African Community of Practice On Managing for Development Results April 2009
A newsletter about the African Community of Practice on Managing for Development Results
In this issue: Update………1
Forum ~ Experiences from across the Continent……2
This ONLINE is a monthly newsletter that provides a forum for members of the African Community of Practice on Managing for Development Results (AfCoPMfDR) and other interested parties to share experiences, discuss issues, and post upcoming events. ONLINE is available in English and French on the African CoP website, www.cop-mfdr-africa.org.
The African Community of Practice on Managing for Development Results (AfCoP) is moving into an exciting new phase. An ambitious work program was finalized in February and members have now begun implementing a wide range of innovative projects. The AfCoP’s Core Management Team (CMT) and the Secretariat have spent March and April moving the AfCoP forward from planning to implementation, and results of this work are already on display on the AfCoP website (www.cop-mfdr-africa.org). Also in the past months, thanks to the hard work of the Monitoring and Evaluation team and the whole CMT, the AfCoP results framework and baseline indicator documents were completed. This result framework will allow the AfCoP to effectively monitor and evaluate progress made towards achieving the AfCoP’s goals. The AfCoP has also been busy drafting a concept note for the African Sourcebook on MfDR. The plan is to make use of the AfCoP’s online platform to develop case studies from our member countries. These case studies will then be published in a print publication. The LIVE online segment of this Sourcebook will be launched soon on the AfCoP website. We also noted significant activity from AfCoP members regarding the creation of Country-CoPs. We are pleased to find that the Niger CoP is still thriving and that plans are underway to develop CoPs in Sierra Leone, Senegal and Kenya. This is the result of the CMT thematic team members’ commitment illustrated here by their determination to implement one of the key components of the AfCoP workplan. Furthermore, the CMT and Secretariat have been working to develop a communication strategy for the AfCoP which reflects its new plans and priorities. Moreover, we are continuously improving the AfCoP’s online platform. To this end, the site is undergoing a series of changes regarding the structure, features, and content of the website. In this regard, we are very pleased to see that on both the Francophone and Anglophone sites, the electronic discussions have received a significant increase in activity in recent months, which is a positive sign of progress in engaging AfCoP members in online discussions. Members also recently voted on their preferred discussions topics. These new topics will be launched on both sites in mid-April. We should also note that the AfCoP has been very well represented in recent months at several important MfDR events that took place around the world such as the OECD/DAC Joint Venture on MfDR meeting, Perspectives on Impact
April 2009, Issue No 9
Online: A newsletter from the African Community of Practice on Managing for Development Results April 2009, Issue No. 9
Evaluation Conference, IDEAS General Assembly, and the World Bank SDN Results Days.
Forum ~ Experiences from across the Continent This section offers an opportunity for CoP members to share their experiences. For this issue, we are grateful to Rosa Muraguri-Mwololo, Dr. Nahorbé Kabo, Abdou Karim LO and Samer Hachem for preparing these articles. We encourage you to contact us at email@example.com if you are interested in submitting a story for an upcoming newsletter. We welcome and look forward to additional contributions from all members.
Results for citizens A Pathway out of poverty Its dawn in one of Africa’s wettest, oldest, and most lush tropical rainforests. Birds are singing and forest creatures purring loudly. In a village nearby, a farmer, Patrice, rises and peers into the dark. It will be a while before the sun penetrates the thick cascading tree canopy - but that will not dissuade Patrice from beginning work on his farm. This is one of the many villages in Cameroon that have partnered with The World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) in its efforts to promote best practices in agroforestry – a science and an art that focuses on growing a wide range trees on farms to nurture the land while improving peoples lives and the environment. Time is precious for Patrice, who, at 73 seems to think “it is quickly running out for me”. Of late he has been spending more and more hours on his farm, and more time with a group he leads of adopters and ‘wanna-be’ adopters of agroforestry from his village and nearby villages. “Such cooperative learning and group activities improve understanding and retention of learnt material and farmers are able to discuss, ask questions and get feedback”, explains an ICRAF’s staff. “The farmers also act as change agents in the village” “I am not afraid of hard work”, he says, as he stares at his large rough hands. ”I am only afraid of the poverty my family had to endure before I met ICRAF. Forest soils are nutrient poor and for many years our hard work went unrewarded. We slashed and burned areas for the villages, cleared fields for food crops and cocoa. Then the ruinous soil erosion started. We did not think of the environment- we only worried about harvesting the food we need to eat”. Cocoa is a main cash crop for people in this village and it takes up to nine months of waiting before harvest and selling time comes. Patrice like most other cocoa farmers, “would have money for three months in the year after the harvest, but soon after, I would lapse back to poverty for nine months as I waited for next
Online: A newsletter from the African Community of Practice on Managing for Development Results April 2009, Issue No. 9
cocoa harvest” he says. Patrice says that his relationship with ICRAF “goes back many years”. Patrice is one of the early adopters of agroforestry, adds Divine, the ICRAF staff translating to English what the French-speaking farmer is saying. In explaining how it all started, Patrice says, “I became curiously interested in the farming technologies ICRAF was promoting very early when they visited our village. After observing and listening for some time, I was somehow convinced that the technologies would help improve my crop yield. It was with the support of ICRAF on-farm staff, that I learnt that by using certain tree species on my farm, I could improve soil fertility, I could grow trees for fruits that took a dramatically shorter time to fruit, I could grow trees for fodder, trees for timber and fuel, trees for medicine and trees for many other uses. “ICRAF staff modeled the technologies for us, providing feedback and encouragement as we went along. And, over the years I have experienced not only increased yields, but I have seen fallow periods reduce from 5 years to about 2 years. I have in addition eaten fruit in four years, from trees that would have taken more than ten years to fruit. Farmers who are not practicing the technologies are not even sure they will ever eat fruits from any of the indigenous that trees they are planting”, he says with a hint of pride. Patrice says that very few people are now practicing improved fallows because they find it difficult, but Calliandra calothyrsus and Cajanus cajan are still used for increased yields. “Personally, I prefer domestication because of the benefits it offers, than soil fertility technologies which I find very labor intensive”, Patrice adds, as he paces up and down the tree bushes on his farm. How agro forestry transformed Patrice’s life Patrice says his economic situation has dramatically changed as a result of benefits from agroforestry practices. His land is equally transformed. He shows off some new tree species, a well-kept tree nursery, and some beehives. “The new trees attract bees, and honey is an added benefit from agroforesty”, he adds.
He becomes philosophical as he says, “The trees we are eating fruits from were not planted by us but by others, so we must plant also if we want our children to eat any fruits in future”.
Online: A newsletter from the African Community of Practice on Managing for Development Results April 2009, Issue No. 9
In praise of domestication, he points at a nearby African plum tree, and proudly says, “Look at this cutting - it has fruited three times in the last three years”. He then turns round and points at another plum tree and he adds with poorly veiled contempt- “I planted this one the same year as the one you have just seen but using the old method- now, four years later, it stands here gaping at me, without a single fruit to its name.
Patrice calls the plants in his nursery by their scientific names and unpretentiously explains each species. “I am increasing the number of trees in my farm, to prevent a situation where I will have to rely solely on cocoa again. With the tree diversity, I now have a continuous income throughout the year from tree products”, he says. Does Patrice consider himself poor by his village standards? Breaking into a huge gummy smile, he says, “No, not at all. How can anyone call me a poor man now? I might not be well to do, but I am definitely not among the poorest of the poor. How can I still be a poor man with all these things on the farm”, he says pointing at the trees, nursery and beehives. “I have a continuous income through out the year, and my family’s food, clothing and health are well taken care of”. With a hint of mischief he adds, “and when I see the local brew passing by on sale, I now can afford to ask for a measure-like an accomplished man”. Why have some people rejected or discontinued the new technologies? In explaining why some people have still not embraced the technology, he stretches his hand and looking at his fingers he says, “Like these fingers of my hand, people are not the same, they are different. Even when the benefits are so obvious and visible, some will quickly adopt the new technologies and others will not.” “Some people learn, yet that knowledge does not necessarily lead to adoption”, Patrice explains. “Many farmers may have knowledge but they not have developed an attitude positive enough to start using it. Newness of the technology also introduces a certain degree of risk and uncertainty with the farmers, as it means changing their existing practices”. And for some farmers, he concludes, “The technology is just not compatible and consistent with their metal modes, their values, their past experiences or their felt needs- so they do not practice it”. This story was written by Rosa Muraguri-Mwololo- After a visit to an ICRAF program in Cameroon. She is a Core Management Committee Member of MfDRAfCOP
Result based Management: Reflections and proposals Itâ€™s assumed that anyone who uses public or private funds to carry out development activities must meet for its work in producing results. Although much effort has been made in recent years in development aid, we can easily see now that there is still much to do: - Interventions often irrelevant to the target groups concerned; - The results achieved, insignificant and often have not been evaluated; - Resources economically misused; - Ineffective participation of stakeholders; - Lack of transparency in the management and - Mutual accountability between donors and recipients of aid is not always effective. Given all these problems, I am pleased to note today that a good planning of the products provided in a timely and optimistic reports are no longer sufficient justification for the expenditure incurred for development. The argument that the resources available are not sufficient to change the world can not be used to circumvent the issue of results. Precisely when the room is narrow that development cooperation must prove in a credible manner that it efficiently uses the resources at its disposal and it makes a substantial contribution to economic and social development of partner countries. The international community (policy makers, heads of development agencies and civil society) has recognized this challenge and responded in a timely manner under the Paris Declaration. The RBM with actions and indicators to monitor has become the guiding actions to ensure the success and quality of interventions for development. More important is the mutual responsibility of the parties involved. While in the 1990s, quality assurance focused on "quality at entry", from 1998 priority has focused more on "quality output". These changes and the program approach increasingly adopted by development cooperation have significant implications for the management of the development process and achieving results (outcomes). The RBM adopted by states and development agencies to manage their programs in recent years is fundamental to the success of these programs. At the present state of development, it still has many weaknesses. The main difficulty is to increase focus on the quality of information available and evaluators to assess the results of interventions. Therefore in the future, development actors must put more emphasis on the following factors: - Operationalize performance and the statistical program of states; - Establish a database on aid flows; - Train managers in statistics and management of databases. By Dr. NahorbĂŠ Kabo, AfCoP member.
The Senegalese experience in Civil Servantâ€™s Performance evaluation Under the provisions of Decree No. 83-848 of 8 August 1983 determining the conditions of the staff and the Circular No. 27 of the President dated 26 October 1984, agents of the State
of Senegal are subject to a system in charge of assessing their professional values, in accordance with the law n Â° 85-53 of 18 February 1983 amending Law No. 61-33 of 15 June 1961 on the general status of civil servants. As part of the implementation of the modernization program initiated by the State since 1992, the management of human resources has changed. The rating system has evolved into a performance appraisal system whose main objective is to integrate professionalism and merit. What do we read of the old system of agents, which prevailed in the civil service in Senegal until the end of 80â€™s? What are the theoretical considerations that underpin the new performance appraisal system agents? What are the limits and perspectives that emerge from this new assessment system? The purpose of this note is to attempt to answer these questions. I. THE OLD SYSTEM OF ASSESSMENT AND ITS LIMITS Under the old system, officers were rated according to scales of assessment for the hierarchies to which they belonged: (i) a framework for all officers holding positions of leadership, regardless of hierarchy, (ii) a framework for Personal Hierarchy A (master) hierarchy and B (bachelor level), and (iii) a framework for the staff of other hierarchies (end of cycle level education and below average). Officers assuming positions of leadership were noted on the following criteria: (i) intellectual, (ii) behavior, (iii) professional, (iv) leadership skills, (v) overall assessment of the above. To officials of other hierarchies, the criteria are: (i) behavior at work, (ii) professional skills and employability, and (iii) human relations, and (v) overall assessment of the above. Any score below 10 or above 18 was the subject of a special report prepared by the department head with the power rating. The note was necessarily communicated to the agent. This rating system has limitations that result in: (i) inappropriate personnel differentiation, (ii) inappropriate rating criteria, (iii) a long distance relationship between the agent and the assessor. 1. Inappropriate personnel differentiation: In the old system, all executives of the hierarchy do not have the same function, or the same job. Occupy a certain position in a technostructure and assume the function of an analyst, designer or consultant. Others assume the functions of control or are just performers who are accountable to their supervisor. Therefore, the differentiation of groups of staff based on the educational level had no relevance, as it did any information on the job and the responsibilities attached to it his. 2. Inappropriate criteria : The old system of notation was more informative as assessments. In the end, it is no exaggeration to say that the criteria applied to different categories of staff were inadequate and did not correspond to the characteristics of a good evaluation. Indeed, there was no tangible basis to assess the intellectual and professional qualities. The notation was so subjective and approximate. The measure of performance or individual performance was not taken into account. Also, the ratings assigned by department heads turned, essentially, around 18 out of 20, to meet the needs of grade advancement in the career of the official. 3. A long distance relationship between the agent and the assessor: In the old system, the supervisor did not have the power rating. The head of service who was entrusted with this
power could be the second or third level of the hierarchy and have no knowledge of the "professional" or "workplace behavior" of the agent. These limits or even these aberrations led the Directorate of Public Service in collaboration with the Delegation in Public Management to consider a new system of performance evaluation of state employees, drawing on some theoretical foundations. II. THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF ASSESSMENT The performance evaluation is a series of activities planned, organized and controlled in order to observe and to measure and improve the employee's contribution to the objectives of an organization. In a book on human resource management, André Petit (1983) identifies two needs to conduct a performance evaluation or performance: (i) assessment provides a basis for a series of administrative decisions (promotion, transfer, remuneration , etc.). (ii) the assessment identifies a target and relevance to the training and development of employees. For Bélanger (1983), performance evaluation allows the employee to know: (i) its responsibilities and what is expected of them, (ii) the individual results which must be achieved and the potential for progress in order to discuss them with the hierarchy. From the employer side, the evaluation focuses on: (i) criteria for assessing the results achieved, (ii) the supervisor’s thought on the performance of his colleague, (iii) reactions, attitudes, feelings and problems encountered by employees in the exercise of their functions. In this regard, the establishment of an evaluation system should reflect willingness to make real judgments on performance or performance measurement. It can be done in several ways: • an evaluation structure based on the job (this requires a description of the activities of all positions); • a structure based on capabilities: it is the ability to compare the link between a job’s requirements and the capabilities demonstrated by the occupier; • peer review; • an assessment by external experts; • An assessment by customers; The evaluation or assessment may also occur from four perspectives: (i) assessment of skills, abilities and knowledge, (ii) the assessment of attitudes and behavior, (iii) assessment of results, performance and gaps, and (iv) assessment of the potential. The prospect of evaluating results and relational behavior of each agent can detect adaptive capacity and commitment of staff and identify prescriptive measures. It concerns the determination of the gap at a given time between a target and a result. Regarding the extent of the potential, it refers to the future and this exceeds the combination of the adaptation of a person for a position. It is against this type of evaluation that progress contracts are possible. As part of the implementation of the modernization program of the State of Senegal, initiated since 1992, the management of human resources has changed. Also, the rating system has been replaced by a performance appraisal system which should integrate professionalism and merit. III. THE NEW SYSTEM FOR EVALUATING PERFORMANCE AND ITS LIMITS
The new system of assessing the performance of government officials was adopted by consensus with labor unions. It is situated in a context of modernization of public administration and focuses on the major objectives of the renewal of public service consisting among others, to empower people. Indeed, it is by developing a culture of accountability that the performance of public administration will be improved. In this perspective, it is defined for each agent clear objectives, precise, realistic and negotiated simultaneously creating the conditions for their realization. It is therefore essential that the contribution of each is known to promote the motivation and mobilization on the objectives of the unit. The new system aims to: • know the performance of each agent; • Know and discuss its potential for growth; • know the reactions, attitudes and problems of employees at work; • reward merit and professionalism. The new system has developed the following principles: (i) a differentiated assessment, (ii) an assessment by the supervisor, and (iii) an assessment that integrates the performance contract and maintenance of assessment. A differentiated assessment: it takes into account the various positions occupied by the agents: management function, control function and design and operational function. Agents are evaluated according to common criteria, but also by distinguishing criteria to distinguish between three categories of person. An evaluation by the direct supervisor: the direct supervisor (N +1) which is empowered to review. It evaluates the subordinate and immediate N. In this case, N 2 acts as an arbitrator and may be seized in case of disputes and appeals by N. It will seek to reconcile the two positions and ultimately assess N. An assessment that integrates the contract goal and maintenance evaluation: The performance contract is established by mutual agreement between the supervisor and subordinate. It is signed by both parties after a negotiation conducted in a realistic manner taking into account the tasks of the organization and the job description of the employee. It is accompanied by performance criteria that allow assessing the progress made by the agent. Regarding maintenance, it is a moment to take stock of past activity and measure the gaps between the required level and the levels attained. It also helps guide the profession to come to perfect the fit between the objectives of the position and profile of the agent. The three categories of people have in common with three sub-criteria: • Professional skill (master's technical knowledge, mobilization on the objectives of the work unit, timeliness, integrity and professionalism, methodology and organization of work); • Organizational Behavior (attendance and absences, careful in the use of working equipment); • Performance (degree of achievement of results, efficient use of resources made available). Concerning personnel management and supervision, the criterion of differentiation on leadership is reflected by the quality of leadership and coordination, the model of authority and maturity, and responsibility.
Regarding personal study, advice and control, emphasis was placed on the ability to analyze a problem and provide solutions. Regarding the operational staff, the distinguishing criterion is relative to the ability to take initiatives and to overcome the difficulties without awaiting instructions from the supervisor. The new assessment system was the bearer of hope for the improvement of individual and collective performance in the Senegalese Public Administration. But in practice, we must acknowledge that it was abused. The implementation consisted of three phases: the adoption of new texts on assessment, training and information to stakeholders and implementation of new measures. The adoption of the texts has been a change in the law on the general status of civil servants, passed by the National Assembly. The explanatory statement was so well presented that the vote was carried unanimously. A decree was subsequently defined the arrangements for implementing the reform. But why is the performance contract which was the major innovation being sidelined? Why are talks of assessment still theoretical? Have the evaluators seen the interview evaluation as an additional workload? These are all issues that should be clarified to understand the shortcomings that could be interpreted as resistance. Regarding training, it was not conducted at all levels of public administration. Not all evaluators completely understand their roles and responsibilities in this change. Concerning the implementation phase of the reform, it is important to note the lack of response from the Ministry of Public Service which has noted that the objectives and the maintenance of assessment were not applied. In fact, conservatism prevailed under pressure from unions that wanted the abolition of automatic advancement and the introduction of a pay system based on performance and professionalism. In perspective, it is planned to conduct an evaluation of the reform, to identify the causes of failure to implement guidelines in general, the contract objectives and the maintenance assessment in particular. This assessment could provide insights into the resistance to change. The Ministry of Economy and Finance also plans to conduct a study on the remuneration based on performance. The findings of this study could revive the debate on performance of state employees should be incorporated in the approach to managing for development results. By Abdou Karim LO, Management Advisor, Project Coordinator: Capacity Building Project for Good Governance (PRECABG) Dakar, Senegal Bibliography Bélanger, L., Strategic Management of Human Resources, Boucherville: Gaëtan Morin Editeur, 1983 Bélanger, L., A. Petit, Jean-Louis Berger, Human resources management: a comprehensive and integrated approach, Chicoutimi: Gaëtan Morin Editeur, 1983
The International Development Evaluation Association (IDEAS) Global Assembly: March 17-20, 2009 in Johannesburg, South Africa. The IDEAS Global Assembly was a high level market place for evaluation ideas and tools. The high level participants included evaluation directors and officers from multilateral and bilateral donors like the world Bank-IFC/the GEF& the Results Secretariat, GTZ, CIDA, SIDA, UNDP, Belgium Development Cooperation, WFP, UNICEF, OECD, Universities from Africa and Latin America Europe, Government Departments from Asia, Africa, Latin America, NGO and independent consultants. Governments and development agencies showcased success cases and techniques in Managing for Development Results. Every AfCoP member should try and be a member. There is a huge amount of knowledge that is exchanged through the membership Forum. To be a member of IDEAS for individuals from Developing Countries is US$ 40 per year. See website www.IDEAS-int.org or contact: Jean Hilburn firstname.lastname@example.org Brief report written by Rosa Muraguri-Mwololo: AfCoP-CMT member.
Asian CoP-MfDR Update from the Asia-Pacific CoP-MfDR Final Draft Scoping Paper on MfDR to be submitted to the Working Party on Aid Effectiveness The Joint Venture at its last meeting on 5 February 2009 decided on a scoping exercise for a separate Cluster E “Partner-Led Learning and Advocacy on Managing for Development Results”. It mandated a small scoping team to define thematic tasks and working modalities of this Cluster E. This paper has been submitted to the Working Party on Aid Effectiveness (WP-EFF) and presented at its meeting on 31 March / 1 April 2009 in Paris. The members of the WP-EFF were invited to a pre-meeting back-to-back to the WP-EFF meeting on “Scoping Cluster E” on Monday 30 March in Paris to discuss the scoping paper and the rationale for a Cluster E as outlined in the paper. The paper was presented by Joan Boer, Co-Chair of the Joint Venture, and members of the scoping team. The Cluster E on MfDR was confirmed in March and is currently defining its work plan. In order to access the final draft scoping paper, visit: https://wpqr1.adb.org/LotusQuickr/copmfdr/PageLibrary482571AE004FA139.nsf/$defaultview/8B2112E30C8127064825757B0010B9D8/$ File/Final-Draft-Scoping-Paper.pdf?OpenElement
Up-coming Events The International Conference and Trade Exhibition on Industry Growth, Investment & Competitiveness in Africa (IGICA - June 2009): Register your interest now!
International Program for Development Evaluation Training (IPDET): Building Skills to Evaluate Development Interventions; June 8 - July 3, 2009 in Ottawa, Canada. For more information, please go to www.ipdet.org
Annual CES Conference: Value in Evaluation May 31-June 3, 2009 in Ottawa, CANADA For more information, please go to http://c2009.evaluationcanada.ca/
If you know of any up-coming MfDR events and would like to have them included in this listing, please contact us at email@example.com.
Announcements COPs are becoming valuable partners in making the CAP-Scan a success! Niger: Second pilot implementation for Cap Scan started! Under the leadership of the General Director of Evaluation of Public Policies in the Ministry of Economy and Finance, the second pilot implementation of Cap Scan started early March in Niger, after Mauritania in July 2008. The team includes 18 members, with representatives at the national level from 10 ministries, 3 national institutions and 2 capacity development programs (listed below), representatives from the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), the World Bank and UNDP and two facilitators, national and international. Further to the completion of the scoping and preparatory phase, workshops are currently being conducted by the national facilitator in each ministry and government institution. The final workshop is scheduled 21-23 April and includes a session for getting Secretary Generals involved in the process. The implementation of Cap Scan in Niger follows on significant efforts made by the Government of Niger in establishing a work culture oriented towards managing for development results. These have included in particular creating dedicated structures in each ministry and reviewing and improving the monitoring and evaluation mechanisms for the Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy 2008-2012 (SDRP). Significant training efforts in the area of MfDR focusing on public servants have been undertaken to support the initiative. Niger is also one of the countries with an established national MfDR CoP.
Ministries involved in Cap Scan in Niger: Ministère de la Santé Publique Ministère de l’Education Ministère de l’Economie et des Finances Ministère de la Fonction Publique et du travail Ministre de l’Aménagement du Territoire et du Développement Communautaire Ministère de l’Environnement et de la Lutte Contre la Désertification Ministère du Développement Agricole Ministère de l’Hydraulique Ministère de l’Elevage et des Industries Animales Ministère de l’Equipement Secrétariat Permanent de la Stratégie de Réduction de la Pauvreté Institut National de la Statistique (INS) Representatives from other national institutions and programs as well as partners are invited to the workshops. The other parties involved are : Haut Commissariat à la Modernisation de l’Etat (HCME); Cellule d’Analyse et de Prospective en Développement (CAPED); Programme Bonne Gouvernance et Croissance mieux Répartie ; CIDA ; WB ; UNDP. For more information regarding the Niger CAP-Scan project please contact AfCoP member Samer Hachem at firstname.lastname@example.org For more information please visit http://www.mfdr.org/capscan or contact email@example.com
AfCoP E-discussions After collecting AfCoP member suggestions on topics and holding a vote within the CMT on which topics to launch in April, several new discussion topics emerged. The following are the topics to be launched online in mid-April for the next round of e-discussions on both the Francophone and Anglophone sites: Topic 1: How to link and integrate national policy and strategy with the Budget and address the disconnect between resource usage and development results Topic 2: Challenges and solutions to creating an MfDR culture in African organizations and societies
African CoP Library The AfCoP Library is a virtual library located on our website. The library has now been established and populated with documents related to the MfDR Sourcebooks, the High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness, the AfCoP Annual Meetings, and other relevant topics. We are continuing to collect resources that will be posted online for your consideration. If your department, organization, or colleagues have recently written anything that you would like to share with your fellow CoP members, please contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Join Us If you are interested in becoming a member of the African Community of Practice, please visit our website, www.cop-mfdr-africa.org and register. For more information, please contact us at email@example.com.
Contact Us If you have any questions, comments or suggestions in regards to either this newsletter or the Africa CoP, please feel free to contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org or any team leader within the Core Management Team (CMT): • • • •
Membership & Publicity -- Zaam Ssali, Uganda: email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org Networking -- Ali Doungou Boubacar, Niger: email@example.com & Sylvester Obong’o, Kenya: firstname.lastname@example.org Capacity Building & Knowledge Management -- Solomon Mhlanga, Zimbabwe: email@example.com Monitoring and Evaluation -- Claude Kakule, Congo: claudeK@unops.org or firstname.lastname@example.org