NET ZERO BUILDINGS • Highlighting the Path Toward Net Zero Building Design
ENVELOPE: ADVOCATING FOR ZERO HVAC: A CRITICAL COLLABORATION WATER: INTUITIVE MEASUREMENTS
NET ZERO BUILDINGS May 2017
Volume 6, Number 2
30 36 20
NET ZERO BUILDINGS Premier Issue: Jan. 2013
While California may come to mind first, Massachusetts has recently become the nation’s leader in solar, energy efficiency and LEED-certified construction by developing plans for municipality-wide net zero performance.
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INTELLIGENT. ENDURING. FACADES.
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Stanford University completed a campus-wide energy system, replacing a 100% fossil-fuel-based combined heat and power plant with grid sourced electricity and an innovative heat recovery system.
project zero Stanford University Central Energy Facility Palo Alto, Calif. Aptly named for its energy saving potential, Stanford Energy System Innovation, or SESI, is the result of a multi-year Stanford study into sustainable and economic energy systems to operate its campus for the long term.
06 Toward Zero The message of this publication is about exploration and inspiration; there are no fads with net zero. By Jim Crockett
By John Mesenbrink ON THE COVER With state-level efforts becoming increasingly important, Massachusetts has become a national leader in solar, energy efficiency and LEED construction.
08 ď ˇ
48 End Point Understanding Millennials in the workplace could be the secret to productivity and net zero motivation. By John Mesenbrink
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P OW ER
Massachusetts has become a national leader in solar, energy efficiency and LEED-certified construction, including some high-profile projects. By Chuck Ross
Data Centers Small Wind Power u District Energy u Solar PV u u
EN V ELO PE
DAY L I G H T I N G
Not a secondary matter any longer, task lighting is a critical component of efficient lighting design, but it will not work effectively if not addressed as part of the project’s main design. It’s time to connect task lighting to the building’s overall connected load.
With the emergence of the Internet of Things (IoT) and smart metering, it’s time to reconsider your water logistics, and perhaps get a refresher on the linguistics behind the technology. From smart controls to smart buildings, can’t water be just as intelligent?
While architects have been tasked with pulling other building team members on the net-zero bandwagon, developers advocate for sustainable building elements with the understanding that they not only lead to energy savings, but occupant desires.
Effective management techniques present end user solutions that integrate into building designs that ultimately bring net zero to the forefront. Choice daylight management technologies create simple solutions for maximizing daylight and minimizing glare.
Meeting with the building owner to get a better understanding of building performance and energy savings is key to early planning success. Collaboration, combined with energy modeling, is critical to any successful building project, especially one pursuing net zero.
LED Luminaires Lighting Control u Downlighting u Dimming
Stadium Pumping Saving WaterSense u Walking the Talk u Water Infrastructure
Solar Software Gothic Windows u Aluminum Shading u Multi Glazing
Window-to-Wall Solar Profit u Concrete Solutions u Glazing
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An Unexpected Frontrunner
By John Mesenbrink
By Alan Weis
By Barbara-Horwitz Bennett
Chilled Beams VRF Technology u Dampers u Energy Modeling By John Mesenbrink
NET ZERO BUILDINGS | 05.17 | 03
THE ANNUAL NZB AWARDS
VOL. 6, NO. 2
NET ZERO BUILDINGS
NET ZERO BUILDINGS
Premier Issue: Jan. 2013
Premier Issue: Jan. 2013
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NET ZERO BUILDINGS Premier Issue: Jan. 2013
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NET ZERO BUILDINGS
NET ZERO BUILDINGS
Premier Issue: Jan. 2013
Premier Issue: Jan. 2013
NET ZERO BUILDINGS
Premier Issue: Jan. 2013
E NVE LO PE
DAYL IGHT IN G
Barbara Horwitz-Bennett Contributing Writer
L IGHT ING
WAT E R
Senior Editor email@example.com
One of the major criteria that differentiates net zero projects vs. say, a LEED-certified project, is that net zero certification typically requires verification of performance for at least a year’s worth of operation. In that spirit, for NZB’s inaugural awards program later this year, we’d like to highlight outstanding examples of product and technology in application, whether included as part of an efficient system or for more singular performance. In concert with our established “pillars,” we’ll be looking at technology applications within the categories of the building envelope, daylighting, lighting, HVAC, water/plumbing, and on-site power/renewables. These system-level entries do not necessarily have to be associated with a net zero project, but should be associated with a high-performance design.
ART + PRODUCTION Dave Pape
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On the net zero level, we will also recognize a net zero project of the year, which may be a project already certified, or one under consideration. And to recognize the effort and work that goes into creating a net zero ADVERTISING SALES
project we will also be issuing citations for:
BEST INTEGRATED PROCESS BEST ENERGY MODELING EFFORT BEST CONTINUOUS COMMISSIONING EFFORT
On a product level, we’d also like to recognize R+D and efforts to create products that will help further the net zero movement, in the following categories: MOST PROMISING NEW TECHNOLOGY BEST HYBRID PRODUCT PARTNERSHIP—Where two or more manufacturers have worked together to develop a single product that will better serve the part MOST PROMISING ELECTRONIC DESIGN TOOLS
Details and deadline information will be available soon. Questions should be directed to Jim Crockett: email@example.com
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Net Zero Buildings (NZB), Vol. 6, No. 2. Published five times per year by Construction Business Media. Publication Office: Construction Business Media, 579 First Bank Drive, Suite 220, Palatine, IL 60067; 847 359 6493; www.nzbmagazine.com. (Copyright © 2017 by Construction Business Media) A Publication of Construction Business Media
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| TOWARD ZERØ |
The Phantom Menace I’ve been called a lot of things over my life and career: Mr. Negative; a cynical hater. Other times I’ve been labeled a green crusader, idiot, even “Captain Planet.” So, what’s the deal? Where this magazine is concerned, I apparently lean heavily toward the light side of the Force, and I make no apologies for such an affiliation.
A reader noted to me the last issue had too much “feel good,” and not enough facts. I might cop to that if we were a technical magazine. but to set the facts straight, we are not. This publication is about exploration and inspiration; the only proof we’re trying to deliver is that net zero and the processes used to get there are no fads. I unapologetically declare I’m a net zero/ deep energy apostle, for without an active spreading of the word, there is no movement. But let me be clear: by no means am I more “righteous” than any other in this realm—so many more are “doers”—I just happen to be a good observer with a loud megaphone. Having that been said, here are some “facts” that sustain my belief.
Cook County, that wretched hive of scum and villainy where I reside, surprised the hell out of me the other day with the announcement that it will be rolling out more than 20 beta community solar projects. The city of Chicago has also pledged to power all of its building with renewable sources by 2025—this from the city and state that can’t get a budget approved… cynicism. In spite of budget problems, I’ve learned a killed expansion of the microgrid started by IIT is back in play. And it’s not just power where action is occurring; at the recent AHR HVAC show, which is a fairly fragmented community of individuals too often too myopic to the see a big picture, I was surprised again to discover a fellow believer in all things district: Danfoss. Not only did they pound the pulpit, they revealed great information on successes worldwide.
For example, there are 45 “champion” cities pushing district concepts, including St. Paul, D.C. and Seattle. While not yet of “champion” status, the manufacturer reports district plans are also underway in New York, Pittsburgh and LA. Beyond the fact that there is a lot of district activity going on, I learned there are actually a number of evolutionary “levels” to districts. According to Miha Kavcic, head of sales and business development at Danfoss, the most promising starting points are concentrated around universities—places that already have a campus with some degree of networked central infrastructure—plus the brain power to see beyond the here and now. Of the approximately 900 district energy systems installed in the U.S. today, 400 are on college campuses.
For most upgrade opportunities, Kavcic noted that campus’ have two options: 1) add a new power plant, which should result in about a 40% overall efficiency increase; 2) capture waste heat from existing plants to provide heating to newer parts of a campus. The latter could result in as much as 80% efficiency improvement.
DATA POINT: According to Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, 66.4% of all energy produced in the United States is “rejected” as a waste product. With some many opportunities to enact district energy to capture and re-use this resource, what are we waiting for?
An even better fact— it’s happening now. Stanford’s SESI project—which I’m proud to note we’re reporting on this issue—has reduced fossil fuel use by 65%; greenhouse gas emissions by 68%, and water use by 15%. I think these facts speak for themselves, but arm yourself, as the menace of skepticism lurks in every corner.
Jim Crockett, Editorial Director
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Stanford University Central Energy Facility Palo Alto, Calif. Market: Education Size: 125,600-sq.-ft. Date Complete: 2015 Cost: $485M Owner: Stanford University Architect: ZGF Architects Prime Contractor/Lead M/E/P Engineer: AEI Consulting Engineers Civil Engineers: BFK Engineers Structural Engineering: Rutherford + Chekene Landscape: Tom Leader Studio Contractor: The Whiting-Turner Contractor Company
PALO ALTO, CALIF.
| PROJECT ZERØ |
CENTRAL ENERGY FACILITY S ES I W I L L E L IM IN AT E 1 5 0,0 0 0 TO N S O F CO 2 E M ISSION S AN N UALLY— T H E EQ U I VA L E N T O F R E MOV IN G 3 2 ,0 0 0 C A R S F RO M THE ROAD EV ERY Y E AR—AN D IS E X PEC T E D TO SAV E STA N FO R D $ 4 2 5 M OV ER 35 YEAR S .
Text: John Mesenbrink Photos: Robert Canfield, Steve Proehl, Tom Griffith, Matthew Anderson
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Doing the Homework: An Energy Story Stanford University completed a campus-wide energy system, replacing a 100% fossil-fuel-based combined heat and power plant with grid-sourced electricity and an innovative heat recovery system. Aptly named for its energy saving potential, Stanford Energy System Innovation, or SESI, moved the campus from onsite fossil fueled power generation to the use of grid electricity, with the ability to green up 100% of that electricity via renewables at its discretion based on Stanford’s ability to achieve Direct Access to California’s electricity markets and control its own electricity supply choices. SESI will eliminate 150,000 tons of carbon dioxide emissions annually—the equivalent of removing 32,000 cars from the road every year—and is expected to save Stanford an estimated $425 million over the next 35 years.
SESI combines an offsite, dedicated solar farm producing 68 megawatts of clean renewable electricity via 150,000 high-efficiency panels; conversion of the heat supply of all buildings from steam to hot water. At its epicenter is a new 125,600-sq.-ft. Central Energy Facility (CEF), located on the west side of the central campus. The energy complex is comprised of five distinct components: and Entry Court and Administrative/Teaching Facility serves as the knuckle between the two major plant buildings—the Heat Recovery Chiller Plant with its two large cold water storage tanks, and the California State Office of Health Planning and Development. Much of the campus energy system and its savings are hidden to the average visitor. “The science and technology is very much on display here. The net-positive administrative building— the ‘brains’ of the central plant—is the sustainable design showcase,” says Joe Collins, Partner in Charge, ZGF Architects.
Continuing to use onsite fossil fuels for power and building heating and cooling via a new cogeneration plant would have foreclosed the university’s ability to make significant GHG reductions.
The university’s need for simultaneous heating and cooling throughout most of the year mirrors many large-scale universities that have adjacent medical centers. “The enormous energy and carbon emissions savings has the potential for broad applicability at facilities across the country,” says Collins.
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TIMELINE October 2009: SESI envisioned when Stanford utility department engineers compared the hourly heating and cooling production figures for the campus cogeneration plant over an entire year, they determined that most campus heating and hot water loads could be met using waste heat recovered from the campus cooling system. December 2011: SESI was approved for implementation by Stanford’s Board of Trustees December 2012: SESI construction starts March 2015: SESI completed March 24 2015: SESI commenced operation; existing campus cogeneration plant was shut down permanently on same day. Current: SESI has been operating with 100% availability and better efficiency and economics than planned since then. SESI is the result of a multi-year Stanford study into sustainable and economic energy systems to operate its campus for the long term. “The study was launched in the interest of sustainability, but with sound business interests, such as system economics and reliability, also foremost considerations,” says Joe Stagner, Executive Director of Sustainability and Energy Management, Stanford University. “Transforming the district energy system of a heavy research university in under three years without disrupting operations was a huge challenge requiring planning, communication with the community, and enormous collaboration,” says Stagner.
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The administration building implements a high performance envelope and shading system to reduce solar heat gain while maximizing daylight penetration. Automated window openings allow the building to breathe naturally during the day and flush out the unwanted heat at night. When the ambient temperature is either too hot or too cold, the envelope responds by sealing up while the building cooling/heating systems are active.
The massing and arrangement of the various components minimize the overall facility’s impact, with additional visual shielding provided by metal screens. Stanford’s classic limestone buildings are represented by integrally colored, board-formed concrete, while weathered CorTen steel accents suggest the terracotta tile roofs. Extensive glazing, dark steel columns and polished aluminum establish a contemporary vernacular, while reclaimed wood soffits in the arcades add warmth.
THE CAPITAL COST WAS FINANCED THROUGH LONGTERM DEBT TO BE REPAID BY THE CAMPUS UTILITY PROGRAM WHILE BEING COVERED BY ENERGY RATES TO ITS CUSTOMERS.
WELCOMING SITE Using re-purposed land from a golf course, the facility—previously gated and closed—offers a sense of openness and welcomes the campus, global visitors and research partners.
The CEF administration building is fully shaded from mid-morning to late afternoon—important in the sunny California climate. The indooroutdoor workplace creates a quality interior environment for occupants, with extensive floor-to-ceiling operable glass windows throughout. The narrow 30’ wide floorplates, with considerable shading of the PV canopy, offers glare-free daylight and views.
Efficient LED sources throughout the CEF are controlled by a networked central system by nLight, allowing for daylight dimming and occupancy-based responsive control.
The CEF takes advantage of California’s sunny, warm, dry climate by creating and indoor-outdoor workplace. Daylight and views to the outdoors contribute to occupant comfort, wellness and health.
Even industrial areas housing chiller and boilers feature generous daylighting thanks to a series of translucent skylights and groundlevel curtainwalls designed to provide ambient light during daytime hours for worker circulation. Its energygenerating photovoltaic roof also shades the building, enabling climate responsive strategies of daylighting and natural ventilation.
The university already had a campus-wide “district energy” system in place before it transformed that system into its current system. The previous system consisted of a natural gas-fired cogeneration system that delivered electricity, steam and chilled water to campus buildings. That system had been in place since 1987 and it accounted for 90% of the university’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and used 25% of its drinking water. Much of that system was replaced in 2015 by the current Stanford Energy System Innovations (SESI) system, which immediately reduced campus GHG emissions by 50% and campus drinking water use by 18%. SESI essentially switched the campus from a 100% reliance on natural gas for energy to a 95% reliance on electricity with only 5% of the natural gas use remaining. This switch, including the much higher efficiency of the new system over the old, achieved an immediate 50% reduction in GHG emissions when it came on line in March 2015. When Stanford’s new 54MW solar PV plant came on line in December 2016, it increased the total GHG reduction to 68%. If and when the remaining electricity content is moved to 100%, the total GHG reduction will be 82%. Electrification or other changes to the small remaining fossil fuel uses across campus would complete the path to 100% GHG reduction that SESI opened up through electrification of the building heating and cooling process instead relying on fossil fuels.
NET ZERO BUILDINGS | 05.17 | 11
HEAT RECOVERY INNOVATION The latest in heat recovery advances, heated and chilled water is stored in three large water tanks totaling 12 million gallons. A heat recovery loop captures nearly two-thirds of waste heat generated by the campus cooling system to produce hot water for the heating system.
The CEF is the nexus for power, heating and cooling of the campus buildings. While typically not heating dominated, the campus includes large healthcare and research buildings with high hotwater demands, mostly occurring simultaneously with other buildings’ cooling demands. Large thermal energy storage tanks help balance these loads and shift them to non-peak demand periods so heating can be provided without fossil fuel usage and cooling without cooling towers. Ninety-three percent of the heating and hot water is supplied by heat recovery from the chilled water system.
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The climate-responsive architecture is a diagram of energy efficiency. An open-air plan with high ceilings, fans and operable windows permits natural ventilation and daylighting throughout the year. Radiant heat flooring and chilled beams provide conditioning when needed. An extensive shading roof with an integrated 175 kW PV array—providing four times the building’s internal energy needs— mitigates direct insolation for most of the day, and contributes to the building’s net-positive energy strategy.
The CEF comprises York heat recovery chillers capable of delivering 28,000 tons of cooling while simultaneously providing “free heat” to displace natural gas consumption through conventional boilers. Two million gallons of hot water and 10 million gallons of chilled water thermal energy storage assist in balancing supply and demand for heating and cooling across the campus. This is key to successful utilization of the free heat from the heat recovery chillers. Supplemental York high efficiency chillers and Cleaver-Brooks condensing boilers assist with peak cooling and heating demands when required.
More than 22 miles of Logstor highly insulated new hot water piping connects the CEF with the campus buildings, replacing an outdated steam heating system and facilitating the use of the free heat from the heat recovery chillers. The systems work together to optimize performance through a sophisticated Johnson Controls Metasys building automation system with central plant monitoring at the site control center. Johnson Controls also developed a predictive control software system to optimize cost and energy use based on the 10-day weather forecast and future grid electricity prices.
The software is designed to predict hourly campus heating and cooling needs, and then determine how to best run the heat recovery, heating and cooling equipment inside. It also will determine how much hot and cold water to store in the CEF’s water thermal storage tanks for later use. “Nothing goes to waste inside this facility. We are recycling heat that is typically released by cooling towers and putting it to good use to keep students and staff comfortable,” said Trent Nevill, vice president and general manager, Johnson Controls Building Efficiency. “All this is accomplished while helping Stanford reduce its carbon emissions by 50% compared to levels during the 1990s.”
p LOOKING UP Thermal energy tanks, like the hot water storage tank above, help balance heating loads and provide load shifting to non-peak demand periods so heating can be provided without fossil fuel usage.
THE DESIGN EMBODIES STANFORDâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S EDUCATIONAL MISSION, AND PROVIDES A VISUAL DEMO OF THE TECHNOLOGIES THAT DRIVE THE PROJECT.
PART OF THE DESIGN u The thermal storage tanks were integrated into the overall design concept of the facility, reducing their visual impact.
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Fossil-fueled power and heat generation consumes water for heat rejection, as does the use of evaporative cooling for building cooling processes. SESI significantly reduces water use for both by employing renewables for power generation, and heat recovery/heat pumps for cooling and heating. SESI reduced the amount of potable water used in the campus energy system by 70%, resulting in an overall 18% reduction of campus potable water use, as the energy system had been using 25% of total campus water supply. The CEF sustainably produces thermal energy for the campus, while reducing impacts on water demands—the new facility saves 127 million gallons of water annually. The project is also designed to connect to a future municipal system that will provide non-potable water for the largest water demands, process cooling and landscape irrigation. The landscaping features native plants and porous gravel that assist in recharging the groundwater table, as well as bioswales to collect stormwater runoff. Drip irrigation—rather than spray—efficiently waters the plants, and the building features low-flow fixtures to minimize potable water use. The facility provides a 67% reduction from the previous co-generation facility, the equivalent to making 557 typical office buildings net-zero water. Traditionally, central cooling plants use vast amounts of water to remove the heat from the cooling process. The heat recovery and thermal energy storage features at the Stanford CEF provide an 18% potable water reduction.
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TELLING THE STORY Placed at the edge of campus, the facility is designed to be a welcoming station to hear the Stanford Energy Story.
t GATHERING PLACE The central courtyard is protected from the elements by an overhead canopy.
In addition, a challenging aspect included the campus-wide distribution system required converting 22 miles of steam pipes to hot water pipelines across the 8,000-acre campus, in addition to retrofitting 155 buildings.
Completed in less than two and a half years, the work was carefully phased to ensure that ongoing academic and medical center activities would not be disrupted, and that the heating and cooling service would be available to the two major hospitals and nearly 200 academic buildings.
THE FINISHED FACILITIES REPRESENT ARCHITECTURAL/ ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION QUALITY, AND EFFICIENT COMPUTERPREDICTIVE OPERATION.
In the Plans
The CEF is supported by a campus-owned 60kV substation with five Siemens 20MVA transformers and 12.47kV distribution to the plant and the entire campus building load. As Stanford altered the energy profile from a campus that provided power to the PG&E utility grid via their legacy cogen plant to an electricity consumer driven by electric heat
recovery chillers, a series of initiatives were employed throughout campus to reduce building power consumption, electrify vehicle and bus fleets to reduce carbon impact, and implement both on- and off-site solar arrays to offset reliance on the utility grid. Significant power metering allows for detailed monitoring of the various plant operations.
A 2017 COTE Top Ten winner, the screening of the trellis design provides a biophlic element of Heraclitean motion as a pattern of shadows shift as the sun crosses the sky.
SYSTEMS MONITORED A patented technology developed by Stanford continuously monitors the plant’s equipment, predicts campus energy loads, grid prices and weather, creating optimal systems efficiency.
This project required extensive planning to decommission and replace the 30+ year old utility-scale CHP cogeneration and steam distribution system, which was nearing the end. “The project stems from Stanford’s decision to combat climate change caused by GHG emissions and to raise the bar in efficiency to meet a comprehensive Energy and Climate Action Plan,” says Mike Bove, Managing Principal, Affiliated Engineers, Inc. There are enormous savings—with campus carbon emissions reduced by 68% and potable water use by 18%; this is equivalent to making 371 typical U.S. office buildings net-zero carbon— demonstrating the power of looking at the entirety of Stanford operations as an ecodistrict, says Joe Collins, ZGF Architects.
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Massachusetts, hardly the nation’s sunniest state, has become a national leader in solar, energy efficiency and LEED-certified construction. In the wake of a possible Clean Power Plan rollback, such state-level efforts are becoming more important.
In a move that surprised absolutely no one, Pres. Donald Trump signed an executive order in March directing the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to withdraw and rewrite his predecessor Barack Obama’s Clean Power Plan, which aimed to reduce emissions related to electricity generation—especially coal-fired power plants. And Pres. Trump’s proposed budget, also released in March, described a desire to privatize the EPA’s EnergyStar program and its highly popular and successful energy-efficiency certification efforts.
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With federal efforts to slow climate change on the decline, state-level support for renewable energy and net zero building practices is becoming increasingly important. The good news is that a number of U.S. states have recently doubled down in efforts to make new and renovated buildings more efficient, setting goals and timetables toward zero net energy performance. In fact, for some groups at the forefront of the net zero movement, state and municipal programs are where the real progress is being made.
“Given the federal context today, New Buildings Institute has been focusing on state and local leading jurisdictions,” says Ralph DiNola, CEO of New Buildings Institute (NBI). “We believe the activities on the ground at the city, county and state level are the scale at which a lot of efforts happen.”
The Bay State also earned top spot in 2016 rankings for the most LEED-certified buildings, with 136 certified projects, equating to 3.73 sq. ft. of certified space per state resident.
While California may come first to mind in this regard, Massachusetts actually leads the Golden State by a number of measures. The two states tied for the lead in the 2016 American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy’s State Energy Efficiency Scorecard, but it was Massachusetts’ sixth consecutive year in the number-one spot.
| NZB: POWER |
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IN THE NEWS
GOING DUCTLESS Eliminating ductwork was a big advantage for the proeject’s economics in regard to installation costs.
JOHN J. SBREGA HEALTH AND SCIENCE BUILDING Bristol Community College
Renewably Powered Data Centers? Google It Google, already the world’s largest green-energy buyer, has announced that this is the year the company will finally become 100% renewably powered – including its offices and data centers. As of the end of 2016, the company had contracts totaling 2,600 megawatts, representing $3.5 billion in infrastructure investments, of wind and solar capacity, with wind being, by far, the larger contributor.
SOLAR PURCHASE A parking lot PV array was built by third-party providers and financed through a purchase agreement.
A collaboration of design professionals and government officials, the 50,600-sq.-ft. John J. Sbrega Health and Science Building, Fall River, Mass., is one of few lab facilities to reach net zero energy, and for a tightly budgeted, state financed project, the performance level was obtained at no added cost, versus a base design.
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“There’s been a lot of emphasis on passive-envelope strategies, with low infiltration rates and energy-recovery ventilation,” DiNola says, of one of the ways Massachusetts building codes and design practitioners have learned to reduce heating and cooling demand, making net zero performance more feasible. “That requires a really careful envelope design.” NBI, along with sustainability consultants from Integral Group, has worked closely with the cities of Boston and Cambridge to help develop plans for municipality-wide net zero performance. DiNola sees the shared commitment between designers and city officials to reducing the carbon footprint of buildings, community-wide, as a critical element to success across the state. “It’s very synergistic what they’re doing,” he says. “You’ve got this professional leadership that’s happening among the practitioners and civil service folks that helps to garner more success—they’re all rowing in the same direction.”
SOLAR ENERGY GROWTH Solar has grown at the rate of 344% over the past five years; yet it’s 2% of the world’s total energy production.
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Net Zero Labs: Not an Oxymoron A combination of talented design professionals and committed government officials was certainly an advantage in the development of the John J. Sbrega Health and Science Building on the campus of Bristol Community College (BCC) in Fall River, Mass. The 50,600-sq.-ft. building is one of very few laboratory facilities to reach net zero performance—and, significantly for a tightly budgeted, state-financed project, this performance level was achieved at no added cost, versus a base design. As initially programmed prior to 2012, the building was designed to meet LEED Silver Plus performance levels, which was then a Massachusetts requirement for state-owned facilities. During a one-year pause to raise financing for the project, BCC intensified its dedication to meeting the goals set out in the American College & University Presidents’ Climate Commitment, which calls for campus operations to run on a carbon-neutral basis by 2050. Also during this period, BCC had begun planning and development for a 3.2 megawatt (MW) photovoltaic (PV) panel array to cover a campus parking area, with electricity production that could be allotted to the Sbrega Building’s demand.
So, as project development resumed, architects with Sasaki Associates and engineers with Bard Rao + Athanas (BR+A) went back to their original plans to see how they could tweak their design to minimize loads, eliminate fossil fuel-based heating and cooling, and hit a net zero target without affecting the bottom line. Success on all counts was based on close collaboration between architects, engineers and the client, including both BCC administrators and the Massachusetts Division of Capital Asset Management and Maintenance (DCAMM). “Engaging with both BCC and DCAMM to walk them through the decision-making process was a key component,” says Jacob Knowles, BR+A’s director of sustainable design. “It’s really amazing that we had this forward-thinking client.” A primary decision was a move to primarily ductless filtration fume hoods, paired with sophisticated air-quality monitoring, which led to a domino-effect of savings. First, eliminating ductwork was big plus for the project’s economics, in both material and installation costs. And then the air-quality monitoring system allowed a 67% reduction in hourly air changes, along with related air-handling capacity. Incorporating enthalpy-wheel heat recovery and separating space conditioning from ventilation further drove down overall building energy demands.
SMALL WIND TO GROW (BUT NOT IN THE US)
The market for small and medium wind turbines (SMWTs) is expected to more than double over the next decade, according to a new report, but don’t expect to see onsite wind overtake solar systems anytime soon in the United States. The growth will be driven primarily by interest from the Asia Pacific region, as solar PV still rules the market here in the U.S.
The team’s budget performance is almost as impressive as the building’s energy performance, notes Fiske Crowell, Sasaki’s principal in charge for the job. “This project was budgeted in 2008, which was right around the time of the downturn,” he says, noting that the post-2010 construction boom in the region strained cost projections first penciled in during a slowdown. “Our project was able to stay on track. The way we simplified the mechanical systems really proved out.” Among the state initiatives aiding the project was the Pathways to Zero grant program, administered by the Massachusetts Department of Energy Resources, which awarded BCC $408,000 toward construction.
The self-powered athletics venue combines PV—located in the canopy—with nearby geothermal turbines which power the refrigeration system and a canopy-mounted projector.
IN THE NEWS
COOL PV PV cells inlaid into a sun-screening striated-cedar canopy help power the refrigeration system to keep the lake frozen.
To eliminate dependence on fossil-fuel based heating, the design team opted for a hybrid air/ ground-source heat pump for space conditioning and a rooftop solar hot-water system for domestic hot water. The result is a fully electric building, with power supplied by a combination of a 60-kilowatt (kW) rooftop PV system and the 3.2 MW parking lot array. The larger installation was constructed by a third-party provider at no cost to BCC, with the school purchasing the electricity it produces at a flat rate through a 20-year power purchase agreement.
Ice Ice Baby London-based Architect Margot Kasojevic has proposed a bold, self-powered athletics and entertainment venue for a site high in the mountains of Russia’s Kamchatka Peninsula that could double as both an ice rink and cinema complex. Designed to keep a popular skating lake frozen all year round, her plan would provide onsite generation from sunlight and geothermal resources.
The dynamic plan, developed for the Chinese media company China Film House, uses PV cells inlaid into a sun-screening striated-cedar canopy, along with power from nearby geothermal turbines, to power a refrigeration system to keep the lake frozen. Capacitors will be used to power operations overnight. Additionally, a canopy-mounted projector will display films on the rink’s frozen surface, and to animate the ice for skaters and for planned hockey competitions. The project has reached the bidding stage for engineering and construction partners. This isn’t the first time onsite solar has been considered for such power-hungry refrigeration applications. Last year, Swedish developers opened a year-round ice hotel—appropriately called Icehotel 365— similarly powered by the sun. The hotel, with walls, floors and ceilings constructed from ice and snow, is kept chilled to 23°F by a solar-powered refrigeration plant.
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If any building type could challenge a laboratory facility for difficulty in achieving net zero performance, certainly a courthouse could be a strong contender. These highly programmed facilities often need to incorporate multiple circulation patterns to maintain separation between judges, prisoners, jurors and the public, along with holding areas and other specialized spaces. These built-in requirements have a big impact on a range of systems critical to net zero design, from air handling and ventilation to the availability of natural daylighting. It’s these factors that make the Lowell Justice Center, in the former mill town of Lowell, Mass., for which construction began in September, such a stretch.
IN THE NEWS
Efficiency Upgrade Fit for the Gilded Age Called simply “The Castle,” an iconic 1915 mansion on the campus of Boston University is now receiving a $7 million makeover and a new purpose as the school’s new alumni center. As an example that the most sustainable structure is one that doesn’t have to be rebuilt, the rechristened Dahood Family Alumni Center won’t achieve net-zero status. However, designers with Finegold Alexander Architects are targeting LEED Silver certification, and its effective reuse will help the historic university ensure a long-lasting touchstone with its past. Leading the efficiency improvements is a major HVAC upgrade—for the first time, the 102-yearold structure will be served by a unified heating and and air-conditioning system, incorporating VRF cooling. This approach was selected for its efficiency and its ability to integrate into historic interior finishes. Beyond systems, though, designers have added features that also will make the building more useful to the university, its students and alumni for its next 100 years. These include incorporating a rooftop terrace onto the single-story addition, adding outdoor event space for the cost of roof pavers.
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‘Net Zero Ready’ Earns a Hearing
WITH FEDERAL EFFORTS TO SLOW CLIMATE CHANGE ON THE DECLINE, STATE-LEVEL SUPPORT FOR NET ZERO PRACTICES IS BECOMING INCREASINGLY IMPORTANT.
DISTRICT ENERGY The possibility exists that the building could become part of a district-scale installation in the future.
Though the design team of Finegold Alexander Architects (FAA), along engineers from Arup, did not get all the way to net zero with their plans, FAA senior principal Moe Finegold suggests the building is close to being net-zero ready. Energy demand is projected to be only 52% of what a LEED Silver version of the structure would be, but the site simply doesn’t provide enough room for a PV installation adequate to anticipated needs (although PV is in store for the rooftop and parking area). Jokingly, he suggests designers and engineers even considered to the canal-side location’s history as a source of renewably generated electricity. However, adds Rebecca Berry, FAA’s president and sustainability director, there is hope the courthouse could become a participant in a possible district-scale installation at some point in the future. “The courthouse is sort of an anchor,” she says. “If it’s part of a larger development, perhaps it could become part of a net zero district.”
LOWELL JUSTICE CENTER Lowell, Mass.
LOWERING DEMAND Energy demand is projected to be only 52% of what a LEED Silver version of the structure would be.
The apartments incorporate universal design features, and the development was designed with a goal of sustainability on multiple levels, with input from a community charrette focused on the definition of aging in place.
POWER CASE STUDY
NET ZERO, ON A BUDGET
The Grissom Lane Apartments, Blacksburg, Va., are a good example of municipal projects that can benefit from an upfront investment in efficiency and onsite energy. The eight-unit development, comprised of four duplex structures, was constructed by the affordable housing developer Community Housing Partners, with funding from a community development block grant.
THERE’S BEEN A LOT OF EMPHASIS ON PASSIVE-ENVELOPE STRATEGIES, WITH LOW INFILTRATION RATES AND ENERGY-RECOVERY VENTILATION.
Efficiencies were achieved through a number of strategies in the design of the $200 million facility, which is hoped to achieve a LEED Platinum certification. These include a chilled beam cooling system and advanced building controls. Additionally, a series of stacked, double-height enclosed gardens will be incorporated to create a calming effect in a structure that could see its share of emotional stress. Both Finegold and Berry see Massachusetts as a state that’s made a commitment to improving environmental performance. In 2008, legislators passed the Global Warming Solutions Act, which mandates an 80% reduction over a 1990 baseline in statewide greenhouse-gas emissions by 2050. Last January, state officials announced was on track to meet the intermediary 2020 goal of a 25% emissions reduction. For Berry, architects and other building-design pros will play a critical role in maintaining this forward momentum.
To boldly go where no fan has gone before!
Unsurprisingly, the insulation design is impressive, with walls hitting a value of R24.5 and the attic/roof C assembly reaching R60. Ducted mini-split units, M along with passive air inY lets, provide heating and cooling, with hot water CM supplied through on-deMY mand gas water heaters. Residents’ electricity use CY is offset by rooftop PV CMY panels with a capacity K totaling 28 kW.
“In general, our clients do not come to us saying, ‘We require a high-level sustainable building,’” she says. “We offer and we push, and sometimes they come along. It isn’t inbred in their thinking to be net zero. There are certain clients that do that, but they aren’t even close to reaching the majority.” But it seems as though growing the number of those clients, even in a state already as environmentally progressive as Massachusetts, is seen as something of a calling for Finegold Alexander, as a firm. “We believe that this is the moral issue of our time,” Berry says, stating a philosophy shared by many design professionals and public officials, “how we can help shape the future environment.”
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| NZB: LIGHTING |
Not a Secondary Design Matter Often left to the build-out of a tenant space, or whatever an FF&E budget allows, task lighting is a critical component of efficient lighting design, but will not work effectively if not addressed as part of the main design. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s time to connect task lighting to the buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s connected load.
Kevin Willmorth is a lighting professional who has emphasized lighting conservation for more then 30 years. He helped create Architectural SSL magazine and remains its editor. He is also the owner of Lumenique, a consultancy focused on deploying SSL products.
he fundamentals of conventional lighting assume that general illumination emanates from the ceiling, either directly or indirectly, delivering luminance onto the surfaces below, with blended task and surround lighting added as a generalized zonal requirement. The result is all areas receive the same amount of energy as the task itself, which is often but a small portion of the total area. This wastes energy. Further, research has proven that this one-level fits-all approach reduces visual performance and lowers visual comfort. The solution to the problem is to address lighting with more fidelity, separating ambient, surround and task targets.
system and furniture presents challenges. The budgeting of furniture equipment is generally not part of the construction budget, while selection of task lighting is frequently made outside the design of the general illumination system. Sales channels for task lighting and furniture-mounted product are often not shared. While challenging, these factors are no excuse to ignore the greater benefits of employing a task oriented, multiple layer lighting system design. The solution is to address this as early in design processes as possible.
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Ambient illumination provides minimal illuminance for navigation and visual sense of space. Surround provides illumination for near-task activities. Task illumination satisfies the direct tasks, such as reading and other visually challenging demands. When the task is self-illuminated, such as a computer display, task lighting is unnecessary. When no activity level beyond safe navigation is present, there is no need for surround illumination. In environments where daylight satisfies ambient illumination needs, ambient lighting can be shut off. True efficiency in lighting design requires knowing when and what not to light, while controlling what is lighted to levels required to optimize visual performance. To this end, applying ambient, surround and task lighting principles frequently involves inclusion of lighting that is not part of the building system. Task lighting is best accomplished at the furniture level, near occupants. Surround illumination can be accomplished from either building system sources, made part of the task systems, or satisfied by the peripheral spread of task lighting. This integration of building
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5/3/17 4:52 PM
THE EDGE Amsterdam
An early adopter of Power over Ethernet LED lighting, the Edge is a high-tech office building using Philips Lighting’s Envision lighting management software to deliver a “connected” system. Of the approximately 6,500 low-voltage LED luminaires distributed throughout the 15-story building, 3,000 are integrated with sensors that work with the software to capture information throughout the illuminated space. This data helps facility managers maximize operational efficiency, as well as reduce the building’s CO2 footprint; the personalization features, controlled with a smartphone app, create a premier experience for employees. “The agile workplace concept is about flexibility, and this lighting system is also about flexibility,” says architect Babette Bouman of Fokkema & Partners, who led the interior design. “The connected lighting system and custom iPhone app allows you to adjust your climate and your lighting, according to your liking that day. So if the sun shines brightly, you can tone everything down to create a more comfortable way of working—wherever you are in the building,” Energy savings were built in from day one. The expected savings are €100,000 in energy costs and €1.5 million in space utilization costs.
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DELIVERING THE GOODS Opened in 2015, Edge received an outstanding BREEAM score of 98.36% – the highest ever awarded. POE-connected LED lighting plays a key role in the sustainable design.
INTEGRATED SYSTEM The system uses 750 POE switches to connect lighting fixtures to the building’s IT network.
STILL THE ONE The creator of perhaps the architectural task light back in 1938, the L-1, Luxo’s Split family of LED lamps, offers powerful task light for large, demanding work places, having twice the light output of the company’s traditional task lights. Edge-clamp mountable, Split is dimmable, and equipped with automatic shut-off in order to save energy. Luxo www.luxous.com CIRCLE 306
MANUFACTURERS NEED TO CREATE TASK LIGHTING THAT IS CONNECTED TO THE BUILDING SYSTEM IN SOME SIMPLE WAY. 22
Selecting and specifying task and surround lighting can be approached in several ways. Utilizing products that are specifically designed for the purpose, mounted to furniture systems as part of the general illumination package is possible. The Lighting Quotient’s Tambient system is one such product. Another approach is to design spaces around minimum ambient illuminance levels, while selecting and specifying task lighting based on occupancy, included in the total lighting package. Meanwhile, surround illumination can be provided by application of undercabinet lighting installed in furniture systems. In reception and nurse stations, or work areas in production facilities, a similar approach can be taken to bring task lighting to bear where it is needed, as part of an integrated design. The disconnect between architectural and FF&E lighting components is an attainable coordination issue.
ATLAS WORKBASE Seattle
TASK SMARTS Philips’ Dynalite System analyzes light activity in each room so Atlas can preset, dim or light each room as necessary.
LOOKING UP Philips’ OneSpace luminous ceiling and Luminous textiles fill the ceiling plane.
Task lighting falls into capital budgets like all other lighting. It just falls from one area—electrical—into FF&E for the most part, for products not connected to the building system. Since energy and lighting codes, and compliance with LEED and WELL buildings require reports on light levels, while ASHRAE requires accounting for connected loads, there is no way to simply leave task lighting out of the building to be installed under operations after occupancy has taken place. There is very little chance of creating a lighting specification that can breach the capital-operational budget wall, since lighting design generally ends with the building being turned over for occupancy.
The only way this may one day be changed is if light becomes a leased component that separates it from hardware being installed. In this, the lighting package would be provided by a service provider, during construction and after occupancy, with the operational budget paying for the light delivered. That is a concept currently being discussed, but a long way off being widespread, and unlikely to be applied to offices, retail, hospitality or health care spaces for the foreseeable future. The real solution is for manufacturers to create task lighting that is connected to the building system in some way, other than simple wall plugs. One concept is to use PoE to power and control task lighting in a PoE lighting system. That would put it all under the same envelope and budget, and make it inclusive, separate of the interior design decorative task light imagery that now limits the market.
TASK + SURROUND A wall-mounted version of Chopstick LED creates a layer of surround lighting.
Having a wide range of workplace needs, from team meetings to video conferencing to independent work, it was essential Atlas’ offices had light suitable for an open and flexible office plan. However, with limited natural light available, the company needed powerful lighting solutions that somehow still felt personal. The company partnered with Philips Lighting to implement an all-LED solution driven by its Ledalite and Lightolier brands. But in line with its goal of creating the perfect office, Antumbra iColor Keypads are installed throughout, allowing users the ability to control and customize their lighting, depending on mood or need.
THE WORKHORSE The 19-oz., wet-rated L-Bar linear LED luminaire can be suspended or mounted directly to the ceiling to replace a full 2-ft. × 4-ft. commercial troffer. Offering an efficacy rating of up to 150 lumens per watt, the fixture also costs 50% less than many traditional LED and legacy fluorescent options.
Lighting Science Group www.lsgc.com CIRCLE 305
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CARL ICAHN LABORATORY Princeton Univ., New Jersey
The Dept. of Energy recently audited a lighting retrofit at Princeton to determine the effectiveness of the project. The lab is the university’s first building-wide interior LED project. Pre-existing were downlights employing a pair of 42W CFLs; because of their relatively high light output, the fixtures posed a challenge for standard LED retrofit products. Princeton evaluated several options through mock-ups. ultimately, deciding on the TerraLux DR8 retrofit kit for 245 fixtures. Financial details of the project are confidential, the project is expected to yield a simple payback of less than four years.
BIG RESULTS Two pairs of 42W CFLs were replaced in 245 fixtures resulting 61%energy savings.
CARBON FRIENDLY The retrofit is expected to avoid about 100 metric tons of CO2 emissions.
OPEN UP A new guide gives designers insight into the various lighting-control strategies that can be applied to open office spaces. Written by Steve Mesh for the Lighting Controls Association, the guide outlines how the right controls plans can minimize operating costs, meet increasingly stringent energy codes and support more productive workspaces. Lighting Controls Assn. www.lightingcontrolsassociation.org CIRCLE 304
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This, however, takes us to the issue of effective controls integration. Plug loads are difficult to integrate into wired control systems, and create a fixed connection between load and location that conflicts with the need to move the lighting to meet changing task needs. The emergence of wireless controls is a natural fix to this issue. Using control modules placed in line with plug loads, and furniture-mounted luminaires with built-in wireless connectivity preserves flexibility. Inclusion of wireless automatic daylight and occupancy sensing, coupled with local controls, including smart device interfaces, delivers maximum energy reduction while allowing occupants to tune light to suit their individual needs. Further, networked wireless controls can be used for global controls purposes, such as time clock, all-off functions, use of zonal control to match functional needs, and programming to control energy consumption.
Speaking of individual controls, an idea gaining a lot of discussion is the incorporation of color tuning. Tunable white for net zero projects could be justified in several ways, mainly targeting aesthetics and enhancement of human experience through subjective factors, like matching daylight for a sense of time, or to erase odd color effects in mixed daylight/artificial lighted space. There is, however, no energy advantage. In fact, the penalty for tunable white is higher energy consumption and higher fixture cost, because you have redundant LED systems employed to gain the additional colors. In RGBAW systems, efficacy is around 85lm/W in the best systems. In standard white application, we can achieve 135lm/W with fixed white. That’s a 40%+ hit on energy consumption, on top of a significant price premium for the source, driver system and associated controls.
LIGHTING AMBIENT LIGHTING AT 100 TO 300 LUX IS TOO LOW TO CREATE ANY CIRCADIAN EFFECT, REGARDLESS OF WHAT CCT OR S/P RATIO IS APPLIED. IF THE AMBIENT LEVEL IS NOT RAISED TO >500LUX, THERE IS NO NEED TO FIDDLE WITH CCT TO ENHANCE BIOPHYSICAL RESPONSE.
Dual color white systems can attain the efficacy, but lose some color fidelity, and cost twice as much at the source level, not counting controls system cost. The most effective route is a two-color system with internal control that simply changes color based on light level (dim state), but that is not exactly tunable white per-se, it’s just dim to warm. The latter cannot be employed when the intent is to tune light color to surrounding surface colors, unless you want to accept that the warm color spaces will have lower illuminance levels than the cooler pallet spaces. However, if you’re targeting health/wellness/ productivity improvements, this might not be the best course of action. First, task lighting is about high visual performance for task performance. This means 700 to 1000 lux. At this level, there is zero need for a light source with a low CCT or low Scotpic/Photopic (S/P) ratio—the ability of the eye to see in low-light vs, well-lighted conditions—as visual performance is the reason task lighting is applied, not mood enhancement.
While there is an advantage in visual performance to light sources with high S/P ratios, a tunable fixture that allows a low S/P color to be chosen defeats applying it reliably to reduce illuminance requirements. Tunable white light, in its current form of simplistic CCT selection, without addressing underlying SPD content in a meaningful way, is all marketing fluff. So, the application of white light tuning in low-ambient spaces is all about effect and decoration, and not about actual human factors or response. Application of general illumination as a single layer of light, dictated by zonal task demand, is an outdated approach that demands task illuminance be minimized to satisfy code requirements. This delivers inferior visual performance with minimal consideration of visual comfort. Application of ambient-surround-task illumination strategies, coupled with finite wireless control, is a superior solution. Layered task-centric lighting not only advances the effort to deliver net-zero performance, it also supports LEED and WELL building standards, and fully integrates human-factor design principles.
To illuminate City Hall, lighting designers Lam Partners Inc. used a mix of high-output Lumenbeam Grande RGBW and Lumenfacade RGBW luminaires for washing the façade.
ELECTRIFYING CONTROL Lumentalk control technology—recently used in exterior lighting upgrades to Boston’s City Hall—now is compatible with all lighting-control protocols, and offers full color-changing and dynamic capabilities. The system uses existing AC power lines as a bidirectional communication network, eliminating the need for added wiring. This was an especially important advantage with the Boston project, where classically brutalist concrete walls would have made new wiring installation difficult. The system has the capability of projecting an array of color options for civic and celebratory events.
A BRIGHT IDEA Dimming functionality can become a problem as lamping selections change, as a dimmer that works with fluorescent fixtures might perform poorly with LED technology. The radiant Tru Universal Dimmer, however, is compatible with virtually all lamp types, including LED (with the exception of 0-10V LED drivers), CFL and incandescent products. The self-calibrating controls automatically adjusts to a lamp’s trim levels. Wattstopper legrand.us/wattstopper CIRCLE 303
BLUETOOTH-BASED SIMPLICITY Incorporating occupancy and daylighting sensing, along with dimming and bi-level control functionality, the Douglas Lighting Controls Bluetooth Fixture Controller & Sensor can be used for individual fixture control, or networked into the company’s standalone controls solution, without need for added cabling. Each node in the system helps extend Bluetooth connectivity, and systems can be commissioned and controlled using an app on Bluetooth-enabled smartphones. Douglas Lighting Controls douglaslightingcontrols.com CIRCLE 301
Lumenpulse www.lumenpulse.com CIRCLE 302
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| NZB: WATER |
Smart Water Systems—Why Not? In terms of building components, it seems that everything is labeled intelligent—from smart grids to smart controls to overall smart buildings. Well, what about your water system? With the emergence of the Internet of Things and smart metering, it’s time to reconsider your water logistics, and linguistics.
John Mesenbrink has been covering the building and construction industry for more than 15 years, focusing his efforts on the plumbing and HVAC industries—including the launch of his website, which focuses on the installation side of mechanical systems.
ging infrastructure is a term being bandied about recently and there is absolutely no doubt that as part of the infrastructure umbrella, public water systems have challenges, and these can be magnified by population and local climate. According the EPA, the United States will need to spend up to $200 billion dollars on water systems over the next 20 years to upgrade transmission and distribution systems. Of this amount, $97 billion (29%) is estimated for water loss control. Average water loss in systems is 16%—up to 75% of that is recoverable. Cutting-edge, smart water solutions are gaining traction with municipal water utilities, which see data and analytics as critical tools for overcoming the age-old issue of crumbling water infrastructure. Over $20 billion is slated for metering, data management, and analytics from 2016 to 2025, globally, according to Bluefield Research. The smart water sector is expected to scale to $12bn. in the States and $11-bn. in Europe by 2025. “By zeroing-in on key drivers of operating costs, water utilities are optimizing their operations with smart technologies,” according to Keith Hays, vice president of Bluefield Research. “The solutions are not new, as they draw from existing equipment, software, and analytics tools,” says Hays, “but a significant hurdle will be integrating legacy systems with new software platforms.” In some cases, the results have been significant: halving non-revenue water—leaks and billing errors—and reducing energy consumption from 20% to 40%. As much as 30% of water utility operating expenditures can be improved almost immediately through more dynamic and real-time system monitoring, according to Bluefield. But these stats relate to piping with municipal water utilities. Out of sight out of mind, right?
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What about piping within one’s own building? Wouldn’t it be beneficial to have a water metering plan and subsequent water audit to determine the amount of water used and potential water savings? The emergence of the Internet of Things (Iot) and connected devices certainly can assist with a smart water management plan. According the Sokwoo Rhee, associate director of Cyber-Physical Systems Program at National Institute of Standards and Technology, the explosive increase of the amount of collected data enabled us to perform analytics, which was not previously practical or meaningful, and the advancements in data analytics will enable us to better optimize systems.
Creating a water metering plan and following through with subsequent water audits to determine the amount of water used and saved can prove beneficial in the long run.
“For more than a decade, the investment in IoT has been focused on the baseline technologies such as sensors and communication protocols. Recently the focus of the investment is slowly, but consistently being shifted to creating and demonstrating application scenarios and related technologies, which can benefit our daily lives and show measurable impacts,” says Rhee.
Check Out the Big Brain In a recent seminar presentation, “Integration of Nature and Technology for Smart Buildings,” Anil Ahuja, P.E., RCDD, LEED, BD+C, president, CCJM Engineers Ltd., points out that a smart building utilizes the Internet and communication technology to measure various metrics such as energy, water, and environment, and uses the data to optimize resource use while maximizing quality of life.
SMALLER SPLITS VSX series pumps are the primary feature of the stadium’s HVAC system, which supplies all of the heating and cooling—7,000 tons—to the stadium. They were selected due to their compact footprint—40% smaller than traditional split-case and vertical inline pumps. Bell & Gossett www.bellgossett.com CIRCLE 300
IoT offers benefits too key to pass up, including intelligent operations and responses, resiliency, security, measurement and verification, biosensors and wireless sensors and big data mining. Smart Buildings, adds Ahuja, utilize technology for more efficient water usage such as to recycle wastewater for domestic use—greywater—for irrigation, cleaning and flushing, and to harvest stormwater to reduce discharge and recycle for irrigation and cleaning. Through leak detection and measurement a user can locate where the leak is, narrow down the zone, and offer more testing, if needed. By pinpointing the leak, often times one can conduct a pipe changeout, not the entire piping system. Without smart metering, says Ahuja, it’s pretty simple, “If you don’t know, you don’t know. The key is how you react to the measured results.”
A booster pump package supplies all of the water—2,000 GPM—to U.S. Bank Stadium, which includes providing water to the 979 bathroom stalls in the facility.
PUMPING IN TURN The Bell & Gossett Technoforce XLS Booster Package contains four end suction pumps. While only one pump works to send water throughout the building at 1,200 GPM at a time, all four pumps are designed to work with the 75HP variable frequency drives (VFDs) installed in the water system. Bell & Gossett www.bellgossett.com CIRCLE 299
U.S. BANK STADIUM Minneapolis, Minn
The extreme climate of Minnesota—averaging 54 inches of snow per year— influenced the design of U.S. Bank Stadium. The roof of the facility is able to shed snow and ice efficiently, preventing buildup. Large volumes of snow accumulation caused problems at the Metrodome.
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A Bell & Gossett Technoforce booster package provides 400 gallons of hot water per minute that are used to hose down the snow-filled roof, sending melted snow down concrete gutters along the side of the stadium.
The 6 ft. wide and 10 ft. deep gutters, which contain tubes with glycol, carry melted snow through the stadium’s stormwater control system and to the ground where it is drained into the sewer.
The Bell & Gossett Technoforce booster package is installed seven stories up on the top floor of the stadium and is not part of the stadium’s domestic hot water system, which is rare. Typically, snowmelt systems are installed at ground level, but the stadium’s roof-melting system is unique.
WATER CASE STUDY
AQUATHERM MANUFACTURING FACILITY Attendorn, Germany
There are some innovative things happening inside Aquatherm’s new 160,000-sq.-ft. production facility in Attendorn, Germany; practicing what they preach in using their own piping, to heat recovery, to metal panels that extend from the ceiling to reduce different zone temperatures, to smart LED lighting, which actually mimics outdoor daylight activity for employee acclimatization.
DELIVERING THE HEAT, AND COOLING Inside the process cooling room at the new 160,000-sq.-ft. manufacturing facility for its extrusion processes—as artistic and aethetic as it is functional—Aquatherm’s Blue piping carries water through three loops to cool the production facility and returns it through heat exchangers to provide domestic hot water and space heating.
Water Damage Nightmare, and Rescue It is very common for policyholders to have water damage to their property due to a plumbing leak, yet just about every insurance policy is going to have some type of exclusion to protect them from ongoing leaks. Information supplied by the Insurance Information Institute, 27% of all claims between 2010 and 2014 were water claims not due to natural disasters, with an average claim of $7,958.
IN THE NEWS
Saving the WaterSense Program The Alliance for Water Efficiency and the undersigned water utilities, manufacturers, distributors, consumer groups and water efficiency advocates joined in urging EPA administrator Scott Pruitt to continue to fund
EPA’s highly successful WaterSense program, a voluntary public-private partnership that has saved American consumers more than $33 billion in water and energy bills over the past decade.
WOULDN’T IT BE BENEFICIAL TO HAVE A WATER METERING PLAN AND SUBSEQUENT WATER AUDIT TO DETERMINE WATER USE AND POTENTIAL SAVINGS? Uponor is trying to bring leak detection technology—although currently a residential offering—to the end user. The plumbing and radiant heating and cooling piping manufacturer is currently beta testing Phyn, a new collaboration with Belkin, which represents the next wave of the smart home and will create an intelligent water solution that protects family homes and businesses from leak damage, enables mindful conservation, and enhances household water usage with automated and anticipatory controls. “We have controls for heating, cooling and lighting, but no controls for plumbing,” says Kate Olinger, product manager of Phyn. Ultimately, according to Olinger, the homeowner can communicate or interact—through a leak detection algorithm on the cloud—with an app on the phone through a WiFi network.
There was room to expand in its current manufacturing configuration, and to potentially increase production by 20%, but the new facility gives Aquatherm the ability to increase production by 60% by 2022, and the ability to create 620 kinds of polypropylene pipe on 19 lines—with the possibility of 28-29 lines by 2025. Part of the process cooling involves water and stable temps underground and from the nearby Bigge River. Water is then returned to the river—121,519,144 gallons per year—at a temperature no more than 23°C or 73.4°F.
TUNNEL VISION Aquatherm saved nearly $1 million by creating a 295-ft. tunnel to accommodate additional piping off of the mechanical room.
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| NZB: ENVELOPE |
Developing a Net-Zero Mindset While architects have long been tasked and credited with pulling other building team members onto the net-zero bandwagon, developers are advocating for sustainable elements, with the understanding that they not only lead to energy savings but also long-term occupant desires and demands.
Alan Weis, a contributing writer for Architectural Products, covers thermal management issues, including building envelope and HVAC systems.
n the not-too-distant past, real estate developers, in general, might have scoffed at the idea of adding sustainable elements to a project, citing the unnecessary up-front costs as frivolous. And some still do. But over time, many have begun to not only recognize and embrace such bells and whistles, but have stopped seeing them as bells and whistles and now consider them par for the course. “Landbank’s commitment to environmental excellence is woven throughout the fabric of our new projects,” explains Scott Jacobs, CEO of Landbank, a commercial real estate development company with a with a focus on office/R&D buildings for leading technology companies in the San Francisco Bay Area. “We’re currently exploring carbon neutrality, net positive energy, biophilic and biomimetic design, regenerative and restorative elements and the Living Building Challenge for our future developments.”
“But as we know, user-centric design and energy-efficient design aren’t mutually exclusive. In many cases, they’re actually complementary,” Jacobs says. “Certain biophilic design elements, such as daylighting, natural ventilation, shading, thermal and visual variability can also increase energy performance of our buildings. So when talking to technology tenants about net-zero buildings, I’ve found that in most cases I need start the conversation with how user-centric design can enhance the employee user experience, and then I shift the conversation to show how many of these same user-centric design elements can also increase energy performance and help us get to net zero. In short, I need to link the people story to the performance story.”
Net Zero design is very important to us as longterm owners, he says, especially as California marches quickly toward a net-zero future. However, it can be challenging to get technology tenants to buy into the net-zero vision. Many large technology tenants intuitively get that investments in user-centric design can yield immediate, substantial returns—primarily in the form of employee attraction, satisfaction and retention, Jacobs continues. However, the returns on net zero and a lot of other energy performance initiatives might seem to be less immediate and/ or substantial, and therefore harder to get behind. That could change if energy costs increase substantially, but it’s currently difficult to convince a lot of tenants to invest heavily in an uncertain energy cost future.
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REACHING FOR THE NOT-SO-IMMEDIATE RETURNS Although returns on net zero might seem less immediate, many large technology tenants understand that investments in user-centric design can yield substantial returns.
Axalta-FullMetalJacket-NetZero.qxp_DuraCoat 2/6/17 1:57 PM Page 1
The Emery contemporary apartments signals Portland’s South Waterfront’s urban future.
Full Metal Jacket A P P L I E D
S C I E N C E
Virtually all of the apartment building’s exterior siding is Durapon 70™ PVDFcoated steel and weathering steel.
DURA COAT PRODUCTS, INC. RIVERSIDE, CALIFORNIA (951) 341-6500 HUNTSVILLE, ALABAMA (256) 350-4300 www.duracoatproducts.com
LIVING IN THE EMERY APARTMENTS IN OREGON’S HISTORIC SOUTH WATERFRONT, PORTLAND’S INDUSTRIAL DISTRICT UNDERGOING A RENAISSANCE, RESIDENTS CAN FEEL SECURE. Their eco-friendly, seven-story riverfront residence is protected — from frequent rain, constant humidity, and all the elements, by a cloak of steel. It’s long-term security. The apartment building’s metal exterior is finished with Durapon 70 ™, Dura Coat Products’ 70% PVDF, to withstand the wettest and most extreme weather for decades to come. Constructed with 65,000 sq. ft. of 24-gauge Galvalume steel and coated with Durapon 70™ in custom metallic colors, the distinctive siding also includes 10,000 sq. ft. of A606 weathering steel and 2,000 sq. ft. of 7.2 rib panel and 1,000 sq. ft. of TBC-Flush soffit system coated with Durapon Metallic Silver. Durapon 70™, with proven cool roof pigments and durability in humid and extreme environments, provided the perfect solution for contemporary housing in an emerging urban community. Its protective metal finishes and high-build primers offered a strong barrier for the metal substrate. The PVDF comes from a long line of quality coatings for coil and spray, with time-tested use in combating marine and corrosive environments. Secure your next project, wherever you build it. Durapon 70™ can make it distinctive — and green, with Cool Roof Rating Council, Energy Star and LEED standards compliance. For more information, call 951-341-6500 or 256-350-4300.
Photo courtesy of The Bryer Company, Auburn, WA
E NVE LOPE
XAVIER APARTMENTS Chicago, Ill.
Xavier, a new luxury apartment tower at 625 W. Division Street, on the former site of Chicago’s once-infamous Cabrini-Green public housing complex, encompasses 240 new rental units and 5,500 sq. ft of retail space. Designed by GREC Architects and developed by Gerding Edlen, the 18-story tower is designed to perform nearly 25% more efficiently than a typical codecompliant building.
Optimizing window-to-wall ratio designs offer benefits—more usable daylight, more hours with open shades, improved comfort and less energy consumption. Initial costs could be reduced through a façade design using an integrative design approach.
CONCRETE SOLUTIONS The new Kooltherm K20 Concrete Sandwich Board is a premium performance rigid thermoset insulation that is ideal for tilt-up and precast concrete wall applications. It offers a higher R-value per inch than any commonly used insulation and is designed to enable thinner wall assemblies, helping to maximize building space. Kingspan Insulation kingspaninsulation.us CIRCLE 298
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THE STAKES HAVE RISEN, WITH MORE DEVELOPERS BECOMING MORE INVOLVED WITH DESIGN- AND SPEC-LEVEL DECISIONS.
When it comes to efficient envelope components, there’s no magic bullet, notes Peter Rumsey, founder of Point Energy Innovations. “We focus on concepts that make building envelopes work for occupants,” he says. “The key in new commercial buildings is to control glare and heat loss/gain from buildings that have high amounts of glass. We look for systems that provide some relief in the form of external shading, if at all possible. We then spend a great deal of time looking at glass types and performance. Last but not least, and as a stop gap measure, we look at internal shading. So often, new highly glazed building designs do not take into account the visual (read: glare) comfort and thermal comfort of occupants. These strategies outlined above go a long way to address the comfort breakdown in many new buildings.”
Very efficient buildings are practical and cost-effective today, Rumsey says, noting that his organization pursues an energy-efficient design ethic on all of our projects regardless of the budget or type of building. “Net zero works on nearly all building types except the tallest,” he explains. “The problem is that owners and developers might not be aware of how the cost of generated PV electricity is lower than utility rates in most states, or that there are several ways that they can recover the cost of their investment in PVs from their tenants.” Not only are energy-efficient buildings currently practical and cost-effective, they are ultimately inevitable. As better building products become available and costs are driven down by economies of scale, developers cannot help but use the latest equipment, materials and strategies, Rumsey says. Tenants will request and even demand lower operating costs, green buildings and buildings that are more comfortable, and developers who ignore these trends will be left with buildings that are difficult to lease.
MANY LARGE TECHNOLOGY TENANTS UNDERSTAND THAT INVESTMENTS IN USER-CENTRIC DESIGN CAN YIELD IMMEDIATE, SUBSTANTIAL RETURNS PRIMARILY IN THE FORM OF EMPLOYEE ATTRACTION AND RETENTION. “A handful or leading developers are testing the market for more advanced buildings in a more integrative design process, with some success, mostly in low-rise buildings,” notes Brett Bridgeland, an architect, and energy engineer with Seventhwave. For that to work, he explains, at least one of these must be true:
Quantified energy and cost analysis, early and often, in an integrative design process. This is the only way to prioritize energy efficiency upgrades and identify cost savings or tradeoffs. A developer needs to drive this by putting quantified energy goals in the design contract or scope of work, right alongside budget, program and schedule.
The building inspires people and drives a rent premium or faster lease-up, rising above a crowded field of LEED Certified buildings. A talented architect can influence this. Base-building energy cost, and perhaps more importantly, operations and maintenance simplicity and savings, are measured and verified with enough rigor that when the building is flipped every few years, operational costs factor into the pro-forma of a sophisticated real estate investor. A talented engineer can argue this case to justify energy improvements, if they speak the developer’s language, but energy cost savings are a pretty minor line-item on the developer’s pro forma. The developer is more likely to ask about operations and maintenance simplicity than energy cost savings that are less understood or certain.
When it comes to the envelope, he continues, the biggest single strategy is simply reducing the amount of glazing, and without exception every super-efficient building in the upper Midwest starts with that. A multi-family tower with floorto-ceiling glazing will see 20% to 32% higher energy costs (and CO2 emissions) compared to the code baseline of 40% glazing and will have to spend a lot of effort on lighting and HVAC just to get back to compliance with IECC 2013. And that doesn’t even account for the fact that in all-glass buildings, slab edges are often left exposed or are poorly insulated, a cost cutting measure for spec developers that puts the building further into the energy deficit hole compared to code. The stakes have risen, with more developers becoming more involved with design-and specification-level decisions.
Both SunGuard SN 68 and SunGuard Silver 20 significantly contribute to the buildings energy performance that led to the library’s LEED-Sliver rating. Both contributed to the reduced solar heat gain and high visible light transmission.
Capital Gains When Capital Projects commissioned Adjaye Associates to design the 22,500-sq.-ft, two-story Francis A. Gregory Neighborhood Library in Washington, D.C., the architectural firm committed to an open building that would invite visitors and celebrate the library’s park setting. Guardian’s SunGuard SuperNeutral 68 glass and SunGuard Silver 20 glass gave Adjaye Associates a curtain wall that beckons with reflections of the striking natural environment while providing high visible light transmission that pulls daylighting throughout the interiors.
Fabricated by independent Guardian Select fabricator Garibaldi Glass and installed by Tower Glass, the low-E, double insulated curtain wall provides reduced solar heat gain along with high visible light for high-performance glass with the look of clear, uncoated glass interspersed with reflective glass in an engaging diamond pattern.
Francis A. Gregory Neighborhood Library gives patrons the best of both worlds: high visible light and reduced solar gains.
E NVE LOPE
IN THE NEWS
Solar Power and Profit A white paper from Point Energy, Profiting from the Sun, provides insight on why developers should look into rooftop photovoltaics and what they can do to make their buildings more desirable and energy-efficient. From the report: Owners and developers have found that tenants prefer green buildings for their better health and comfort and their environmental responsiveness. Over the long-term, when there are market downturns, developers who made the effort to create higher performing buildings with solar might find their buildings stay occupied when others won’t. Adding solar and pursuing lower energy designs can distinguish a building in a crowded market. Developers are using a number of strategies for recovering the costs of including solar on their buildings. The most common cost recovery mechanisms and strategies fall into five categories: Use a gross lease, modified gross lease or full service lease Institute a green surcharge or green lease Sell PV-generated electricity directly Take advantage of Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) bonds Lease or loan the roof to a third-party solar company.
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| NZB: DAYLIGHTING |
Adventures in Daylight Management A few choice daylight management technologies produced create simple, yet cost-effective solutions for maximizing daylight and minimizing glare. Highly effective management techniques present end user solutions that integrate into building designs that ultimately bring net zero to the forefront.
Barbara HorwitzBennett has been reporting on the architectural industry for the past 15 years. She covers glazing and daylighting for Architectural Products, and in 2011 contributed to an important industry white paper on net-zero buildings.
rom operable louvers integrated with window blinds to intelligent shading to unique perforated aluminum screens, architects are delivering a variety of creative technological solutions to maximize daylighting and limit glare. Take an interesting adaptive-reuse project for Cuningham Group Architecture’s new Denver offices, for example. In this case, the architects—acting as both the designer and end user—were working with large 6-ft. by 9-ft. window openings with a large central 1970s-era bubble skylight, making it unpractical to alter the exterior façade with shading devices nor make any changes to the size of the openings. As a result, the goal was to address the challenges from inside the envelope. “The east and the south façades were the primary focus where we needed user-managed control for both privacy and direct beam sunlight control while still allowing for view of the exterior area and sky,” relates Paul Hutton, FAIA, chief sustainability officer, Cuningham Group Architecture, Denver. The original plan was to specify full-length roller shades, but after seeing Indoor Sky’s Dayliter Shade product at a trade show, the architects were intrigued by the technology.
may be closed and easily opened when more favorable angles allow,” adds Hutton. “Having multiple louvers per window is also a very simple solution, as compared to installing a deeper interior sunshade. It has allowed our staff to have direct control over their daylit environment.” As for the north and west elevations, the architects added an aerogel insulation-filled polycarbonate panel insert into the opening to manage heat transfer and diffuse the natural light source. “Since the north side faces a breezeway, where sunlight is more of an indirect source of light, the strategy there was more focused on privacy and a branding opportunity with application of translucent window film,” Doggett explains.
“The product offered a unique opportunity to create an upper daylight zone in the glazing that could be managed separately from the lower view pane of the opening,” explains Alan Doggett, Associate AIA, LEED AP, BD+C, with the firm. With the system in place, as the soon moves throughout the day, Cuningham staff can lower the roller shade portion of the window to manage direct sunlight while leaving the upper louver portion open to continue bringing daylight into the space. “During early morning hours or winter months when there are low sun angles, the upper louvers
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Architects are delivering a variety of creative technological solutions to maximize daylighting and limit glare, and it can be a matter of implementing simpler strategies.
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A CURVED FAÇADE Working with Tubelite’s 400 Series curtainwall system, TMP Architecture was able to design a concave-curved wall façade with an acutely-angled corner condition for Michigan’s Novi High School’s new $3 million fitness center.
IN THE NEWS
AAMA UPDATES ITS COMPOSITE THERMAL BARRIER SYSTEMS DOCUMENT Keeping up with advancing technology and building codes, the American Architectural Manufacturers Assn. has updated its composite thermal barrier systems document. It includes new figures and instructions regarding testing dual cavities.
“A slightly curved glass façade reinforced the geometry of the site,” reports John Castellana, FAIA, REFP, chair, TMP Architecture, Bloomfield Hills, Mich. Tubelite www.tubeliteinc.com CIRCLE 296
With smaller openings on the west side, housing the entry and second-floor mezzanine, roller shades were installed here for daylight management. Impressed with the flexibility, ease of installation, cost effectiveness and aesthetics of the Dayliter Shade, Cuningham is planning to incorporate the system in its Phoenix office with even larger openings.
Intelligent Shading at UC Berkeley Another example of a well-designed, daylit facility capitalizing on a well-suited technology is the new Energy Biosciences Building, Berkeley, Calif.—a 113,000-sq.-ft., five-story research facility supporting experts from the University of California, Berkeley, the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the global energy company BP.
American Architectural Manufacturers Assn. www.aamanet.org CIRCLE 297
Because static systems are expensive and use a lot of space and sunlight, the lighting designer, Loisos + Ubbelohde’s experience with manual shades is that putting the onus on people to raise and lower the shades is not an effective way to control light. However, as a scientific laboratory, dedicated to the study of sustainable energy and construction practices, the workstations required ample illumination. In search of a daylighting solution, the designers performed comprehensive daylight modeling on Native Unix Radiance and ran hundreds of simulations to best understand the gradient of light from the skin of the building to the interior zones. “This gave us the confidence to use the larger window sizes as long as we could ensure that they would be protected at the times when direct sun was present,” reports George Loisos AIA, principal of the Alameda, Calif.-based lighting design firm, Loisos + Ubbelohde.
AUTOMATED SHADING CONTROL SolarTrac is an intelligent, automated shading control system tracking sun and sky conditions, building orientation and surroundings; calculating sun angles and heat loads; and individually raising or lowering the roller shades accordingly.
ENERGY BIOSCIENCES INSTITUTE Berkeley, Calif.
After energy monitoring software confirmed that MechoShade's SolarTrac was capable of controlling direct sun, the architect was able to design large openings for Berkeley's new Energy Biosciences Building. Ample daylighting and occupant comfort was a high priority for this scientific laboratory, dedicated to the study of sustainable energy.
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PRIORITY Ample daylight and occupant comfort— for wellness and productivity—was a high priority for the Biosciences Institute.
TRACKING LEED Completed in June 2016, the five-story,104,000-sq.-ft. building features Hope’s Jamestown175 Series fixed and casement windows and Hope’s 5000 Series swing doors and offset pivot doors with transoms and sidelights.
Gothic-Style Windows Impress at USC Mimicking Gothic architectural-style windows, Hope’s Jamestown175 Series fixed and casement windows, 5000 Series swing doors and offset pivot doors with transoms and sidelights were specified for the five-story, 104,000-sq.ft. Jill and Frank Fertitta Hall at the University of Southern California Marshall School of Business. True divided lite muntins were specially engineered and manufactured for the facility tracking LEED Gold, in order to meet structural requirements for the complex intersecting arches at such a grand scale.
GOING GOTH The project required custom shaping for Gothic architectural-style windows. Eight of the fixed windows span 6 ft. wide and over 40 ft. tall sweeping into an artful pointed apex.
JEB’S NEW WARM-EDGE SPACER TECHNOLOGY INSTRUCTIONAL VIDEO Helping specifiers better understand the advantages and capabilities of J.E. Berkowitz’s JEB 3Seal structural, warm-edge spacer technology for insulating glass units, the company has released an instructional video. Visually guiding viewers through the JEB 3Seal spacer’s assembly process, the video also highlights the spacer’s T-shaped design, enabling IGUs to better withstand common glazing stresses caused by constant wind, pressure and temperature changes, and support an extremely straight sightline.
HAVING MULTIPLE LOUVERS PER WINDOW IS A VERY SIMPLE SOLUTION, AS COMPARED TO INSTALLING A DEEPER INTERIOR SUNSHADE. Selecting a technology to address the lab’s brightness control requirements, compatibility with the building’s solar access controls and providing nighttime shading to help mitigate light pollution, Loisos’ team went with MechoShade’s SolarTrac. An advanced, automated shade-control system, SolarTrac tracks the sun and sky conditions, in addition to the orientation and surroundings of the building. It then calculates the angle of the sun and heat load on every window and raises or lowers the roller shades accordingly. “SolarTrac predicts solar conditions over a defined geospatial area, can control virtually unlimited zones—both elevations and groups of windows— has algorithms and ASHRAE clear-sky models to calculate appropriate intermediate shading positions or louver openness amounts and utilizes sensors for detection of extreme sky brightness,” reports William Maiman, marketing manager, MechoShade Systems, Long Island City, N.Y.
More than just a reactive solar radiation protection and a glare management product, the technology has the ability to analyze the building’s geospatial location and its relationship to the sun to optimally position the motorized shades based upon the winter sun angle and summer sun angle profiles. “A detailed report based on calculations is done for each day of the year per elevation,” explains Maiman. “Based on this report, the design of the floor plates, elevation exposure and height, the windows could be grouped into compatible and functional zones.” Loisos was also pleased with SolarTrac’s override feature, enabling users to keep the shades open on foggy days, which are not infrequent in this region.
J.E. Berkowitz www.jeberkowitz.com CIRCLE 295
SPACER-TO-GLASS BONDING The spacer system features a triple seal design consisting of a pre-applied acrylic adhesive for spacer-to-glass bonding, a hot-applied captive polyisobutylene primary seal, and a two-part structural silicone secondary seal.
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DAYLIGHTING NEW ENGINEERING BUILDING (NEB) University of Cape Town, South Africa
CAPE TOWN, SOUTH AFRICA
Montreal’s First LEED Platinum Office Tower As Montreal’s first LEED Platinum office development, Deloitte Tower features SunGuard AG 50 glass and SunGuard SuperNeutral 68 glass for maximized transparency, power consumption savings and occupant comfort. Virtually the full width and more than 80% of the perimeter wall height on all office floors is clad in low-E glazing. Designed by B + H Architects and Kohn Pedersen Fox Associates, the glass incorporates unusually shaped, 5-ft. by 8-ft. ultra-wide lites transitioning the retail spaces into the rising façade.
S'IL VOUS PLAIT Maximized transparency, lower power consumption and occupant comfort were main objectives.
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To promote optimal daylighting and comfort, aluminum shading blades were carefully angled.
The Static Shading Blade Solution Similar to Loisos + Ubberlohde’s aversion to the maintenance and cost associated with mechanical systems, the University of Cape Town was not interested in motorized systems for its New Engineering Building. In terms of conventional shading, the University’s experience was that lecturers would close the blinds and leave them closed to avoid the hassle, thereby relying on energy-wasting artificial lighting. In order to address this daylighting and comfort issue, the architect SAOTA carefully angled and sized aluminum shading blades. “To get more indirect light into the spaces, we perforated the blades and misaligned the openings,” explains Phillippe Fouché, director, SAOTA, Cape Town, South Africa. “An abstracted, ‘pixelated’ pattern of the University Ivy, that’s prevalent on the campus, determined the random pattern of the perforations.” Virtually maintenance-free, the unique-looking blades ensure daylight harvesting, and reducing electricity consumption while minimizing heat gain through the glass.
The blade’s abstract and pixelated, random pattern takes its cues from the ivy prevalent on campus.
In order to ensure the correct shading to the glass, SAOTA conducted energy modeling and extensive sun studies. This modeling and analysis forecasted that the building would use approximately 40% to 50% less energy than a standard building. “The subdued light that comes through the perforations provided a colorful glow in the rooms,” he reports. “A physical sample was installed to test the effect and minor tweaks were made to the perforation design.” Carrying the theme a step further, the architects chose light green for the inner blade, matching the ivy’s color in spring. Fortunately, the angle of the shading blades to the windows enable the windows to open, a key amenity in this non-air-conditioned building. “The lecturer’s offices cross-ventilate through these windows, drawing cool air from the shaded atrium inside of the building,” he says.
The Upshot Taken together, what do Cuningham, Loisos and SAOTA all have in common? The successful application of simple daylight solutions were highly effective at managing daylight.
| NZB: HVAC |
Early in the Design Process Collaboration, early and often, combined with energy modeling, is critical to any successful building project, especially one pursuing net zero objectives. Meeting early with the building owner to get a better understanding of building performance and energy savings is key to early planning success.
John Mesenbrink has been covering the building and construction industry for more than 15 years, focusing his efforts on the plumbing and HVAC industries— including the launch of his website, which focuses on the installation side of mechanical systems.
ecause HVAC traditionally accounts for one of largest drivers in a building’s energy consumption, early collaboration with the design team—architect, engineer, owner and contractor—is important. While energy is not the only consideration when choosing the appropriate HVAC system, for a project pursuing net zero energy it becomes a primary driver. “The efficiency of that system rises towards the top in the matrix of selection criteria that is used to balance the pros and cons of the system choice,” says Tom Marseille, PE, Hon AIA, LEED Fellow, Senior Vice President/Director of Sustainability, Building Systems, WSP | Parsons Brinckerhoff.
School Project, for example, since the university did have clear goals for the building, they knew how they wanted to operate their building, and they had a clear concept of types and quantity of spaces they needed.
According to Marseille, a significant design challenge that arises when early collaboration on HVAC does not occur is the building design evolves in a way that creates potentially unnecessary physical—form, orientation, program adjacencies, etc.—or aesthetic concepts that are brought on by the owner and architect that work against successful, cost-effective integration of a high-performance HVAC system, or results in increased use of the HVAC system to maintain comfort in the space because potential opportunities and synergies are lost. “Integrated design speaks to the process that enables the most successful high performance outcomes, and that is what I would advocate for on a net zero energy project,” says Marseille.
Align around owner requirements and make them as measurable as possible Identify requirements that would be hard or expensive to achieve with standard practice.
Sefaira—a company which aims to empower design teams to carry out comparative analysis of HVAC solutions quickly and robustly on a wide range of architectural forms and options early in the project—offers common suggestions for early planning success to carry out design workshops as a team early in the process, which include:
A building’s early and sustained health is dependent on early collaboration and follow-up with all members of the design team, including architects, engineers and contractors.
The most crucial element of early planning success, says Eric Smith, PE, LEED AP, Senior Associate–Senior Mechanical Engineer, Stevens & Wilkinson, is to meet early with the owner to get a clear understanding of their goals and how the building is going to be used. This was relatively easy for the University of South Carolina’s newly LEED Platinum Certified Darla Moore Business
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Castro Valley Library, Castro Valley, CA | ÂŠ David Wakely Photography
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PROPOSE IDEAS AND SOLUTIONS THAT WOULD MAKE IT EASIER TO ACHIEVE SPECIFIC OWNER REQUIREMENTS FOR FEEDBACK AND CONSIDERATIONS AS A WHOLE.
The NZB Mantra Tom Marseille, PE, Hon AIA, LEED Fellow, Senior Vice President/Director of Sustainability, Building Systems, WSP | Parsons Brinckerhoff, Seattle, Wash. has written many articles and has learned the mantra for achieving NZE, which he lists below: Owner commitment to NZE. This must be a project requirement and mindset, and the owner must be clear what this implies, or have a willingness to take the necessary journey, which may well involve significant education along the way. A project team commitment to using a highly integrated, collaborative process, as enabled by the owner. Using a highly integrated approach can help control total project costs and optimize performance on any project, and the importance of this approach on a NZE project cannot be overstated. Perform an on-site renewable energy resource assessment early. This will help establish what natural renewable resources are available. This is used to help create a renewable energy generation budget for the NZE accounting, and can help in the early stages establish the feasibility of NZE. Employ to the maximum extent possible, integrated HVAC, lighting and plug load reduction strategies. The mantra should always be “load reduction first.”
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DARLA MOORE SCHOOL OF BUSINESS University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC.
ON DEMAND The HVAC system utilizes demand control ventilation, which directs air only to the areas of the building in use while maintaining a minimum level of air quality in vacant areas.
CHILLED BEAMS Levels 1, 3 & 4 use active chilled beams to reduce the quantity of air required to be moved by fans.
“Focusing on how ideas specifically work towards measurable goals keeps all ideas relevant,” says Andrew Corney PE, M.CIBSE, M.ASHRAE, product director, Sefaira. Early meetings where project goals are discussed with as many different stakeholders in the room as possible is pretty critical, concurs Marseille. And, during those early sessions, goals need to be directed toward more specific measurable targets for the design team. “Net zero energy is a very concrete target, and an owner commitment toward achieving that in operation really sets the direction. Where goals are more aspirational the challenge for the project team is to develop enough information for the owner to enable them to comfortably allow those to be reframed as targets. Without targets, it becomes very difficult to claim success later on high performance outcomes,” says Marseille.
NATURAL LIGHT Daylight responsive controls will dim and switch lights located in interior daylight zones.
Energy Modeling Energy modeling allows the design team to evaluate the impact of changes to a building, whether it is a change in the envelope, the lighting systems or the HVAC systems. “What is the overall impact of exterior shading? What is the impact of changing to LED lighting or daylighting controls? What is the impact of a chilled beam system over a more traditional VAV system?” asks Smith. Modeling provides quantitative data showing the impact of these options. When tied with cost estimates for the various options, energy modeling allows the design team to determine the most cost effective solutions.
Early stage design is ultimately a very fast run and short affair with a high degree of fluidity. For engineers and energy analysts to be able to support architects effectively, they need a way to quickly check and demonstrate the relative merits of different design options, so that the feedback loop can fit into the architect’s workflow. “Traditional processes that involve engineers taking one or two weeks and coming back with a static report, do not support the architect anywhere near as effectively,” says Corney. The big paradigm shift with ultra low energy use buildings, and, of course, that includes NZE projects, is energy models are no longer just about comparing the relative benefits of different energy conserving strategies, or bundles of strategies, but about actually providing a prediction of building energy use.
Engineers, architects and owners were all caught off guard several years back when folks started tracking actual energy use and comparing it to LEED energy models and found often no correlation between the two, says Marseille. The reason was the underlying assumptions incorporated using prescribed energy modeling for system comparisons and compliance only coincidentally aligns with how a building will actually be occupied and operated. “We now need to really get engaged with owners and future building operators and occupants to understand how they really will use the building. And even then, we rarely get it right during design. Things are just too fluid,” says Marseille. 46
ENERGY MODELING ALLOWS THE DESIGN TEAM TO EVALUATE THE IMPACT OF CHANGES TO A BUILDING, WHETHER IT IS A CHANGE IN THE ENVELOPE, THE LIGHTING SYSTEM OR THE HVAC SYSTEM.
The building had an average annual energy use of 38KwH/sq. ft.—over twice the average consumption for offices in that geographic area.
EUCLID CHEMICAL Cleveland, Ohio
Cleveland-based Euclid Chemical, a two-story, 15,000-sq.-ft. building, has been supplying products to improve the strength, appearance, and usability of concrete since 1910. Euclid Chemical’s main offices also contains laboratories where they develop products ranging from sealants to micro synthetic fibers. Until recently, the building relied upon an aging VAV system with terminal reheat. The system no longer kept people comfortable, broke down frequently and was inefficient. After analyzing the utility bills,
Joe Messer, director of Engineering, identified LG Electronics’ Multi-V Heat Recovery VRF system as an HVAC solution. The bulky 50-ton DX unit on the roof was replaced by a pair of small air-cooled outdoor units on the ground, and the VAV boxes inside the building were replaced with LG’s concealed high-static VRF indoor units. Since this was 100% outdoor air, the airflow could be adjusted to meet the ventilation requirements as they changed. After implementation, the facility saw a 70% annual energy reduction compared to the average of the previous five years.
The NZB Mantra (Cont.) Leverage appropriate passive strategies. This will reduce the need for lighting and HVAC. Leverage the best active strategies—i.e. automated controls, efficient HVAC equipment and systems, etc. Use renewable energy cost offset economics. It helps decide what is the best load reduction, passive and active strategies. Use robust energy models. These need to be developed early to help inform the design direction, and then must be maintained and refined throughout the design/construction process to help direct and constrain, or at the least align with, as-designed and as-built realities. The energy model should even be used as a tool during post-occupancy measurement and verification (M&V) activities. M&V is a necessary step—and often not well thought out early—so all are aware of what their roles are with respect to proving performance. Document carefully and thoroughly all basis of design and modeling assumptions. These should be referred to regularly, and challenged where appropriate if better or updated information becomes available. Managing and communicating this information to the entire project team, including the owner, is paramount to help avoid surprises downstream.
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STEINBACH REGIONAL SECONDARY SCHOOL Steinbach, Manitoba, Canada
Early collaboration is crucial for projects pursuing net zero. One of the first collaboration efforts has to be between the owner and the design team. From the owner, the design team needs to obtain a clear understanding of the owner’s goals, how the building is to be used, budget constraints and any construction standards they have. Continued collaboration is also required throughout the project, emphasizes Smith. It is important to keep the owner updated on project progress—building layout, systems, estimated cost, etc.—and to work through design issues that require the owner’s input or approval. It is also important for the design team members to continue to collaborate through the process to make sure everybody is staying up to date on the design intent of the project.
THE PARADIGM SHIFT IN LOW ENERGY USE BUILDINGS IS ENERGY MODELS ARE NO LONGER JUST ABOUT COMPARING THE RELATIVE BENEFITS OF DIFFERENT ENERGY CONSERVING STRATEGIES.
DAMPERING ELEMENTS A new critical environment damper series from Ruskin features low-maintenance, non-corrosive bearings and shake-proof linkage; airfoil blades for high-velocity HVAC systems, low pressure drop and quieter performance; and mechanically-fastened blade edge seals.
The newly renovated Steinbach Regional Secondary School in Steinbach, Manitoba— with the help of Stantec Architecture and the Hanover School Division—is assisting the faculty and students by studying the building’s environmental impact. To align with the sustainable design elements already in use, the high school incorporates chilled beam products as its primary source of air distribution. The beams feature the aerodynamic properties of Titus’ ceiling diffusers and benefit from the use of using hydronic coils and induced air, reducing energy consumption associated with removing sensible thermal loads. After being discharged through nozzles, located along the beams, the primary air is supplied to the beam’s mixing chamber.
The nozzles inject this air into the mixing chamber at velocities capable of inducing room air through one or two coils where it mixes with the primary supply air. This air mixture is then discharged through the ceiling slot diffusers into the space, providing high cooling outputs with low amounts of primary air.
DEDICATED AIR Since chilled beams allow classroom ducted airflow rates to be reduced to that which is required for space ventilation, they are ideal for use with 100% DOAS.
DESIGN GOALS To align with the sustainable design elements already in use, the high school incorporates chilled beam products as its primary source of air distribution.
Ruskin www.ruskin.com CIRCLE 294
REDUCED FLOW The reduced volume of air leads to smaller and less expensive air handlers and ducts, and less overall energy consumption.
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One in a Millennial The average work tenure for a millennial at a specific company is two years. How do employers make them stay, or at least empower them to be productive?
“Can you believe some of the things that young man was saying? He’s going to tell me how to run my business?” This declaration of disbelief was overheard during a conversation of attendees at a recent plumbing and HVAC industry event. “That guy,” by the way, was a guest speaker, who happened to be a millennial author, addressing the importance of understanding the inner workings of his peers in the workplace. “Instead of working 9 to 5, give us a flexible work schedule. If I can get my work done before 5 pm, let me hit the gym for my workout, or let me come in later so I can finish my spin class.” Better yet, instead of giving millennials an end-of-the-year bonus, the speaker suggested paying for that gym membership as a means to motivate and drive loyalty.
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As you might imagine, the audience groans from this conservative crowd were audible: Change corporate policy? Change corporate culture? No way! I’d like to approach the question of young people in the work place from a different perspective—it’s not a matter of placation, it’s about shifting to a better way of tapping into the enthusiasm and unspoiled hope of these employees, especially for things such as net zero buildings, as a means to ultimately better inspire all employees. Millennials, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, are now the largest generation in today’s workforce. It’s simply a fact, according to a 2017 Deloitte survey of millennials, that flexible work hours are a feature of most millennials’ working lives. More importantly, the survey found such policy improved organizational performance and loyalty.
Interestingly, the survey also states that it is in the workplace where millennials feel most influential and, in turn, accountable. This is an important point for businesses to acknowledge as it offers a platform from which to build each employee’s sense of purpose and, ultimately, a more engaged workforce. Where workplace opportunities are offered, the Deloitte survey reports, millennials are significantly more likely to say they can influence social equality, the environment, and the behavior of big businesses. Regardless of whether millennials, as individuals, can make a tangible difference on such large issues, the key point is that employers can provide a sense of empowerment.
The Deloitte survey also reveals that employees, who feel their jobs have meaning, exhibit greater levels of loyalty.
ON ACCOUNTABILITY On “big issues,” millennials feel the more influential they are, the more accountable they are. Source: The 2017 Deloitte Millennial Survey.
I think this is where employers, and older coworkers, need to change their bygone company culture, and especially any wetbehind-the-ears bias. Being more engaged with a younger generation simply makes sense, especially in the world of net zero, where exuberant voices for sustainable building need to be heard. Better communication and understanding of the younger generation is simply a necessity in today’s workplace.
John Mesenbrink Contributing Editor firstname.lastname@example.org
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