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200/206 WALNUT STREET TRANSFORMATION OF A VACANT LOT INTO A VITAL COMMUNITY SPACE

Design prepared for: Gardening the Community

Design prepared by: Molly Burhans

Anne Richmond, Director PO Box 90774 Springfield, MA 01139

The Conway School 332 South Deerfield Road Conway, MA 01341-0179

FALL 2014


not for construction. this drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey

INDEX About the Site and Project Goals:Goals A City Lot Ripe for Redevelopment 2 Introduction: Introduction and Project Overview: Exploring 200/206 Walnut 3 Overview: Exploring 200/206 Walnut StreetStreet Context 1: Ecological Context 4 Context 1: Ecological Context Context 2: Community and Transportation 5 Context 2: Community and Transportation

Analysis 2: Legal Constraints 8 Analysis 2: Legal Analysis Analysis 3: Utilities and Drainage, and Exposure 9 Analysis 3: Utilities and Drainage, ViewsViews and Exposure Summary Analysis 10 Summary Analysis Design Alternatives 11 Design Alternatives

Gardening the Community (GTC) is a nonprofit organization based in Springfield, Massachusetts, currently operating four community gardens. 200/206 Walnut Street will be their fifth. GTC has been engaging local youth in urban farming and using urban farming to address pressing food justice and social justice issues since its formation 12 years ago. In 2005, Gardening the Community began an organizational initiative to promote sustainable practices. As part of this program they bike their produce to markets. Additionally, GTC began using rain barrels and other structures to capture rainwater for irrigation. The organization continues to expand the availability of urban garden space and promote sustainable urban agriculture in the city of Springfield.

sustain engage youth grow food build enter

prepare food

leave

learn park

farm

compost relax

build friendship

urban farm

build community share

work

eat food move educate

relax

sell food

sit

Design 3: Growth Rejuvenation 12 FinalFinal Design 3: Growth andand Rejuvenation Design 4: Fencing and Storage Spaces 13 FinalFinal Design 4: Storage Spaces Precedents 1: Materials 14 Precedents 1: Materials Precedents 2: Spatial Precedents 15 Precedents 2: Spatial Precedents Plants 1: Plant Recommendations I 16 Plant Recommendations I Plants 2: Plant Recommendations II 17 Plant Recommendations II Plants 3: Plant Recommendations III 18 Plant Recommendations III Plants 4: Plant Recommendations IV, Design Components 1: Water 21 Plant RecommenIrrigation Design Components 2: Water andand Soils 22 Design Components: Compost Toilet Protected Root Zon Design Components 3: Garden, CompostUniversally Toilet and Accessible Tree HealthGa 23 Design Components: Rain

SPRINGFIELD, MA 01139

Organization mission: “Gardening the Community is a food justice organization engaged in youth development, urban agriculture and sustainable living to build healthy and equitable communities.�

Design 2: AHeart Placeoftothe Gather 13 FinalFinal Design 2: The Space

GARDENING THE COMMUNITY

GARDENING THE COMMUNITY

Design 1: Verdant Greening 12 FinalFinal Design 1: Verdant Greening

PREPARED BY: MOLLY BURHANS

1: Shining Light On Site Conditions 7: Sun Analysis and Shade

INDEX & INTRODUCTION TO GTC

Context 3: People and Culture, Neighborhood and Property History 6 Context 3: People and Culture

Sustainability, References, and Acknowledgements 24 References and Acknowledgements North

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not for construction. this drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey

A CITY LOT RIPE FOR REDEVELOPMENT Introduction to the Walnut Street site and the project program

• Maximize the ecological, economical, and social sustainability of the site.

Atlantic Ocean

Springfield R.I. Connecticut

Springfield is located in southwestern Massachusetts in the Connecticut River valley

• Incorporate space that facilitates education in the forms of lectures, discussions and agriculture demonstrations. • Site an office, farm stand, greenhouse, and storage space. http://www.gardeningthecommunity.org/

• Site vehicle parking and public access.

WHAT WOULD SUCCESS LOOK LIKE?

• A multi-use structure that can be used as both a farm stand for weekly CSA pickup during the harvest season and an education space.

• A hoop house that can be used to extend the growing and harvest season • General education space, indoors or outdoors, for up to 20 people • A commerce space that can accommodate at least 30 people • Parking for 10 cars

boxing food for GTC EATS!, GTC’s Farm Share Program (CSA) which brings healthy, fresh food to families in Mason Square and surrounding neighborhoods.

• Secure storage for:

200/206 Walnut Street highlighted in yellow shows the general layout and emptiness of the space, since this image was taken all onsite trees have been removed. Bing maps

10 bicycles (approximately 100 square feet at an average 5′ × 2′ footprint)

2 large bicycle trailers (approximately 12 square feet at an estimated 3′ × 2′ footprint)

2 smaller bicycle trailers (approximately 6 square feet at an estimated

2′ × 1.5′ footprint)

3 wheelbarrows (approximately 10 square feet, at an estimated 2′ × 5′

footprint)

1 push lawn mower and tools (estimated 25 square feet)

• Indoor food storage space greater than 10′ × 10′ • A small office space for records, documents, and a work desk

GTC employs local kids through their Youth Leadership and Development program

GTC’s program is not just about growing food; they seek to address institutional racism and its relation to food injustice in the Pioneer Valley region

PREPARED BY: MOLLY BURHANS

• Connect the site to local social ecology and create a space that people will be attracted to and that is easily accessible.

Massachusetts

SPRINGFIELD, MA 01139

• Create an accessible, safe, and welcoming space.

N.H.

ABOUT THE SITE AND PROJECT GOALS

• Design productive areas that use traditional and experimental farming methods to grow annual and perennial vegetables.

New York

In June 2014 Gardening the Community acquired 202/206 Walnut Street from the City of Springfield with unanimous City Council support. 202/206 Walnut Street, pictured below, comprises two vacant urban lots that have the potential to grow into a vital community gathering space. Though the initial impression of the property may be a blank slate, the site’s historical and spatial context define the potential of the space. 200/206 Walnut Street connects to its surroundings at many levels, from the trees next to the property to the greater Connecticut River watershed.

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GARDENING THE COMMUNITY

PROJECT GOALS

ABOUT THE SITE

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not for construction. this drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey

EXISTING CONDITIONS

A

200 Walnut Street

206 Walnut Street

200 Walnut Street is the lot in the corner formed by the intersection of Walnut Street and James Street. James Street is an infrequently used one-way street. The site abuts a residential property, 12 James Street. Worn asphalt covers approximately 75% of the surface of the site. An approx. 18’x8’ concrete foundation of an old shed sits in the middle of the asphalt on site. The only vegetation present on this lot is a patch of mowed lawn that extends into the asphalt from the adjoining lot, 206 Walnut Street.

206 Walnut Street is the lot south of 200 Walnut Street. 206 Walnut Street is mostly covered in lawn. GTC recently implemented a management strategy for controlling the Japanese Knotweed (Fallopia japonica) and Bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus) present on the site using soil solarization. Five trees were recently cut and their stumps remain. Fencing provides backyard privacy for adjacent residences. Trees from surrounding properties shade the back of the lot. Additionally, sagging electrical wires cross the site in two places, connecting to the tops of 30’ utility poles, two of which are directly next to the property and one is on-site.

208 Walnut Street

208 Walnut Street borders GTC’s 206 Walnut Street property. This lot is owned by a local religious institution. GTC hopes to acquire this lot and expand their vegetable production operations to it. It is recommended that an environmental assessment of the site be completed before it is used for agriculture.

OVERVIEW

The Walnut Street property is located approximately one-half mile southwest from the center of downtown Springfield. The site comprises two vacant urban lots, 200 and 206 Walnut Street. The site is notably flat (more than 50% is <2% slope). The property vegetation consists of urban regrowth, such as Bittersweet. Walnut Street is one of the major traffic routes in Springfield. There are no crosswalks near the site. There is a bus stop on the corner of Queen Street and Walnut Street. Both lots are zoned Business A in a primarily residential neighborhood. The zoning influences where buildings, fencing, sign design and layout, and various plants can be placed. The zoning laws further dictate the scope of on-site activities allowed. For more information about zoning laws see sheet 8.

PREPARED BY: MOLLY BURHANS

EXPLORING 200/206 WALNUT STREET

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storm drain

SECTION A-A′

bus stop

This section bisects the site from southwest to northeast. The site has a total elevation change of only 2.5 feet.

electrical wire

Neoclassical street light

5’′ chain link fence

J street light

3’′ chain link fence

bi-lamp tall parking light

5.5’′ wooden fence

storm drain bus stop electrical wire 5’ chain link fence

200 Walnut Street

3D perspective of site shows surrounding trees and buildings. From left to right the trees on site are a tall tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima) that is around 45’ tall, a 65’ tall weeping willow (Salix babylonica), a back tree line containing maples and trees of heaven that are, on average, around 50’ tall, and a large 104’ tall walnut tree.

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J street light

206 Walnut Street

bi-lamp tall parking light

40’

Fire hydrant

208 Walnut Street

Neoclassical street light H

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Fire hydrant O

SPRINGFIELD, MA 01139

walnut

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topographic line water main

Property lines Emboldened property Line around 200/206 Walnut Street site Topography lines at 6in intervals

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GARDENING THE COMMUNITY

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not for construction. this drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey

Green space and environmental water dynamics

GREEN SPACE The map to the left shows that three patches of greenspace are located within one mile of the site, indicating that there is limited local green space. Within two miles of the site is Forest Park, a significant greenspace comprising 736 acres of open space, forest and wildlife habitat. Greenspace generally becomes more abundant farther from the city’s center.

2 miles from site

residential waste water

Springfield sewer

water treatment facilities

Connecticut River

WATERSHED AND COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW

Google earth

LEGEND area within this dotted circle is within one mile of 200/206 Walnut Street

area within this dotted circle is within two miles of 200/206 Walnut Street

highlighted patches of significant greenspace near site

200/206 Walnut Street

200/206 Walnut Street is located in the Connecticut River watershed. This means that the water from the property and surroundings flows to the Connecticut River. Most of the water that falls on the impermeable asphalt that covers the surface of 200 Walnut Street is directed towards two city storm drains located on the property boundaries. These storm drains are part of the city’s water utility system, which includes combined sewer overflows. A combined sewer overflow system diverts waste water directly out of the sewer system and into the Connecticut River during storms that flood the system with more water than it is capable of handling. The hazardous waste water that flows into the Connecticut River poses a serious threat to the river’s ecosystem as well as to residents and farmers along the river. The Connecticut River and its riparian zone serves as habitat and a migratory pathway for numerous federally threatened and endangered species, such as the shortnose sturgeon. It is important to design with sensitivity to the consequences of adding water volume and pollution runoff into the overflow sewer system. Water infiltration gardens and grading to direct runoff toward these areas can mitigate these damaging consequences. Furthermore, these gardens could educate the youths employed by GTC and the surrounding community about water health, ecology, and CSOs.

SPRINGFIELD, MA 01139

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storm water

industrial waste water

GARDENING THE COMMUNITY

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CONTEXT 1

The limited green space in this area means that preserving existing vegetation patches is critical for urban wildlife, such as migratory birds and pollinators. Implementing a strategy that both promotes habitat for these animals and serves as a precedent for others to do so could connect the site to the greater ecological context.

PREPARED BY: MOLLY BURHANS

ECOLOGICAL CONTEXT

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2 sided parking

1 sided parking

area within this dotted circle is within 500 feet of the site

area within this dotted circle is within 1000 feet of the site

one way street

PARKING AND CIRCULATION Within 500 feet of the site there is parking space for an estimated 150 cars. Within 1000 feet there is room for 700 cars. This includes spaces across the street at the church lot in addition to street parking. About half of the surrounding parking is on one-way residential streets, which makes maneuvering to available off-site parking difficult to find. A portion of the on-street space is limited to 2-hour parking. Using existent offsite parking will help to decrease project costs and increase the ecological integrity of the site by reducing the hardscape. Off site parking will provide the necessary space for the number of visitors expected for major events, like CSA pick-up days, where anywhere from 15 to 20 people can be expected to visit site at a given time, and volunteer days, which can involve as many as seventy people.

Community Center Food store

Restaurant

Mill St School

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Community garden/urban

Noel St farm

CULTURAL AND MATERIAL RESOURCES Food is consumed and waste generated at community centers, schools, and grocery stores. This could serve as a potential market and source of organic material for composting at the Walnut Street gardens. There are 24 of these resources within 2000 feet of the site, or within a few minutes on bicycle. Schools and community centers are a good resource to turn to for finding youth who may benefit from experiences with Gardening the Community. These resources could also create educational opportunities related to urban farming and ecology. Within 1000 feet of the site there are three urban farms. 200/206 Walnut Street is within a 15 minute bicycle ride of the farmers’ market at forest park, Springfield winter farmers market, Shriner’s Hospital farmers market and the Hampden Bank farmers market. Shriner’s Hospital’s market is year round and may be a useful if enough produce is cultivated using season extension techniques.

not for construction. this drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey

PREPARED BY: MOLLY BURHANS

LEGEND

adapted from Google maps

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CONTEXT 2

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parking lot that can be used

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SPRINGFIELD, MA 01139

LEGEND

adapted from Google maps

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GARDENING THE COMMUNITY

Pioneer Valley Transit Authority (PVTA) route X90 Inner Crosstown stops next to the property coming from both directions. X90 bisects the city of Springfield in a north-south orientation. This route provides transportation from as far north as Chicopee to as far south as East Longmeadow. It is one of the few PVTA bus routes in the area. The site is reachable by those without access to personal vehicles. It is also highly visible to those who pass by on public transit. Location, angle and height of the signs on the property can be planned so that they can be seen by passengers. In addition, encouraging the use of public transit to the site could offset the need for parking and the overall carbon footprint of the programs offered.

Springfield Cemetery

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bus route X90 highlighted in red

adapted from Google maps and PVTA

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Massachu

Springfield Cemetery

King St Eastern Ave

Noel St

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LEGEND bus stops near site

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200/206 Walnut Street

Oakland St

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X90

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200/206 ut St Walnut Street Hancock St

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Springfield Cemetery

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How to get to the site and how to seek social sustainability by connecting to the community

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adapted from Google maps

COMMUNITY AND TRANSPORTATION

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Liberty Heights

B r ig Memorial Square

Old Hill

Boston Road

Upper Hill

East Forest Park

Sixteen Acres

Forest Park NEIGHBORHOOD HISTORY Old Hill and Six Corners are two neighborhoods within the city of Springfield and all properties within these areas are subject to the city’s legislative control. Six Corners contains parts of the Maple Hill, Ridgewood, and Lower Maple historical districts. The exteriors of buildings are protected by the Springfield Historical Commission and that any new construction on the site must be reviewed and approved by the commission.

Street art by Puerto Rican artist, Alex Diaz [toomuchlovemag.com]

Streets of Montego Bay, Jamaica. [wikipedia.org]

Combined Racial theHill SixNeighborhoods Combined Racial Composition of the Six Composition Corners andof Old Corners and Old Hill Neighborhoods Asian 0% Hispanic 34%

Black 24%

Asian Black White American Indian White 20%

Other 20%

American Indian 0%

Other Two or More Races Hispanic

Lack of jobs and opportunities is a major depressive force in the Old Hill and Six Corners neighborhoods. A lack of opportunity and work is a problem that expands well beyond the boundaries of these neighborhoods. A host of systemic issues are woven together to create these challenges. The neighborhood is fraught with drugs and the gang violence that follows. Gardening the Community is concerned about vandalism, theft, and trespassing onsite. Therefore, designing a secure site is a priority.

PROPERTY HISTORY Since the late nineteenth century 200/206 Walnut Street has been surrounded by mostly residential and light commercial properties. According to a Phase II environmental assessment completed by the engineering and consulting firm TRC, 200 Walnut Street was identified in the state lead inspection database for lead hazards due to a complaint filed in January 1991. Furthermore, 200/202 Walnut Street was listed in the US brownfields database and it received EPA funding for environmental cleanup. This listing indicates that the soil and groundwater problems on-site were subsequently remediated. The remediation was confirmed by a Phase II Assessment completed in January 2014, which did not find contaminants in the soil or groundwater above applicable regulatory standards [7]. TRC’s assessment indicates that there is no evidence of recognized environmental contamination. Both lots have a history of onsite automobile

storage. Hazards, such as hydrocarbons, could be present onsite in levels below standards because of these operations. Additionally, conflicting accounts about the scope of operations at the tuxedo rental shop, and whether it did or did not included dry cleaning, warrant further investigation. Precautions, such as raised beds, should be taken, bearing in mind the known and potentially hazardous past uses of the site.

PREPARED BY: MOLLY BURHANS

Six Corners

Pine Point

CONTEXT 3

Walnut Street Site

South End

Bay

McKnight

PO BOX 90774 SPRINGFIELD, MA 01139

Puerto Rican women in Bomba dance wear. [Wikipedia.org]

Indian Orchard

GARDENING THE COMMUNITY

Metro Center Connecticut River

According to recent census data, most residents of the Six Corners and the Old Hill neighborhoods identify as Hispanic. The area has some of the densest populations of people of Jamaican and Puerto Rican heritage in the United States. Gardening the Community seeks to allow a deeper dialogue about racial identity and the current social, economic, and environmental justice issues facing these populations. The materials, plants, and other elements of the design create spaces where people can choose to connect with their heritage. Members of the community could be actively engaged in making the space a place of their own by incorporating, for example, a local artist’s mural art. A secondary result of this strategy could be that the community connection may help establish approval and greater respect for the site and increase its long-term security.

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CULTURE AND HERITAGE

Two or More Races 2%

not for construction. this drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey

NEIGHBORHOOD AND PROPERTY HISTORY East Springfield od

PEOPLE AND CULTURE

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not for construction. this drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey

1. Summer Solstice: June 21 shade 6+ hours daily year-round

Approximately 80% of the site receives 6+hrs of sun on the summer solstice. The gray area does not receive full sun (6+hrs daily) on this day.

shade 6+ hours 75% of the year (fall through spring) shade 6+ hours 25% of the year (through winter)

3. Winter Solstice: December 21 The yellow areas indicate the space that receives 6+hrs of sun through the winter; this includes a 1,400 squarefoot patch embedded in 200 Walnut Street and a small strip of space on its edge. full sun, 6+ hours per day

shade, less than 6 hours of sun per day

DESIGN IMPLICATIONS Placing the hoop house in the area that receives full sun all year will facilitate yearround agricultural engagement. Sun exposure will dictate the placement of solar panels. It is not absolutely necessary that these solar panels receive full-sun, due to seasonal variations in GTCâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s on-site activities, but maximizing their solar exposure will maximize their efficiency.

Compiled Sun/Shade Analysis

Sun and shade define the aesthetic experience of the site. The amount of sunlight and where it falls will spatially and temporally define various microclimates, creating areas of comfort throughout the site dependent on the season. For example, the area in the back of 206 Walnut Street that receives summer shade will provide a shaded and cooler refuge space from the summer heat.

SPRINGFIELD, MA 01139

About one-third of the site receives full sun for 50% of the year (from 3/22-9/22). This area receives full sun throughout the growing season.

GARDENING THE COMMUNITY

2. Equinox: March 21, September 21

ANALYSIS 1

no shade for 6+ hours, full sun year-round

PREPARED BY: MOLLY BURHANS

SHINING LIGHT ON SITE CONDITIONS

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According to Springfield’s zoning laws the sight triangle is the part of a lot enclosed by connecting points on the edge of two streets 25′ from the point of intersection of the edge of the streets. No vegetation between 2.5′ and 10′ height above the street surface can be placed in this area. Poles, post and/or guys for streetlights and for other utility services, and tree trunks exclusive of leaves and branches are not considered obstructions to vision and may be placed in this area.

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PARKING AND INFILTRATION

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Infiltration gardens may not be placed within the right of way, approximately 6′ from the street edge on either side of the property. Cars cannot be parked over the public right-of-way or pedestrian facilities. At least half of the parking spaces onsite must be 8.5′ wide by 18′ deep. The remaining parking spaces may be 8′×16′ to accommodate smaller cars.

SIGNS GTC is interested in using a freestanding pole sign and/or a wall sign to inform people about their program. The free standing sign must be pole/stake mounted and not exceed 30 feet in height. The wall sign must be attached to a removable surface, rather than painted on the building. Murals are still allowed to be painted on the buildings, but signs must be removable. These signs cannot be erected on existent utility poles,

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traffic signs, fences, trees, shrubs, or other natural features on the property. The area size limit of the sign is 100 square-feet per face. If the sign is illuminated it should not exceed an average luminance of 50 footcandles measured directly on the signs’ surface. GTC can only place two signs on the property, one per lot. Therefore, it is recommended that they be placed in the most visible areas.

LEGEND sight triangle, 25 feet from corner

Zone Residential B

10′ front yard and side yard abutting residential district

Zone Commercial A

right of way

Zone Business A

7′ buffer zone

Zone undefined

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not for construction. this drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey

SIGHT TRIANGLE

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A 10′ yard must be maintained in the front of the property and on the sides and rear abutting residential properties. No structures can be placed within these areas.

The provided legal assessments are based on a lay persons reading of the zoning by-laws. The scope of laws addressed on this page may not encompass the entirety of existing applicable legislation. Proper legal assessment should be completed by a lawyer.

ANALYSIS 2

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A 7′ buffer zone must be respected between two districts that border each other. The more intense district must provide an adequate buffer planting strip. This buffer zone must be respected between 200/206 Walnut Street and the abutting properties at 12, 20, 26, and 50 James Street.

SPRINGFIELD, MA 01139

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200 and 206 Walnut Street are zoned business A. 208 Walnut street, the adjacent lot of interest, is also zoned business A. Most nearby properties are zoned residential. Business A is the typical zoning for businesses in residential neighborhoods. Community gardens and farmer’s markets are legally allowed in business A zoning. Gardening the Community’s program will, for legal intents and purposes, be considered a community garden because the parcels are less than 5 acres. Community gardens may include the sale of products on site.

GARDENING THE COMMUNITY

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ZONING SETBACKS

PREPARED BY: MOLLY BURHANS

LEGAL CONSTRAINTS

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sheet flow of water

storm drain

utilities highlighted

OBSERVATIONS

• Two street lights are directly next to the property. • Above ground electric wires run through the back of 206 Walnut Street. • Buried water lines enter approximately 42′ into 200 Walnut Street and 75′ into 206 Walnut Street. • Greater than 75% of 200 Walnut street is covered by impervious surface. • Surface water drains from 200 Walnut Street towards city storm drains and into Springfield’s sewer system. • Surface water on 206 Walnut Street percolates into the ground and flows underground in a generally southward direction.

DESIGN IMPLICATIONS 200/206 Walnut could be reconnected to utilities without extensive construction because the onsite water lines connect to a water main and electric lines run through the site. The City of Springfield should be contacted about connecting these lines to important site facilities and removing the high voltage wires and the leaning utility pole holding them. These sagging wires are a hazard on the site and may interfere with vegetation growth. Runoff on site currently flows either to the southwest towards the Connecticut River or over the impervious surfaces to local storm drains. Stormwater catchment and grading and infiltration methods could reduce the amount of stormwater runoff from the site.

LEGEND low

visual and auditory exposure

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views

borrowed scenery

OBSERVATIONS • Streetside corners of the site are highly visible and noisy. • Back is less visible, less noisy. • Vegetation on surrounding properties provides borrowed scenery.

DESIGN IMPLICATIONS Attractive trees on neighboring lots to the south, east, and northeast are visible. These trees create an aesthetically pleasing wall of vegetation that delineates the property. Because the vegetation is on other properties, Gardening the Community will not be able to control how it is maintained and whether it is removed. The spaces defined by the offsite vegetation should be flexible or designed to recreate the microclimate created by the offsite trees, in the event they are removed. Areas with high levels of visual and auditory exposure serve as the interface with the community. These areas are the most appropriate areas on site for attracting and informing passersby. The exposure of these areas should be maintained for security purposes, so that people can see into the site. Less exposed area in the back of 206 Walnut Street may be an appropriate place of refuge, though vandalism is a greater concern for this area.

not for construction. this drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey

SPRINGFIELD, MA 01139

impervious surface

GARDENING THE COMMUNITY

LEGEND

PREPARED BY: MOLLY BURHANS

VIEWS AND EXPOSURE

ANALYSIS 3

UTILITIES AND DRAINAGE

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not for construction. this drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey

SUMMARY ANALYSIS ENTRY ZONE

200/206 Walnut Street is a mostly flat vacant lot covered primarily with a lawn and asphalt. The site is exposed to the two-way traffic of Walnut Street. There is a large area that receives sun during the growing season and there are small areas that receive year round sun and year round shade.

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LEGENDLEGEND Full shade Setbacks legal 3/4 shade setbacks 1/4 shade sun Utilities utilities Lead 362.1ppm

high visual and auditory exposure

low

water, sheet flow

visual and auditory exposure Drainage

362.1 mg/kg, not above safety standards, but highest on site

SPRINGFIELD, MA 01139

• sun year round •1,400 sqft

these setbacks— therefore the back area has limited space for buildings. Important features of this area are its lack of visual and auditory exposure and its shadiness. These components make it a less than ideal place for storage, since its seclusion may make it vulnerable to theft and vandalism. This area is suitable for shady food production, such as mushroom cultivation.

SUMMARY ANALYSIS

• REFUGE growing season sun available refuge area on the site in is bordered by three James Street properties. • The partially covered asphalt Since 200/206 Walnut Street is zoned business A and three abutting parcels •water area are zonedutilities residentialenter and contain setbacks. A building cannot be placed in

The productive middle area receives partial sun, with 6+ hours of sun per day only during the height of summer. This means that this is a good place to grow summer vegetables, but that it is not optimal for crop cultivation during the shoulder seasons. Another important feature of this area is that a waterline extends from the water main into this space. Using the existing line could simplify the process of reconnecting the water to facilities and cause less on-site disturbance.

GARDENING THE COMMUNITY

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• 3 seasons sun available • area of mildly concerning lead levels

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• setbacks fill significant space • year round shade and cool • PRODUCTIVE trees surroundMIDDLE the area

SUN SPACE

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SUN SPACE

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medium public exposure. The sun space does not extend more than a few feet into the buffer zones.

PREPARED BY: MOLLY BURHANS

SUMMARY: 200/206 Walnut Street is exposed to the two way traffic of Walnut Street. It is a mostly flat site covered primarily with a mowed herbacious layer and SPACE asphalt. ItSUN has large sunny areas and an area of year The sun space is a small 1,400-square-foot zone that receives sun year-round round shade. areThis on isand near site. for 6+ Utilities hours per day. the sunniest and warmest space on site with

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SUMMARY ANALYSIS

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The entry zone is defined by three seasons of full sun and exposure. Most interaction with the local community occurs here because it is close to the street. The structures in this area may be less vulnerable to vandalism because of their visibility to the community. The entry zone is about half covered with asphalt. The exposed earthen portion of the lot provides an opportunity for vegetative production that needs full sun throughout the spring, summer, and fall.

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not for construction. this drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey

DESIGN ALTERNATIVES 2. CLIMATIC TRIO

d

• Lots of trees: increases general wellbeing, decreases CO2.

Universally accessible f an ood gardens heritage garden d o sto ffic rag seating e e

• Well-defined space education/seating area

in

commerce/

CONS • Parking is on James Street, a difficult to maneuver one-way.street

compost

• Connecting the garden workspace to water will require minimal expansion of the waterline on 206 Walnut Street.

Universally accessible gardens

seating f stoood rag e farm sta nd

CONS • Garden trees are near utility line’s path. • Universally accessible garden is near parking and car noise may be disruptive.

hoop house

• Special permitting for curb-cut needed since cut expansion is <75ft from corner

• Connecting water to workspace may be difficult; pipe will need major extension.

• Many trees: trees are expensive • Additional paving/hardscape will have to be added to the existing asphalt lot to cover the parking area.

compost

• The seating area has less seasonal flexibility because the sun available to the entire space is limited by the greenhouse.

• Only the refuge area is fully fenced, leaving the remainder of the site quite insecure.

storage and work area

relaxation patch

storage and work area

relaxation patch

functional diagram Community Convergence

LEGEND infiltration

parking

play

work

flex use space

productive vegetation

relax and refuge

office and food storage

fence

The site is accessed through a wide path lined with serviceberry trees and shrubs or through the parking lot. One may follow the row of trees into the mixed use commerce, education, and storage space or continue into the productive area. In the mixed use space bicycle parking is next to the office. The space is defined by the universally accessible gardens bordering the parking lot, the L-shaped combination of farmstand, food storage, greenhouse, and office. The primary productive area provides an interesting organic layout of raised beds divided into three major circular sections based on the existing microclimates. The main pedestrian path flows to the back space of refuge on the property; on the way it passes underneath a pergola, which provides shade in the primary work area.

SPRINGFIELD, MA 01139

Visitors enter the site from Walnut Street by walking past the patio in front of the farmstand and through a vine-covered walkway or by entering from the parking lot off of James Street. The mixed use area’s space is established with universally accessible gardens, a hoop house, structures for office and food storage, and vine covered bicycle storage and parking. Vegetables are grown in angular beds using traditional organic farming methods, intensive cropping methods, and novel farming methods in demonstration spaces. The back of the site provides a place of refuge and seating for up to 15 people, where visitors and workers can find shade and quiet in the food forest.

• Varied garden bed sizes complicates construction because materials cannot be obtained in bulk and laid out easily.

• Varied garden bed sizes complicate construction because materials cannot be obtained in bulk and laid out easily.

PREPARED BY: MOLLY BURHANS

• The use of both rounded and straight forms throughout the site allows for diversity of materials to be used.

tan

DESIGN ALTERNATIVES

ms

• The farm stand, hoop house, and food storage are all connected, making utility hookup simpler

7 parking spaces

GARDENING THE COMMUNITY

• New trees make the refuge space less dependent on borrowed scenery.

• Large area of universally accessible gardens.

ce

tio

far

hoop house

• Almost meets parking criteria with 7 spaces.

• Minimal new hardscape needs to be laid.

pa

5 parking spaces

PROS

• The farmstand with patio seating area creates a welcoming interface with the community.

offi

play space

PROS ra in ga rd en

ra in ga rd en

1. COMMUNITY CONVERGENCE

functional diagram Climatic Trio

LEGEND infiltration

parking

work

flex use space

productive vegetation

relax and refuge

fence office and food storage

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The flexible use space is the heart of the Walnut Street design. It is enclosed by the farm stand, the hoop house, parking, and the multi-purpose building which houses the food storage, office, and compost toilet. This area can be used for sitting, eating, educational activities, and general community gathering. Planted trees create a comfortable cool, shaded, microclimate in the summer. Leading to the space, through the garden entrance, a patch of hardy ground covers are planted and trees are set back, in order to allow plow access to the space in front of the farm stand. Snow can be piled between the northern most eastern redbud tree and the base of the serviceberry.

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1

food storage, 12′×15′ 200 gal rainwater storage tank

12

′×

36

200 gal rainwater storage tank

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4

G. A. U.

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storage for 10 bicycles office, 135sqft universally accessible compost toilet, 5′×9′ parking for 8 bicycles

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This area near Walnut Street can is used for intensive annual crops that need full sun from spring until fall. There are approximately 1400 square-feet of raised bed gardening here, including a universally accessible garden (U.A.G.). A pergola provides partial shade in a staging area for farm work or gathering. A 5′ wide path separates this from the next growing zone, which is more shaded.

functional diagram

6

rd

en

area with seating for around 17 people

st re

G. A.

you-pick berry bushes

7

U.

A forest garden extends into the shaded refuge space. This provides opportunities to explore innovative perennial agriculture techniques. The lack of sun in the back of 206 Walnut Street will likely inhibit fruit production, so a diversity of non-edible fruit bearing trees could be located back here. It should be taken into consideration that if fruit trees are planted in the back they may someday receive full sun if off-site conditions change.

fo

7

8

At the back of 206 Walnut Street is a space for education and relaxation. This is a refuge from the noisy, exposed front of the site. This shaded area is more quiet and calm feeling than the front productive area. This space includes enough seating to comfortably fit around 17 people. Additionally, its abundant shade makes it an optimal space for growing mushrooms.

8 work office and food fence storage

Quick Facts All raised beds have wheelbarrow access on at least one side. The widest paths in the productive food area delineate different areas for growth that are defined by their microclimate.

A pollinator patch will attract a variety of insects that can naturally fight pests that can be harmful to fruits and vegetables Most garden beds are standard lumber lengths of 8′ and 16′ for simple construction.

relax and refuge

productive vegetation

parking

flex use space

infiltration

SPRINGFIELD, MA 01139

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os

This partial shade production area is delineated by two 5′ wide paths; one on its front side, bordering the full sun production area, and one on the back side, bordering the full shade production area. There are over 3000 square feet of growing space for annual and perennial vegetables in raised beds here. Vegetables in this space will receive 6+ hours of sun for only the summer months.

5

parking for 3 bicycles

mp

6

garden storage, 12′×15′ co

The central work area includes a 15′×12′ storage shed. This space can be used to store three wheelbarrows, two large bicycle trailers, two smaller bicycle trailers, a push lawn mower and various garden tools. Temporary storage for 3 bicycles is provided underneath the balcony that extends five feet out from the roof.

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4

GARDENING THE COMMUNITY

The hoop house is oriented in a southwestern direction in one of the few locations on site with full sun. The hoop house will extend Gardening the Community’s growing and harvesting season. Spinach and other leafy greens (see sheet 20) can be harvested in the hoop house all winter. Some root vegetables, like carrots, will grow to maturity in the fall and can be left in the garden beds and harvested through the winter. The hoop house has primary access from a 7′ wide path next to the heritage garden. Additional access is available from a 3′ foot wide path behind the hoop house. The back access path also leads to a space behind the office building, this area provides storage for 10 bicycles (see sheet 15).

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FINAL DESIGN 1

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1

heritage garden, which leads into the commerce center, comprises three 8’x8’ 2 The beds that contain plants that are tropical in appearance but can thrive within the local environment. One 8’x8’ bed in this area is a medicinal garden. The purpose of this space is education and cultural connection. Members of the community can be actively engaged in making this space a place of their own by adding to the plants used for the heritage spaces.

not for construction. this drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey

rain garden sign

PREPARED BY: MOLLY BURHANS

FINAL DESIGN: VERDANT GREENING

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People gather on the patio on Walnut Street in front of the farm stand. The farm stand lies on the opposite side of 200 Walnut Street and creates a sense of enclosure in the center of the space. The building has aluminum rolling doors that can be pulled down and locked. These doors provide ample space for mural art. Visitors enter the site underneath a vine covered entry-way along a path lined with fragrant lilacs and a serviceberry tree, pruned to allow views in. Below these plants is vegetation that can survive the winter and be covered with snow. Visitors who arrive by car may park in one of the seven spaces off of James Street. Eastern redbud trees create privacy from these cars and the road. These trees also produce brilliant pink flowers in the early spring. Eastern redbud and serviceberry are some of the earliest blooming tree species in the region. Together they keep growth on the site dynamic through seasonal transitions. They also serve as visual analogies for a celebration of the end of winter and the arrival of a new growing season.

The seating space is nested in between three thornless honeylocust that form a triangle. Seating is simple, stained wooden pallets that are reinforced and stacked; creating multi-level seating, each with a sitting area of 40â&#x20AC;&#x2122;x48â&#x20AC;&#x2122;. The top is covered with a solid piece of wood to prevent splintering and to keep visitors from getting their feet caught. The variety of heights provides seating for children, adults, and individuals that need to half-sit/lean due to strength limitations. Leading out from this seating is a small lawn that retains the rectilinear shapes of the pallets. This decreases impervious surface and creates ample space for people to sit, lay, or gather. Additional movable chairs and tables could be brought into this space. A vine-covered arbor provides parking for eight bicycles between the hoop house and the building that houses the food storage room, the office space, and compost toilet.

not for construction. this drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey

An eye level view into the flexible use area from the arbored entrance off of Walnut Street

Birds eye view of seating space

SPRINGFIELD, MA 01139

Overhead view of 200 Walnut Street shows the flexible use space extending into the productive gardens. The security fence is drawn around the site. All perspective drawings are drawn proportionately from 3D models.

GARDENING THE COMMUNITY

View of the front of 200 Walnut Street from across Walnut Street

FINAL DESIGN 2

An intersection of food, commerce, and community

PREPARED BY: MOLLY BURHANS

A PLACE TO GATHER

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not for construction. this drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey

Highlighted focus areas

The back of 206 Walnut Street is defined by a cool microclimate that receives little exposure. This is a space that feels less rushed and more peaceful than the rest of the site. A 19″ tall wall can accomodate seating for approximately 17 people. The seating wall is made from re-purposed stone from a local source or numerous other material options. Surrounding this seating is a mix of Christmas fern, ostrich fern, swamp azalea, daylily, and Solomon’s seal. This seating is nestled in a food forest patch, with edibles that are planted to mimic the natural architecture of forest flora while also promoting symbiotic interrelations of these plants. The trees illustrated are at their approximated full size. Additionally, there is some shade production, mushroom logs, and a you-pick currant patch.

3D model, of front pergola can be used as a staging area for farm work or a seating place to take a break (fence, most plants, and circulation paths inside beds not shown).

In the front of 206 Walnut Street there is a freestanding pergola. This structure provides enough shade to cover a table where people can take a break from working in the sunniest area of the site. It can also serve as a staging place for farm work. The pergola only provides partial shade, but it is enough to increase comfort and reduce the intensity of the object’s cast-shadow. An ADA compliant path, that is hard-surfaced and has slopes of less than 5%, runs through the center of the site to the back refuge space. This path has universally accessible gardens in two places, one of which is illustrated above. Ideally, it should be hardscape with porous pavement so that water can permeate. If it is feasible, existing hardscape should be replaced with permeable hardscape that is graded to further direct flow towards the infiltration gardens.

SPRINGFIELD, MA 01139

A space to relax amongst the gardens

GARDENING THE COMMUNITY

FINAL DESIGN 3

A place for work and a place for relaxation

PREPARED BY: MOLLY BURHANS

GROWTH AND REJUVENATION

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not for construction. this drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey

Secure storage for 10 bicycles behind the food storage/office/bathroom building. This is accessible by a path leading past the back of the hoophouse directly to the area, or by going underneath the pergola where there is also visitor bicycle parking. The fence used for this area is materially similar to fencing that goes around the front of the property, however the amount of hogwire has been decreased to only about 1′ to reduce visibility. The bicycles collectively can be locked in the space using the wooden sliding fence. They can also be individually locked to associated secured metal elements. To increase security a motion sensor light has been placed in this area.

Fencing is installed around the entire site perimeter. It provides security for the gardens and buildings. Fence no more than six feet tall is installed between the site and abutting residential properties. A regional espalier installation service has offered to provide GTC with espalier fencing. This will be placed toward the front of 206 and 208 Walnut Street alongside inconspicuous secure wire fence.

PREPARED BY: MOLLY BURHANS

SPRINGFIELD, MA 01139

Bicycle parking for visitors. Around the corner is a receptacle for trash, recycling, and compost; four of these receptacles are placed strategically throughout the property.

GARDENING THE COMMUNITY

FINAL DESIGN 4

FENCING AND STORAGE SPACES

Pergolas provide cover for public bicycle parking. Additionally, they create an entrance to the site from Walnut Street and provide a shaded area in the intensive productive area at the front of the site.

Bicycle parking near 12′ × 15′ storage shed for some of the equipment listed on sheet 1.

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Stacked palettes; these create functional and interesting seating space. If used in a more permanent design than shown they would need reinforcement.

A combination fence of solid, opaque, lower layer and a more open, but protective top layer. Building a fence like this using materials and hog-wire that goes up to 6â&#x20AC;&#x2122; could make the site more secure and visible.

Motion detection lights placed strategically make the site more secure. Areas on the site that receive limited sun will need solar-lighting with separate solar array units, such as the one pictured, that can be connected to areas with sufficent sun.

Jamie Morgan

Pergolas provide cover with plant growth.

http://www.sdcitybeat.com

wikipedia.org

Espalier fruit tree fence. Fencing for security should be included next to the espalier.

wikipedia.org

If repurposed materials are used for construction, especially in areas with edibles, consideration should be given to the possibly harmful chemicals they may carry, such as lead, perfluorooctane sulfonates (PFOS), and creosote. There are also some commonly used materials, like PVC pipes, that should be avoided. But if they need be used, use with caution because they are probable carcinogens.

commons.wikimedia.org

An additional security measure is the use of motion-sensor floodlights, especially within the less visible spaces in the back of the property. These lights should meet the city standards for coverage, height, and brightness. The fixtures should direct light away from adjacent lots and public ways. Lighting within the parking lot should be on 20-foot-tall poles. In the back of the site pole-mounted security lighting fixtures should not exceed a height of thirty feet. All lights placed on 200/206 Walnut Street should be designed to minimize glare and light pollution.

Permeable hardscape allows more water to infiltrate into the ground.

Mural example from Balmy Alley, San Francisco.

not for construction. this drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey

PRECEDENTS 1

A hoop house used for growing food in Brooklyn at the Grange Farm.

SPRINGFIELD, MA 01139

A bicycle rack with lockable space in two directions will accomodate more bicycle parking. This type of parking could be placed off of the seating area underneath the pergola between the office building and hoop hous.

GARDENING THE COMMUNITY

wikipedia.org Gardening the Community

Garden bed materials: food safe wood, cloth, and metal, such as corrugated steel.

http://brooklyngrangefarm.com

wikipedia.org

Gardening the Community is concerned about the security of the site. Urban farms often suffer from theft and vandalism at some point. Connecting the community to the site by creating cues to care (see page 7), is one way to address security. Another way one can make a site more secure is to use durable and deterring materials. Most importantly, the garden needs good fencing. Fencing, buildings, and plants can provide a complete barrier around the circumference of the site.

extension.oregonstate.edu

IDENTITY AND FLEXIBILITY

PREPARED BY: MOLLY BURHANS

MATERIALS

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not for construction. this drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey

NEW YORK, NY

• An environmental program that addresses issues affecting the Holyoke community.

•A multi-use space for gathering, relaxing, eating, and meeting.

•Host a youth program for inner city teens that gives them the opportunity to organize around food and environmental related topics.

•Trees and hardscape intermingle. •Enclosed sense of space.

•30-acre inner city farm that focuses on food systems, economic development and agriculture. CONNECTING TO ROOTS

•Refuge in an urban environment. http://www.skydesigns.us/urban-community-gardening/ urban-community-gardening-fenqber/

Nuestras Raíces provides an example of engaging the local community, comprised of a dense Puerto Rican population, with urban agriculture. Inspiration for heritage gardens has come from various planting plans provided for Nuestras Raíces. Nuestras Raíces’ success with farming within the urban matrix provides a local precedent by demonstrating the ability to grow substantial amounts of food in cities in Western Massachusetts.

seedlings, www.nuestras-raices.org

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paley_Park

CALM AMONGST THE URBAN STORM Paley Park is an urban oasis in the center of Manhattan. It is a notable place for gathering and relaxation. Though 200/206 Walnut Street is more urban farm than park and Springfield is a mere squall compared to the tempestuous heart of New York, the farm is still an urban place for gathering. Specifically, the flexible use space is designed to accommodate many comparable activities of a pocket park, such as gathering and sitting space with a sense of refuge and comfort that will attract people to 200/206 Walnut Street. Paley park shows how trees and hardscape can interact on a site in an unexpected way and create a novel aesthetic. Furthermore, the way that the space is defined by structural enclosure serves as a space-making precedent for the locations of buildings at 200/206 Walnut Street.

greenhouses at La Finca garden of Nuestras Raices, http://www.nuestras-raices.org

Aleksandr Zykov, photographer

PREPARED BY: MOLLY BURHANS

HOLYOKE, MA

SPRINGFIELD, MA 01139

PALEY PARK

GARDENING THE COMMUNITY

NUESTRAS RAÍCES

PRECEDENTS 2

SPATIAL PRECEDENTS

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not for construction. this drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey

Common Common Name Name

Height

Form

Light Required

General Notes

Spacing

Amelanchier arborea

downy serviceberry

15’-25’

tree, multiple sun to partial shade trunks

edible berries, white flowers

10’-20’ spread

Ilex glabra

inkberry

6’-8’

shrub

evergreen

8’-10’ spread

Athyrium filix-femina

lady fern

Symphytum grandiflorum

large flowering comfrey 12”-18”

8”-30”

herbaceous sun to shade

relatively tolerant of sun and dry soil

12”, 18”-24” spread

groundcover sun to shade

attracts bees, good spider habitat

18”-24”

Carex flacca

blue sedge

9”-12”

grasses and sun to full shade sedges

Geranium cantabrigiense

geranium

4”-6”

groundcover sun to partial shade

sun to partial shade

Three thornless honeylocust triangulate the focal point of the space; a seating arrangement. These shade the low-mow lawn gathering space and seating area below them and the area to their northeast. Eastern redbud provide shade, privacy from parking, and brilliant pink flowers in the spring. By the base of these

Ipomoea batatas, sweet potato [18]

Helianthus tuberosus, J. artichoke [7]

Canna edulis, edible canna [16]

flowers

10”-12”

trees a mixture of grasses and ferns create a delicate groundcover texture. Lilac nestled near the entrance pergola provides a pleasing visual and olfactory experience for visitors entering the site.

Scientific Name

Common Name

Height

Form

Light Required

General Notes

Gleditsia triacanthos var. inermis

thornless honeylocust

30’-60’

tree

full sun

small leaves can be raked up and will compost faster than larger leaves, pollutant tolerant, can thrive in fluctuating moisture conditions 40’-60’

Cercis canadensis

eastern redbud

20’-30’

tree

sun to partial shade

brilliant pink flowers in spring

20’-30’

Syringa vulgaris

lilac

5’-12’

tree, multiple sun trunks

purple fragrant flowers, does not flower with wet soils

5’-15’

Panicum virgatum

switchgrass

18”-24”

grasses and sun to partial shade sedges

loose foggy aesthetic

36”-48”

Schizachyrium scoparium

little blue stem

18”-24”

grasses and sun sedges

Athyrium filix-femina

lady fern

8”-30”

herbaceous sun to shade

Heritage Garden

Hibiscus moscheutos, R. M. hibiscus [21]

9”-12”

The heritage garden is a visual analogy for the diversity of the neighborhood. It is a place for people to connect. It contains plants that have a tropical aesthetic but can function and grow in Springfield’s climate as annuals or with cold-weather protection. There is a main heritage garden near the flexible use space. Addition-

Spacing Spacing

24”-36” relatively tolerant of sun and dry soil

12”, 18”-24” spread

ally, patches including these plants have been included in 206 Walnut Street’s yard space. These plants are next to the road and sidewalk, a poor location for edibles due to drainage and pollution. Here they act as attractive and interesting plants that draw people to the site and provide cues to care.

Scientific Name

Common Name

Height

Form

Light Required

General Notes

Spacing

Musa basjoo

hardy bananas

12’-15’

Lablab purpureus

hyacinth bean

4’-15’

herbaceous sun

perennial, pseudo tree, can tolerate down to -19° with protection

10’-12’

vine

climbing vine, tropical bean grown as annual

9”-12”

Hibiscus moscheutos

rose mallow hibiscus

4’-6’

Canna edulis

edible canna

36”-48”

herbaceous sun

needs well-drained soil, 10”-12” flowers

24”-36”

herbaceous sun

not for hardiness zone 5 but has successfully grown in 5b; experiment 9”-12”

Echinacea spp.

coneflower

3’

herbaceous sun

Salvia officinalis

variegated sage

24”-32”

herbaceous sun

perennial, herb

3’ spread

Perilla frutescens

Vietnamese shiso

24’

herbaceous sun to partial shade

annual

24” spread

Phlox paniculata

garden phlox

24”

herbaceous sun

perennial

24” spread

Ipomoea batatas

sweet potato

<24”

groundcover sun

root vegetable

9”-18”

Lavandula angustifolia

lavender

12”-18”

herbaceous sun

perennial, herb

30” spread

sun

2’ spread

PLANTS 1

Scientific Name

Flexible Use Space

Musa basjoo, Hardy Japanese Fiberous Bananas [15]

creeper crawls up the side of the farmstand abutting this area. A small cluster of inkberry shrubs define this site as separate from the street area and provide year round greenery at the front of the entry space. Aesthetic and experiential quality drive the design of this area.

SPRINGFIELD, MA 01139

The entry area needs to draw people into the gardens. Serviceberry trees arc over the path, creating a sense of refuge before one emerges into the gardens. This helps delineate the heart of 200 Walnut Street as a space of its own. A mixture of ferns, grasses, and vines create a multi-textured ground layer. Virginia

GARDENING THE COMMUNITY

Entry Area

PREPARED BY: MOLLY BURHANS

PLANT RECOMMENDATIONS I

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not for construction. this drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey

Common Name

Height

Form

Asparagus officinalis

asparagus

38”-48”

Pycnanthemum spp.

mountain mint

2’-4’

Salvia officinalis

variegated sage

Athyrium filix-femina

lady fern

Achillea millefolium

Light Required

General Notes

Spacing

herbaceous sun to partial shade

perennial vegetable

9”-12”

herbaceous sun to partial shade

perennial herb

18”, 2’-3’ spread

24”-32”

herbaceous sun

perennial, herb

3’ spread

8”-30”

herbaceous sun to shade

relatively tolerant of sun and dry soil

12”, 18”-24” spread

yarrow

24”

herbaceous sun

perennial

24” spread

Allium schoenoprasum

chives

12”-18”

herbaceous sun to partial shade

perennial herb

6”-9”

Origanum vulgare

oregano

12”-18”

herbaceous sun

perennial herb

12”-15”

Vaccinium angustifolium

lowbush blueberry

6”-24”

shrubs

sun to partial shade

edible berries

1’-2’

Fragaria vesca

alpine strawberry

6”-8”

groundcover sun to partial shade

edible berries

8”-12”

Relax Patch In the back of 206 Walnut Street a quiet seating area is nestled into the forest garden. Plants here are adapted to full shade and the well-drained urban soils garden. Shade tolerant species help make this small space more beautiful and create a sepperate sense of spatial identity beyond the productive function of the Scientific Name

Common Name

Height

Form

Light Required

Rhododendron viscosum

swamp azalea

5’

shrub

partial shade

Matteuccia struthiopteris

ostrich fern

3’-4’

herbaceous shade

Hemerocallis spp.

daylily spp.

18”-24”

herbaceous sun to full shade

Polystichum acrostichoides

Christmas fern

1’-2’

herbaceous partial to full shade

Polygonatum biflorum

Solomon seal

6”-10”

herbaceous part sun to shade

General Notes

Spacing 12’ max spread 3’-8’ spread

orange flowers, edible

15”-18” 12”

easy plant to grow, and will slowly colonize

8”-2’ spread

Forest Garden The forest garden spans from a seasonally sunny area into full shade. The forest This garden will begin as fairly high-maintenance, but after the majority of the garden is made up of primarily edible plants in a polyculture of several plants plants are established, within 4-7 years, the food forest evolves into a low maingrown together, working together to support the overall health of this ecosystem. tenance garden.

Asimina trilobas, pawpaw [20]

Symphytum officinale, compfrey [10]

Ilex glabra, inkberry [19]

Fragria vesca, alpine strawberry [11]

Allium schoenoprasum, chives [14]

Scientific Name

Common Name

Height

Form

Light Required

General Notes

Spacing

Prunus persica

peach tree

15’-20’

tree

sun

edible fruit

15’-20’ spread

Diospyros virginiana

American persimmon

15’-20’

tree

sun

edible fruit

15’-20’ spread

Asimina triloba

pawpaw

15’-20’

tree

sun to partial shade

spread, edible fruit, attracts birds, mammals, zebra swallowtail, pawpaw sphinx 15-20’ 8’-10’

Prunus maritima

beach plum

6’-10’

tree

sun

edible fruit

10’

Helianthus tuberosus

sunchoke

6’-10’

herbaceous sun

edible roots

15”-24”

Elaeagnus multiflora

goumi berry

4’-6’

shrub

edible, nitrogen fixer, thorns

4’-6’

Bunias orientalis

Turkish rocket

18”-24”

herbaceous full sun

perennial herb, edible leaves like arugula

15”-18”

Symphytum officinale

comfrey

36”-60”

herbaceous sun to partial shade

dynamic accumulator (K, P, Ca, Mg, Fe, Si)

24”-48” spread

Comptonia peregrina

sweetfern

24”-36”

herbaceous sun to partial shade

perennial herb

2’-3’

Amphicarpaea bracteata

hog peanut

1’-3’

climbing vine sun to partial shade

roots and seeds are edible

10”-14”

Brassica oleracea

wild cabbage

12”-36”

shade to full groundcover part shade

perennial herb

18”-28”

Vaccinium angustifolium

lowbush blueberry

6”-24”

herbaceous sun to partial shade

edible berries

1’-2’

Chrysogonum virginianum

green and gold

8”

herbaceous partial shade

attracts organisms for biological pest control

12” spread

Fragaria vesca

alpine strawberry

6”-8”

groundcover sun to partial shade

edible berries

8”-12”

Gaultheria procumbens

wintergreen

<6”

sun to full ground cover partial shade

evergreen

12”-15”

part shade

PLANTS 2

Scientific Name

edibles that are within reach for children, people with health conditions that necessitate seating, and others that also may not have the ability to be involved with most urban farming and gardening projects.

SPRINGFIELD, MA 01139

The universally accessible gardens are interspersed along the main circulation path through the gardens. The path that connects to them is ADA compliant with a solid surface and less than 5% slope. The plants within these gardens range from a maximum of 48” tall to low-lying 6” tall shrubs. Many of these plants bear

GARDENING THE COMMUNITY

Universally Accessible Gardens

PREPARED BY: MOLLY BURHANS

PLANT RECOMMENDATIONS II

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not for construction. this drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey

there needs to be consideration for the changed sun/shade amounts and microclimate created by the trees and buildings added. Furthermore, plant heights within the sight triangle must be less than 2.5 feet high or a tree with branching above 10 feet.

Scientific Name Name Scientific

Common Name

Height

Form Form

General Notes

Spacing

Amelanchier arborea

downy serviceberry

15’-25’

tree, multiple sun to shade trunks

Edible berries, white flowers

>20’

Cornus sericea

red osier dogwood

7’-9’

Hibiscus coccineus

scarlet swamp hibiscus 7’

small tree

herbaceous sun

beautiful bright red stems

perennial, 6”-8” red flowers, needs extra protection or grows as annual 3’

6-8’

Aronia melanocarpa

aronia

2’-3’

shrub

nutritious berries

Eutrochium purpureum

Joe-pye weed

36”-96”

herbaceous sun to full shade

Lobelia siphilitica

great blue lobelia

24”-36”

herbaceous sun to shade

purple flowers

18”-24”

Hemerocallis spp.

daylily spp.

18”-24”

herbaceous sun to full shade

orange flowers, edible

15”-18”

Panicum virgatum

switchgrass

18”-24”

grasses and sun to shade sedges

loose foggy aesthetic

36”-48”

Schizachyrium scoparium

little bluestem

18”-24”

grasses and sun sedges

24”-36”

Carex flacca

blue sedge

9”-12”

grasses and sun to full shade sedges

9”-12”

shade sun to full shade

4’ 36”-48”

You-Pick Berries These berries are all edible and are easily distinguishable from toxic berries found near the site, like bittersweet. Scientific Name

Common Name

Height

Form

Light Required

General Notes

Spacing

Vaccinium corymbosum

highbush blueberry

3’-8’

shrub

sun to shade

edible berries, attracts birds and brown elfin butterfly

4’-5’

Rubus spp.

blackberry

3’-8’

shrub

sun

edible berries

3’-4’

Rubus occidentalis

raspberry

4’-7’

shrub

sun

edible berries

3’

Ribes nigrum

black currant

3’-5’

shrub

sun to partial shade

edible berries

4’-5’

Pollinator Patch Schizachyrium scoparium, little blue stem [22]

Diervilla lonicera, dwarf honeysuckle [6]

Rudbeckia hirta, black eyed susan [5]

Rubus occidentalis, raspberry [24]

Pycnanthemum incanum, mnt. mint [4]

The plants chosen for the pollinator patch create important habitat for local wildlife. An added benefit is that many of them display brilliantly colored and highly attractive flowers. These flowers could be sold if removed in phases, in order

to ensure some flowers remains for pollinators to utilize throughout the growing season.

Scientific Scientific Name Name

Common Name

Height

Form Form

Light Required Required Light

General Notes

Spacing

Buddleja americana

butterfly bush

3’-6’

shrub

part shade

attracts butterflies

8’ spread

Amorpha fruticosa

false indigo

4’-12’

shrub

sun to partial shade

attracts bees, insects, and butterflies: california dogface, southern dogface, hoary edge skipper, gray hairstreak, silver-spotted skipper

24”-36”

Symphyotrichum novaeangliae

New England aster

3’-6’

herbaceous sun

large range of soil tolerance: wet-dry

6’-15’ spread

Penstemon digitalis

white penstemon

2’-5’

herbaceous sun to partial shade

attracts hummingbirds and bumblebees

12”

Eutrochium purpureum

Joe-pye weed

36”-96”

herbaceous sun to full shade

attracts pollinators

36”-48”

Diervilla lonicera

dwarf bush honeysuckle

2’-3’

shrub

attracts bumble bees

26”-30”

Asclepias tuberosa

butterfly milkweed

24”-36”

herbaceous sun to partial shade

attracts butterflies

15”-18”

Rudbeckia hirta

black eyed susan

12”-24”

herbaceous sun to full shade

attracts pollinators, medicinal

1’-3’ spread

sun to full shade

PLANTS 3

Light Requirements Required Light

SPRINGFIELD, MA 01139

Plants recommended for the storm water filtration areas are either wet-tolerant species or should be placed on the berm surrounding the garden and help maintain the garden’s shape. Plants that need sun should not be placed in the back infiltration basin. While implementing a planting strategy for the front rain garden

GARDENING THE COMMUNITY

Stormwater Filtration Gardens

PREPARED BY: MOLLY BURHANS

PLANT RECOMMENDATIONS III

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not for construction. this drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey

PLANT RECOMMENDATIONS IV Medicinal Garden The medicinal garden is located in the vicinity of the heritage garden. It contains plants that are known to have medicinal qualities.

Pycnanthemum incanum mountain mint

General Notes

Spacing

Medicinal medicinal Properties uses

2’-5’

herbaceous

sun to full shade

12”, 2’-3’ spread used to treat depression, coughs, fever, cramps

2’-5’’

herbaceous

sun to partial

perennial herb

18’, 2’-3’ spread

insect repellent

18” spread

coughs and colds, sinuses, cramps, skin issues, headaches, energy

Mentha piperita

peppermint

24”

herbaceous

sun

accumulator (K, Mg).

Chamaemelum nobile

German chamomile 12”

herbaceous

sun to partial

accumulator (K, P, Ca) 6”

soften skin, treat wounds and skin irritation, colds

Seasonal Extension Greenhouse Seasonal Extension Hoop House Common Name

Temp. Lethal min. Temp.Range Rangefor forOptimum Optimum Lethal min. Growth Temp. (°F) Growth(°F) (°F) Temp. (°F)

spinach

60-65

0-5

swiss chard

60-65

10

collards

60-65

12

carrots

60-65

12

cabbage

60-65

10.0-15

beets

60-65

15-20

kale

60-65

20

Verbena hastata, blue vervain [1]

Bunias orientalis, turkish rocket [9]

Verbena hastata, hog peanut [12]

WATER CATCHMENT AND IRRIGATION •Rainfall in the area is approximately 3 inches per month. •The site has two 36’x12’ roofs that will be used for catchment,

RAINWATER CATCHMENT The rainwater catchment system collects water directly from roof space and directs it into 400-gallon storage tanks. From these tanks the water is available for use in a subsurface drip irrigation system. Subsurface drip irrigation is beneficial because it will reduce the amount of water that is necessary to irrigate crops, but, it is harder to maintain, can clog, and can freeze in the winter and burst. The collected rainwater is used to irrigate the gardens using a solar powered pump into the drip tubing. The water would need to be filtered in order to prevent clogging of the drip emitters. Catchment tank overflow should be diverted towards infiltration basins.

totaling to 432 sq.ft. of catchment area.

•432 sq.ft. x 3 inches x 0.623 (conversion factor) = 807 gal/month will

water runs off the roof

be collected from the rain catchment system.

•There are a total of 6,208 sq.ft. of raised beds on site. debris filter

•It is estimated that annual plants will generally need about 1 inch of water per week or less, if strict water conservation practices are in use.

tank screen

200gal rainwater storage tank

•This means that 630 gal will be used for every 1000 sq.ft. of garden production weekly.

•Therefore, water needs on the site, without consideration to rain,

pump

average around 3,911 gallons/week or 15,644 gal/month.

•About 11,603 gallons will come from rain per month. first flush water diverter

overflow to infiltration basin

rainwater catchment system

irrigation system

•Therefore average amount of supplemental water plants will need is

PREPARED BY: MOLLY BURHANS

blue vervain

Light Light Required Required

SPRINGFIELD, MA 01139

Verbena hastata

Height Height Form

PLANTS 4 AND DESIGN COMPONENTS 1

Common Common Name Name

GARDENING THE COMMUNITY

Scientific Name

about 4041 gallons/month.

•The proposed rainwater catchment system will deliver about 20% of the predicted irrigation needs.

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not for construction. this drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey

WATER, UNIVERSALLY ACCESSIBLE GARDENS AND SOILS RAIN GARDEN AND INFILTRATION BASIN

plants

compacted structural fill

3H:1V side slopes

7

existing grade

excavate at stable slope angle for native soil

UNIVERSALLY ACCESSIBLE GARDEN The universally accessible gardens are designed to facilitate gardening by individuals with mobility impairments.

SOIL REMEDIATION 2″-3″ wood chip, course compost or rock mulch (opt)

infiltration rain garden

18″ amended planting soil

undisturbed (not compacted) native subgrade

Soil decompaction and re-mineralization (for non-raised beds) needs to be addressed before any planting occurs. Local horticulturist Jonathan Bates will create a soil remediation plan with GTC to implement with an educational program.

PREPARED BY: MOLLY BURHANS

6″-13″ typical ponding depth

SPRINGFIELD, MA 01139

berm as needed

DESIGN COMPONENTS 2

stormwater from running off site. The water that flows into these areas will often carry high levels of nitrogen, phosphorous and potentially hazardous contaminants.

GARDENING THE COMMUNITY

Stormwater is rainwater that runs off of impervious surfaces. The principle is to “slow, spread, and sink” the water. This is the purpose of the rain garden. A rain garden and catchment basin on the property will prevent

minimum

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not for construction. this drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey

The compost toilet would decrease the amount of water used onsite. It could be housed in the building to be sited on the back of 200 Walnut Street. A toilet with a holding tank will be underground or outside of the building, enabling the toilet to be at ground level and therefore making constructing a universally accessible bathroom more space-efficient. There are several compost toilet options to be considered including but not limited to Phoenix brand, Clivus Multrum brand, and owner-built. A contracted company may need to remove the liquid waste periodically, so the compost toilet would need to be accessible from its space by a truck.

Some things to keep in mind while considering this are the space requirements. During large volunteer days and major market events Gardening the Community should rent portable toilets to help prevent overusage of the compost toilet system

drip line

toilet

wall

fan vent pipe (extends through floor)

floor access door omp

ostin

g ex

access

crem

ent

air inlet

compost

owner-made compost toilet

PROTECTED ROOT ZONE The protected root zone (PRZ) encompasses the area around a tree where root damage may have a considerable effect on the treeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s health. Crushing, compaction, and poisoning in these areas could potentially result in harm to the trees.

wall

dec

protected root zone

composting chamber

As shown on sheet 5, the site is quite isolated from green space, consequently protecting the limited but present trees is ecologically important. The trees next to the site as well should be protected. Precautions should be taken in the PRZ throughout the construction process. For example, if construction equipment must enter the PRZ extra boards and/or mulch should be laid down. Furthermore, if major circulation paths and heavy-use areas change overtime these should not be placed in the PRZ.

SPRINGFIELD, MA 01139

vent stack

GARDENING THE COMMUNITY

Clivus Multrum compost toilets are capable of handling the waste generated by predicted onsite usage. Clivus Multrum has a positive record of nonodorous, low maintenance and highly functional compost toilet systems with successful major projects in commercial spaces like the Bronx Zoo and numerous parks.

DESIGN COMPONENTS 3

COMPOST TOILET

PREPARED BY: MOLLY BURHANS

COMPOST TOILET AND TREE HEALTH

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Logo on page 1 http://www.gardeningthecommunity.org/ Three images of GTC programs on page 2 and caption information http://www.gardeningthecommunity.org/ Plant Images, page 18 to page 21 Plants 1: [15] http://en.wikipedia.org [21] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hibiscus_moscheutos [7] http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hibiscus_moscheutos_USDA.jpg

A sustainable design should maximize the efficient use of resources and energy. Sustainable design addresses the interconnected mechanisms of environmental, economic and social sustainability. One of the most important components of sustainable design is the creation of a design with a long-term vision in mind. Local materials will decrease the energy expended during the transportation of these goods. Purchasing materials from surrounding businesses will also help sustain the local economy. Choosing materials that are durable will reduce the need to reinvest in new materials, thereby reducing the replacement costs and offseting energy use. Understanding what elements of the design will change and what will remain, even if Gardening the Community’s program evolves, and appropriately constructing these will ultimately save time, money and energy. A water catchment system and solar panels have been included in the design to offset the amount of water and energy brought to the site. The rain garden catches excess runoff that does not infiltrate through the permeable hardscape. The rain garden decreases the amount of water that leaves the site and helps recharge the water table, this contributes to making the design and the resources it needs systemically function in a more closed manner.

[18] http://extension.missouri.edu/p/G6368

Plants that maximize the sustainability of the site and/or that have regenerative properties were chosen. The plant list provided assembles a myriad of species that function to promote local ecological health. Some of these plants, such as Goumi Berry, help ameliorate the degradation of urban soils. Other plants serve as pollinators and provide habitat for various birds and insects. Some of these birds and insects, such as honey bees, may find their home amongst the vegetation in the gardens of 200/206 Walnut Street, while others, such as the endangered Golden-winged Warbler, could use the plants as a refuge during their lengthy annual migratory journey. A handful of the plants also attract species that are natural predators to pests that could potential harm the crops on site, reducing the need for chemical intervention, natural or synthetic, of pests. The plants bring beauty and life to the design by nature of their existence and the animals they attract.

[4] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pycnanthemum

Social sustainability is a broad topic that includes community development, social justice, and health equity. Creating a space that sufficiently addresses the needs of GTC and enables the organization to continue to contend with issues of social sustainability interconnects the ecological integrity of the design with the social sustainability of GTC’s mission. The design incorporates space for programs that could strengthen local connections with GTC’s property, such as mural painting and a heritage garden. The front of the property was designed with consideration to potential interactions with passersby; these spaces are meant to be attractive, informative, and welcoming. The education programs that the space has been designed to support will contribute towards addressing local food justice matters. The design for 200/206 Walnut Street provides an illustration of the site’s potential. It is a design plan for a garden that facilitates the functioning of GTC’s envisioned programs within a space that is sustainably designed and interconnected with its social and ecological context.

[16] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canna_%28plant%29 Plants 2: [20] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asimina_triloba#mediaviewer/File:Asimina_triloba3.jpg [10] http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Common_Comfrey_%28Symphytum_officinalis%29,_Bishopstone_-_geograph.org.uk_-_1360418.jpg [11] http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c1/Fragaria_vesca_-_metsmaasikas.jpg [19] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ilex_glabra#mediaviewer/File:Inkberry_Ilex_glabra_%27Compacta%27_Leaves_3008px.jpg [14] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chives#mediaviewer/File:Allium_schoenoprasum_in_NH_01.jpg Plants 3: [22] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schizachyrium_scoparium#mediaviewer/File:SchizachyriumScoparium.jpg [6] http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diervilla [24] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raspberry#mediaviewer/File:Raspberries05.jpg [5] http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Blackeyed_Susan_1.JPG Plants 4: [1] courses.missouristate.edu [9] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bunias_orientalis [12] http://wisplants.uwsp.edu/scripts/bigphoto.asp?bigphoto=AMPBRA_MRB5.jpg&taxon=Amphicarpaea%20bracteata%20%28L.%29%20 Fernald&phog=Merel%20R.%20Black&spcode=AMPBRA http://woodyplants.cals.cornell.edu/home, http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/plantfinder, davesgarden.com Books and Reports TRC Phase II Environmental Assessment. → (site history) Bates, J. and Toensmeier, E.. “Paradise Lot.” → (Heritage garden)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am grateful to everyone who contributed to this project including The Conway School’s faculty and staff; this project would not have been possible without their knowledge, guidance and patience, my peers; for sharing their good humor and wisdom during the studio hours, and a number of individuals affiliated with Gardening the Community; for valuable input and insights.

not for construction. this drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey

The references below relate to the described images and text that were not immediately referenced or captioned. All unsourced images have been created by the Molly Burhans © 2015, proper citation required with use.

PREPARED BY: MOLLY BURHANS

REFERENCES

REFERENCES, GARDENING THE COMMUNITY SUSTAINABILITY, ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS SPRINGFIELD, MA 01139

SUSTAINABILITY OF FINAL DESIGN: A SUMMARY

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Profile for The Conway School

Transformation of a Vacant Lot into a Vital Community Space (Fall Project)  

Fall 2014 student project for Gardening the Community, who acquired 202/206 Walnut Street from the City of Springfield. 202/206 Walnut Stree...

Transformation of a Vacant Lot into a Vital Community Space (Fall Project)  

Fall 2014 student project for Gardening the Community, who acquired 202/206 Walnut Street from the City of Springfield. 202/206 Walnut Stree...

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