operations and expansions often become a source of controversy even in traditional mining communities. The Florence Copper Project has not been exempt from that opposition. Those in opposition of the project worry that their water will be contaminated by the In-Situ project and while the company has hosted numerous educational
open houses to explain the safety measures put in place to protect the water and explain the economic benefits, those in opposition continue to find ways to oppose the project. Recently the Florence Town Council passed an ordinance which will ban sulfuric acid to be used within town limits, with the exception of its use in farm operations. The majority of the opposition has been promoted by large land owners who want to develop the land on and near the Florence Copper project; those plans, if residential, at build out would allow Florence to become the size of Tucson. In-Situ mining is one of the simplest forms of mining; it will not require miners to go underground, and this type of mining will not create an open pit leaving a scar for all to see. To extract the copper ore, Curis will use injection and recovery wells which are drilled deep into the bedrock to the ore body. A low pH solution, ,similar in strength to household vinegar or lemon juice, is pumped under low pressure through the injection wells. The solution dissolves the copper and then the copper rich solution is pumped through recovery
wells. The solution is then processed into pure copper cathode sheets. The injection and recovery wells are encased in a high impact, corrosive-resistant pipe, which is approved by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Arizona Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ). The wells are then protected by concrete casing which prevents the injected solution from contaminating the land. To ensure that the water quality or land is not contaminated, Curis currently has 31 compliance monitoring wells which have been in place since 1996 and continue to monitor the water quality of the area. When you compare the ore samples at the Florence Copper to say the Resolution Copper project, there are vast differences in the samples. The core samples from the Florence Copper project break easily in your hand similarly to when you break a mud clod. Core samples from other mines usually stay in one long cylinder shape; you would need superhuman strength to break it apart with your hand. The project will be Curis, Page 23
Test wells like the one above and at left have been in place for years. (Mila Besich-Lira photos)
The Element of Community. Using innovative, low-impact mining techniques at Florence Copper, our land is perfectly usable for development after copper recovery is complete. That means hundreds of acres of Florence land will be available for new parks, new business and and new growth for all.
Copper. Creating opportunities from the ground up.
Events & Happenings in the Copper Basin KEARNY • HAYDEN • WINKELMAN Oktoberfest
October 5 & 6, Kearny, AZ
at r ad .com u o See ona Ariz n i s u r
Car Show • Salsa Contest Rural Fireman’s Chili Cook off • Vendors Children’s Activities • Friday Night Movies Drawings & Prizes
Coming October 27th ...
Great Punkin 4 pm • Trunk-N-Treat 5 pm Halls of horror 7 pm This is not the day for Trick or Treating!
Winter Wonderland 2012 Coming December 1st 3rd Annual
Copper Basin Women’s Expo March 9th
Pioneer Days 2013 March 21-24
Legends & Lore
Volunteer or Donate Today! Call 520.363.7607
Curis Continued from Page 20
under strict oversight and regulation by the EPA, ADEQ, Arizona Department of Water Resources and the Arizona State Land Department. This summer, Curis Resources Ltd. submitted
Nugget an application to conduct test facility operations on two acres of state trust land for the drilling and operation of 24 wells over a 12-18 month period. Their plans during the test phase is to optimize and confirm engineering designs, demonstrate the technical considerations
with regulators and ensure compliance with all permitting requirements. The test phase will also allow the company to demonstrate and enhance best water management and new treatment technologies. The test process will help the company to secure capital and estimate the operating costs for the operation. The company is currently waiting on permits to begin their test phase operations. Once permitting is in place and the operation
is in full operation they expect that the mine will be in operation for at least 19 years and will produce 76.5 million pounds of copper. There is not yet a time frame determined for when the mine will be fully permitted and operational. For more information on the Florence Copper Project or Curis Resources Ltd. visit them online at www. florencecopperproject.com or call them at 520-3743984 to sign up for a mine tour.
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Above and above right: Core samples from the Curis Florence Copper Project are quite mushy and break apart easily. (Mila Besich-Lira photos)
Core sample slice from an early test at Resolution Copper, Superior. Notice that it is quite dense. (Jennifer Carnes photo)
GROW your business Advertise in the Nugget Call (520) 385-2266
****The Arizona School Tax Credit ****
YOUR TAX CREDIT DONATION TO SIERRA OAKS COMMUNITY SCHOOL CAN HELP MAKE A GREAT SCHOOL EVEN BETTER
The Arizona Revised Statute (A.R.S.)ยง 43.1089.01 allows taxpayers to receive a tax credit up to $200.00 for single and $400.00 if married and filing jointly, for fees paid to schools in Arizona for the support of extracurricular activities or character education programs. The contributions are used directly for student activities and programs. You may specify a program for tax credit money may be allotted to a General Extracurricular Fund. Every donation will be appreciated and the students will benefit greatly. Remember this is a no cost method to support our students by benefiting the school and taxpayer. What can you do to help? Write a check and mail it to:
Sierra Oaks School 650 West Linda Vista Road, Oracle, AZ 85623 We would love to have you visit the school to see how your contribution will help. If you have any questions or would like to make an appointment to visit, please call us at (520) 896-3100.
Sierra Oaks School Please apply the enclosed donation of $___________ for the support of extracurricular activities at Sierra Oaks School. Donor Name: _______________________________________ Address: _________________________________________ Phone #: __________________ ______ Please use my contribution for the General Extracurricular Fund. ______ I would like to specify my contribution to the following program. ______________________ (signature) A receipt will be mailed upon receiving your contribution. Thank you in advance for your support.
Kennecott’s holdings in 1986 along with the railway between the Ray mine and Hayden smelter. The Copper Basin Railway was then contracted with to haul the ore. In 1999 Asarco was acquired by Grupo Mexico. During this time Grupo Mexico, S.A. de C.V. was the world’s third largest producer of copper, fourth larges of silver and fifth largest of zinc. Today the ASARCO Grupo Mexico Ray mine employs over 800 people. The Ray mine operations consist of a 250,000 ton a day open pit mine with a 30,000 ton/day concentrator. The Hayden smelter operation employs 390 people and consists of a 27,400ton a day concentrator and 720,000 tons per year copper smelter. The Copper Basin Railway transports ore from the Ray mine to the Hayden concentrator and concentrate from the Ray concentrator to the Hayden smelter as well as sulphuric acid from the smelter to leaching facilities at the mine.
Continued from Page 15 mine was reopened in 1937 and many workers returned to the area as well as new employees. Open pit mining began developing in 1952 leading to the closing of underground operations in 1955. The rise of open pit mining would eventually lead to the destruction of the towns of Sonora, Ray and Barcelona which now lies buried in the open pit mine now owned by Asarco Grupo Mexico. It would also lead to the creation of the town of Kearny in 1958. The American Smelting and Refining Company (Asarco) would purchase the Hayden smelter from Kennecott in 1955. In 1958 Kennecott built another smelter in Hayden. The Kennecott smelter would be closed in 1982. Asarco modernized their Hayden in 1983 and processed Kennecott’s ore. Asarco purchased
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Future mining projects promise jobs By Chase Kamp Copper Area News Arizonans are wellaware of the state’s deeply entrenched “five C’s” of industry, and since the 1800s, the big one for eastern Pinal County has been copper. Mining booms forged the foundations for many cities in the region, which has come to be known as the Copper Corridor. Certainly, the area has also faced its share of mining busts throughout its weathered history. However, mining remains the area’s cornerstone industry and numerous mining projects are on the horizon, promising to be economic engines and providers of much-needed jobs in the wake of economic uncertainty. One of the biggest employers in the region is ASARCO, currently employing about 1,468 employees in the Copper Basin area. In Pinal County, the company has mining operations in Hayden, Ray and Silverbell, gathering 85 million pounds of cathode copper annually. The company is in talks with the federal Bureau of Land Management to make a large land exchange that would most notably
provide the company surface and mineral rights to land parcels surrounding their existing Ray and Hayden operations. BLM would receive 18 parcels of environmentally sensitive lands in Mohave and Pinal Counties. At a meeting with the Superior Town Council on Sept. 20, 2012, ASARCO environmental affairs Vice-president Tom Aldrich said the deal would give the company more land and afford the BLM consolidation of its protected regions and habitats. “It’s a two-way street,” he said, “ASARCO’s getting something out it, BLM is getting something out of it, and I think it benefits both of us.” The town of Superior is also looking to the future for big mining prospects. Resolution Copper, a local subsidiary of mining giants Rio Tinto and BHPBilliton, is aiming to mine a mammoth ore body three miles outside of Superior, one of the largest ever found. The project, which is currently in the prefeasibility phase, aims to begin production in 2021. A 2011 economic impact study performed by Elliott Maximum strength analgesic for temporary relief from: • Back pain • Muscle pain • Arthritis pain • Joint pain
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D. Pollack & Company projects the Resolution Copper project to directly employ around 1,400 individuals annually when the mine reaches full production with a payroll of roughly $105 million, with an average direct annual employment figure of 1,429. Several abandoned mine projects in the region are seeing a second life due to renewed interest and financing. Broken Hill Proprietary, or BHP, announced earlier this year that it would begin reopening the Pinto Valley mine near Globe-Miami after shutting it down in 2009 for economic reasons. BHP initially acquired the Pinto Valley mine in 1996 when it bought out Tucsonbased Magma Copper Company. The company announced in Feb. that it would inject $195 million into the revamped project, which would produce copper and molybdenum concentrate, and in turn create around 600 new jobs in the region. Base-metals North America asset president Wayne Isaacs said in a press release that the company would restart mining operations at Pinto Valley “given the robust investment case and the potential for an extension to current reserves.” In Florence, Canadianbased Curis Resources is pursuing permits from the Arizona Department of Environmental Quality to begin tests for the company’s proposed insitu copper mine which the company hopes will lead to full copper production on its 160 acres of leased state trust land, which was formerly permitted by BHP nearly a decade ago. The company is applying for a temporary individual aquifer protection permit (TIP), which would allow them to run phase 1 pilot in-situ extraction tests on two acres of Arizona state Future, Page 30
Asarco is looking to expand their operations at the Ray Pit near Kearny and its smelter operations in Hayden. (John Hernandez photo)
Curis Copper near Florence is pursuing permits to begin tests for its insitsu mine. (Mila Besich-Lira photo)
Resolution Copper’s headframe at the Number Nine Shaft. (Mila BesichLira photo)
Celebrating Copperâ€™s Bright Future in Superior, AZ ...
Secure Arizonaâ€™s Future
Questions? Please call our community line: 520.689.3409 or visit ResolutionCopper.com
Who Will Represent You? Fair and Accurate News for the Southeast Valley
L.S. ‘Jake’ Jacobson is the COO and president of Copper Basin Railway. (John Hernandez photo)
are pleased to present a Forum for Copper Basin Railway – Hard at Work • Senate District 8 By John Hernandez after Asarco’s best interest of the Century” in 2000. L.S. “Jake” Jacobson is the The American Short Line and to manage the railroad,” President and Chief OperatJake said. “So I’ve been and Regional Railroad As• Legislative District 8 ing Officer of the Copper working with Asarco for sociation has even named a Basin Railway (CBRY). 20 years.” Jake stayed safety award after him. The • Pinal County Supervisor District 1 Copper Basin is a short line Jake Jacobson Safety Award, over on as president when the freight railroad headquarline was sold completely to “The Jake Award” is given tered in the Hayden-Kearny Asarco in 2006. annually to railroads that • County Attorney area. In 1993, a section of track have an injury free year.
Thursday, October 11, 6 p.m. Holiday Inn Express & Suites 240 W. Hwy 287, Florence Mila Besich-Lira will moderate.
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It is also one of the safest railroad companies in North America. CBRY has gone for more than 20 years without an accident. Think about it: a railroad line that operates 24 hours a day, 365 days a year moving million of tons of copper ore per year plus sulfuric acid and other freight – and not one accident. This phenomenal achievement is due in a large part to Jake Jacobson’s leadership and management skills, skills and knowledge he has learned from over 50 years of working on the railroad. You might say that railroading is in his blood. His mother, father and grandfather worked with the railroads. Jake was exposed to hard work and the railroads while growing up in Kansas. Jacobson is well known in the railroad industry. He is popular and greatly respected by his peers and employees. In 1994 he was named Railway Age magazine’s “Railroader of the Year” for North America. He was named “Great Railroader
A Little History The Copper Basin Railway began its life as part of the Santa Fe Railway (which was a subsidiary of the Phoenix and Eastern Railroad) and was built between 1902 and 1904. The railway connected Winkelman to Phoenix via Florence. Originally, the builders thought to connect it with Benson. This never came to fruition. According to Wikipedia (en.wikipedia.org), the railroad was leased to Santa Fe Railway upon the completion of construction in 1904. The track at Winkelman was extended 6.35 miles to Christmas in 1911, but that section of track was abandoned in 1961. Southern Pacific Railway, which gained ownership of the railway in September 1955 after a merger, sold the line to mine operator Kennecott Copper and on Aug. 15, 1986, Kennecott sold it and Copper Basin Railway was born. (This is where Jake entered the picture.) “I was hired over 20 years ago by Asarco’s Dick Banghart and Bill Bennis to look
near Kearny was washed away by rising flood waters from the Gila River. Jake and all the employees of the railroad worked tirelessly to save the shortline, even going against the Army Corps of Engineers at one point, building a dike to force the river back where it belonged. His actions during the flood and during the long months rebuilding the damaged sections of the railroad (and many other wonderful qualities) earned Jake the title of Railroader of the Year. Even in the face of such huge odds, Copper Basin Railway had no injuries. Jake has been compared to America’s railroad folk heroes Casey Jones and John Henry. He has been called many things in his life including a living legend, a leader, innovator, hero, and a safety fanatic. It is not fanaticism that drives Jake’s quest for safety – it is just that he cares for the people that are railroad workers and the people he works with. Jake and CBRY CBRY, Page 31
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Future Continued from Page 26 trust land. According to an economic impact study by Elliott D. Pollack & Company, the Florence Copper Project will annually generate an average of 406 jobs within Pinal County over its three phases if approved. At a public meeting in Florence in Jun. 2011, Curis CEO Michael McPhie said the project would provide the type of high-quality jobs that help cycle the local economy. “People that work in this industry that will be getting head-of-household jobs will buy houses here and spend money in the
community,” McPhie said. Another Canadian company, Redhawk Resources, is pursuing its advanced stage Copper Creek copper-molybdenum project in San Manuel. The Copper Creek property is approximately 29 square miles and Redhawk gathered enough information to commence a pre-feasibility study in early 2012. Oracle Ridge Mining, LLC is seeking to revamp its former mining operation on the north side of Marble Mountain near San Manuel. The former Oracle Ridge Mine, located on private property, is an inactive, small-scale underground
copper mine that would produce approximately 140 tons of copper concentrate per day. The mine is in the permitting and detail design stage for resuming operations and current plans include up to 240 employees bused to and from the site from San Manuel. Freeport-McMoran Copper and Gold Inc., headquartered in Phoenix, is seeing encouraging employment numbers from its operation in GlobeMiami. By the end of 2010, Freeport-McMoran had approximately 930 employees at Miami. According to a study by Arizona State University,
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•2 view lots, city water, sewer, paved roads. $12,000 each. •Large well-kept home 3bd, 3 ba, rock fireplace, RV carport, well and city water. 500 sq ft. Beauty shop included. $229,000. •3 lots to choose from, great views, paved roads, city water and sewer available. 2 lots. $12,000, 1 lot $16,500 Make offer. •3.92 ac. on Barrows Pl. with hilltop views. You can have site-built or MH, horse property. $59,900. •5 bdrm on 40 ac, Redington Road, Artesian well. $250,000. •Just under 44 acres for your own little ranch, hilltop location south of Mammoth. $344,000 •PRICED REDUCED! Hilltop views beautiful open plan, custom kitchen cabinets, SS appliances, wood burning fireplace. $125,000. •Secluded area, borders state land, site build or MH, horses allowed, $155,000. •Mammoth Bar, all equipment. $90,000 Liquor license also available. Call for details. •Secluded area with great views, being sold as is for value of 1.3 acres. $39,000.
565 N CALLE VALENCIA MLS#: 21219577 Completely remodeled around 2000, this home is modern and well maintained. Over 2900 sq. ft. includes a huge master suite with living area, large bathroom, walk-in closet and French doors onto a covered porch. The large kitchen has custom hickory cabinets, copper ceiling fans, a 6’x 6’ walk-in pantry, plus breakfast bar and a spacious dining area. The quiet two room office suite can readily be used as a 5th bedroom and bonus room. The flex room off of the living room is a den, formal dining, or media room, you decide! Separate laundry room and ample storage throughout! Completely surrounded by a six foot privacy wall, the backyard is ready for your children and pets. Come see this home today!. $ 174,500
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Nugget the company’s Miami operation was directly and indirectly responsible for approximately 3,100 jobs across the state in 2010. The future looks bright for mining in the Copper
Corridor. Bruce Richardson with Resolution Copper agrees. “There’s certainly been a great legacy or mining in the area, and it’s been important to the growth of
the region,” Richardson said. “Projects like the Resolution Copper mine, in addition to the other projects that surround us, will play in a significant role in the coming decades.”
their lives that morning. Hundreds of townspeople had hurried to the mine after hearing the disaster signal that early morning. They waited anxiously hoping their fathers, brothers, husbands, sons and friends would be brought safely to the surface. Those miners killed in the disaster were: Juan Bramzila, John McMahon, Zeno Daily, Sam Maki, A. Lintia, R. Rodriguez and E. Olmas. The Winslow Daily Mail newspaper reported that “Zeno Daly, the Indian listed as missing, was the hero of the disaster. According to reports after safely reaching the surface, he joined one of the rescue crews which were working in relays and returned to the fire area. He is reported to have become lost shortly after.” After the disaster, Magma mine continued to be successful. Even during the Depression, they continued operations although cutting back on labor and production. World War II would bring more Mexican Americans into the workforce at Magma. One of the greatest improvements at the mine was the installation of underground air conditioning units. Magma mine was considered a “hot” mine due to its high rock temperatures. At the 4,000 foot level temperatures of the rock were recorded at 140 degrees. Magma consulted with the inventor of air
conditioning Dr. Willis H. Carrier, who invented airconditioning in 1902 and pioneered underground air conditioning. Dr. Carrier had installed a system in the Robinson Deep Mine in Johannesburg, South Africa. Carrier designed the system for Magma. Magma was the first mine to have an underground air-conditioning system in the Southwest. In 1956, the San Manuel division came into operation. In 1969, Magma came under control of Newmont Mining Corporation but became independent when Newmont spun it off. Magma was operating sporadically in its later years and ceased production in 1995. In 1996 it became part of BHP. Now the mine is owned by the Resolution Copper Mining which is owned 55 per cent by Resolution Copper Company, a subsidiary of Rio Tinto PLC, and 45% by BHP Copper, Inc., a subsidiary of BHP-Billiton. William Boyce Thompson and George Gunn, the founders of the Magma Copper Company, are gone now but their company played an extremely important part in the development of Arizona’s great copper industry. With Resolution Copper poised to re-open the Superior operations, maybe there is a new chapter left to write about the mines that were Magma and the town of Superior.
Continued from Page 12 working underground when the fire was discovered at 3:30 a.m. A shift boss was investigating the constant ringing of electric bells in the two hoisting compartments of the shaft. While descending down the shaft he found smoke at the 1200 foot level and signaled for the cage to be raised. He had the cage stopped at the 500 foot level LAND LISTINGs NOT tender IN AD and helped the cage through the ventilation doors and reported the fire. The cage tender had been overcome by smoke. One man was then lowered in a cage. He was killed presumably from burns and smoke inhalation as the hoisting cable from the cage was burned off. Men in the mine smelled smoke and proceeded to the number 3 shaft where they were quickly hoisted out of the mine. Another group of miners made it to the 2200 station and saw the flames roaring up the shaft but no smoke came into the station. They eventually made it out safely. Fire fighting crews from the mines in Globe and Miami assisted in fighting the fire but could not get it under control. Crews were sent underground to search for people that had not returned to the surface. Finally Magma officials ordered the shaft flooded. Seven men lost
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Continued from Page 10 1950. By 1951, a flood of lead and zinc imports had caused many lead and zinc mines in the United States to shut down. The situation became progressively worse, with more and more mines shutting down during the next few years. During the entire period of lead and zinc production at Tiger, mill recovery had been erratic. The best recovery was from pure sulfide ore, from the deepest levels of the vein. The more oxides present in the ore, the worse recovery was. But, as the mine workings progressed deeper and deeper, the influx of water increased. By 1952, mining on the Collins vein was down to the 1,125 foot level. The amount of lead and zinc in the ore was
SASO Continued from Page 5 is fateful and funereal in the first movement, then gradually transforms into a more optimistic and triumphant march that dominates the final movement. Continuing a six-year SASO fundraising tradition, this program features an audience member who won the opportunity to conduct the orchestra at its annual fundraising gala. J. V. Bevan Olyphant will guest conduct The Flower of Scotland wearing the kilt of his clan. This short work is about a victorious battle led by Olyphant’s ancestors in 1314. Written by Roy Williamson, a Scottish songwriter and folk musician, the piece quickly became the de facto national anthem of Scotland. This year’s gala – with another chance to bid on conducting the orchestra – will be held on Feb. 9. This program will be performed twice – Saturday, Oct. 6 at 7:30 p.m. at the DesertView Performing Arts Center, 39900 S. Clubhouse Dr. in SaddleBrooke, and
Nugget decreasing with depth and the amount of water that had to be pumped out of the workings was increasing. At the same time, the prices for lead and zinc continued to decrease. Production during 1952 totaled bout 8,000 tons a month, and there were 190 men on the payroll. By this time, the Town of Tiger had evolved into a mature community. The miners had modest homes in the lower part of the basin with neat, well-kept yards. As late as 1954, outdoor privies were not a rarity. The larger staff houses were up on the hillsides, and the general manager’s house had a swimming pool. There were no bars or saloons in Tiger, but there were many churches. A café and boarding house was run by Rosalee Hendrickson and provided meals for the single men. The town boasted a movie house, two school Sunday, Oct. 7 at 3 p.m. at St. Andrew’s Presbyterian Church, 7575 N. Paseo del Norte. At the St. Andrews concert, tickets are always complimentary for ages 17 and under. Individual tickets are $20 at St. Andrews in advance or at the door. At SaddleBrooke individual tickets are $21 in advance or $23 at the door. Season tickets are $75 – a savings of $25 over single ticket admission. Order SaddleBrooke tickets online at http:// tickets/saddlebrooketwo. com or call (520) 8252818. Order the St. Andrews Series online at www.sasomusic.org or call (520) 308-6226.
buildings, a Laundromat, a gas station and a mercantile store operated by Kenny and Janet Creed. St. Anthony Mining and Development suspended operations at Tiger on December 1, 1952. On February 11, 1953, the Magma Copper Company announced the purchase of nearly all the property of St. Anthony Mining and Development at Tiger. The property was acquired in exchange for 10,000 shares of Magma capital stock which, at the current market rate on the New York Stock Exchange, was worth $275,000.
CBRY Continued from Page 31 use a family approach to safety. He has helped create a family-style safety culture that inspires his employees to be safe and has built a work environment that motivates employees to want to come to work. He leads by example and believes that safety “is a spirit and a morality.” As signs at the work place attest, “Respect, common sense, safety and a sincere caring about the well-being of your fellow worker” are mandatory. “Power” is railroad terminology for a locomotive or group of locomotives that serve as the power for the train. While other managers talk about the “power” that drives their railroad as being the size or model of their locomotive, Jake coined the phrase which is the company’s motto and painted on the sides of their rail cars “Our ‘Real Power’ Is In The Pride Of Our People.”
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Artist Continued from Page 16 that was mined, smelted and formed at the San Manuel mine, mill and smelter. This piece of art was influenced by different Native American cultures including Navajo, Zuni and Apache. Mixed Cultures has been featured on
Arizona Highways TV and displayed at the “Sculptures in the Streets” annual art show in downtown Mesa. Parra also uses copper patina a chemical solvent which when painted on certain metals gives the appearance of corroded or antiquated copper. Parra said he is a “self taught’ metal fabricator. He has been working with metal for around 15
years. He also works a full time job at a private prison facility, which handles immigration detainees for Homeland Security. Since working there, he has not had as much time as he would like to devote to his artwork. Parra has also worked in mining. He worked for Cementation at Magma’s San Manuel underground mine.
He also worked in an iron ore mine in Michigan. His experiences working in the mines and visual memories of working underground can be seen in his art project that is part of the Copper Corridor’s “Ore Cart Trail.” The magnificent skeleton sculptures of mineworkers can be seen at the Miner’s Memorial in Mammoth, Arizona. It is a wonderful tribute to those workers who lost their lives while working in the mines of the Tri – Community. As you can see, Parra’s art is not only influenced by working with copper but by the history, people and culture of the area known as the Copper Corridor. You can view Parra’s artwork at the Ranch Store Center, 1015 American Avenue in Oracle, Arizona or visit his website at Parraparra. com.
Artist Jerry Parra
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